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Zelenikova R.,Ustav Osetrovatelstvi a Porodni Asistence | Ziakova K.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Jarosova D.,Ustav Osetrovatelstvi a Porodni Asistence
Bolest | Year: 2010

Delivery of quality nursing care depends on the ability of nurses to diagnose the patients' problems accurately and to set the effective interventions. Acute pain is one of the most frequently identified nursing diagnoses. The aim of the article is to analyse the results of choosen validation studies of nursing diagnosis Acute pain, this means which defining characteristics were identified as major and which as minor by nurses - experts or patients. In order to achieve the set aim the elementary thought processes were selected: analysis and comparison. 4 validation studies were selected based on 2 set criterias: nursing diagnosis Acute pain or Pain was validated in the study and full text article was published with the results of validation and determination which defining characteristics are major and which minor. Validation studies were selected from the first twelve conference proceedings NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) International and from the official journal of international organization NANDA International - International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications in the period 1990-2010. These parametres were investigated in the choosen studies: the year of the study, the methodology, the subjects of evaluation and the defining characteristics. The oldest study in the sample of studies was from 1987, the youngest was from 2000. The following methods of the validation of nursing diagnoses were used in choosen studies: the Fehring's content validity model, the Fehring's differential diagnostic validation model and the clinical validation. The defining characteristics were validated by the nurses in 3 studies, in 1 study defining characteristics were validated by the patients. Only 2 markers were identified as major defining characteristics in all 4 validation studies: "verbal report of pain" and "facial mask of pain". A defining characteristic "protective behaviour" was identified as a major defining characteristic in 3 studies. The pain is always subjective, therefore the statement of the patient regarding the pain is one of the most reliable indicator of pain. The results of 4 choosen validation studies will compare with the results of validation in Slovak and Czech Republic, that will realize in the international project The issue od nursing diagnosis - theoretical background and application in clinical practice APVV SK-CZ-0151-09, MŠMT MEB 0810029.


Pavlik R.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Phonetica | Year: 2014

This research examines the distributional characteristics of Czech ř in terms of the number of contacts (periods). The traditional claim that this consonant is produced with two or more contacts is challenged by the empirical evidence of ř realized in connected speech (newsreading style). The results of the study show that the most common variant of the (ř) variable is a one-contact alveolar sound, with the multiple-contact realization of ř being extremely rare. The role of eight linguistic variables is assessed in order to find out which factors are most likely to influence the number of contacts of Czech ř. Some questions are discussed concerning its current definition as a trill. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Masarykova L.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Fulmekova M.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Lehocka L.,Univerzita Komenskeho | urdik T.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Ceska a Slovenska Farmacie | Year: 2015

Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by an imbalance of bone remodelling process due to the prevalence of osteoresorption over osteosynthesis. As a result of these changes, the decrease in bone mass and density occur followed by an increase in fracture risk1). Its clinical manifestation is initially asymptomatic but in the course of time it is quite the contrary - really severe (bone pain, movement disorders, fractures) with a lot of further adverse consequences, including death2). The presented study deals with the impact of osteoporosis and its consequences on the quality of life of patients. The research is focused on patients diagnosed with or treated for osteoporosis that is to say by non-uniform etiology. By questioning of the sample of 128 patients evaluating various dimensions of the patient's quality of life (physical condition, mental state, and social status, overall satisfaction with life and health state) and tracking patients' satisfaction with the therapy as well. By analysing the results, we found that osteoporosis affects the quality of life, especially physical state of health because up to 31.25% of patients say that they have suffered from every day's backaches. It affects social life in the member of 7.81% patients, and 28.13% patients say that biggest problem with osteoporosis is the loss of free movement and possible fracture.


Paulov J.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Geograficky Casopis | Year: 2014

The main objective of this paper is to try to describe briefly the change in the scientific status of geography in selected stages of its history since this topic has usually been omitted in various writings devoted to its history. Without taking into account this topic the history of geography would not be complete. The reasons why this topic is relevant consists, apart from other things in the fact that geography, before its methodological conversion in the middle of the 20th century, was not considered equivalent to other, mainly natural sciences, as to its intellectual and research (inquiring) level were concerned. The scientific status of geography is briefly described according to the following stages: Greek antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Enlightenment, second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, second half of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century. The most influential stages, according to the author's opinion, were: Enlightenment (geography of A. von Humboldt and C. Ritter) and the second half of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century (quantification, theoretization and spatial paradigm). In this last stage geography is becoming an authentic research (inquiring) discipline and is gradually approaching, according to its way of researching, the fundamental empirical sciences. Copyright © 2014 Geografický ústav SAV.


