University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Krakow, Poland
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Krzykala M.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow | Leszczynski P.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences
HOMO- Journal of Comparative Human Biology | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups.Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes.The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Grassi B.,University of Udine | Rossiter H.B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Zoladz J.A.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2015

During high-intensity submaximal exercise, muscle fatigue and decreased efficiency are intertwined closely, and each contributes to exercise intolerance. Fatigue and muscle inefficiency share common mechanisms, for example, decreased "metabolic stability," muscle metabolite accumulation, decreased free energy of adenosine triphosphate breakdown, limited O2 or substrate availability, increased glycolysis, pH disturbance, increased muscle temperature, reactive oxygen species production, and altered motor unit recruitment patterns.

Kruk J.,University Of Szczecin | Czerniak U.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Scientific evidence for the primary prevention of cancer caused by physical activity of regular moderate-intensity or greater is rapidly accumulating in this field. About 300 epidemiologic studies on the association between physical activity and cancer risk have been conducted worldwide. The objectives of this paper were three-fold: (i) to describe briefly the components of physical activity and its quantification; (ii) to summarize the most important conclusions available from comprehensive reports, and reviews of the epidemiologic individual and intervention studies on a role physical activity in cancer prevention; (iii) to present proposed biological mechanisms accounting for effects of activity on cancer risk. The evidence of causal linked physical activity and cancer risk is found to be strong for colon cancer - convincing; weaker for postmenopausal breast and endometrium cancers - probable; and limited suggestive for premenopausal breast, lung, prostate, ovary, gastric and pancreatic cancers. The average risk reductions were reported to be 20-30%. The protective effects of physical activity on cancer risk are hypothesized to be through multiple interrelated pathways: decrease in adiposity, decrease in sexual and metabolic hormones, changes in biomarkers and insulin resistance, improvement of immune function, and reduction of inflammation. As there are several gaps in the literature for associations between activity and cancer risk, additional studies are needed. Future research should include studies dealing with limitations in precise estimates of physical activity and of a lack of consensus on what defines sedentary behavior of individuals and those linked with the proposed biomarkers to cancer risk and controlled exercise intervention trials.

Sterkowicz-Przybycien K.L.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Biology of Sport | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of male karateists who were grouped by different level of competition and techniques used in effective attack. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as a background, will update the data necessary for determination of somatic profiles of karateists. Thirty contestants were examined during the camp in Polish Olympic Training Center in Zakopane. The participants had level of competition at both international (I group, n = 14) and national level (N group, n = 16). Karateists were also grouped on the basis of the preferred techniques used in effective attack, i.e. hits with hand (H, n=12), hits with hand and legs (HL, n = 11) or kicks (L group, n=7). An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Group I were not significantly heavier than group N. Group I had higher mesomorphy and lower ectomorphy than group N (t-test). Group I were characterized by higher BMI and fat free mass index than karateists of the group N. Results from discriminant analysis were significant. Amongst the observations used to fit the model, (67%) were correctly classified. There were statistically significant differences between competitors grouped by techniques used in attack as endomorphy (H>HL, H>L) and ectomorphy (H

Korzeniewski B.,Jagiellonian University | Zoladz J.A.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

