Zurlo G.,University Road |
Truskinovsky L.,ESPCI ParisTech
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2017
Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions. As an illustration, we obtain an explicit 3D printing protocol for arteries, which guarantees stress uniformity under inhomogeneous loading, and for explosive plants, allowing a complete release of residual elastic energy with a single cut. Interestingly, in both cases reaching the physiological target requires the incompatibility to have a topological (global) component. © 2017 American Physical Society.
Hortiguela M.J.,University Road |
Wall J.G.,University Road
Marine Drugs | Year: 2013
Antibody molecules, and antibody fragments in particular, have enormous potential in the development of biosensors for marine monitoring. Conventional immobilisation approaches used in immunoassays typically yield unstable and mostly incorrectly oriented antibodies, however, resulting in reduced detection sensitivities for already low concentration analytes. The 2H12 anti-domoic acid scFv antibody fragment was engineered with cysteine-containing linkers of two different lengths, distal to the antigen binding pocket, for covalent and correctly oriented immobilisation of the scFvs on functionalised solid supports. The Escherichia coli-produced, cysteine-engineered scFvs dimerised in solution and demonstrated similar efficiencies of covalent immobilisation on maleimide-activated plates and minimal non-covalent attachment. The covalently attached scFvs exhibited negligible leaching from the support under acidic conditions that removed almost 50% of the adsorbed wildtype fragment, and IC50s for domoic acid of 270 and 297 ng/mL compared with 1126 and 1482 ng/mL, respectively, for their non-covalently adsorbed counterparts. The expression and immobilisation approach will facilitate the development of stable, reusable biosensors with increased stability and detection sensitivity for marine neurotoxins. © 2013 by the authors.
Danaher J.,University Road
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2017
This article argues that the creation of artificial offspring could make our lives more meaningful (i.e. satisfy more meaning-relevant conditions of value). By ‘artificial offspring’ I mean beings that we construct, with a mix of human and non-human-like qualities. Robotic artificial intelligences are paradigmatic examples of the form. There are two reasons for thinking that the creation of such beings could make our lives more meaningful and valuable. The first is that the existence of a collective afterlife—i.e. a set of human-like lives that continue after we die—is likely to be an important source and sustainer of meaning in our present lives (Scheffler in Death and the afterlife, OUP, Oxford, 2013). The second is that the creation of artificial offspring provides a plausible and potentially better pathway to a collective afterlife than the traditional biological pathway (i.e. there are reasons to favour this pathway and there are no good defeaters to trying it out). Both of these arguments are defended from a variety of objections and misunderstandings. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Attorney Lloyd Herman, founder of Lloyd Herman & Associates, is celebrating his fiftieth anniversary as a legal professional. “It’s been a pleasure to be able to help injured victims take on a system that is stacked against them and bring them favorable outcomes against heavy odds,” said Herman. “Fifty years of being able to do this is very satisfying from a personal and professional standpoint. Being able to add value to human beings through legal, psychological and moral support has been extremely gratifying.” Herman received his Juris Doctor from Gonzaga University School of Law in Spokane, WA, in 1966. He worked in several different areas until he found his niche thirty years ago doing personal injury claims. Since then Herman has settled approximately 1,500 cases, of which he has made case law on a couple. Herman is renowned for settling almost all of his cases out of court. “Just in the sixteen years I have been here, I have gone to trial less than ten times,” added Herman, who devotes 90 percent of his practice to the area of litigation. During the course of his illustrious career, Herman has been instrumental in changing the law in Washington state in favor of consumers in the Supreme Court and Division III in the Court of Appeals, which had the effect of aiding people against bad faith acts of the insurance companies. He also helped expand the law in the area of automobile coverage and in favor of tenants of defective apartment houses and rentals. About Lloyd Herman, Lloyd Herman & Associates Attorney Lloyd Herman is licensed to practice before the Western and Eastern Federal District Court and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, including Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho. He focuses his practice on personal injury law, workers’ compensation law and wills and trusts. For more information, please call (509) 922-6600, or visit http://www.lloydhermanlaw.com. The law office is located at 213 N. University Road, Spokane, WA 99206. About the NALA™ The NALA offers small and medium-sized businesses effective ways to reach customers through new media. As a single-agency source, the NALA helps businesses flourish in their local community. The NALA’s mission is to promote a business’ relevant and newsworthy events and achievements, both online and through traditional media. For media inquiries, please call 805.650.6121, ext. 361.
