Danaher J.,University Road
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2016
Suppose we are about to enter an era of increasing technological unemployment. What implications does this have for society? Two distinct ethical/social issues would seem to arise. The first is one of distributive justice: how will the (presumed) efficiency gains from automated labour be distributed through society? The second is one of personal fulfillment and meaning: if people no longer have to work, what will they do with their lives? In this article, I set aside the first issue and focus on the second. In doing so, I make three arguments. First, I argue that there are good reasons to embrace non-work and that these reasons become more compelling in an era of technological unemployment. Second, I argue that the technological advances that make widespread technological unemployment possible could still threaten or undermine human flourishing and meaning, especially if (as is to be expected) they do not remain confined to the economic sphere. And third, I argue that this threat could be contained if we adopt an integrative approach to our relationship with technology. In advancing these arguments, I draw on three distinct literatures: (1) the literature on technological unemployment and workplace automation; (2) the antiwork critique—which I argue gives reasons to embrace technological unemployment; and (3) the philosophical debate about the conditions for meaning in life—which I argue gives reasons for concern. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Griffin M.D.,National University of Ireland |
Elliman S.J.,University Road |
Cahill E.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
English K.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013
Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) continue to be a strong area of focus for academic- and industry-based researchers who share the goal of expanding their therapeutic use for diverse inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Recently, there has been an accelerated rate of scientific publication, clinical trial activity, and commercialisation in the field. This has included the reporting of exciting new developments in four areas that will be of key importance to future successful use of MSC-based therapies in large numbers of patients: (a) fundamental biology of the primary cells in bone marrow and other tissues that give rise to MSCs in culture. (b) Mechanisms by which MSCs modulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. (c) Insights into MSC kinetics, safety, and efficacy in relevant animal disease models. (d) Isolation, definition, and clinical trial-based testing of human MSCs by biomedical companies and academic medical centers. Despite this progress, it remains unclear whether MSCs will enter mainstream therapeutic practice as a frequently used alternative to pharmacotherapy or surgical/radiological procedures in the foreseeable future. In this review, we summarize some of the most significant new developments for each of the four areas that contribute to the process of translating MSC research to the clinical arena. In the context of this recent progress, we discuss key challenges and specific knowledge gaps which, if not addressed in a coordinated fashion, may hinder the creation of robust "translational pipelines" for consolidating the status of MSC-based therapies. © AlphaMed Press.
Crowley P.B.,University Road |
Chow E.,University College Dublin |
Papkovskaia T.,University College Dublin
ChemBioChem | Year: 2011
Protein science is shifting towards experiments performed under native or native-like conditions. In-cell NMR spectroscopy for instance has the potential to reveal protein structure and dynamics inside cells. However, not all proteins can be studied by this technique. 15N-labelled cytochrome c (cyt c) over-expressed in Escherichia coli was undetectable by in-cell NMR spectroscopy. When whole-cell lysates were subjected to size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) cyt c was found to elute with an apparent molecular weight of >150 kDa. The presence of high molecular weight species is indicative of complex formation between cyt c and E. coli cytosolic proteins. These interactions were disrupted by charge-inverted mutants in cyt c and by elevated concentrations of NaCl. The physiologically relevant salt, KGlu, was less efficient at disrupting complex formation. Notably, a triple mutant of cyt c could be detected in cell lysates by NMR spectroscopy. The protein, GB1, yields high quality in-cell spectra and SEC analysis of lysates containing GB1 revealed a lack of interaction between GB1 and E. coli proteins. Together these data suggest that protein "stickiness" is a limiting factor in the application of in-cell NMR spectroscopy. Electrostatic interactions in the cytosol: Size-exclusion chromatography was used to demonstrate binding between cytochrome c and E. coli cytosolic proteins. High concentrations of NaCl disrupted complex formation, but the physiologically relevant salt KGlu was less effective. Charge-inverted mutants also disrupted the interaction. In contrast to the wild-type protein, a triple mutant could be detected in cell lysates by NMR spectroscopy. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Baliga M.S.,Father Muller Medical College |
Kurian P.J.,University Road
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2012
Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. © 2011 Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University |
Lai C.-M.,University Road |
Hokoi S.,Kyoto University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014
This study combined building construction practice, microencapsulated phase change materials (mPCM), and aluminum honeycomb structures to construct an mPCM honeycomb wallboard prototype. The heat transfer characteristics and thermal storage behaviors of this prototype and other modules (mPCM only, mPCM + EG, and mPCM + iron-wire) were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the aluminum honeycomb used for structural support and enhancing the thermal conductivity in the prototype rapidly transferred the heat flux into the mPCM. Consequently, the latent heat can be used to increase the time lag of the peak load, effectively shifting the peak hours of electricity use in the summer and achieving a lower module surface temperature than other modules. Thus, the mPCM + honeycomb exhibited better control over the surface temperature, which makes it suitable for use in places where the exterior surface temperature must be controlled. A correlation of the effective thermal protection duration of the mPCM + honeycomb modules for Ste5 = 2-5 and Sc1 = 0.24-0.32 was proposed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.