Korzeniewski B, Zoladz JA. Slow VO2 off-kinetics in skeletal muscle is associated with fast PCr off-kinetics-and inversely. J Appl Physiol 115: 605-612, 2013. First published June 20, 2013; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol. 00469.2013.-The computer model of the bioenergetic system in skeletal muscle, developed previously, was used to study the effect of the characteristic decay time of the parallel activation of oxidative phosphorylation [φ(OFF)] during muscle recovery on the muscle oxygen consumption rate (VO2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) work-to-rest transition (off)-kinetics and on the relationship between the VO2 and PCr rest-to-work transition (on)- and off-kinetics in moderate and heavy exercise. An increase in φ (OFF) slows down the initial phase of the muscle VO2 off-kinetics and accelerates the PCr off-kinetics. As a result, the relationship between the initial phase of the VO2 off-kinetics (lasting approximately 3-60 s in computer simulations) and the PCr off-kinetics is inverse: the slower the former, the faster the latter. A faster initial phase of theVO2 off-kinetics is associated with a slower late phase of the VO2 offkinetics, and as a result, the integral of VO2 above baseline during recovery, representing the oxygen debt, is identical in all cases [values of φ (OFF)] for a given PCr decrease. Depending on φ (OFF), the muscleVO2 on-kinetics was either equally fast or slower than theVO2 off-kinetics in moderate exercise and always slower in heavy exercise. PCr on-kinetics was always faster than PCr off-kinetics. This study clearly demonstrates that φ (OFF) has a pronounced impact on the mutual relations between the muscle VO2 and PCr on- and offkinetics. Copyright © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Gacek M.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Przeglad Menopauzalny | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to analyze some personal determinants of cereal, fruit and vegetable consumption in a group of menopausal women. We analyzed selected individual characteristics, such as the level of general self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. The study, using a questionnaire assessing the frequency of food product consumption and psychological scales (GSES, LOT-R, SWLS), included 320 women aged between 45 and 55 years. Statistical analysis of the Spearman's rank coefficients of correlation revealed that increased BMI was associated with a significantly higher frequency of white bread consumption (p < 0.05), and decreased consumption of brown rice, whole grains (p < 0.01), wholegrain noodles, oat meal (p < 0.05), raw and green vegetables (p < 0.01), and fruits, including citruses (p < 0.01). The level of self-efficacy correlated positively with the consumption frequency of white rice (p < 0.05), noodles, raw, cooked, and green vegetables (p < 0.01), and fruits, including citruses (p < 0.01). The level of optimism was positively correlated with the frequency of brown rice, noodle, whole grain and oat meal consumption (p < 0.01). Higher levels of satisfaction with life were associated with more frequent consumption of brown rice, noodles, whole grains, oat meal (p < 0.01), and cooked vegetables (p < 0.05), as well as with a lower frequency of white bread consumption (p < 0.05). The tendencies documented in the correlation analysis were further confirmed by intergroup comparisons with the Kruskal- Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05). Our study revealed that the frequency of selected cereal, fruit and vegetable consumption varies depending on individual characteristics, with a tendency to more rational nutritional choices among women with higher levels of self-efficacy, optimism and satisfaction with life.

Zoladz J.A.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow | Pilc A.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

It is well documented that physical activity can induce a number of various stimuli which are able to enhance the strength and endurance performance of muscles. Moreover, regular physical activity can preserve or delay the appearance of several metabolic disorders in the human body. Physical exercise is also known to enhance the mood and cognitive functions of active people, although the physiological backgrounds of these effects remain unclear. In recent years, since the pioneering study in the past showed that physical activity increases the expression of the brain derived neurothophic factor (BDNF) in the rat brain, a number of studies were undertaken in order to establish the link between that neurothrophin and post-exercise enhancement of mood and cognitive functions in humans. It was recently demonstrated that physical exercise can increase plasma and/or serum BDNF concentration in humans. It was also reported that physical exercise or electrical stimulation can increase the BDNF expression in the skeletal muscles. In the present review, we report the current state of research concerning the effect of a single bout of exercise and training on the BDNF expression in the brain, in both the working muscles as well as on its concentrations in the blood. We have concluded that there may be potential benefits of the exercise-induced enhancement of the BDNF expression and release in the brain as well as in the peripheral tissues, resulting in the improvement of the functioning of the body, although this effect, especially in humans, requires more research.

