University Psychiatric Center Leuven

Leuven, Belgium

University Psychiatric Center Leuven

Leuven, Belgium
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Lambrichts S.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Van Oudenhove L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Sienaert P.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2017

Objectives Mania can occur secondary to a medical condition and can be elicited by various pharmacological treatments, both in patients with or without a history of affective disorder. Antibiotic-induced mania or antibiomania is suggested to be a rare phenomenon. We reviewed the literature in order to collect published reports of antibiomania and to summarize new insights about its mechanism and management. Methods We performed a MEDLINE-search and used manual cross-referencing for reports of antibiotic-induced mania and included cases in which a (hypo)manic episode was diagnosed in close temporal relationship with the prescription of an antibiotic. Results 47 cases were published. Patients’ ages ranged from 3 to 77 years (mean 40). Two-thirds of the cases were male. Twelve different anti-bacterial agents were implicated, with antitubercular agents, macrolides and quinolones being the most common causative groups. Conclusions Antibiotic treatment can be associated with (hypo)mania. The paucity of reported cases precludes statements regarding incidence or antibiotic-specific warnings. In the event of an antibiotic-induced mania, the suspicious drug should be discontinued and manic symptoms can be treated lege artis. The pathophysiological mechanism of antibiomania remains elusive. © 2017


Bouckaert F.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Sienaert P.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Obbels J.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Dols A.,VUmc Amsterdam GGZinGeest | And 3 more authors.
Journal of ECT | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human literature, we examined the theory that seizure-induced structural changes are crucial for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. RESULTS: Both animal and human studies suggest electroconvulsive stimulation/electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-related neuroplasticity (neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, or gliogenesis). CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether structural changes might explain the therapeutic efficacy and/or be related to the (transient) learning and memory impairment after ECT. Methods to assess in vivo brain plasticity of patients treated with ECT will be of particular importance for future longitudinal studies to give support to the currently available correlational data. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Peuskens J.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Rubio G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Schreiner A.,Medical and Scientific Affairs
Annals of General Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Many patients with schizophrenia receive long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. Switching of antipsychotic medication due to lack of efficacy, tolerability issues, and partial/non-adherence is common. Despite this, consensus strategies for switching between antipsychotics are lacking. This manuscript provides practical recommendations for switching antipsychotic medication to ensure optimal management of patients with schizophrenia, with a particular focus on paliperidone extended release (ER). The authors drew on their clinical experience supported by detailed discussion of literature describing antipsychotic switching techniques and strategies and findings from paliperidone ER clinical trials. Antipsychotic switching strategies should be individualized and take into consideration the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the pre- and post-switch medication. The use of temporary concomitant medications may be appropriate in some scenarios. Abrupt withdrawal of pre-switch medication may be appropriate in some instances but carries a greater risk of rebound and withdrawal symptoms than other strategies. Cross-tapering is the method most widely used in clinical practice. Paliperidone ER can be initiated without dose titration. The EU SmPC recommended dose of paliperidone ER is 6 mg/day; but doses should be individualized within the approved range of 3-12 mg/day. Higher doses may be required due to insufficient efficacy of the previous antipsychotic or in patients with acute symptoms. Recently diagnosed patients, those with renal impairment, or patients who have previously experienced tolerability issues with other antipsychotics may require lower doses. When switching from risperidone, higher doses of paliperidone ER may be required compared with risperidone. When switching from antipsychotics that have sedative and/or significant anticholinergic activity, the pre-switch antipsychotic should be tapered off gradually. Antipsychotics with less sedating and little anticholinergic activity can be tapered off over a shorter period. Temporary concomitant sedative medication may be beneficial when switching from antipsychotics with relatively higher sedative propensities. Switching from another antipsychotic to paliperidone ER requires individualized switching strategies and dosing, dependent on the characteristics of the patient and the PK and PD properties of the pre-switch medication. Cross-tapering strategies should be considered as a means of reducing the risk of rebound and withdrawal symptoms. © 2014 Peuskens et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Knapen J.,AZERTIE Boddenveldweg | Vancampfort D.,AZERTIE Boddenveldweg | Vancampfort D.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Morien Y.,AZERTIE | And 2 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Purpose: to present clinical guidelines for exercise therapy in depressed patients derived from recent meta-analyses. Method: four meta-analyses on effects of physical exercise on mental and physical in depression were analysed. Results: For mild to moderate depression the effect of exercise may be comparable to antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments. Depression is associated with a high incidence of co-morbid somatic illnesses, especially cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Exercise is extremely powerful in preventing and treating these diseases. Physical exercise is an outstanding opportunity for the treatment of patients who have a mix of mental and physical health problems. Exercise therapy also improves body image, patient s coping strategies with stress, quality of life and independence in activities of daily living in older adults. Conclusions: Physical therapists should be aware, that several characteristics of major depression (e.g. loss of interest, motivation and energy, generalised fatigue, a low self-worth and self-confidence, fear to move, and psychosomatic complaints) and physical health problems interfere with participation in exercise. Therefore, motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation and adherence in exercise programs.Implications for RehabilitationFor mild to moderate depression, the effect of exercise may be comparable with antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression, exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments.Exercise therapy also improves physical health, body image, patient's coping strategies with stress, quality of life, and independence in activities of daily living in older adults.Motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


