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Pogacnik R.K.,Univerziteteni klinicni center Ljubljana | Slabe N.,Univerziteteni klinicni center Ljubljana | Vrtovec H.M.,Univezitetni Klinicni center Ljubljana
Zdravniski Vestnik | Year: 2011

Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR), which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA), the catalytic protein subunit (TERT), which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF). POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause - idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women. Source

Slabe N.,Univerziteteni klinicni center Ljubljana | Poganik R.K.,Univerziteteni klinicni center Ljubljana | Pantar R.,University of Ljubljana | Vizjak A.,University of Ljubljana | And 4 more authors.
Zdravniski Vestnik | Year: 2011

Background: Endometriosis is often defined as heterogeneous immune abnormality. In accordance with the data, women with endometriosis are more frequently affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arhritis, asthma, eczema and have increased activity of policlonal B-cells, abnormal acitvity of T- and B-lymphocytes, decreased activity of natural killer cells and presence of antiendometrial antibodies. In our study, we tried to define the disease in the context of other autoimmune diseases and determine the type of immune abnormality. Methods: In the prospective study 60 females with endometriosis were inluded in the study group and 49 healthy females in the control group. The presence of endometriosis in the complex of other autoimmune diseases was evaluated by targeted family, personal and reproductive history. The type of immune abnormality was evaluated by immunological analysis on the cell level: subtypisation of lymphocytes, cytotoxic and regulatory T cells and NK cells. On the humoral level, we defined antiovary, antiendometrial and antiendothelial antibodies. The results were statistically evaluated using the Pearson's Chi-square test and Mann - Whitney test.Results: Patients with endometriosis are more frequently affected by allergies (p=0.039). Five serums of endometriosis patients were positive for antiendothelial antibodies specifically reacting with vascular endothelium. There was statistically significant diference between the study and the control group in the proportion of regulated T lymphocytes (CD3+ CD25++) in the pherypheral blood (p=0.025). Source

Kozjek N.R.,Onkoloski Institute Ljubljana | Mrevlje Z.,Univezitetni Klinicni center Ljubljana | Seljak B.K.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kogovsek K.,Onkoloski Institute Ljubljana | And 28 more authors.
Zdravniski Vestnik | Year: 2013

The present article presents the Slovenian multidisciplinary agreement statement on the definition, staging, clinical classification and multimodal approach to the treatment of cachexia in cancer patients. The consensus was reached during a multidisciplinary plenary session, and is based on the international definition of cancer cachexia adopted in 2011. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle with or without concomitant loss of fat, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterized by a negative energy and protein balance due to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. In cancer patients, the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages - from precachexia to cachexia and finally, to refractory cachexia-representing a continuum of metabolic changes, clinical signs and symptoms. Patients can progress from precachexia to cachexia, and reverse from cachexia into precachectic stages, while (as the term itself implies), the condition of refractory or irreversible cachexia has poor therapeutic response. A clinical algorithm for recognition and treatment of cachexia in cancer patients is presented. All cancer patients should be screened for cachexia and precachexia on presentation. Patients who fulfill diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia should have its clinical stage determined. According to phenotype / clinical stage, a multimodal approach should be adopted in the treatment of all cases of cancer cachexia. A typical multimodal management plan in cachectic patients consists of early dietary intervention, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapy and early cancer-related symptom relief. The cachexia treatment pathway should be adopted as a path-way parallel to conventional cancer treatment. Practical implementation of cancer cachexia consensus represents the therapeutic approach with possible positive impact on cancer burden control in Slovenia. Source

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