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Necka K.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie | Lis S.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie | Drozdz T.,University Rolniczy Im llataja akowie | Nawara P.,University Rolniczy Im llataja akowie | And 2 more authors.
Przeglad Elektrotechniczny | Year: 2016

Designed and manufactured tube furnace for determination of the melting temperature of ash acording to the ISO-540: 2001 standard was described in our paper. Construction of our prototype equipment allows for digital observation of the process. There are also some pre-defined temperature programs which are very usefull for determination of the optimal investigation parameters of the equipment. © 2016, Wydawnictwo SIGMA - N O T Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

Zapletal P.,Katedra Hodowli Bydlla | Tomczyk K.,Katedra Hodowli Bydlla | Migdal W.,University Rolniczy Im llataja akowie | Pustkowiak H.,Katedra Hodowli Bydlla | Weglarz A.,Katedra Hodowli Bydlla
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in the fat of Atlantic herrings (Clupea harengus) after each subsequent stage of producing cold marinades thereof, and, also, during the period of storage. The study was performed using frozen fillets made of Atlantic herring fish (n = 320) netted in the FAO 27 fishing zone in the North Sea. Deep-frozen (-18 o C), 15 - 20 kg blocks of the fish netted were delivered to a manufacturing plant. According to the Polish Standards, the fish fillets represented an H assortment, i.e. 10 - 16 fillets equalled 1 kg of raw material. Two experiments were carried out; each one was divided into 4 stages. The first two stages were the production stages; they were performed at the processing plant. The other two were incorporated to determine the changes in the fat of fish analyzed during their storage. In stage 1, when the fish fillets were initially mixed with the marinating brine, two methods applied by the manufacturing plant were studied. Method I was a traditional method: components of the marinating brine diffused into the raw material during the marinating bath in a pool. In Method II, a special rotating drum was used: the raw material was in the drum and the marinating brine was supplied thereto by a pipeline. The process of marinating did not cause any significant changes in the percentage content of individual fatty acid groups. The monoenic acids prevailed, next, the saturated acids came followed by the polienic acids (MUFA>SFA>PUFA). Significant (p < 0.05) changes were related only with the decreases in the level of PUFA and in the n-3/n-6 ratio (p < 0.01) in stage II in the two experiments. On this basis, it can be concluded that the use of rotating drum in order to better mix the raw material with the marinating brine did not contribute to the decreased in the PUFA level found in the marinated fillets. The traditionally marinated fillets were characterized by higher contents of EPA and DHA acids compared to the fillets marinated in the rotating drum. During the 30 and 60 day storage periods, the level of long-fatty n-3 PUFA acids in the marinating fillets was still high and did not differ significantly from the levels thereof in raw fillets.

Pawelek J.,University Rolniczy Im llataja akowie | Grenda W.,Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Wodociagow i Kanalizacji SA
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

One of the sources of municipal water for the city of Krakow is the Rudawa river. The quality of its water, however, raised operating problems in the treatment plant, specifically during floods or over periods of incidental contamination. To reduce water quality deterioration which is concomitant with those recurrent events, two storage reservoirs (of an area of 36.7 ha and a total volume of 981,000 m 3) were constructed at the riverine water intake. Both have been in service since 1998. The aim of the study reported on in this paper was to assess the contribution of the storage reservoirs to the changes in some of the parameters describing the quality of the taken-in riverine water. This was achieved by scrutinizing the results of water quality analyses (turbidity, color, ammonia nitrogen, phosphates and chlorophyll a) performed in the time span of 2006 to 2010 at five sampling points along the pathway of the water from the intake, through the settling tanks and the two storage reservoirs (at their inflow and outflow), to the raw water well within the premises of the Rudawa Water Treatment Plant. The results of the study make it clear that the storage reservoirs have upgraded the quality of the water entering the treatment plant: the average values of turbidity and color, as well as those of ammonia nitrogen and phosphate concentrations, have been reduced. The favorable influence of the storage reservoirs is particularly distinct in the case of turbidity removal. Moreover, the water stored in the reservoirs is kept in reserve, to enable safe municipal supply during floods or incidental deterioration.

The aim of the study was to assess the removal efficiencies obtained with self-cleaning contact filters of DynaSand type for some physicochemical and bacteriological water pollutants. The filters are operated in the Water Treatment Plant Swiniarsko, which supplies municipal water to the city of nowy Sacz. The water being subjected to filtration is a mixture of surface and infiltrative waters. The values of the water quality parameters obtained with the DynaSand filters were compared to those achieved with the rapid pressure filters that were in use before the modernization of the water treatment plant. Analysis of the results makes it clear that since the substitution of the self-cleaning DynaSand filters for the rapid pressure filters, both physicochemical and biological pollutants have been removed with the efficiency required. This means that the users have been supplied with water of desired quality. Although the period under study was characterized by the occurrence of extreme meteorological conditions (floods), the modernized filtration system not only guaranteed a reduction in water turbidity to the average value of 0.3 NTU, a decrease in color intensity to at least 5 gPt/m3, and the removal of iron compounds to the average value of 0.01 gFe/m3, but also provided simultaneous retention of more than 97% of coliform bacteria, and more than 99% of fecal streptococci Enterococcus faecalis or anaerobic spore-forming bacteria of the species Clostridium perfringens.

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