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Delfino M.,University of Florence | Delfino M.,University Zrich | Vos J.D.,Naturalis
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

Revision of the two extinct Javanese crocodylian species Gavialis bengawanicus Dubois, 1908, and Crocodylus ossifragus Dubois, 1908, indicates that only the former is valid and that the latter is a junior subjective synonym of the extant C. siamensis Schneider, 1801. Gavialis bengawanicus is diagnosed by a relatively small number of maxillary and dentary teeth, a modest maxillary process developed into the lacrimal, a W-shaped maxillo-palatine suture, a planar skull table, occlusal pits present exclusively on the dentaries, and relatively small and subcircular supratemporal fossae at maturity. It is the best-known extinct Gavialis, and it probably represents the only valid extinct Gavialis species known outside the Indian subcontinent. Both crocodylians from Java have been found exclusively along with the Stegodon-Homo erectus fauna, which is considered to be largely the result of an Early Pleistocene dispersal from the Siwaliks Hills via the so-called Siva-Malayan route. It is not clear if the dispersal of Gavialis from the Indian subcontinent to Java necessarily required the crossing of salt water barriers, but the possible occurrence of Gavialis remains in Sulawesi and Woodlark, two islands located east of the Huxley and Wallace lines that were never connected to the mainland, can be explained by inferring a marine dispersal. According to the present knowledge of the past distribution of Gavialis, this genus originated in the Indo-Pakistani area in the early Miocene and during the Quaternary dispersed to the Sunda region, possibly reaching western-most Oceania. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Source

Stinner C.,University Zrich | Winkler M.,University of Paderborn
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2011

We study nonnegative radially symmetric solutions of the chemotaxis system ut=Δu-χ∇·(uv∇v),x∈Ω,t>0, vt=Δv-v+u,x∈Ω,t>0, in a ball Ω⊂ Rn, n<2, with parameter χ>0 and radially symmetric initial data u0∈ C0(Ω) and v0∈W1 ,∞(Ω) satisfying u0<0 and v0>0 in Ω. A generalized solution concept is introduced for the Neumann problem associated with (black star), and within this concept global-in-time solutions are shown to exist regardless of the size of χ>0. This extends previous results which assert global existence of some weak solutions in the case χ0 and each θ Source

Oncel N.,University of North Dakota | Cakr D.,University of Antwerp | Dil J.H.,University Zrich | Dil J.H.,Paul Scherrer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2014

The physical and electronic properties of the Ir modified Si(1 1 1) surface have been investigated with the help of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory. The surface consists of Ir-ring clusters that form a √7 √7 ?R19.1-reconstruction. A comparison between the measured and calculated band structure of the system reveals that the dispersions of the projected bulk states and the states originating from -11' domains are heavily modified due to Umklapp scattering from the surface Brillouin zone. Density of states calculations show that Ir-ring clusters contribute to the states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK. Source

Rohault J.,University Zrich | Zanirato V.,University of Ferrara | Olivucci M.,University of Siena | Olivucci M.,Bowling Green State University | Helbing J.,University Zrich
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

We demonstrate strong amplification of polarization-sensitive transient IR signals using a pseudo-null crossed polarizer technique first proposed by Keston and Lospalluto [Fed. Proc. 10, 207 (1951)] and applied for nanosecond flash photolysis in the visible by Che [Chem. Phys. Lett. 224, 145 (1994)]. We adapted the technique to ultrafast pulsed laser spectroscopy in the infrared using photoelastic modulators, which allow us to measure amplified linear dichroism at kilohertz repetition rates. The method was applied to a photoswitch of the N-alkylated Schiff base family in order to demonstrate its potential of strongly enhancing sensitivity and signal to noise in ultrafast transient IR experiments, to simplify spectra and to determine intramolecular transition dipole orientations. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source

Gutzwiller F.S.,University of Basel | Schwenkglenks M.,University of Basel | Schwenkglenks M.,University Zrich | Blank P.R.,University of Basel | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2012

Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of iron repletion using intravenous (i.v.) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with iron deficiency with or without anaemia. Cost-effectiveness was studied from the perspective of the National Health Service in the UK. Methods and Results A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare iron repletion with FCM with no iron treatment. Using data from the FAIR-HF trial and publicly available sources and publications, per patient costs and clinical effectiveness of FCM were estimated compared with placebo. Cost assessment was based on study drug and administration costs, cost of CHF treatment, and hospital length of stay. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of FCM use was expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case. The time horizon of the analysis was 24 weeks. Mean QALYs were higher in the FCM arm (difference 0.037 QALYs; bootstrap-based 95 confidence interval 0.0170.060). The ICER of FCM compared with placebo was €4414 per QALY gained for the FAIR-HF dosing regimen. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the base case result to be robust. Conclusion From the UK payers' perspective, managing iron deficiency in CHF patients using i.v. FCM was cost-effective in this analysis. The base case ICER was clearly below the threshold of €22 200€33 300/QALY gained (£20 000£30 000) typically used by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and proved to be robust in sensitivity analysis. Improved symptoms and better quality of life contributed to this result. © 2012 The Author. Source

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