Erlangen, Germany
Erlangen, Germany

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Shen D.-K.,University of Bristol | Saurya S.,University of Oxford | Wagner C.,University of Bristol | Wagner C.,University tsklinikum Erlangen | And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are key determinants of virulence in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Upon cell contact, they inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells through a needle protruding from the bacterial surface. Host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle "tip complex," but how this occurs is not understood. The tip complex of quiescent needles is composed of IpaD, which is topped by IpaB. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to assembly of a pore, formed by IpaB and IpaC, in the host cell membrane, through which other virulence effector proteins may be translocated. IpaB is required for regulation of secretion and may be the host cell sensor. It binds needles via its extreme C-terminal coiled coil, thereby likely positioning a large domain containing its hydrophobic regions at the distal tips of needles. In this study, we used short deletion mutants within this domain to search for regions of IpaB involved in secretion regulation. This identified two regions, amino acids 227 to 236 and 297 to 306, the presence of which are required for maintenance of IpaB at the needle tip, secretion regulation, and normal pore formation but not invasion. We therefore propose that removal of either of these regions leads to an inability to block secretion prior to reception of the activation signal and/or a defect in host cell sensing. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Letz S.,University tsklinikum Erlangen | Haag C.,Endocrine Practice | Schulze E.,Endocrine Practice | Frank-Raue K.,Endocrine Practice | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: Activating calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) characterized by low serum calcium, inappropriately low PTH and relative hypercalciuria. Four activating CaSR mutations cause additional renal wasting of sodium, chloride and other salts, a condition called Bartter syndrome (BS) type 5. Until today there is no specific medical treatment for BS type 5 and ADH. We investigated the effects of different allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics) on activating CaSR mutants. Methods: All 4 known mutations causing BS type 5 and five ADH mutations were expressed in HEK 293T cells and receptor signalling was studied by measurement of intracellular free calcium in response to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o). To investigate the effect of calcilytics, cells were stimulated with 3 mM [Ca2+]o in the presence or absence of NPS-2143, ATF936 or AXT914. Results: All BS type 5 and ADH mutants showed enhanced signalling activity to [Ca2+]o with left shifted dose response curves. In contrast to the amino alcohol NPS-2143, which was only partially effective, the quinazolinone calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 significantly mitigated excessive cytosolic calcium signalling of all BS type 5 and ADH mutants studied. When these mutants were co-expressed with wild-type CaSR to approximate heterozygosity in patients, ATF936 and AXT914 were also effective on all mutants. Conclusion: The calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 are capable of attenuating enhanced cytosolic calcium signalling activity of CaSR mutations causing BS type 5 and ADH. Quinazolinone calcilytics might therefore offer a novel treatment option for patients with activating CaSR mutations. © 2014 Letz et al.


Khalil M.,University tsklinikum Erlangen | Babes A.,University of Bucharest | Lakra R.,University tsklinikum Erlangen | Forsch S.,University tsklinikum Erlangen | And 5 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2016

The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is well characterized in sensory neurons; however, little is known about its role in the immune system. Here we show that the cold-sensing TRPM8 has an unexpected role in innate immunity. TRPM8 expression and function in macrophages were demonstrated in vitro using molecular techniques and calcium imaging. In addition, adoptive macrophage transfer and systemic interleukin (IL)-10 overexpression were performed in experimental colitis. TRPM8 activation induced calcium-transients in murine peritoneal macrophages (PM) and bone marrow-derived macrophages of wild-type (WT) but not TRPM8-deficient mice. TRPM8-deficient PM exhibited defective phagocytosis and increased motility compared with those in WT, whereas the opposite effects of TRPM8 activation were induced in WT PM. TRPM8 activation or blockage/genetic deletion induced a anti- or pro-inflammatory macrophage cytokine profile, respectively. WT mice treated with repeated menthol (TRPM8 agonist) enemas were consistently protected from experimental colitis, whereas TRPM8-deficient mice showed increased colitis susceptibility. Adoptive transfer of TRPM8-deficient macrophages aggravated colitis, whereas systemic IL-10 overexpression rescued this phenotype. TRPM8 activation in peptidergic sensory neurons did not affect neuropeptide release from the inflamed colon. TRPM8 in macrophages determines pro- or anti-inflammatory actions by regulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 production. These findings suggest novel TRPM8-based options for immunomodulatory intervention. © 2016 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


