University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie

University of Technology of Compiègne, France

University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie

University of Technology of Compiègne, France

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.85M | Year: 2011

The Routes project is addressed to discover new routes in wastewater and sludge treatment which allow: a) to prepare sludge for agricultural utilization by transforming it in a very clean and stabilized product regarding the presence of organic micropollutants (conventional and emerging ones) and of heavy metals, and with respect to hygienic aspects and to phytotoxicity; b) to minimize sludge production by innovative solutions which can be based on different approaches, i.e.: i) metabolic uncoupling where the free energy released by electrons transport is dissipated in heat, in the activation of alternative metabolic routes or in the accumulation of polymeric products, ii) the use of microbial fuel cells, iii) the use of sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR), iiii) the integration of a side-stream process in membrane bioreactors; c) to promote recovery of valuable materials from anaerobic digestion, i.e. biopolymers as polyhydroxyalkanoates and fertilizers; e) to set up and prove at practical scale a novel technique for sludge disposal (wet oxidation) as sustainable alternative to nowadays the most used incineration; f) to minimize energy pumping by adjusting solid concentration, on a practical installation where sludge is pumped from the production site to a centralized plant. The general objective of the Routes proposal is therefore to set up a panel of different solutions to be applied in different conditions and circumstances, strictly following the waste hierarchy of the Directive 08/98 on waste. The above solutions will be studied either in laboratory or at practical scale, depending on the maturity of the technology, in order to provide to the Commission and the technical and scientific community applicable solutions and new routes for sludge management, also based on the best integration between the water and sludge treatment lines.

Oniszczuk T.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie | Pilawka R.,West Pomeranian University of Technology
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2013

Com. starch was compounded with cellulose fibers (up to 30% by mass), plasticized with glycerol (20% by mass), granulated by extrusion at 80-120°C and screw speed 60-100 rpm, and finally studied for thermal decompn. by thermogravimetry in air (up to 1173 K). Three-stage decomposition was obsd. During the 1ststage (up to 473 K), only weak chem. bonds were destroyed. During the 2nd stage (up to 673K), the composite material was oxidized mainly to CO2 During the 3rd stage, combustion of C took place. Decompn. rate consts., reaction orders, activation energies and pre-exponential factors were calcd. from the exptl. data. The addn. of fibers resulted in a decrease in thermal resistance of the composite material.

The washed Brussels sprouts heads were coated through dipping in a coat, i.e. in an aqueous solution of pea protein (10 % w/w), candelilla wax (2 % w/w), and sorbitol (4 % w/w). The coated and uncoated (control) vegetables were stored in the simulated storage conditions (~20 °C in a relative humidity of 50 %) for 10 days. The quality assessment of Brussels sprouts comprised the determination of: mass loss, contents of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and chlorophyll, polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO), colour, texture, and sensory properties. It was evidenced that the coating of Brussels sprouts by protein-wax coating resulted in a significant reduction in mass loss, vitamin C, polyphenols, and firmness during storage, as well as limited the softening of the vegetables. However, the presence of the coating had no effect on the PPO activity and on the content of chlorophyll pigments. The colour measurements proved that during the final stage of storing, the coated vegetables were significantly lighter and more yellow compared with the control samples. A sensory analysis performed on the 4 th day of storage showed that the coating of Brussels sprouts favourably impacted their overall appearance, firmness, and gloss, but slightly deteriorated their odour. After 4 days of storage, the sensory quality of Brussels sprouts, both in coated and uncoated samples, decreased below the acceptable level. The results obtained prove that the coating using the emulsion suggested can impact the course of some physiologic and biochemical processes in the Brussels sprouts, which affect their commercial and consumption quality.

This paper presents the theoretical basis for the conception of environmental competitiveness of regions. It was pointed out, that the less developed regions are in a possession of a very precious commodity, i.e. their natural environment. There are wide possibilities to use their natural environment as a trading mark and in this way to spur their economic development. This could both stimulate the economic prosperity of the regions and contribute to enhancing the quality and quantity of their natural environment; in order to sell a product one has to be sure that it is of the best quality. Taking better care of the natural environment would further contribute to deepening the regions' green specialization and enhancing their level of competitiveness on the national or even international scale. In fact, it is capable to use a new term for this idea - environmental competitiveness of regions.

In the paper as presented, the effect was determined of the polarity of sorbents in solid phase extraction on the contents of phenylpropanoids in extracts obtained from a pepper pericarp. Three types of sorbents were analyzed: silica gel modified with octadecyl (C18), ethylophenyl (Phe), and cyanopropyl (CN), and, in every case, the same system of solvents was applied. The extraction yield was determined using three derivatives of quercetin as the standards; those derivatives were isolated from the pepper pericarp during the preceding studies. The standards comprised: quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside. Next, the fractions of phenolic compounds were isolated from the pepper pericarp with the use of the three above indicated sorbents. In the fractions obtained, the content of quercetin derivatives was quantitatively determined by a HPLC method and with the use of the standard curves for each compound. Additionally, there were determined the total of phenolic compounds by a Folin-Ciocalteu method and their antiradical activity in the system with DPPH radical. Of the three standards applied, the quercetin-3-O-glucoside was recognized for its highest extraction yield; it was characterized by an intermediate polarity. Among the sorbents analyzed, the most effective sorbent was the silica gel modified with cyanopropyl. Also in the case of the fraction of phenolic compounds present in the pepper fruits, the highest extraction efficiency was obtained for the same gel used. This fact was confirmed by the results of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity.

