Kinzel W.,University rzburg
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2013
Networks of nonlinear units coupled by time-delayed signals can show chaos. In the limit of long delay times, chaos appears in two ways: strong and weak, depending on how the maximal Lyapunov exponent scales with the delay time. Only for weak chaos, a network can synchronize completely, without time shift. The conditions for strong and weak chaos and synchronization in networks with multiple delay times are investigated. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Winstel V.,University of Tubingen |
Winstel V.,German Center for Infection Research |
Liang C.,University rzburg |
Sanchez-Carballo P.,Research Center Borstel |
And 12 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding virulence and resistance genes are widespread in bacterial pathogens, but it has remained unclear how they occasionally jump to new host species. Staphylococcus aureus clones exchange MGEs such as S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) with high frequency via helper phages. Here we report that the S. aureus ST395 lineage is refractory to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) with typical S. aureus but exchanges SaPIs with other species and genera including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. ST395 produces an unusual wall teichoic acid (WTA) resembling that of its HGT partner species. Notably, distantly related bacterial species and genera undergo efficient HGT with typical S. aureus upon ectopic expression of S. aureus WTA. Combined with genomic analyses, these results indicate that a 'glycocode' of WTA structures and WTA-binding helper phages permits HGT even across long phylogenetic distances thereby shaping the evolution of Gram-positive pathogens. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.