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Fort Worth, TX, United States

Miller T.L.,UNTHSC | Wilson F.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Pang J.W.,University of Washington | Beavers S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives: We compared mortality among tuberculosis (TB) survivors and a similar population. Methods: We used local health authority records from 3 USsites toidentify 3853 persons who completed adequate treatment of TB and 7282 individuals diagnosed with latent TB infection 1993 to 2002. We then retrospectively observed mortality after 6 to 16 years of observation. We ascertained vital status as of December 31, 2008, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Death Index. We analyzed mortality rates, hazards, and associations using Cox regression. Results: We traced 11135 individuals over 119 772 person-years of observation. We found more all-cause deaths (20.7% vs 3.1%) among posttreatment TB patients than among the comparison group, an adjusted average excess of 7.6 deaths per 1000 person-years (8.8 vs 1.2; P<.001). Mortality among posttreatment TB patients varied with observable factors such as race, site of disease, HIV status, and birth country. Conclusions: Fully treated TB is still associated with substantial mortality risk. Cure as currently understood may be insufficient protection against TB-associated mortality in the years after treatment, and TB prevention may be a valuable opportunity to modify this risk.

Liu X.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Ward K.,Reata Pharmaceuticals | Xavier C.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Jann J.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | And 4 more authors.
Redox Biology | Year: 2016

Oxidative stress-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell damage is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have shown that RTA 408, a synthetic triterpenoid compound, potently activates Nrf2. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of RTA 408 in cultured RPE cells during oxidative stress and to determine the effects of RTA 408 on Nrf2 and its downstream target genes. Primary human RPE cells were pretreated with RTA 408 and then incubated in 200μM H2O2 for 6h. Cell viability was measured with the WST-8 assay. Apoptosis was quantitatively measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured using colorimetric assays. Nrf2 activation and its downstream effects on phase II enzymes were examined by Western blot. Treatment of RPE cells with nanomolar ranges (10 and 100nM) of RTA 408 markedly attenuated H2O2-induced viability loss and apoptosis. RTA 408 pretreatment significantly protected cells from oxidative stress-induced GSH loss, GSSG formation and decreased ROS production. RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and increased the expression of its downstream genes, such as HO-1, NQO1, SOD2, catalase, Grx1, and Trx1. Consequently, the enzyme activities of NQO1, Grx1, and Trx1 were fully protected by RTA 408 pretreatment under oxidative stress. Moreover, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly reduced the cytoprotective effects of RTA 408. In conclusion, our data suggest that RTA 408 protect primary human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced damage by activating Nrf2 and its downstream genes. © 2015.

Knebl J.A.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Patki D.,UNTHSC
Journal of the American Osteopathic Association | Year: 2010

Alzheimer disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of Americans. It reduces the ability of the individual to remain independent, places a burden on caregivers, and substantially increases healthcare costs. New treatments are being tested in numerous clinical trials with the goal of preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease, slowing or modifying the disease's course, or finding a cure for patients with the disease. Alzheimer disease research can successfully proceed only if individuals who have this illness are willing to participate in clinical trials. However, recruitment and retention of subjects in clinical trials for Alzheimer disease is a challenging task. Furthermore, because of reductions in decision making capacities of individuals with Alzheimer disease, clinical trials also need to involve caregivers. The present article delineates unique hurdles encountered in the recruitment process for Alzheimer disease clinical trials. The article also identifies strategies for effective recruitment of subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, including guidelines to help principal investigators and clinical research coordinators reach recruitment goals.

Lopez D.,UNTHSC | Knebl J.,UNTHSC | Kosmopoulos V.,UNTHSC | Collins D.,UNTHSC | Patterson R.M.,UNTHSC
ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, SBC 2011 | Year: 2011

The results show that the OMT protocol employed in the present study improved the postural stability of healthy elderly patients as measured by the force platform in the AP and ML directions. The reduction in AP direction sway, is particularly important because of the greater likelihood of falls associated with AP instability. However, further study is required to demonstrate the correlation between OMT reduced sway observed in this study and fewer falls in the elderly. Nevertheless, it is promising that in both AP and ML directions, the OMT group showed changes in a short 4 week time period towards decreased sway (positive changes from week 1) and therefore towards improved balance and posture. Improved postural stability in elderly patients may have a significant impact in healthcare and the economy because of a reduction in the morbidity and mortality associated with falls in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Bharill S.,UNTHSC | Bharill S.,University of Pennsylvania | Chen C.,University of Pennsylvania | Stevens B.,University of Pennsylvania | And 9 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) increased total photon emission of Cy3- and Cy5-labeled ribosomal initiation complexes near 50 nm silver particles 4- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Fluorescence intensity fluctuations above shot noise, at 0.1-5 Hz, were greater on silver particles. Overall signal-to-noise ratio was similar or slightly improved near the particles. Proximity to silver particles did not compromise ribosome function, as measured by codon-dependent binding of fluorescent tRNA, dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between adjacent tRNAs in the ribosome, and tRNA translocation induced by elongation factor G. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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