Crowley P.B.,University Road |
Chow E.,University College Dublin |
Papkovskaia T.,University College Dublin
ChemBioChem | Year: 2011
Protein science is shifting towards experiments performed under native or native-like conditions. In-cell NMR spectroscopy for instance has the potential to reveal protein structure and dynamics inside cells. However, not all proteins can be studied by this technique. 15N-labelled cytochrome c (cyt c) over-expressed in Escherichia coli was undetectable by in-cell NMR spectroscopy. When whole-cell lysates were subjected to size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) cyt c was found to elute with an apparent molecular weight of >150 kDa. The presence of high molecular weight species is indicative of complex formation between cyt c and E. coli cytosolic proteins. These interactions were disrupted by charge-inverted mutants in cyt c and by elevated concentrations of NaCl. The physiologically relevant salt, KGlu, was less efficient at disrupting complex formation. Notably, a triple mutant of cyt c could be detected in cell lysates by NMR spectroscopy. The protein, GB1, yields high quality in-cell spectra and SEC analysis of lysates containing GB1 revealed a lack of interaction between GB1 and E. coli proteins. Together these data suggest that protein "stickiness" is a limiting factor in the application of in-cell NMR spectroscopy. Electrostatic interactions in the cytosol: Size-exclusion chromatography was used to demonstrate binding between cytochrome c and E. coli cytosolic proteins. High concentrations of NaCl disrupted complex formation, but the physiologically relevant salt KGlu was less effective. Charge-inverted mutants also disrupted the interaction. In contrast to the wild-type protein, a triple mutant could be detected in cell lysates by NMR spectroscopy. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University |
Lai C.-M.,University Road |
Hokoi S.,Kyoto University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014
This study combined building construction practice, microencapsulated phase change materials (mPCM), and aluminum honeycomb structures to construct an mPCM honeycomb wallboard prototype. The heat transfer characteristics and thermal storage behaviors of this prototype and other modules (mPCM only, mPCM + EG, and mPCM + iron-wire) were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the aluminum honeycomb used for structural support and enhancing the thermal conductivity in the prototype rapidly transferred the heat flux into the mPCM. Consequently, the latent heat can be used to increase the time lag of the peak load, effectively shifting the peak hours of electricity use in the summer and achieving a lower module surface temperature than other modules. Thus, the mPCM + honeycomb exhibited better control over the surface temperature, which makes it suitable for use in places where the exterior surface temperature must be controlled. A correlation of the effective thermal protection duration of the mPCM + honeycomb modules for Ste5 = 2-5 and Sc1 = 0.24-0.32 was proposed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.
Griffin M.D.,National University of Ireland |
Elliman S.J.,University Road |
Cahill E.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
English K.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013
Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) continue to be a strong area of focus for academic- and industry-based researchers who share the goal of expanding their therapeutic use for diverse inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Recently, there has been an accelerated rate of scientific publication, clinical trial activity, and commercialisation in the field. This has included the reporting of exciting new developments in four areas that will be of key importance to future successful use of MSC-based therapies in large numbers of patients: (a) fundamental biology of the primary cells in bone marrow and other tissues that give rise to MSCs in culture. (b) Mechanisms by which MSCs modulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. (c) Insights into MSC kinetics, safety, and efficacy in relevant animal disease models. (d) Isolation, definition, and clinical trial-based testing of human MSCs by biomedical companies and academic medical centers. Despite this progress, it remains unclear whether MSCs will enter mainstream therapeutic practice as a frequently used alternative to pharmacotherapy or surgical/radiological procedures in the foreseeable future. In this review, we summarize some of the most significant new developments for each of the four areas that contribute to the process of translating MSC research to the clinical arena. In the context of this recent progress, we discuss key challenges and specific knowledge gaps which, if not addressed in a coordinated fashion, may hinder the creation of robust "translational pipelines" for consolidating the status of MSC-based therapies. © AlphaMed Press.
Westbrook C.K.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Pitz W.J.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Mehl M.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Curran H.J.,University Road
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2011
A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to several test problems are presented, describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane and octane numbers, and others describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (cetane number of 100). © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.
Watson L.,University Road |
Elliman S.J.,University Road |
Coleman C.M.,National University of Ireland
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2014
Compromised bone-regenerating capability following a long bone fracture is often the result of reduced host bone marrow (BM) progenitor cell numbers and efficacy. Without surgical intervention, these malunions result in mobility restrictions, deformities, and disability. The clinical application of BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a feasible, minimally invasive therapeutic option to treat non-union fractures. This review focuses on novel, newly identified cell surface markers in both the mouse and human enabling the isolation and purification of osteogenic progenitor cells as well as their direct and indirect contributions to fracture repair upon administration. Furthermore, clinical success to date is summarized with commentary on autologous versus allogeneic cell sources and the methodology of cell administration. Given our clinical success to date in combination with recent advances in the identification, isolation, and mechanism of action of MSCs, there is a significant opportunity to develop improved technologies for defining therapeutic MSCs and potential to critically inform future clinical strategies for MSC-based bone regeneration. © 2014 Watson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Quondamatteo F.,University Road
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although major complications of this condition involve kidney, retina and peripheral nerves, the skin of diabetic patients is also frequently injured. Hence, interest is mounting in the definition of the structural and molecular profile of non-complicated diabetic skin, i.e., before injuries occur. Most of the available knowledge in this area has been obtained relatively recently and, in part, derives from various diabetic animal models. These include both insulin-dependent and insulin-resistant models. Structural work in human diabetic skin has also been carried out by means of tissue samples or of non-invasive methods. Indications have indeed been found for molecular/structural changes in diabetic skin. However, the overall picture that emerges is heterogeneous, incomplete and often contradictory and many questions remain unanswered. This review aims to detail, as much as possible, the various pieces of current knowledge in a systematic and synoptic manner. This should aid the identification of areas in which key questions are still open and more research is needed. A comprehensive understanding of this field could help in determining molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of skin injuries in DM and markers for the monitoring of cutaneous and systemic aspects of the disease. Additionally, with the increasing development of non-invasive optics-based deep-tissue-imaging diagnostic technologies, precise knowledge of cutaneous texture and molecular structure becomes an important pre-requisite for the use of such methods in diabetic patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.