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Benn A.R.,UK National Oceanography Center | Weaver P.P.,UK National Oceanography Center | Billet D.S.M.,UK National Oceanography Center | van den Hove S.,Median | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. Methodology: The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. Principal Findings: Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. Conclusions/Significance: To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of each human activity. © 2010 Benn et al. Source


Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Cepero A.L.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Dosik J.S.,TKL Research Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this series of Phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in healthy volunteers, the potential for ozenoxacin 1 and 2% cream formulations to cause irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity and photoallergy under occlusive patch conditions was evaluated. Both ozenoxacin formulations showed excellent dermal tolerability; in the vast majority of cases, only minimal signs of erythema were observed, with no evidence of edema or a papular response. No subject met the criteria for a phototoxic reaction with the ozenoxacin 1 or 2% cream formulations. Only a few adverse events were reported across repeated-dose studies, and virtually all events were considered to be unrelated or unlikely to be related to ozenoxacin application. Ozenoxacin was safe, well tolerated and showed little or no tendency to cause irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity or photoallergy. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Gropper S.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Gropper S.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | Albareda N.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Santos B.,Ferrer Internacional SA | Febbraro S.,Simbec Research Ltd
Future Microbiology | Year: 2014

In this Phase I study, healthy volunteers (n = 24) were randomly allocated to receive either one or two 0.2-g applications per day (12 h apart) of ozenoxacin 2% cream on three different areas of the back for 3 consecutive days. Ozenoxacin concentrations were measured in tape stripping samples (from the stratum corneum) and in skin punch biopsy samples (from the epidermis and dermis) taken predose from selected dosing areas on study days 2, 3 and 4. Ozenoxacin concentrations were high in the stratum corneum and were approximately twofold greater for the twice- versus once-daily application. Ozenoxacin concentrations were low in the epidermis and were higher for the twice- versus once-daily application. Ozenoxacin concentrations in the dermis were below the limit of quantitation on most study days. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Amores J.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona
Knowledge and Information Systems | Year: 2013

While the objective of the standard supervised learning problem is to classify feature vectors, in the multiple instance learning problem, the objective is to classify bags, where each bag contains multiple feature vectors. This represents a generalization of the standard problem, and this generalization becomes necessary in many real applications such as drug activity prediction, content-based image retrieval, and others. While the existing paradigms are based on learning the discriminant information either at the instance level or at the bag level, we propose to incorporate both levels of information. This is done by defining a discriminative embedding of the original space based on the responses of cluster-adapted instance classifiers. Results clearly show the advantage of the proposed method over the state of the art, where we tested the performance through a variety of well-known databases that come from real problems, and we also included an analysis of the performance using synthetically generated data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London. Source


Livingston G.K.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Khvostunov I.K.,Medical Radiological Research Center | Gregoire E.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Barquinero J.-F.,Universtitat Autonoma Of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to compare cytogenetic data in a patient before and after treatment with radioiodine to evaluate the assays in the context of biological dosimetry. We studied a 34-year-old male patient who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by ablation therapy with 131I (19.28 GBq) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient provided blood samples before treatment and then serial samples at monthly intervals during the first year period and quarterly intervals for 5 years and finally 20 years after treatment. A micronucleus assay, dicentric assay, FISH method and G-banding were used to detect and measure DNA damage in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. The results showed that radiation-induced cytogenetic effects persisted for many years after treatment as shown by elevated micronuclei and chromosome aberrations as a result of exposure to 131I. At 5 years after treatment, the micronucleus count was tenfold higher than the pre-exposure frequency. Shortly after the treatment, micronucleus counts produced a dose estimate of 0.47 ± 0.09 Gy. The dose to the patient evaluated retrospectively using FISH-measured translocations was 0.70 ± 0.16 Gy. Overall, our results show that the micronucleus assay is a retrospective biomarker of low-dose radiation exposure. However, this method is not able to determine local dose to the target tissue which in this case was any residual thyroid cells plus metastases of thyroidal origin. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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