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This paper presents the results of climatological elaboration of pluvial and thermal conditions in Beskid Śla̧ski Mts. The data comes from measurements from 1957-2008 which collected at 25 meteorological stations and posts situated in Beskid Śla̧ski region. The aim of this study was evaluation of the climate changeability on spruce stand stability in Beskid Śla̧ski lower subalpine forest zone. The work includes studies on the adaptation possibility of spruce forest to present and future climate in Western Beskids. The study used historical data and a series of meteorological data generated using a model WGENK (Kuchar 2005) a range of 100 years. Calculation procedure based on two scenarios, the CO2 concentration of 130% and 200% by 2050. Based on the results the productive potential of spruce stands in the forest subalpine zone was performed.


Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development of the organism. During intense growth and maturation changes taking place in the body, it cost higher demand for energy and nutrients including minerals. The aim of this study was to assess the intake of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese with daily diets by children aged 10-12 years. Assessment of intake of mineral compounds from daily diets was conduced with using 24 hours recall. Data were collected in spring and autumn of 2006 in randomly selected primary schools in Krakow and Skawina. Average intake of minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) with daily diets by respondents and the meeting of requirements was estimated with using the computer softwere Diet 2. In almost all cases intake of minerals with daily diets did not meet requirements. Daily dies of children did not met requirements for major minerals i.e. calcium and magnese, and for trace minerals copper, zinc, iron. Insufficient intake of calcium, while fully covering the demand for phosphorus, resulted in improper ratio these minerals in the diet (0.62 at the recommended, of 1). Intake of manganese and potassium fully covered demand, while the sodium and salt were taken in excess. To low intake of minerals compounds by children may increase the risk of development of diet non-communicable diseases.


Wikiera A.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Postepy biochemii | Year: 2013

Pectin represents a very complex, heterogeneous family of plant cell wall polysaccharides that play a significant role in plant growth, morphology, development, and plant defense and also serves as a gelling and stabilizing polymer in diverse food and specialty products and has positive effects on human health. In this review functional and structural characteristic of pectin molecule elements and their interconnections are described. Attention is also given to process of commercial production of pectin with special emphasis on composition and physical properties of commercial pectin as a result of the acid extraction.


Szychowski K.A.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie | Wojtowicz A.K.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2013

Development of the chemical industry leads to the development of new chemical compounds, which naturally do not exist in the environment. These chemicals are used to reduce flam-mability, increase plasticity, or improve solubility of other substances. Many of these com-pounds, which are components of plastic, the new generation of cosmetics, medical devices, food packaging and other everyday products, are easily released into the environment. Many studies have shown that a major lipophilicity characterizes substances such as phthalates, BPA, TBBPA and PCBs. This feature allows them to easily penetrate into living cells, accumu-late in the tissues and the organs, and affect human and animal health. Due to the chemical structures, these compounds are able to mimic some endogenous hormones such as estradiol and to disrupt the hormone homeostasis. They can also easily pass the placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier. As numerous studies have shown, these chemicals disturb the proper functions of the nervous system from the earliest moments of life. It has been proven that these compounds affect neurogenesis as well as the synaptic transmission process. As a consequence, they interfere with the formation of the sex of the brain, as well as with the learning processes, memory and behavior. Additionally, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect may cause neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge about the effects of phthalates, BPA, TBBPA, and PCBs on the nervous system.


Buksa K.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2014

The objective of the research study was to compose the model rye flour consisting of isolated rye starch, a commercially available wheat arabinoxylan preparation, and protein (a mixture of ovalbumin and commercially available wheat vital gluten) and to establish the conditions of fermentation and baking of model rye breads using a direct method. Based on the research results, the blend selected to make dough for model rye breads consisted of: 83% of rye starch, 6% of wheat arabinoxylan preparation (Naxus), and 6% of a mixture of albumin and gluten (at a 7:3 ratio). It was determined that this blend could be regarded as a model rye flour; the following technological additives were added to it: 1.5% of salt, 1% of sucrose, 2.5% of yeast, and 1 M lactic acid solution in the amount necessary to reach pH = 4.3. The dough was made in a farinograph mixer; the consistency of the ready dough was 150 BU. The dough fermented in the pans placed in a fermentation chamber at 35 °C for 60 min.; next, breads were baked in an oven at 230 °C for 20 min. Owing to the arabinoxylans contained in the Naxus preparation (their molecular mass was significantly lower than that of a typical rye arabinoxylans) and to the protein added at the above mentioned ratio, it was possible to bake a product that was, to a high degree, similar to rye bread. © 2014, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved.


