Molin M.,University West |
Sorbring E.,University West |
Lofgren-Martenson L.,Malmö University
Journal of intellectual disabilities : JOID | Year: 2015
This article reports experiences from a Swedish study, discussing teachers' and parents' views on how young people with intellectual disabilities use the Internet and social media. Five semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with teachers (n = 8) in special programmes in upper secondary schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities and parents (n = 5) of pupils in the same form of schooling, and they were analysed with thematic analysis. Teachers more strongly emphasize a pupil's use of the Internet for interactive purposes. Parents had expectations that the Internet could be a tool for gaining more awareness of one's own disability and a way to meet other peer group pupils. Teachers' and parents' perspectives on the Internet and social media usage are important since it is imperative to show how support can be provided for young people with intellectual disabilities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Leen E.,University of Erlangen Nuremburg |
Sorbring E.,University West |
Mawer M.,Coventry University |
Holdsworth E.,Coventry University |
And 2 more authors.
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2013
Adolescent dating violence is a pressing international issue: yet, there have been few attempts to collate the international evidence regarding this phenomenon. This article reviews contemporary evidence from Europe and North America on prevalence, dynamic risk factors, and the efficacy of intervention programs for adolescent dating violence. Prevalence findings suggest that victimization rates are comparable across Europe and North America. Although individual studies report differing prevalences, the overall hierarchy of violence types - in which psychological/emotional violence is most and sexual violence least prevalent - is consistent across almost all investigations. Four dynamic risk factors for perpetration are identified: peer influence, substance use, psychological adjustment and competencies, and attitudes towards violence. Peer influences and attitudes towards violence appear to be the most extensively evidenced factors in the literature. Nine existing intervention programs are identified, all located within North America. Intervention results are mixed, with some evaluations reporting significant long-term benefits while others report positive intervention effects dissipate throughout follow-up. Tentative analysis suggests that programs focused on behavioral change may elicit sustainable effects more readily. However, this is difficult to ascertain with no data on program repetitions and variations across intervention pedagogy and sample. Concerns with existing research and interventions and possible future directions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Andreasson I.,Gothenburg University |
Asplund Carlsson M.,University West
International Journal of Special Education | Year: 2013
The documentation of pupils in Swedish schools is extensive and a documentation culture has come to characterize the schools in recent years. In the context of decentralization and changing governance, focus has increasingly been directed towards assessment, follow-up and evaluation of pupils' learning and social development. This article examines the Individual Educational Plans (hereafter IEP) used for pupils with special educational needs in Swedish compulsory schools from the perspective of text analyses based on discourse theory. The aim of this study is to shed light on how pupils are constructed in the school's documentation. The study examines how these IEPs are used as a pedagogical technique for new ways of governing in order to impose self-regulation, individual responsibility and social control.The documents, which comprise the empirical material in this article, are gathered from 14 different schools and consist of documents for a total of 136 pupils with special educational needs.
Pareto L.,University West
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2010
We describe a mathematics computer game for children designed to promote causal reasoning, choice-making, and other higher order cognitive activities. The game consists of a choice-based board game, enhanced with a conversational, teachable agent, taught to play the game, by the child, through demonstrations and questions. Game design is motivated by causal reasoning theory and educational psychology. The game is currently evaluated in an ongoing large-scale study that seeks to investigate the gamés effects on the playerś abilities to reason and make productive choices. The study involves 20 elementary-school classes at different levels.
Pennbrant S.,University West |
Pilhammar Andersson E.,Gothenburg University |
Nilsson K.,Gothenburg University
Research on Aging | Year: 2013
Previous research has provided contradictory findings on how important it is for elderly patients to actively participate in the meeting with their doctors. Using descriptive and exploratory interview study with 20 elderly patients discharged from medicine and geriatric hospital care in Sweden, the authors describe how elderly patients experience their meetings with their doctor in the hospital setting. The results indicate that the meetings between elderly patients and doctors are influenced by the nature and shape of the conversation, which are influenced by power and interaction. A good relationship between an elderly patient and his or her doctor leads to reduced apprehension and increased faith in the health care system. This study was inspired by the sociocultural perspective and highlights the importance of the health care sector becoming a learning organization in which doctors are trained to prevent misunderstandings in their meetings with elderly patients. © The Author(s) 2012.
Pennbrant S.,University West
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being | Year: 2013
In previous research, no uniform picture emerged of the role of relatives in the meeting between an elderly patient and a physician. Knowledge about relatives' experiences of the meeting between an elderly patient and a physician will help healthcare practitioners better understand the role of relatives during the meeting and how practitioners can assist relatives in assuming their supporting role more efficiently. The purpose of this study is to explore experiences of relatives of meeting with the physician in a hospital setting when an elderly patient is discharged from hospital care to home care, in order to identify aspects that may facilitate relatives in taking up their role in a more efficient manner. This descriptive and exploratory study is based on 20 interviews with relatives. The result shows that the physician's communication style influences the meeting between the relative, the elderly patient, and the physician, and that this style is the result of power and interaction. A trustful relationship during the meeting between the relative and the physician can increase the relative's feeling of confidence with the healthcare organization and treatment of the elderly patient. The relative has an important supporting role in the care for the elderly family member, both in the hospital and the home setting. It is likely that the relative's value as a resource, for both the patient and the physician, increases as the relative experiences feelings of confidence in the meeting with the physician. It is therefore of value to increase our knowledge about the conditions and circumstances facilitating and/or hampering the meeting between the relative and the physician. The result stresses the importance of encouraging relatives to participate in the meeting. Physicians need more guidance and training in communication skills, respectful demeanor, and collaboration while meeting the relatives. © 2013 S. Pennbrant.
