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Benn A.R.,UK National Oceanography Center | Weaver P.P.,UK National Oceanography Center | Billet D.S.M.,UK National Oceanography Center | van den Hove S.,Median | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. Methodology: The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. Principal Findings: Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. Conclusions/Significance: To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of each human activity. © 2010 Benn et al.

van den Hove S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | McGlade J.,European Environment Agency | Mottet P.,Ion Beam Applications s.a.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2012

In this commentary we argue that innovation is a means, not an end in itself. Innovation is only desirable to the extent that it improves human health and well-being and contributes to environmental, social, and economic sustainability. If innovation is merely focussed on bringing more products to markets and delivering economic growth in the short term, as is currently the trend in the European Union and many OECD countries, it is unclear how it differs from the dominant pre-crisis approach which, notwithstanding its positive effects on living standards, led to unsustainable resource use, crippling biodiversity loss, and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. As the future European research, development and innovation policies are being defined, we should not miss an historic opportunity to concentrate on improving human health, well-being and quality of life, and to embark on a more ecologically, socially and economically sustainable path. Given the scale and irreversibility of our damaging effects on the environment and on the well-being of current and future generations, we call for these aspects to be urgently represented in European innovation discourses, policies, and actions. Re-balancing market focussed innovation and socially meaningful and responsible innovation (i.e. innovation with a human purpose) can be achieved by building on a broader concept of innovation which not only includes technological innovation, but also non-technological, social, institutional, organisational and behavioural innovation. We then discuss the importance of curiosity-driven research and of environment and health research as drivers of socially meaningful innovation in all its forms. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Hospital Central Asturias, Hospital San Jorge, Hospital La Princesa, CIBER ISCIII and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Severe sepsis, may be present on hospital arrival in approximately one-third of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).To determine the host characteristics and micro-organisms associated with severe sepsis in patients hospitalized with CAP.We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study in 13 Spanish hospital, on 4070 hospitalized CAP patients, 1529 of whom (37.6%) presented with severe sepsis. Severe sepsis CAP was independently associated with older age (>65 years), alcohol abuse (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07-1.61), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.50-2.04) and renal disease (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.03), whereas prior antibiotic treatment was a protective factor (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.52-0.73). Bacteremia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.79), S pneumoniae (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.31-1.95) and mixed microbial etiology (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.49) were associated with severe sepsis CAP.CAP patients with COPD, renal disease and alcohol abuse, as well as those with CAP due to S pneumonia or mixed micro-organisms are more likely to present to the hospital with severe sepsis.

PubMed | Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona, Medical Radiological Research Center, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and Hiroshima University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation and environmental biophysics | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to compare cytogenetic data in a patient before and after treatment with radioiodine to evaluate the assays in the context of biological dosimetry. We studied a 34-year-old male patient who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by ablation therapy with (131)I (19.28 GBq) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient provided blood samples before treatment and then serial samples at monthly intervals during the first year period and quarterly intervals for 5 years and finally 20 years after treatment. A micronucleus assay, dicentric assay, FISH method and G-banding were used to detect and measure DNA damage in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. The results showed that radiation-induced cytogenetic effects persisted for many years after treatment as shown by elevated micronuclei and chromosome aberrations as a result of exposure to (131)I. At 5 years after treatment, the micronucleus count was tenfold higher than the pre-exposure frequency. Shortly after the treatment, micronucleus counts produced a dose estimate of 0.47 0.09 Gy. The dose to the patient evaluated retrospectively using FISH-measured translocations was 0.70 0.16 Gy. Overall, our results show that the micronucleus assay is a retrospective biomarker of low-dose radiation exposure. However, this method is not able to determine local dose to the target tissue which in this case was any residual thyroid cells plus metastases of thyroidal origin.

Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Cepero A.L.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Dosik J.S.,TKL Research Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this series of Phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in healthy volunteers, the potential for ozenoxacin 1 and 2% cream formulations to cause irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity and photoallergy under occlusive patch conditions was evaluated. Both ozenoxacin formulations showed excellent dermal tolerability; in the vast majority of cases, only minimal signs of erythema were observed, with no evidence of edema or a papular response. No subject met the criteria for a phototoxic reaction with the ozenoxacin 1 or 2% cream formulations. Only a few adverse events were reported across repeated-dose studies, and virtually all events were considered to be unrelated or unlikely to be related to ozenoxacin application. Ozenoxacin was safe, well tolerated and showed little or no tendency to cause irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity or photoallergy. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

Amores J.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona
Knowledge and Information Systems | Year: 2013

While the objective of the standard supervised learning problem is to classify feature vectors, in the multiple instance learning problem, the objective is to classify bags, where each bag contains multiple feature vectors. This represents a generalization of the standard problem, and this generalization becomes necessary in many real applications such as drug activity prediction, content-based image retrieval, and others. While the existing paradigms are based on learning the discriminant information either at the instance level or at the bag level, we propose to incorporate both levels of information. This is done by defining a discriminative embedding of the original space based on the responses of cluster-adapted instance classifiers. Results clearly show the advantage of the proposed method over the state of the art, where we tested the performance through a variety of well-known databases that come from real problems, and we also included an analysis of the performance using synthetically generated data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Van De Weijer J.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Beigpour S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona
IMAGAPP and IVAPP 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Imaging Theory and Applications and International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

The dichromatic reflection model (DRM) predicts that color distributions form a parallelogram in color space, whose shape is defined by the body reflectance and the illuminant color. In this paper we resume the assumptions which led to the DRM and shortly recall two of its main applications domains: color image segmentation and photometric invariant feature computation. After having introduced the model we discuss several limitations of the theory, especially those which are raised once working on real-world uncalibrated images. In addition, we summerize recent extensions of the model which allow to handle more complicated light interactions. Finally, we suggest some future research directions which would further extend its applicability.

Santos B.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Ortiz J.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

In vitro studies using excised human skin samples were conducted to evaluate the percutaneous absorption and skin metabolism of ozenoxacin. The formulations studied were 1% ointment, 1% cream and 2% cream. Permeation assays met the conditions for infinite dose experiments. In all but one case, ozenoxacin concentrations in receptor fluid samples of Franz diffusion cells were below the limits of quantification (0.04 μg/ml) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization at the designated time points. Across all four absorption studies, ≤0.015% of the applied ozenoxacin dose permeated through the skin over the course of 24 or 48 h. Ethnic origin had no influence on absorption. Ozenoxacin at concentrations of 7, 35 and 70 μM was metabolically stable in the presence of freshly prepared human skin discs. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Albareda N.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Santos B.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Febbraro S.,Simbec Research Ltd
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

A series of Phase I studies was conducted in healthy volunteers to examine the systemic bioavailability and safety of topical ozenoxacin. Study 1 examined increasing single doses (relating to quantity and body surface area) of ozenoxacin 1% ointment. Study 2 compared multiple doses of ozenoxacin 1% ointment and placebo applied for 7 days. Study 3 investigated multiple doses of ozenoxacin 2% cream and placebo applied for 7 days. Study 4 examined multiple doses of ozenoxacin 2% cream applied to intact and abraded skin for 8 days. No systemic absorption was observed in any study and ozenoxacin was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were application-site reactions (erythema and pruritus), but the differences in local tolerability between ozenoxacin and placebo were not clinically significant. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Albareda N.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Santos B.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Febbraro S.,Simbec Research Ltd
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this Phase I study, healthy volunteers (n = 24) were randomly allocated to receive either one or two 0.2-g applications per day (12 h apart) of ozenoxacin 2% cream on three different areas of the back for 3 consecutive days. Ozenoxacin concentrations were measured in tape stripping samples (from the stratum corneum) and in skin punch biopsy samples (from the epidermis and dermis) taken predose from selected dosing areas on study days 2, 3 and 4. Ozenoxacin concentrations were high in the stratum corneum and were approximately twofold greater for the twice- versus once-daily application. Ozenoxacin concentrations were low in the epidermis and were higher for the twice- versus once-daily application. Ozenoxacin concentrations in the dermis were below the limit of quantitation on most study days. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

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