Sveda M.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Vigasova D.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Geografie-Sbornik CGS | Year: 2010

The countryside around major Slovak cities is undergoing significant transformation. The construction of shopping centres, administrative buildings, logistical sites, residential areas and changes in the agricultural use of land are causing vast changes in land use (land cover). The objective of this paper is to examine changes in the spatial structure of land use in the hinterland of 11 Slovak cities, with more than 50 thousand inhabitants, during the period from 2000 to 2008. On the basis of a detailed comparison of data obtained from the Aggregated Areas of Land Types database (Úhrnné hodnoty druhov pozemkov) we analyzed changes in land use in 847 municipalities within the Functional Urban Regions of Bratislava, Košice, Prešov, Nitra, Žilina, Banská Bystrica, Trnava, Trenčín, Poprad and Prievidza. The results of the research confirmed significantly differentiated changes in land use. Whereas in the capital of Bratislava changes in land use are primarily caused by suburbanization, creating a relatively compact suburban zone, changes in land use were recorded only in selected sites in the rest of these major Slovak cities.


Slezakova L.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Durkovicova Z.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Huckova N.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Kusendova K.,. interna klinika Lekarskej fakulty Univerzity Komenskeho | Mojto V.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Prakticky Lekar | Year: 2016

Prevalence, aetiology, classification, diagnostics, prevention and therapy of peripheral arterial disease are discussed in the article. Peripheral arterial disease belongs to diseases of circulatory system that are alarming in terms of mortality. It often occurs together with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It reduces quality of patient's life (amputation of extremities, immobilization) and it can be life threatening. The disease can be diagnosed with ankle-brachial pressure index. Therapy is based on pharmacotherapy, as well as methods of interventional radiology and surgery. Asymptomatic stage of disease is still existing problem.


Mendelova A.,Gynekologicko porodnicka Klinika JLF UK A UNM | Jezkova E.,Gynekologicko porodnicka Klinika JLF UK A UNM | Zubor P.,Gynekologicko porodnicka Klinika JLF UK A UNM | Holubekova V.,Univerzita Komenskeho | And 3 more authors.
Ceska Gynekologie | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the presence of mutations in exon 9 (encoding the helical domain) and exon 20 (encoding the kinase domain) of phosphatidylinositol- 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene in DNA obtained from paraffin embedded tissue from patients with carcinoma of the mammary gland and to correlate results with clinicopathological characteristics of cancer. Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Department of Molecular Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Commenius University, Martin, Slovak Republic. Methods: In set of 95 tissue samples from patients with breast cancer, mutations in exon 9 and 20 were analysed by sequencing. We also observed the associations between mutations and histopathological characteristics of tumor. Results: Overall, mutations were present in 25.3% (24/95) of PIK3CA gene, of this 14.7% (14/95) of mutations were located in exon 9 and 10.5% (10/95) of mutations were in exon 20. We detected three "hotspot" mutations, two were located in exon 9 (E542K, E545K) and the third mutation was found in exon 20 (H1047R). Mutations in exon 9 showed significant correlation with lower grade (p = 0.0074) and pN status without metastases (p = 0.0415). Mutations in exon 20 were associated with higher age of patient (p = 0.0249). The E545K mutation correlated with lower grade (p = 0.0013) and pN status (p = 0.0232) particularly; the H1047R mutation was significantly more frequent in lobular type of breast cancer (p = 0.0354). Conclusion: The PI3K signaling pathway plays a critical oncogenic role in the development of human breast cancer and the prevalence of its deregulation advocates its potential as a feasible therapeutic target. In our study we demonstrate a significant correlation between the presence of PIK3CA mutations and some clinicopathological characteristics of tumour. We have shown that the mutations in exon 9 of PIK3CA were associated with favourable prognostic factors.


Rahel J.,Univerzita Komenskeho | Stahel P.,Masaryk University | Odraskova M.,Univerzita Komenskeho
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2011

The effect of plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of wooden samples is investigated in this work. Plasma activation of wooden surface was studied in diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge created in air to obtain wettable surface. Plasma deposition of hydrophobic coatings directly on the surface of wooden materials using surface barrier discharge created in pure nitrogen with small admixture of hexamethyldisiloxane was investigated too. Surface properties of plasma treated wooden samples were studied using the sessile droplet technique to identify surface free energy of treated and untreated samples.


PubMed | Univerzita Komenskeho
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phonetica | Year: 2014

This research examines the distributional characteristics of Czech in terms of the number of contacts (periods). The traditional claim that this consonant is produced with two or more contacts is challenged by the empirical evidence of realized in connected speech (newsreading style). The results of the study show that the most common variant of the () variable is a one-contact alveolar sound, with the multiple-contact realization of being extremely rare. The role of eight linguistic variables is assessed in order to find out which factors are most likely to influence the number of contacts of Czech . Some questions are discussed concerning its current definition as a trill.

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