A pooled-analysis on the long-term outcome in four head-to-head studies: agomelatine versus fluoxetine, sertraline, and (twice) escitalopram. Method A meta-analytic approach was used. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores, response and remission rates, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) scores, response and remission rates, and completion rates/discontinuation rates due to adverse events were analyzed. At the last post-baseline assessment on the 24-week treatment period, the final HAM-D-17 score was significantly lower in patients treated with agomelatine than in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as well in the total group of patients with severe depression (P = 0.014 and 0.040, respectively). HAM-D response rates at the end of 24 weeks were significantly higher in patients treated with agomelatine than in patients treated with SSRIs, as well in the total group of patients with severe depression (P = 0.031 and 0.048, respectively). HAM-D remission rates at the end of 24 weeks were numerically but not significantly higher in patients treated with agomelatine than in patients treated with SSRIs. Final CGI-I scores were significantly lower for agomelatine. CGI-I response as well as remission rates were numerically higher in patients treated with agomelatine, without statistical significance. The percentage of patients with at least one emergent adverse event leading to treatment discontinuation was 9.4% in patients treated with SSRIs and 6.6% in patients treated with agomelatine (P = 0.065). The present pooled analysis shows that, from a clinical point of view, agomelatine is at least as efficacious as the investigated SSRIs with a trend to fewer discontinuations due to adverse events.


Vancampfort D.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Vancampfort D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Wampers M.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Mitchell A.J.,Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust | And 7 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2013

A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the risk for cardio-metabolic abnormalities in drug naïve, first-episode and multi-episode patients with schizophrenia and age- and gender- or cohort-matched general population controls. Our literature search generated 203 relevant studies, of which 136 were included. The final dataset comprised 185,606 unique patients with schizophrenia, and 28 studies provided data for age- and gender-matched or cohort-matched general population controls (n=3,898,739). We found that multi-episode patients with schizophrenia were at increased risk for abdominal obesity (OR=4.43; CI=2.52-7.82; p<0.001), hypertension (OR=1.36; CI=1.21-1.53; p<0.001), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR=2.35; CI=1.78-3.10; p<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=2.73; CI=1.95-3.83; p<0.001), metabolic syndrome (OR=2.35; CI=1.68-3.29; p<0.001), and diabetes (OR=1.99; CI=1.55-2.54; p<0.001), compared to controls. Multi-episode patients with schizophrenia were also at increased risk, compared to first-episode (p<0.001) and drug-naïve (p<0.001) patients, for the above abnormalities, with the exception of hypertension and diabetes. Our data provide further evidence supporting WPA recommendations on screening, follow-up, health education and lifestyle changes in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.


