University Rolniczy akowie

Kraków, Poland

University Rolniczy akowie

Kraków, Poland
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The study describes allometric relationships between stand density and tree dimensions in birch stands on post-agricultural lands. The research material consisted of measurements carried out on 120 sample plots located in birch stands on post-agricultural lands of Central Poland. The investigated relationship was analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS), dynamical formulation of allometric function (DFA), stochastic frontier production function (SFF) as well as quantile regression (QR) methods. Similar effects of modeling maximum density were obtained as a result of applying FFP and QR methods with 0.9 quantile. SFF was found to be the most adequate method for modeling maximum density. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Kucharski M.,University Rolniczy akowie | Kaczor U.,University Rolniczy akowie
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2014

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an enzyme from the class of oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the formation of a fatty acid double bond between C9 and C10. It plays a key role in composition of the fatty acid profile in adipose tissue and animal products such as meat and milk. Additionally, it is an important regulator of metabolic processes in the body, and it determines the maintenance of energy homeostasis. This enzyme is encoded by an SCD gene, which, depending on the species, may exist as different isoforms. mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase is dependent on many factors, including diet, hormones, and the activity of other genes. In previous studies, several mutations were characterized within the sequence of Δ9-desaturase, which may affect the activity of the protein in the tissues, as well as the value of breeding animals. Effects of particular mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme appears to be particularly important for diseases associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases or cancer in humans. Also, it seems that using sheep as a potential animal model could be helpful in uncovering and understanding the mechanisms regulated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Copyright © Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Dos̈wiadczalnej 2015.

Oat starch differs in its properties from other commercially produced starch types. It is characterized by small sizes of granules and a high content of lipid substances impacting its properties to a substantial extent. The objective of the research project undertaken was to determine some selected physical-chemical properties of starches extracted from the Polish varieties of naked oats. The determined parameters were: size of granules (determined using 'VEM', i.e. a video enhanced microscopy and an image analysis), contents of amylase and lipids, water binding capacity (WBC) and solubility, and pasting profile of 5% water based suspensions. The sizes of starch granules ranged from 1.3 to 13.4 μm, and the average diameter was 6.4 μm. The average content of lipids in the starches investigated was 1.23 %, and of amylase: 15.66 %. The starches analyzed were characterized by a low water absorption and solubility, as well as by an atypical profile of pasting.

Dulinski R.,University Rolniczy akowie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

Vitamins are widely applied to produce food (including dietary supplements), pharmaceuticals, feed-stuffs, and, also, as components of cosmetics. On the industrial scale, the majority of vitamins are produced using methods of chemical synthesis or through the extraction of natural substances, but, in many cases, those processes consume high amounts of energy and generate high waste disposal and waste utilization costs. Those arguments were the spur for searching for options to replace syntheses with biotechno-logical processes beginning from the use of micro-organisms in the selected bio-transformations (vitamin C) to the complete microbiological synthesis with engineered strains, for example in the case of vitamin B12. An alternative is the production of raw materials of plants with an increased content of vitamins by the metabolic design of pathways of their biosynthesis, or using them as bio-reactors, the so called 'phy-topharming' (vitamins A and E). This paper presents some selected aspects relating to the biotechnologi-cal production of vitamins and to the selection of transgenic organisms for their production.

Przetaczek-Rozdotnowska I.,University Rolniczy akowie | Fortuna T.,University Rolniczy akowie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

The objective of the research study was to assess the effect of microwave irradiation on the selected properties of potato maltodextrins showing different depolymerization degrees. The research material consisted of commercial maltodextrins of three saccharification degrees and one hydrolysate of a medium hydrolysis degree produced in a laboratory. All the maltodextrins were irradiated using a 440 W or 800 W microwave field. While carrying out the research, the effect was analyzed of microwave irradiation on the value of glucose equivalent 'DE', as well as on the mean molecular mass of branched and non-branched fractions with long side chains and of the branched short chains. This effect was studied using a Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Also, the change in the carbohydrate composition of starch hydrolysates was studied using a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the impact of microwave field interaction on the number of free radicals generated in starch hydrolysates was studied using an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Based on the analyses accomplished, it was found that the microwave irradiation had a significant im pact on the change in the properties of maltodextrins. All the maltodextrins investigated, modified in the microwave field, had a lower content of branched fractions with short side chains. On the other hand, the degree of retro-gradation depended both on the saccharification degree of starch and the power of microwaves used to modify hydrolysates. The accomplished research of the starch hydrolysates using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance proved that free radicals were present in all the maltodextrines investigated.

The results of the assessment of the technical condition of the concrete water building - weir with movable water-gates at Bieñczyce in the km 6+560 of the Dubnia River - the worked out in frames one-stage diagnostics were introduced in the work. The assessment of the technical state of the weir was executed according to the methodology proposed by Zawadzki (2005). The conducted technical state assessment shows on the state above satisfactory - the assessment carries out 3.3 according to expert. Average from fi nal assessments, calculated for results of assessment of in fi rst and second phase carried out consequently 2.3 and 3.1. The change of the diagnosis assessments was determined using sum of the squared residuals calculated on the basis of the results of the assessments of fi rst and second phase.

Wilczynski S.,University Rolniczy akowie | Szymanski N.,University Rolniczy akowie
Sylwan | Year: 2014

The frequency of site and zonal pointer years in Norway spruce in two altitudinal zones (500-900 m and 900-1370 m a.s.l.) in the Western Beskidy Mountains was analysed. In total, 32 tree stands were studied-16 in each zone. In both zones number of negative site pointer years increased along with increase of number of positive site pointer years. Above 900 m a. s. 1. number of site pointer years increased along with the altitude, while below 900 m a.s.l. their number decreased along with the altitude. We found no common pointer years for all 32 populations. In lower zone, short winter, early and very warm spring or high precipitation in June and July in a given year caused negative pointer years. In the upper one positive pointer years occurred after the warm autumn and in years with the warm growing season.

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and humidity on colonization of cambio-xylophagous insects on Norway spruce branches in relation to the place and method of slash utilization. Analyzed branches were infested by eight species of cambiophagous and two species of cambioxylophagous, whereas the material utilization method does not substantially influence the entomofauna species composition. The most numerous were: Pityogenes chalcographus, Ips amitinus, Dryocoetes autographus and Pityophthorus pityographus. The branches treatment was a factor contributing significantly to the infestation intensity by P. chalcographus and I. amitinus, reaching a higher density of galleries on the branches spreading disorderly on the forest floor than collected in the piles. Moreover, it was found that the location of branches inside the pile determines their attractiveness to hygrophilous species with a minor economic importance. Significant differences in temperature and relative humidity inside the piles and the surrounding branches scattered disorderly on the surface during the growing season indicate that this may be an important factor influencing logging residues left in the forest infestation intensity by bark beetles. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Quantity approach of forest trees interception necessary for build mathematical formulas need to be measuted in continuously controlled conditions. We developed original methodology and build all equipment for measure interception in laboratory, which allows to achieve comparable results. It was also experimentally found to what extent the prepared apparatus allows for the assumed variability of selected parameters of simulated rainfall.

Study was performed in multi-species stand located in the Świȩtokrzyski National Park (central Poland). Silver fir, Norway spruce and Scots pine trees that grew in a uniform habitat conditions were selected. The trees showed the differences and similarities of changes of the size of radial increment, which result from species-specific sensitivity to selected meteorological elements.

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