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Kordowska-Wiater M.,University Przyrodniczy blinie
Postepy Mikrobiologii | Year: 2011

Yeasts can be used for biocontrol of fungal phytopathogens of plants. Antagonistic strains have been selected from different plant niches. The most effective are Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida sake, C. oleophila, Metschnikowia spp. and yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, which are able to reduce or inhibit the growth of fungi such as e.g. Botrytis, Penicillium and Rhizopus causing rots of fruit and vegetables or act on other field phytopathogens. Some yeasts from rhizosphere are able to promote plant growth. Different modes of yeast action have been suggested to be responsible for biological control: competition for nutrients and space on plant organ surfaces, antibiotic production, lytic enzyme (mainly glucanases and chitinases) excretion and induction of plant resistance by specific enzymes and phytohormone production. Since the effectiveness of investigated yeasts is sometimes insufficient, different kinds of biocontrol improvement have been investigated and antagonist mixture, addition of adjuvants, natural substances, mild fungicides or modification of physical agents have been suggested. Formulas of effective biocontrol preparations based on yeasts have been under investigation. Freezing, freeze-drying and vacuum-drying have been proposed to be the best methods of yeasts stabilization. High viability, stability, efficiency of cells and safety during the storage of products have been the goal of investigations. Some commercial preparations have been registrated e.g. "Shemer" based on Metschnikowia fructicola action, "Candifruit" based on Candida sake which can be used for protection of fruit and vegetables. Nowadays, the importance of this kind of protective products is restricted but in the future there is a chance for propagation of biocontrol yeast formulas.

This paper presents an assessment of the applicability of satellite remote sensing data to monitor the growth and development of winter oilseed rape in the Lublin region. The study used five vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI, LAI, fPAR and GPP), whose values were derived from Terra environmental satellite and related to the period between 2000 and 2012. Values of the oilseed rape height before winter and the onset of flowering stage based on field observations from the Experimental Stations for Cultivar Testing (COBORU) in Bezek and Cicibór Duzy. The results showed the possibility of using satellite data to predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy both analyzed characteristics of winter oilseed rape. Moreover, based on vegetation indices it has been confirmed that the growth and development of the winter oilseed rape are highly dependent on the course of weather conditions.

Florek M.,University Przyrodniczy blinie
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2014

Currently, the public is concerned not only with the quality of food products, but also with the methods of obtaining these products. For animal products such as milk and meat, the conditions under which animals are reared and slaughtered are of prime importance. The circumstances of slaughter are subject to strict regulations related to animal welfare, food hygiene and safety, as well as working conditions. Humane slaughter regulations aim to minimize anxiety, pain, and distress or suffering at slaughter. Therefore, from the welfare point of view, the basic purpose of stunning is to render the animal unconscious and insensible so that it may not feel pain during slaughter. Current slaughter methods are either conventional (with stunning) or prescribed by religious tradition (without stunning). In most countries that require pre-slaughter stunning, there is dispensation for religious slaughter methods. The religious dispensation is allowed on the basis of human rights, which take precedence over animal welfare in all but a few European countries. Halal (Muslim) and Shechita (Jewish) slaughter methods, the principle religious slaughter techniques, are subject to much debate. With regard to religious slaughter, most objections are raised against the method of neck cutting without prior stunning and, to some extent, against the pre- and post-slaughter handling of animals. It is also suggested that a compromise can be reached between the requirements of religious slaughter and animal welfare, as well as humanitarian principles. This review presents the results of recent research concerning the impact of slaughter methods (conventional vs. religious) on animal welfare, as well as the technological parameters and hygienic criteria of the slaughter process.

Grzywna A.,University Przyrodniczy blinie
Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of the study is to analyze the size of water retention in the ecosystem of meadows in the drainage facility located in the central part of the Forest Parczew. The paper presents the results achieved so far made on the subject of actions in order to increase the volume of retained water through an increase in tray like and wetlands retention. Assess the possibility of retention and obtained as a result of controlling the outflow of retention specified for the actual hydrological conditions in 2012. In terms of the total amount of spring flooding an area of pooled water may exceed 4.5 million m 3. Due to the lack of damming is impossible to achieve. In the present circumstances you can retentions only 265 thousand m3 of water in the topsoil and over 12 thousand m3 in river courses. In the analyzed catchment water can be impounded in peat bogs and silts in the river Ochozanki and ditches drainage network.

The principal aim of the dissertation was to analyze the influence of natural environment components on main elements of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of each component were presented separately for the three main types of physiographic regions: mountains, foothills and depressions. Additionally, in selected cases, the analyses of cultural landscape evolution during the last centuries were presented.The research area is located between the Ropa and the Wisłok rivers in Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie - two regions in SE part of Poland. Besides, three small drainage basins were chosen for detailed investigation.The main method applied in dissertation, especially in spatial landscape structure research, was a cartographic analysis in GIS system.The elements of the cultural landscape described in this paper were: main communication routes, settlement patterns and dwellings (including spatial settlement distribution, country buildings, sacral landscape, industrial buildings) as well as land use.According to the research carried out in this work, the component of the natural environment which has had the most significant influence on the cultural landscape is land relief, especially land slopes. The impact of this factor is leading on all elements of the cultural landscape. The other factors (surface and ground waters, climate, soils, natural resources) have had a significant influence only on some of the analyzed elements.The elements of the cultural landscape which are most dependent on natural factors are spatial settlement distribution and the pattern of land use. In case of other cultural landscape elements, natural factors play less important but still significant role.The research proved that natural conditionings of the cultural landscape are less clear in the depression area and most clear within foothills and mountain areas, depending on analyzed cultural elements.A decrease of correlation intensity between natural and cultural elements from ancient till present times has been noted in case of nearly all investigated elements of the cultural landscape. This smaller and smaller dependence makes the cultural landscapes less unique and deprived of regional features which often used to result from the characteristics of natural conditions.

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