The objective of this study was to produce processed cheese analogues, in which acid casein was partially replaced by different whey preparations ('DWP 50' demineralised whey powder, 'WPC 35' whey protein concentrate), as well as to assess the adhesiveness of the above mentioned analogues to different packaging materials: stainless steel (SS), aluminum (AL), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). The adhesiveness of processed cheese analogues was measured using a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The adhesiveness of all the processed cheese analogues studied increased along with the increase in the content of protein level in the product. The addition of demineralised whey powder (DWP 50) caused the adhesiveness of processed cheese analogues to significantly increase compared to the products produced with the addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC 35) and to the model analogues made from acid casein only. The cheese analogues showed the lowest adhesiveness to the packaging materials made of aluminium (AL) (the samples with WPC 35 added and the samples made of acid casein only) and to the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) packagings (the samples produced with the whey preparations added). As regards the packagings made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), all the cheese samples produced with the addition of 2 % of the protein preparations showed the highest adhesiveness to this material. The cheese analogues with the demineralised whey powder (DWP 50) added were the most adhesive to all the packaging materials tested.

Stadnik J.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

Biogenic amines are natural components of animal and plant raw materials where they are present at concentrations appearing non-harmful to human health. Their increased content in foods results from the activity of endogenous enzymes or from the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids during the controlled or spontaneous fermentation, processing, storage, and distribution. The dry cured meat products are characterized by a high variability in the content of biogenic amines. The formation of those compounds is impacted by the following: quality of raw material, hygienic conditions during the processing of raw material, and technological factors such as temperature, pH, water activity, NaCl content, and redox potential. It is possible to prevent the occurrence of biogenic amines in dry cured meat products by the application of starter cultures during the processing, which do not show the ability to form those biogenic amines. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the improvement of health safety of dry cured meat products since they inhibit the growth of adverse microflora and the reduction of biogenic amines content associated therewith.

Kornacki A.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie | SokoLowska E.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie
Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc | Year: 2010

The article presents the application of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to test hypothesis concerning mean values. The presented method offers an alternative to traditional hypothesis testing methods requiring the establishment of the significance level. In the article, we used the experimental data from a postdoctoral thesis by W. Piekarski [12] concerning the operation time of C355-360 tractors until the first failure. The obtained results provide a useful tool enabling the choice of a more suitable statistical model from the models relating to the operation and reliability of machines.

Kowalczyk D.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie | Pikula E.,University Przyrodniczy w Lublinie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

The table grapes (Vitis vinifera) are highly valued dessert fruits, but their attractiveness can get worse if they are not properly protected while being distributed and sold. Presently, researches have been carried out to find new methods for increasing the life-shelf of fruits and maintaining their high quality while they are on the market. Edible coatings could be a potential solution to that problem. The objective of this study was to determine the possibilities of using protein-wax coating to protect the quality of grapes. Grape fruits were coated while they were three times immersed in an aqueous solution containing: 10 % of pea protein isolate, 5 % of sorbitol (plasticizer), and 2 % of candelilla wax. The coated and uncoated (control) grapes were stored at 20 °C, under 40 % relative air humidity, during a period of 11 days. The study showed that, comparing to the uncoated grapes, the coated grapes stored for 11 days had a statistically significant higher content of ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, and lower weight losses, which caused the freshness of the fruits to be kept longer. The coating did not cause any changes in the titration acidity and pH of the grapes. The additional benefit of coating was an attractive sheen of the fruit surface.

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of milk origin (breed of cows) and applied type of salt (calcium and sodium ions) on the selected functional properties of whey proteins essential while producing foods. Particular attention was given to the rheological properties (including the gel-forming properties and texture of gels: hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness), which determine the usefulness of whey proteins as an additional component in dairy products and majorly impact the choices made by consumers. There were determined the basic chemical composition (content of total protein, fat, lactose, and dry matter) and the concentration of some selected whey proteins contained in whey, and, next, in the permeates and retentates obtained, through the process of micro- and ultra-filtration, at different stages of separating and thickening the solutions of whey proteins. The hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of gels were determined using a texture profile analysis, whereas their mechanical properties (values of storage and loss moduli as well as apparent viscosity) were analyzed using oscillatory rheometry. Differences were proved to exist between the values of the analyzed texture parameters depending on the breed of cows the milk was from. The gels obtained from whey proteins derived from the Jersey cows' milk, compared to the gels from whey proteins from the milk of Black-White variety of the Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, were characterized by a lower hardness and a lower adhesiveness, and by a higher cohesiveness. The cow breed and the type of salt applied impacted the values of storage and loss moduli of the whey proteins gels analyzed.

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