Aydin U.,University of Munster | Vorwerk J.,University of Munster | Kupper P.,University of Munster | Heers M.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

To increase the reliability for the non-invasive determination of the irritative zone in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis, we introduce here a new experimental and methodological source analysis pipeline that combines the complementary information in EEG and MEG, and apply it to data from a patient, suffering from refractory focal epilepsy. Skull conductivity parameters in a six compartment finite element head model with brain anisotropy, constructed from individual MRI data, are estimated in a calibration procedure using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and field (SEF) data. These data are measured in a single run before acquisition of further runs of spontaneous epileptic activity. Our results show that even for single interictal spikes, volume conduction effects dominate over noise and need to be taken into account for accurate source analysis. While cerebrospinal fluid and brain anisotropy influence both modalities, only EEG is sensitive to skull conductivity and conductivity calibration significantly reduces the difference in especially depth localization of both modalities, emphasizing its importance for combining EEG and MEG source analysis. On the other hand, localization differences which are due to the distinct sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG persist. In case of a moderate error in skull conductivity, combined source analysis results can still profit from the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG to accurately determine location, orientation and strength of the underlying sources. On the other side, significant errors in skull modeling are reflected in EEG reconstruction errors and could reduce the goodness of fit to combined datasets. For combined EEG and MEG source analysis, we therefore recommend calibrating skull conductivity using additionally acquired SEP/SEF data. © 2014 Aydin et al.


Agaimy A.,University Tsklinikum Erlangen | Koch M.,Krankenhausstrasse | Lell M.,Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology | Semrau S.,Krankenhausstrasse | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

Poorly differentiated sinonasal carcinomas are a heterogenous group of aggressive neoplasms that encompasses squamous cell carcinoma including basaloid variant, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and neuroendocrine-type small cell carcinoma. We herein describe 3 cases of a hitherto unreported variant combining features of basaloid carcinoma with variable intermingled rhabdoid cells. Patients were 2 women (aged 28 and 35) and a man (52 y) who presented with sinonasal masses. All had advanced local disease with bone involvement (pT4). None had a history of irradiation or a family history of rhabdoid tumors. Treatment was surgery and adjuvant chemoradiation. One patient developed liver, lung, pleural, and pericardial metastases (63 mo) and is currently (70 mo) alive under palliative treatment. Another developed recurrent cervical lymph node metastases and died of disease 8.5 years later. The youngest patient was disease-free at last follow-up 7 years later. Histologic features were very similar in all 3 cases and showed intimate admixture of compact basaloid cell nests with peripheral palisading, perivascular pseudorosettes, and a few scattered rhabdoid cells. Rhabdoid cells were more extensive in the metastasis in 1 case but formed a minor inconspicuous component in the primary tumors in all cases. Striking features common to all cases were (1) basaloid "blue" appearance at low power, (2) papilloma-like exophytic component, (3) extensive pagetoid surface growth with prominent denuding features, and (4) replacement of underlying mucous glands mimicking an inverted papilloma. Clear-cut origin from benign papilloma and overt squamous differentiation were lacking. Diffuse (2) or partial (1) p16 expression was noted, but all cases lacked human papillomavirus DNA by molecular tests. In situ hybridization was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse expression of pancytokeratin. CK5 and vimentin showed intermingling of CK5/vimentin basaloid and CK5/vimentin rhabdoid cells. Complete loss of nuclear SMARCB1 expression was seen in all cases including also the denuding carcinoma in situ-like surface lesions. To our knowledge, this variant of sinonasal carcinoma has not been reported before. The identical features in all 3 cases suggest a specific disease rather than a nonspecific dedifferentiated phenotype. Awareness of this rare variant and thus reporting of additional cases is necessary for defining its full morphologic and biological spectrum. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

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