Veramendi-Espinoza L.E.,National Major San Marcos University |
Zafra-Tanaka J.H.,National Major San Marcos University |
Salazar-Saavedra O.,National Major San Marcos University |
Basilio-Flores J.E.,National Major San Marcos University |
And 12 more authors.
Introduction: Hospital malnutrition is a prevalent problem that cause higher morbidity and mortality, poorer response to treatment and higher hospital stay and cost. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with hospital malnutrition in a peruvian General Hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 211 hospitalized patients in Medicine and Surgery wards. Demographic, clinical and anthropometrical indicators' data was collected. Multivariate analysis was binary logistic regression. All tests had a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). Results: Prevalence of hospital malnutrition was 46.9%. Prevalences of caloric and protein malnutrition were 21.3% and 37.5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis found that hospitalization in Surgery wards was associated with a major risk of caloric (OR = 4.41, IC 95% [1.65-11.78]) and protein malnutrition (OR = 2.52, IC 95% [1.297-4.89]). During the analysis of quantitative variables, significant associations between number of comorbidities and caloric malnutrition (p = 0.031) was found, and also between the beginning of food intake changes and the presence of protein malnutrition (p = 0.031). Multivariate analysis showed significant association between diagnosis of neoplasm and presence of caloric malnutrition (OR = 5.22, IC [1.43-19.13]). Conclusions: Prevalence of hospital malnutrition was near 50%, as in similar studies. Protein-caloric malnutrition prevalences obtained, differ from the ones in a previous study in this hospital, which is explained by the different diagnostic criteria and particular characteristics of groups of patients, such as procedence ward and comorbidities. An association between protein-caloric and hospitalization in a Surgery ward was found; the reasons should be investigated in further studies. Source
Clement W.L.,The College of New Jersey |
Arakaki M.,UNMSM |
Arakaki M.,Brown University |
Sweeney P.W.,Yale University |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Botany
• Premise of the study: Despite recent progress, significant uncertainties remain concerning relationships among early-branching lineages within Viburnum (Adoxaceae), prohibiting a new classification and hindering studies of character evolution and the increasing use of Viburnum in addressing a wide range of ecological and evolutionary questions. We hoped to resolve these issues by sequencing whole plastid genomes for representative species and combining these with molecular data previously obtained from an expanded taxon sample. • Methods: We performed paired-end Illumina sequencing of plastid genomes of 22 Viburnum species and combined these data with a 10-gene data set to infer phylogenetic relationships for 113 species. We used the results to devise a comprehensive phylogenetic classification and to analyze the evolution of eight morphological characters that vary among early-branching lineages. • Key results: With greatly increased levels of confidence in most of the early branches, we propose a phylogenetic classification of Viburnum, providing formal phylogenetic definitions for 30 clades, including 13 with names recognized under the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, eight with previously proposed informal names, and nine newly proposed names for major branches. Our parsimony reconstructions of bud structure, leaf margins, inflorescence form, ruminate endosperm, extrafloral nectaries, glandular trichomes, palisade anatomy, and pollen exine showed varying levels of homoplasy, but collectively provided morphological support for some, though not all, of the major clades. • Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the value of next-generation plastid sequencing, the ease of creating a formal phylogenetic classification, and the utility of such a system in describing patterns of character evolution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America. Source
Munoz Pena M.A.,Laboratorio Of Fisica Of Eventos Naturales Fenlab |
International Journal of Remote Sensing
We investigate the spatio-temporal variability of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with deforestation in four zones in southeastern Peru (Madre de Dios Region): (1) an area comprising part of the Tahuamanu province (mainly, but it also comprises a small part of Tambopata province), (2) a part of the Tahuamanu watershed, (3) surrounding areas of Iñapari and Iberia towns, and (4) another area in the Iñapari district which we labelled as Iñapari-B. We have utilized three statistical tools: the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), Fourier analysis, and wavelet analysis. EOF was used to obtain the maximum variability of the NDVI-anomaly spatial patterns and also their associated temporal variability as time series. Fourier analysis was used to determine the periodicities on the EOF pattern and associated them to deforestation in the region. Wavelet analysis was used to detect the maximum variability of the phenomena and to portray their statistical significance along the period of study and so identify when the maxima happen. From the results obtained, in Zone I, we have found a 2-month deforestation periodicity with major peaks in 2004 and 2009; in Zone II, the periodicity is about 1.8 months, with a maximum peak in 2009; in Zone III, the periodicity is 2.4 months with the highest peak in 2009; in Zone IV, the high-frequency periodicity is about 2.8 months with the main peaks in 2000, 2003, and 2004. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source