Axelsson M.,Gothenburg University |
Axelsson M.,University West
Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care | Year: 2013
Objectives: To identify young adults' stated reasons for not taking asthma medication and to determine the significance of personality, asthma control and health-related quality of life in relation to these stated reasons. Background: Reasons for non-adherence to asthma medication treatment have previously been studied, but research on the significance of personality in relation to stated reasons for not taking asthma medication is limited. Methods: Young adults with asthma (age 22years; n=216) stated their most common reasons for not taking asthma medication and completed postal questionnaires on personality, asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Results: The most common reason for non-adherence was ". No perceived need" (n=141). Participants giving this reason for not taking asthma medication scored lower on the personality trait Negative Affectivity and reported both higher asthma control and higher mental HRQL. "Insufficient routines" was the second most common reason (n=66), and participants stating it scored higher on Negative Affectivity and reported lower asthma control. An increase in asthma control increased the odds of stating ". No perceived need" as the reason for not taking asthma medication. An increase in Negative Affectivity was associated with an increase in the odds of giving ". Insufficient routines" as a reason. Conclusions: The personality trait Negative Affectivity and perceived asthma control played a role in the young adults' stated reasons for not taking asthma medication, which indicates that these parameters are of importance to young adults' medication management. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Eshagh M.,University West |
Romeshkani M.,Islamic Azad University at Qazvin
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2015
Sub-lithospheric stress due to mantle convection can be determined from gravimetric data based on Runcorn's theory. In this paper, the satellite gradiometric data of the recent European satellite mission, the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is used to determine the sub-lithospheric stress locally in Iran. The method of S function (SF) with numerical differentiation is developed further and an integral equation connecting satellite gradiometric data to SF is presented. The integral equation will be used to invert the real gradiometric data of GOCE to recover the SF. Later on, the sub-lithospheric shear stresses, which are the northward and eastward derivatives of the SF, are computed numerically. Our numerical results show that the mean squares error of the recovered SF is smaller than the values of the SF meaning that the recovery process is successful. Also, the recovered stress has a good agreement with the tectonic boundaries and active seismic points of the world stress map (WSM) database. This stress reaches amplitude of 100. MPa in the territory. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..
Grunden K.,University West
Proceedings of the European Conference on e-Government, ECEG | Year: 2011
Implementation of a contact centre (CC) in a Swedish municipality was analysed and discussed. Interviews were made with 16 respondents in different organizational units and positions. The implementation of CC was successful so far, butit will be a challenge to have continuous learning possibilities for the municipality guides, in order to avoid future monotonous work situations. There was an alternation between a top down and bottom up approach in the implementation work. There was even a need for increased focus on back-office and social aspects in the further implementation work. There was also a need to communicate personnel strategies related to the transfer of work tasks from the administrations and CC, in order to reduce anxiety and concerns about change of work situations for the handling officers. There were some problems with different mental images among the handling officers and the project management regarding the vision for the implementation. There was also a need for more co-operation between the project team and the handling officers in order to have a more homogenous implementation process at the different units. Furthermore, there was a need for increased competence development education of the handling officers. ELearning combined with group discussions could be relevant educational forms.
Tano I.,Lulea University of Technology |
Tano I.,University West |
Vannman K.,Lulea University of Technology |
Vannman K.,University West |
Vannman K.,Umeå University
Quality and Reliability Engineering International | Year: 2012
Multivariate process capability indices (MPCIs) are needed for process capability analysis when the quality of a process is determined by several univariate quality characteristics that are correlated. There are several different MPCIs described in the literature, but confidence intervals have been derived for only a handful of these. In practice, the conclusion about process capability must be drawn from a random sample. Hence, confidence intervals or tests for MPCIs are important. With a case study as a start and under the assumption of multivariate normality, we review and compare four different available methods for calculating confidence intervals of MPCIs that generalize the univariate index C p. Two of the methods are based on the ratio of a tolerance region to a process region, and two are based on the principal component analysis. For two of the methods, we derive approximate confidence intervals, which are easy to calculate and can be used for moderate sample sizes. We discuss issues that need to be solved before the studied methods can be applied more generally in practice. For instance, three of the methods have approximate confidence levels only, but no investigation has been carried out on how good these approximations are. Furthermore, we highlight the problem with the correspondence between the index value and the probability of nonconformance. We also elucidate a major drawback with the existing MPCIs on the basis of the principal component analysis. Our investigation shows the need for more research to obtain an MPCI with confidence interval such that conclusions about the process capability can be drawn at a known confidence level and that a stated value of the MPCI limits the probability of nonconformance in a known way. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.