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Czubaszek M.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Szostek M.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Wojcik E.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Andraszek K.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2014

The basic method for analyzing the degree of DNA fragmentation caused by genotoxic factors is gel electrophoresis of single cells (single cell gel electrophoresis), also called the comet assay. The comet assay enables the analysis of the level of several different DNA modifications. The basic testing procedure has been only slightly modified. This method helps identify single-strand and double-strand DNA cracks, as well as any chemical and enzymatic modifications that can potentially turn into cracks in DNA or chromatids. The comet assay makes it possible to detect DNA damage at the level of single cells. It can be employed in analyses of any tissues which provide cellular suspensions. Analysed cells are submerged in agarose on a microscope slide. DNA is what is left after proteins have been broken down. The slide is then subjected to electrophoresis and stained with a fluorescent dye. A "comet-like" image is obtained. The "head" is the cell fixation site prior to lysis; the "tail" represents damaged DNA fragments. The extent of DNA damage is reflected in the length of the tail and the amount of DNA contained in it. The assay finds research applications in the following fields: genetic toxicology, monitoring of DNA repair following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, ecotoxicology, animal and human nourishment, biomonitoring of genotoxicity, epidemiology and assessment of material deposited in sperm and blood banks. Copyright © Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Dos̈wiadczalnej 2015.


Biesiada-Drzazga B.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Banaszewska D.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Wereszczynska A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Oledzki L.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2016

The objective of the research study was to compare some selected characteristics of eggs derived from hens of the Green-legged Partridge species depending on the time and temperature of storage. The experimental material comprised the eggs derived from 50 weeks old hens of this species. A sample of 60 eggs were analyzed; the eggs were divided randomly into three experimental groups. The eggs in the first group were assessed as fresh eggs, the eggs in the second group were stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 6 °C for 20 days, and the eggs in the third group were stored at a temperature of 24 °C for 20 days. At first, the whole eggs were assessed; next, the eggs were spilled onto a glass plate and, then, assessed. The storing of eggs for 20 days at a temperature of 24 °C significantly intensified the processes of their ageing. An increased evaporation of water from the eggs caused the height of air cell to increase, the weight of eggs to significantly decrease (from 32.55 to 27.93 g), the content of total white to decrease (from 32.55 to 27.93 g), the IH of white to drop, and the alkalinity of white to grow. Significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater yolk weight was observed in the eggs stored for 20 days at 24 °C than in the eggs stored at 6 °C, which was due to penetration of water from the albumen. At the same time, it was reported a significant increase (p ≤ 0,01) in the yolk index and a slight increase in the value of pH from 6.01 to 6.62. The temperature of 24 °C and the extended time of storing the eggs negatively affected the dynamics of changes occurring in the eggs assessed and this fact caused that the eggs lost their freshness. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2016 Printed in Poland.


Milczarek A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Osek M.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2016

The research material comprised 30 longissimus lumborum and 30 semimembranosus muscles that were taken from the Pulawska pigs organized in two feeding groups (I, II) with the same quantity of animals. The animals in group I (control) were fed mixtures of barley, triticale, extracted soybean meal, and mineral and vitamin additives. The fatteners in the experimental group were, however, fed mixtures with 10 % of lowtannin faba bean seeds that replaced the post-extraction soybean meal. The partial substitution of postextraction soybean meal with a faba bean meal had no statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on the content of basic nutrients and minerals as well as on the share of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the lipids of the two muscles analysed. Though, in the musclus longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus of the fatteners in group II, it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the percent content of α-linolenic acid (by 0.02 % and 0.01 %, respectively) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (by 0.18 % and 0.05 %, respectively). The composition of the feed mixtures used to feed Pulawska pigs did not impact the hydrogen ion concentration (pH1 and pH24), water holding capacity, and colour parameters L* and b* of the both muscles. The muscles of the experimental pigs were characterized by a larger saturation of the red colour (a*); however, only in the case of m. longissimus this difference was confirmed to be statistically significant. The Longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles of the pigs fed mixtures with faba bean were characterized by a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower drip loss (20 % and 10 % respectively), and by better sensory characteristics, in particular by the better texture parameters: tenderness and juiciness (p ≤ 0.05). © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2016 Printed in Poland.