The aim of this paper was to determine the dry mass content in the fresh mass of leaves, trunks or branches and in the total woody aboveground biomass of shrubs forming the undergrowth of the stands in the Niepołomice Forest (southern Poland). The variability of the dry mass content in the analysed components was determined. For the prevailing species also its correlation with the individual's height and time at which samples were taken was investigated. The material comprised 744 samples, including 532 wood and 212 leaf samples, taken from the most common five shrub species: Cory/us avellana, Frangula alnus, Padus avium, Padus serotina and Sorbus aucuparia. The shrubs were from 1 to 33 years old, and their height ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 m. It was shown that the dry mass content in leaves is significantly dependent on the shrub species, and in the case of F. alnus, P. avium and S. aucuparia on the height as well. The highest dry mass content was found in the leaves of C. avellana (39.3%), whereas the lowest - in F. alnus (25.5%). In case of F. alnus, the dry mass content depends on the time of sampling. The leaves collected in June had a significantly lower dry mass content than the ones sampled in subsequent months of the growing season. The dry mass content in the wood significantly depends on the shrub species and the analysed component, however the species-component interaction does not occur (tab. 4). The dry mass content in the trunk wood ranges from 50.3 (P. serotina and S. aucuparia) to 53.0% (P. avium) and exceeds that of the branch by from 1.0 (S. aucuparia) to 4.0% (P. avium). In the wood samples of F. alnus and S. aucuparia, taken between June and September, the dry mass content averaged at 47.3 and 48.7%, respectively, and was lower than in the samples taken between October and April, for which the respective means were 49.5 and 49.0%. In the case of F. alnus, the observed difference in the mean dry mass content is statistically significant at 0.05 level. The determined values of dry mass content in the fresh mass of individual components of the analysed shrubs can be used to find their dry mass as a basis for the calculation of the amount of accumulated carbon.


Wikiera A.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie | Irla M.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie | Mika M.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2014

Pectin, a heteropolysaccharide commercially derived from the cell wall of higher plants, is mainly used in food as a gelling agent in jams and jellies as well as a stabilizer in fruit juice and milk drinks. It has also received great interest as a source of dietary fiber. Furthermore, pectin is proved to have diverse biological activities including lipid and cholesterol level lowering effects, serum glucose and insulin content lowering effects, gastric emptying delay, and anti- cancer activities. Pectin and pectic oligosaccharides have been shown to induce apoptosis in human colonic adenocarcinoma cells and to have anti-metastatic properties. Dietary pectin can bind metal ions, particularly lead ions, thus reducing their retention in the body and diminishing their toxic effects. On the other hand, pectin enhances intestinal solubility and absorption of ferric iron. Pectin with a low degree of esterification or having a large volume of linear oligogalacturonide segments shows significant mucoadhesion capacity in the gastrointestinal tract. In this way pectin forms a physical barrier protecting epithelium against opportunistic microbial invasion during stress. Copyright © Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Dos̈wiadczalnej 2015.


The paper presents results of examination on snapshot observation accuracy in measuring work times at harvesting and skidding of timber. High consistency between time measurements obtained by means of photography of work day method and snapshot observations was proved. Among advantages of the snapshot method one can name possibility to assess the time of work and breaks, evaluate proportion of supplementary work times and low labour intensity of the research. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.


The concept of potential interception is used to determine maximum amount of water that can be retained by the surface of all parts of a sprayed tree. The word 'potential' is supposed to emphasize the fact that 'maximum interception' is not a constant value. For each individual rainfall it may assume a different value. Potential interception values depend each time on rainfall intensity and drop size. Nevertheless, formulas describing the influence of species specifics of trees and other characteristics of surface are still being searched for. It is also being indicated that some characteristics may demonstrate a certain dynamics related to time of exposure to factors capable of modulating these characteristics. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.


The aim of the study was to develop a site index model for Scots pine stands in southern Poland describing changes in height growth of stand's upper storey over time. The research materiał contained the height growth data obtained from an analysis of 189 tree stems. The collected materiał was used to develop the parameters of six dynamie growth equations which allowed to determine site productivity and predict changes in height growth of stands with age. Statistical criteria for assessing the aceuracy of mapping empirical data and biological reasonableness were the basis of selection of the ea̧uation that best fits changes in height growth of the examined pine stands with age. The dcvcloped model can be used to predict the growth rate and determine the site indcx for Scots pine stands in southern Poland.

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