Universiti Teknologi MARA is a public university with its main campus located in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.The Shah Alam campus is the flagship institution of the Universiti Teknologi MARA System, the largest university in Malaysia in terms of size and student enrollment and the only public university carrying out intakes twice a year.The university faculties comprise 4,000 academics, scholars and researchers. The university has expanded nationwide with four satellite campuses, 12 branch campuses, nine city campuses and 21 affiliated colleges. With this network and over 17,000 staff, the university offers more than 300 academic programmes. It is home to some 172,000 students: bumiputeras and international students. The teaching is fully conducted in English. Wikipedia.
Asadullah M.,University Technology of MARA
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
Biomass is the only source on earth that can store solar energy in the chemical bond during its growth. This stored energy can be utilized by means of thermochemical conversion of biomass. Gasification is one of the promising thermochemical conversion technologies, which converts biomass to burnable gases, often termed as producer gas. Major components of this gas are hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. Depending on the purity, this gas can be used in the furnace for heat generation and in the internal combustion engine and fuel cell for power generation or it can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis method. Despite numerous applications of the biomass gasification gas, it is still under developing stage due to some severe technological challenges. Impurities such as tar, particulate matters and poisonous gases including ammonia, hydrochloric acid and sulfur gases, which are unavoidably produced during gasification, create severe problems in downstream applications. Therefore, the cleaning of producer gas is essential before being utilized. However, the conventional physical filtration is not a technically and environmentally viable process for gasification gas cleaning. The utilization of catalyst for hot gas cleaning is one of the most popular technologies for gas cleaning. The catalyst bed can reform tar molecules to gas on the one hand and destroy or adsorb poisonous gases and particulates on the other hand, so as to produce clean gas. However, numerous criteria need to be considered to select the suitable catalyst for commercial use. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of different gas cleaning methods are critically discussed and concluded that the catalytic hot gas cleaning with highly efficient catalyst is the most viable options for large-scale production of clean producer gas. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Asadullah M.,University Technology of MARA
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
Gasification is one of the promising technologies to convert biomass to gaseous fuels for distributed power generation. However, the commercial exploitation of biomass energy suffers from a number of logistics and technological challenges. In this review, the barriers in each of the steps from the collection of biomass to electricity generation are highlighted. The effects of parameters in supply chain management, pretreatment and conversion of biomass to gas, and cleaning and utilization of gas for power generation are discussed. Based on the studies, until recently, the gasification of biomass and gas cleaning are the most challenging part. For electricity generation, either using engine or gas turbine requires a stringent specification of gas composition and tar concentration in the product gas. Different types of updraft and downdraft gasifiers have been developed for gasification and a number of physical and catalytic tar separation methods have been investigated. However, the most efficient and popular one is yet to be developed for commercial purpose. In fact, the efficient gasification and gas cleaning methods can produce highly burnable gas with less tar content, so as to reduce the total consumption of biomass for a desired quantity of electricity generation. According to the recent report, an advanced gasification method with efficient tar cleaning can significantly reduce the biomass consumption, and thus the logistics and biomass pretreatment problems can be ultimately reduced. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Chang S.H.,University Technology of MARA
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014
Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Tieman M.,University Technology of MARA
Journal of Islamic Marketing | Year: 2011
Purpose: The paper aims to describe the basic requirements of Halal food supply chains in order to ensure the integrity of Halal food at the point of consumption, which is an obligation for Muslims. Design/methodology/approach: This exploratory research paper is based on in-depth interviews to better understand what is Halal, the Islamic sources that are essential for Halal supply chains, and identify the guidelines and principles which are essential for the integrity of Halal supply chains. Findings: Halal supply chain management is based on avoiding direct contact with Haram, addressing the risk of contamination and ensuring that it is in line with the perception of the Muslim consumer. In particular, the product and market characteristics are important variables in the supply chain management of Halal supply chains. Further empirical research is needed to measure the perception of the Muslim consumer. A better understanding is also required into the principles in organising the Halal supply chain for different markets (Muslim and non-Muslim countries). There is a need for a Halal supply chain model that is able to describe and optimise Halal supply chains. Research limitations/implications: Since this paper is an exploratory study, it provides some insights into the considerations in organising Halal supply chains. However, further qualitative and quantitative research is needed in order to provide the industry with concrete tools to design effective Halal supply chains. Practical implications: In response to the logistics industry that started with Halal logistics solutions, the Halal certified food industries needs to know whether and how to start with a Halal supply chain approach. This paper presented key considerations to address in organising effective Halal supply chains. Social implications: Halal in non-Muslim countries is not very well understood, where in logistics only the aspect of avoiding of contact with Haram is addressed mainly through packaging. This article presents a better understanding of Halal and the application of Halal in supply chain management. Originality/value: There is a lack of academic research in Halal logistics and supply chain management. This exploratory research provides some basic fundamentals on the supply chain management of Halal products. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Farooqui M.,University Technology of MARA
BMC public health | Year: 2013
Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients' perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message 'prevention is better than cure'. Patients' narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.