Introduction: Ju-jitsu is a combat sport that combines techniques of both karate and judo. Tournaments are organized in six weight categories. Identification and classification of somatic build in top contestants practicing ju-jitsu is important for establishment of a model of champion for this discipline of professional sport. There is also no evaluation of the relationships between the sports level and technical and tactical preparation of the contestants. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine body composition, somatotype and technical diversification of both heavyweight and lightweight Polish Ju-jitsu fighters at super-elite and elite level, and consequences for coaching practice and procedural selection and individual training. Method: The contestants comprised persons at both international (super-elite group, n= 12) and national level (elite group, n= 18). Individual fighting techniques were classified into nine groups, according to actions allowed during fighting: (a) in vertical position: hits with leg and hand, and arm, leg and hip throws and with the fall of the attacking opponent, (b) in horizontal position: grips, strangles, and joint locks. The variables dependent on weight category factor and level of sport achievements included age, height, weight, height-weight ratio (HWR) body mass index (BMI) and body composition (fat free mass index [FFMI], fat mass index [FMI], percent fat in body mass [%PF]), somatotype components endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy and the amount of techniques used in Ju-jitsu fight. Results: The lightweight contestants revealed lower values of BMI than those of heavyweight category contestants. The same results were observed for FFMI. However, there are higher values of FMI and %PF in heavyweight category than in the lighter categories.In the range of mesomorphy component, supremacy of heavyweight contestants over lightweight contestants was observed. In the case of ectomorphy, it was the opposite. The number of techniques practiced was significantly higher in super-elite group than in elite group. Conclusions: Body composition and somatotype which differentiate the players into weight categories were observed among men practicing ju-jitsu. It is necessary to strive for presentation of somatic profiles of players against the background of the people from the same country not practicing any sports. The players of higher sports level (super-elite group) practice more diversified attacks which favors domination over the opponent (elite group). Body composition and somatotype can affect selection of attack techniques preferred in fight and determine the performance level. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Korzeniewski B.,Jagiellonian University | Zoladz J.A.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

A computer model of a skeletal muscle bioenergetic system is used to study the background of the slow component of oxygen consumption VO2 on-kinetics in skeletal muscle. Two possible mechanisms are analyzed: inhibition of ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis by progressive cytosol acidification (together with a slow decrease in ATP supply by creatine kinase) and gradual increase of ATP usage during exercise of constant power output. It is demonstrated that the former novel mechanism is potent to generate the slow component. The latter mechanism further increases the size of the slow component; it also moderately decreases metabolite stability and has a small impact on muscle pH. An increase in anaerobic glycolysis intensity increases the slow component, elevates cytosol acidification during exercise, and decreases phosphocreatine and Pi stability, although slightly increases ADP stability. A decrease in the P/O ratio (ATP molecules/O2 molecules) during exercise cannot also be excluded as a relevant mechanism, although this issue requires further study. It is postulated that both the progressive inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis by accumulating protons (together with a slow decrease of the net creatine kinase reaction rate) and gradual increase of ATP usage during exercise, and perhaps a decrease in P/O, contribute to the generation of the slow component of the VO2 on-kinetics in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Kusy K.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow | Zielinski J.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

We studied relationships between age and aerobic capacity in three groups of subjects adhering to different exercise modalities. A total of 203 men aged 20-90 years were examined: 52 speed-power track and field athletes (SP), 89 endurance runners (ER) and 62 untrained individuals (UT). Maximal exercise characteristics were obtained during a graded treadmill test until exhaustion: oxygen uptake ( V ̇ O 2 m a x ), heart rate (HRmax), oxygen pulse (O2 Pulsemax) and maximal distance (Distmax). Information about training history and weekly training amount was collected. A linear model of regression was adopted. V ̇ O 2 m a x in SP was lower than in ER, but significantly higher than in UT. The cross-sectional rates of decline in body mass-adjusted V ̇ O 2 m a x and Distmax were significantly smaller in SP than in ER and UT. About 80 years of age, the levels of V ̇ O 2 m a x and Distmax reached similar values in SP and ER. The decline in HRmax, but not in O2 Pulsemax was suggested as a cardiac adaptation accounting for between-group differences in V ̇ O 2 m a x loss. Weekly training volume was a significant positive predictor of age-related changes in aerobic capacity. In conclusion, not only endurance, but also speed-power exercise appears adequate to ensure an elevated aerobic capacity at old age. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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