Falconi F.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences |
Ramos-Martin J.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences |
Ramos-Martin J.,University Regional Amazonica |
Cango P.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017
The existence of an unequal exchange between rich and poor countries has been well studied in the literature, explained by differences in labour costs that were reflected in the prices of traded goods. Research has also demonstrated that the failure to include environmental impacts in prices of traded goods concealed an ecologically unequal exchange. This paper contributes to the discussion with the newly coined concept of caloric unequal exchange that defines the deterioration of terms of trade in food in units of calories. Exports and imports to and from Latin America and the Caribbean are analysed for the period 1961 through 2011 in volume, value, and calories, for different groups of products. The study concludes that although calories exported by the region to the rest of the world are more expensive than those imported, the ratio is deteriorating over time. This trend is found to be dependent of the trading partner involved. The region is helping the rest of the world in supplying their diets at a lower cost. A side result is that globalisation is homogenising diets over time, concentrating most food consumption in a reduced number of products, and therefore increasing interdependency among countries and affecting food security. © 2017
VAN DER HOEK Y.,University Regional Amazonica
Environmental Conservation | Year: 2017
Ecuador, a country with nearly unparalleled levels of biodiversity and endemism, has one of the highest deforestation rates of South America. I examined whether governmentally protected areas in Ecuador have been effective at reducing deforestation. After estimating deforestation rates from existing land cover change data for 2000 to 2008, I used a matching approach to compare the rates of forest loss inside and outside protected areas, which corrected for geographic biases in the locations of protected areas. I tested for the effects of protected area age, size and level of protection on the rate of deforestation using generalized linear models. Governmentally protected areas still experienced deforestation – with no apparent effect of age, size and level of protection – of nearly 10,000 ha per year, but deforestation rates were lower inside compared to outside protected areas. Governmental protection led to the avoidance of additional deforestation of 2600–7800 ha of natural forest per year. Actions to mitigate deforestation in Ecuador are of global importance and as such it is promising that protected areas can help diminish deforestation, although the effectiveness of Ecuador's protected areas can still be improved upon. Copyright © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2017
Villacreses G.,Instituto Nacional Of Eficiencia Energetica Y Energias Renovables Iner |
Gaona G.,Instituto Nacional Of Eficiencia Energetica Y Energias Renovables Iner |
Gaona G.,University regional amazonica |
Martinez-Gomez J.,Instituto Nacional Of Eficiencia Energetica Y Energias Renovables Iner |
And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017
The aim of this research was to implement a geographical information system with multi-criteria decision making methods, to select the most feasible location for installing wind power plants in continental Ecuador. In addition, a standardization process was performed, which consists of establishing an overall performance index to evaluate the results. Finally, the Pearson correlation coefficient is used to analyze mutual correspondence between multi-criteria decision making methods. In this research, different selection criteria which include meteorological parameters (wind speed, air density), relief (slope), location (distances to substations, road network, urban areas, transmission lines, charging ports) and environmental parameters (vegetation coverage), have been considered. The results of this research revealed that the site with the highest overall performance index is the Andean region of Ecuador, with an area of more than 617.5 km2. The outcome of the overall performance index indicates that the four selected multi-criteria decision making methods provided similar results, where the value was equal to or greater than 75% of the maximum punctuation of an ideal location. In this context, the methods analyzed converge to similar solutions and indicate that the multi-criteria decision making method is a powerful tool for selecting ideal locations for wind farms. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
PubMed | University of Turku, Technical University of the North, Ibarra, James Cook University, University of Nottingham and 46 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings. Biological sciences | Year: 2016
Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change.
PubMed | Anglia, National University of Colombia, Fundacion Puerto Rastrojo, New York Botanical Garden and 76 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science advances | Year: 2015
Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the worlds >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century.
PubMed | Federal University of Rondônia, CIBER ISCIII, University of KwaZulu - Natal, Federal University of Fluminense and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology | Year: 2016
Snake venom toxins are related not only in detention, death and the promotion of initial digestion of prey but also due to their different biochemical, structural and pharmacological effects they can result in new drugs. Among these toxins snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) should be highlighted because they are responsible for inducing changes in physiological functions such as blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation. This article presents the first serine protease (SP) isolated from Bothrops brazili: BbrzSP-32. The new SP showed 36 kDa of relative molecular mass and its absolute mass was confirmed by mass spectrometry as 32,520 Da. It presents 79.48% identity when compared to other SVSPs and was able to degrade the -chain of fibrinogen, in in vitro models, because of this it is considered a SVTLE-A. It showed dose-dependent activity in the process of degradation of fibrin networks demonstrating greater specificity for this activity when compared to its thrombolytic action. BbrzSP-32 demonstrated proteolytic activity on gelatin and chromogenic substrates for serine proteases and thrombin-like enzymes (S-2288 and S-2238 respectively), besides having coagulant activity on human plasma. After pre-incubation with PMSF and benzamidine the coagulant and proteolytic activities on the S-2288 and S-2238 substrates were reduced. BbrzSP-32 shows stability against pH and temperature variations, demonstrating optimum activity between 30 and 40 C and in the pH range 7.5 to 8.5. A new SP with potential biotechnological application was isolated.