Wyrebek P.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Mikus A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Ostrowski S.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Heterocycles | Year: 2012

Meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin reacts at higher temperature with unstable alkyl nitrile oxides (R-C≡N→O) affording isoxazoline-fused chlorins according to dipolar [3+2]-cycloaddition pathway. The respective nitrile oxides were in situ generated from the corresponding functionalized nitroalkanes in the presence of base (NEt 3, DABCO) and dehydrating agent (PhNCO, (Boc) 2O). Substituent R bearing diverse of functionality allows synthesis of very attractive moieties which may be of potential use as sensitizers in photodynamic therapy. The products obtained are also suitable intermediates for further derivatization of porphyrins. © 2012 The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry.


Wolska K.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Kot B.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Piechota M.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Frankowska A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2013

The main problem in the treatment of nosocomial infections is the increasing drug resistance of microorganisms that cause them, limiting the number of effective antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacilli are the cause of many serious hospital-acquired infections occurring primarily in patients within high-risk groups. The most vulnerable are those with weakened immune systems, as well as those with extensive surgical wounds and burn wounds. Infections are usually of the nature of secondary infections, caused by multidrug strains. Due to the high antimicrobial activity, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones are drugs commonly used in hospitals, both in prevention and treatment of infections with P. aeruginosa. However, their irrational use is associated with selection and spread of strains resistant to these antibiotics. Resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is the result of a number of independent co-occurring mechanisms. These are: reducing the membrane permeability, the efflux system, and production of enzymes inactivating and degrading antibiotics. The paper devotes special attention to the determination of resistance mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.


Rymuza K.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Radzka E.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

In the paper, there were presented the possibilities of applying multidimensional methods to analyse the quality of drinking water. Based on the three year research results (2009 - 2011), analyzed were the physical and chemical parameters of drinking water from 15 water supply systems in the district (in Polish: powiat) of Łosice. Groundwater supplied by all the systems was of good quality as, during the period studied, only 7 cases were reported where the content of iron was exceeded, 2 cases where the colour level was exceeded, and 1 case with the exceeded level of KMnO4 oxidation. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the parameters associated with the first four components impacted the quality of water analyzed most of all. The cluster analysis made it possible to distinguish 4 groups of water supply systems, which differed as regards the quality of water supplied. Group I comprised the systems with hard water and, at the same time, with low contents of iron and manganese. The water systems in group II supplied water with a low content of nitrates. The water in the systems of group III contained relatively high amounts of iron and manganese, but, at the same time, its hardness was the lowest and it was characterized by the lowest value of the electrical conductivity index. Group IV comprised the water supply systems that provided water with a relatively high turbidity level and a high content of iron; however, its pH value was very low.


Adamiak A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Gorska A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Mroz B.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2015

In the EU regulations, general microbiological requirements for raw milk are laid down; however, the qualitative composition of microflora is not defined. In the absence of hygiene during milking, milk becomes contaminated with microflora that, despite the cold storage, can multiply and, at the same time, produces extracellular enzymes (mainly proteases and lipases), which contribute to the quality deteriora tion of milk and dairy products. Owing to their heat resistance, the enzymes of bacterial origin are a serious problem for the dairy industry. In the paper, there are characterized the contamination sources of raw milk with psychrotrophic microflora and the qualitative composition of psychrotrophic microorganisms as are the properties of their enzymes and the effects of the activity of proteases and lipases while storing milk and its products. © 2015, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved.