Rybakowski J.K.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Vansteelandt K.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Remlinger-Molenda A.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Fleischhacker W.W.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 2 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

The European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) included first-episode schizophrenia patients, assessing the efficacy of five antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone) over one year. Baseline frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in this group of patients (n=490) was as follows: parkinsonism 10.8%, akathisia 10.0%, dystonia 1.8%, and dyskinesia 0.6%. The frequency of parkinsonism at baseline was greater in patients with a brief prior exposure to antipsychotics (≤2 weeks) compared with antipsychotic-naïve ones, and was positively correlated with the intensity of negative symptoms and negatively with depressive symptoms. After one month of treatment, the increase of parkinsonism was highest in patients receiving haloperidol (+13%), that of akathisia in patients treated with ziprasidone (+14%), and 10.1% of the patients were taking anticholinergic drugs, most frequently in the haloperidol group (24%). In 291 patients remaining on treatment after one year, both parkinsonism and akathisia had decreased: the frequency of parkinsonism was 3%, highest in the haloperidol group (9.1%), that of akathisia was 3%, highest in the quetiapine group (7.5%), and 4% of patients were taking anticholinergic drugs, most frequently those receiving haloperidol (10.5%). The results obtained suggest that in first-episode schizophrenia patients during the first year of antipsychotic treatment (in this case amisulpride, haloperidol in low doses, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone), EPS were present as manageable clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.


Demyttenaere K.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2014

Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3-5.9% in the general population. Many drug and non-drug treatments have been shown to be effective in the treatment of GAD, including benzodiazepines, antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants), anticonvulsants, azapirones, antihistamines, atypical antipsychotics, complementary/alternative medicine, psychotherapy and Internet-based services. Agomelatine is an antidepressant approved by the European Agency; it is a melatonergic agonist (MT1 and MT2 receptors) and a 5-HT2C antagonist indicated in the treatment of major depressive episodes. Areas covered: The present article looks at the short-term efficacy of Agomelatine assessed in two short-term placebo-controlled studies. It also looks at the long-term efficacy evaluated in one relapse prevention study. Expert opinion: Agomelatine is an effective treatment option for both GAD and somatic anxiety. The trial, which includes an escitalopram arm, shows comparable efficacy in GAD between both antidepressants, whereas the restoration of sleep was significantly better with agomelatine. The low discontinuation rate illustrates the good tolerability and lab results show a low incidence of transient elevations in liver enzymes. Whereas uptitrated patients on a 50 mg dose have a lower chance of reaching the desired outcome than the lower 25 mg dose, those reaching this outcome have a better chance of treatment continuation. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Sienaert P.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | Sienaert P.,Catholic University of Leuven | Dhossche D.M.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Vancampfort D.,University Psychiatric Center Leuven | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Catatonia is a severe motor syndrome with an estimated prevalence among psychiatric inpatients of about 10%. At times, it is life-threatening especially in its malignant form when complicated by fever and autonomic disturbances. Catatonia can accompany many different psychiatric illnesses and somatic diseases. In order to recognize the catatonic syndrome, apart from thorough and repeated observation, a clinical examination is needed. A screening instrument, such as the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, can guide the clinician through the neuropsychiatric examination. Although severe and life-threatening, catatonia has a good prognosis. Research on the treatment of catatonia is scarce, but there is overwhelming clinical evidence of the efficacy of benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, and electroconvulsive therapy. © 2014 Sienaert, Dhossche, Vancampfort, De_hert and Gazdag.


Recent structural imaging studies have described hippocampal volume changes following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It has been proposed that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF)-mediated neuroplasticity contributes critically to brain changes following antidepressant treatment. To date no studies have investigated the relationship between changes in hippocampal volume, mood, and sBDNF following ECT. Here, we combine these measurements in a longitudinal study of severe late-life unipolar depression (LLD). We treated 88 elderly patients with severe LLD twice weekly until remission (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) <10). sBDNF and MADRS were obtained before ECT (T0), after the sixth ECT (T1), 1 week after the last ECT (T2), 4 weeks after the last ECT (T3), and 6 months after the last ECT (T4). Hippocampal volumes were quantified by manual segmentation of 3T structural magnetic resonance images in 66 patients at T0 and T2 and in 23 patients at T0, T2, and T4. Linear mixed models (LMM) were used to examine the evolution of MADRS, sBDNF, and hippocampal volume over time. Following ECT, there was a significant decrease in MADRS scores and a significant increase in hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume decreased back to baseline values at T4. Compared with T0, sBDNF levels remained unchanged at T1, T2, and T3. There was no coevolution between changes in MADRS scores, hippocampal volume, and sBDNF. Hippocampal volume increase following ECT is an independent neurobiological effect unrelated to sBDNF and depressive symptomatology, suggesting a complex mechanism of action of ECT in LLD.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 29 June 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.86. © 2016 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

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