Krakow;, Poland
Krakow;, Poland

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The paper presents a time consumption assessment model (ESI) of skidding operations using winches aggregated with chainsaws in thinned stands taking into consideration environmental factors, work-day structure elements and harvested timber volume. Differences in time consumption levels were found between early and late thinning operations. The strongest correlation between the EST and the analysed variables was observed for the share of the waiting time for a chainsaw operator to release logs and the category of thinning.

Mountain regions are the main natural ranges of spruce forests in Poland. Their occurrence and growth in these areas is associated with the height above sea level and exposure. The attempt of the study was to determine the impact of these two characteristics on the quality of spruce timber. The research was carried out on 20 sample plots located in the Sudety (8 plots) and the Carpathians (12 plots). The trees growing on the selected plots were examined for their diameter at breast height and height, the quality of standing timber and the kinds and varieties of wood defects on tree stems. As a result of the conducted analyses it could generally be stated that forest stands from the lower montane zone produced higher quality timber in terms of both volume and quality and that the best quality stands were on the western and the poorest ones - on the southern slopes.

Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerotic disease and may lead to coronary heart disease, obesity, type II diabetes and certain cancers. The choice of food and meals by adults is a large part determined by the dietary habits and knowledge acquired in earlier periods of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate frequency of consumption of food products containing fats among students of the Catering School in Kraków. The study was conducted with the participation of 140 students divided into two subgroups, depending on gender and age, in the autumn and winter season. During the studies a food frequency questionnaire containing question about frequency intake of selected groups of food products containing fats was used. This questionnaire was prepared at the Department of Human Nutrition Agricultural University of Kraków. A significant (P <0.05) effect of gender on preferences for the choice of milk, eating greasy food and the type of fat used for frying foods was found. Girls more often chose milk with reduced fat content compared to boys. It was observed that the fatty parts of food more often were eliminated by girls than boys. Girls more often than boys chose to fry foods oil or margarine, while boys more often used lard and bacon. Frequency of consumption offish or fish products, milk consumption preferences and eating fatty foods depended significantly (P <0.05) oon age. Older students less likely to eat the fish or fish products more often left fatty cuts compared to the younger students. Fatty milk was likely consumed by younger students, while fat free milk by older youth. It was found that the students of the Catering School, despite the acquired knowledge of nutrition, make many mistakes.

The research was conducted in 2008-2010 in Krakow. The experiments were located close to three busy streets of the city: Mickiewicz, Igołomska and Lublanska Avenue. 16 objects were set up at each location (2 variants in 8 replications). The experimental objects were pots with kentucky-bluegrass, Alicja c.v. 24 pots contained the plants which before sowing were stimulated with a green light emitted by the laser diode, three times for 30 seconds, whereas the remaining 24 pots were sown with red fescue sowing material without previous irradiation. The experiment aimed at determining the effect of pre-sowing stimulation of kentucky-bluegrass seeds with a laser diode on heavy metal contents. After three years of kentucky-bluegrass exposure along the streets in Krakow a smaller soil pollution with heavy metals was assessed in the pots sown with the grass sowing material which was pre-sowing stimulated with the laser diode. Computed bioaccumulation coefficients (BC) revealed that the kentucky- bluegrass which was pre-sowing stimulated with the laser diode accumulated higher quantities of all analyzed heavy metals than the plants which were not stimulated before sowing. Bioaccumulation coefficients (BC) calculated for plants not stimulated pre-sowing included in the range: 0.254-0.561 Zn, 0.434-0.512 Cu, 0.029- 0.043 Pb, 0.178-0.211 Ni and 0.047-0.076 Cr, while for plants stimulated pre- sowing laser diode ranged: 0.341-0.849 Zn, 0.623-0.680 Cu, 0.043-0.071 Pb, 0.269-0.341 Ni, 0.063-0.128 Cr.

The paper presents recent results of the research on the main causal agent of ash dieback, previously known to occur only in the anamorphic stage as Chalara fraxinea. The presented research enabled to detect the presence of two fungal species on ashes: Hymenosryphus pseudoalhidus and H. albidus s. str. Their morphological characteristics, life cycle and causal relationship between the fungi and ash dieback were also discussed.

Intensive development of industry in the second half of the 20th century resulted in significant changes in the level of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere in Poland. The paper presents an analysis of increment of three economically significant coniferous species (pine, fir and larch) in the Kielce Upland. The calculated incremental indices show that the reaction of trees in the years of the growing impact of air pollution was a decrease in tree-ring widths and an increase in the variation of growth. Fir was found to be the most sensitive among the tested species, while larch - the least sensitive. The performed spatial analysis indicates a significant impact of air pollution from the neighbouring, highly industrialized Śla̧sk and Małopolska regions on the radial increment of trees in the Kielce Upland.

Michalec B.,University Rolniczy
Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

The appraisal of the possibility of decrease of the flood threat of the locality Ła¸cko by construction of dry reservoirs in the upper part of the Czarna Woda stream. The capacity of reservoirs and maximum outflow discharge from the reservoirs was designated with consideration that discharge should be smaller than the channel conveyance of the given section of the Czarna Water stream. For that purpose the rating curves were defined in cross-sections of the stream by using the Chézy formula. It was stated that decreasing of the flood risk in Ła¸cko can be obtained by applying two solutions: increasing the channel conveyance or decreasing the maximal flood discharge by constraction of dry water reservoirs. The most proper seem to be the connection of these methods of the flood protection, especially in case of lack of possibilities for reconstruction the channel bed on intensely urbanized areas, as the Ła¸cko locality is example. © 2014, WULS - SGGW Press. All rights reserved.

An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed.

The nematode Setaria equina usually reside in body cavities and do not cause clinical symptoms. From time to time, however, these parasites can be located in the scrotum and spermatic cord inflicting pain and edema in these body parts. The aim of the study was to describe the case of the nematode Setaria equina found in the vaginal sac of the stallion's scrotum. During the study, thorough examination of 50 isolated testicles of 25 stallions was conducted. The horses were obtained post-slaughter from the local slaughterhouse near Krakow. In one of examined stallions, two females of Setaria equina of 80 and 110 mm in length were found attached to the surface of the testicle. A part of one of the nematode was found in the space between the surface of the testicle and the epididymis. During the examination of the testicle sections, chronic inflammation (orchitis chronica) and focal necrosis perivascularis were found.

The research focuses on the potential interception that describes the amount of maximum storage capacity of the plant surface. The study regarded trees interception under simulated rain in the range of 2 to 11 mm/h. Non-linear model was proposed for estimation of the analysed parameter. Interdependence of potential interception and the intensity of rain and the size of droplets was described using exponential equation.

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