An important factor determining the utilization of beef meat is its culinary quality. Among other things, meat quality depends on the content of fat in a tissue, meat colour, and meat juice-holding capability. A too poor quality of beef results, first of all, from improper feeding strategies departing from the genetic potential of animals; the consequence thereof is, most frequently, an excessive fatness of carcasses. The objective of the research study was to determine the relationships between the amount of fat deposed in carcasses and the culinary usefulness of beef meat, as well as to assess the possibilities of improving those qualities based on the analyzed parameters of carcasses. The analysis comprised 124 blackwhite bulls (Cb) and commercial crossbreeds. The rate of carcass fatness was assessed in two groups showing different growth intensity (GW/IW g/day). It was proved that the higher growth intensity made the layer of cover fat to decrease (by 0.5 cm on average), and, thus, those carcasses could be assigned to the EUROP class with a lower fattening rate (the fattening rate higher by 0.9 % on average). It also helped to reduce the fat deposited in valuable cuts (by 2.8 %). In that regards, the reaction of the commercial crossbreeds was the best. Based on the analysed quality parameters of meat, it was found that the higher GI/IW g/day did not favour the improvement of meat tenderness. The meat tenderness of animals with a low daily weight gain (G1) was 59.2 N/cm 2 1), and the meat of the intensely growing animals (G2): 62.5 N/cm 2. The advantageous effect of GI/IW g/day was reported as regards the content of fat in meat and the parameters determining the meat-juice holding capacity. However, no differences were found as regards the meat colour. Some coefficients were calculated, which represented the correlation between culinary quality parameters of beef and the: 1) cover fat thickness (r = from -0.264* to 0.806**); 2) carcass fatness assessed using the EUROP method (r = from 0.284* to 0.662**); 3) amount of fat in valuable cuts of carcasses (r = from 0.325* to 0.491**). The results obtained show that it is possible to apply carcass fatness-related indicators for the purpose of improving meat quality and to include them into the fattening process.


Mlynek K.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Dzido A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach | Janiuk I.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2012

The experiment material comprised 124 hybrids derived from crosses of black-and-white cows, their Holstein Friesian breed genes content not exceeding 25 %, with black-and-white bulls (25 animals) and meat bulls (99 animals). The objective of the research was to compare the histological traits and physicochemical characteristics of beef meat depending on the incidence rate of giant fibres in skeletal muscles of black-and-white bulls and commercial crossbreeds. It was shown that the giant fibres were more frequently present in the muscles of animals crossbred with meat breeds. As for the commercial cross-breeds, they were evidenced in 42 % of the animal population, and as for the group of black-and-white bull population: in 20%. The presence of giant fibres was associated with a higher myofibrillar ATPase activity, whereas the transformation of FTO fibres in the relevant muscles produced higher percentage rates of FTG fibres (54.4 - 58.5 %), as well as an increase in the relative cross-section area of anaerobic fibres and anaerobic index (AnF%) (4.18 - 5.47). The muscles containing giant fibres were found to be more frequently quality-deficient: a pH48 value exceeded 5.8, their colour was darker, their water retention capacity was higher.


PubMed | University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
Type: | Journal: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2014

The basic method for analyzing the degree of DNA fragmentation caused by genotoxic factors is gel electrophoresis of single cells (single cell gel electrophoresis), also called the comet assay. The comet assay enables the analysis of the level of several different DNA modifications. The basic testing procedure has been only slightly modified. This method helps identify single-strand and double-strand DNA cracks, as well as any chemical and enzymatic modifications that can potentially turn into cracks in DNA or chromatids. The comet assay makes it possible to detect DNA damage at the level of single cells. It can be employed in analyses of any tissues which provide cellular suspensions. Analysed cells are submerged in agarose on a microscope slide. DNA is what is left after proteins have been broken down. The slide is then subjected to electrophoresis and stained with a fluorescent dye. A comet-like image is obtained. The head is the cell fixation site prior to lysis; the tail represents damaged DNA fragments. The extent of DNA damage is reflected in the length of the tail and the amount of DNA contained in it. The assay finds research applications in the following fields: genetic toxicology, monitoring of DNA repair following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, ecotoxicology, animal and human nourishment, biomonitoring of genotoxicity, epidemiology and assessment of material deposited in sperm and blood banks.

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