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This paper presents the results of climatological elaboration of pluvial and thermal conditions in Beskid Śla̧ski Mts. The data comes from measurements from 1957-2008 which collected at 25 meteorological stations and posts situated in Beskid Śla̧ski region. The aim of this study was evaluation of the climate changeability on spruce stand stability in Beskid Śla̧ski lower subalpine forest zone. The work includes studies on the adaptation possibility of spruce forest to present and future climate in Western Beskids. The study used historical data and a series of meteorological data generated using a model WGENK (Kuchar 2005) a range of 100 years. Calculation procedure based on two scenarios, the CO2 concentration of 130% and 200% by 2050. Based on the results the productive potential of spruce stands in the forest subalpine zone was performed. Source


Buksa K.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2014

The objective of the research study was to compose the model rye flour consisting of isolated rye starch, a commercially available wheat arabinoxylan preparation, and protein (a mixture of ovalbumin and commercially available wheat vital gluten) and to establish the conditions of fermentation and baking of model rye breads using a direct method. Based on the research results, the blend selected to make dough for model rye breads consisted of: 83% of rye starch, 6% of wheat arabinoxylan preparation (Naxus), and 6% of a mixture of albumin and gluten (at a 7:3 ratio). It was determined that this blend could be regarded as a model rye flour; the following technological additives were added to it: 1.5% of salt, 1% of sucrose, 2.5% of yeast, and 1 M lactic acid solution in the amount necessary to reach pH = 4.3. The dough was made in a farinograph mixer; the consistency of the ready dough was 150 BU. The dough fermented in the pans placed in a fermentation chamber at 35 °C for 60 min.; next, breads were baked in an oven at 230 °C for 20 min. Owing to the arabinoxylans contained in the Naxus preparation (their molecular mass was significantly lower than that of a typical rye arabinoxylans) and to the protein added at the above mentioned ratio, it was possible to bake a product that was, to a high degree, similar to rye bread. © 2014, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved. Source


The aim of this paper was to determine the dry mass content in the fresh mass of leaves, trunks or branches and in the total woody aboveground biomass of shrubs forming the undergrowth of the stands in the Niepołomice Forest (southern Poland). The variability of the dry mass content in the analysed components was determined. For the prevailing species also its correlation with the individual's height and time at which samples were taken was investigated. The material comprised 744 samples, including 532 wood and 212 leaf samples, taken from the most common five shrub species: Cory/us avellana, Frangula alnus, Padus avium, Padus serotina and Sorbus aucuparia. The shrubs were from 1 to 33 years old, and their height ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 m. It was shown that the dry mass content in leaves is significantly dependent on the shrub species, and in the case of F. alnus, P. avium and S. aucuparia on the height as well. The highest dry mass content was found in the leaves of C. avellana (39.3%), whereas the lowest - in F. alnus (25.5%). In case of F. alnus, the dry mass content depends on the time of sampling. The leaves collected in June had a significantly lower dry mass content than the ones sampled in subsequent months of the growing season. The dry mass content in the wood significantly depends on the shrub species and the analysed component, however the species-component interaction does not occur (tab. 4). The dry mass content in the trunk wood ranges from 50.3 (P. serotina and S. aucuparia) to 53.0% (P. avium) and exceeds that of the branch by from 1.0 (S. aucuparia) to 4.0% (P. avium). In the wood samples of F. alnus and S. aucuparia, taken between June and September, the dry mass content averaged at 47.3 and 48.7%, respectively, and was lower than in the samples taken between October and April, for which the respective means were 49.5 and 49.0%. In the case of F. alnus, the observed difference in the mean dry mass content is statistically significant at 0.05 level. The determined values of dry mass content in the fresh mass of individual components of the analysed shrubs can be used to find their dry mass as a basis for the calculation of the amount of accumulated carbon. Source


The concept of potential interception is used to determine maximum amount of water that can be retained by the surface of all parts of a sprayed tree. The word 'potential' is supposed to emphasize the fact that 'maximum interception' is not a constant value. For each individual rainfall it may assume a different value. Potential interception values depend each time on rainfall intensity and drop size. Nevertheless, formulas describing the influence of species specifics of trees and other characteristics of surface are still being searched for. It is also being indicated that some characteristics may demonstrate a certain dynamics related to time of exposure to factors capable of modulating these characteristics. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source


The paper presents results of examination on snapshot observation accuracy in measuring work times at harvesting and skidding of timber. High consistency between time measurements obtained by means of photography of work day method and snapshot observations was proved. Among advantages of the snapshot method one can name possibility to assess the time of work and breaks, evaluate proportion of supplementary work times and low labour intensity of the research. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source

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