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Brzostek-Pawlowska J.,Instytut Maszyn Matematycznych | Mikulowski D.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach
2012 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, FedCSIS 2012 | Year: 2012

Attempts to allow the blind to read and write mathematical texts have been made for many years. Such research is conducted both in Poland and abroad. Nevertheless, there is still no complex solution to this problem that would satisfy the users thoroughly. The greatest difficulty facing blind and sighted individuals working on texts containing mathematical formulae together is that in sighted people's notation, these expressions take form of two-dimensional sets of graphical symbols, while Braille provides linear, often context-dependent notation for such expositions. This paper presents identified cases of work and education in mathematics that require new technologies to improve cooperation between the blind and the sighted who do not know Braille nor Braille Mathematics Notation. The research initiated by the Institute of Mathematical Machines discussed herein is aimed to develop innovative technologies that will improve communication, Web-based and else, between blind and sighted individuals in the area of mathematics. © 2012 Polish Info Processing Socit. Source

Mikulowski D.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach | Brzostek-Pawlowska J.,Instytut Maszyn Matematycznych
IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON | Year: 2014

Although an existing different traditional and modern computer techniques, the realization of technical (mathematics and physical) education of the blind and visually empired students at present time is not an easy task. The problem becomes important at a case when the student is a blind person and a teacher is a sighted one who does not know any assistive techniques such as Braille alphabet, screen readers and screen magnifiers software. A new computer remote education technology such as touchscreen mobile devices or graphically available resources that are usually used to derive an education of normal students makes a big barrier for the blind. The barriers to access for blind students to both electronic educational resources as well as remote services on mathematics and physics resulting from the use of other user interfaces for sighted and blind students. Especially important there are differences in the presentation technologies and ways of editing mathematical formulas and drawings. In the paper, the proposal of solutions to help blind students to learn and perform basic mathematical operations with the help of touch screen mobile devices and the presentation of mathematical drawings using 3D printing technologies are explained. These solutions are part of a larger research project that purpose is to develop a mobile platform supporting mathematical and physical education for the blind by sighted teachers. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Wyrebek P.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach | Osuch-Kwiatkowska A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Pakulski Z.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Jarosz S.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ostrowski S.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines | Year: 2013

The synthesis of porphyrins conjugated with sugar moieties is described. meso-Aminophenyl-substituted and β-amino-substituted porphyrin derivatives reacted with benzyl protected glucuronic acid leading to gluco-conjugated hybrids, which after reductive deprotection of OH groups (H2, 10% Pd/C) gave the desired target products of increased hydrophilicity. Alternatively, this type of similar conjugates were obtained through S NAr reaction of meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin with aminomethyl sacharides. The substitution took place selectively in para-position of meso-perfluorophenyl rings, thus giving rise to one, two, or three times substituted products carrying N-linked glucoside residues. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Mikus A.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach | Bielinska M.E.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach | Lipinska T.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach | Ostrowski S.,University Przyrodniczo Humanistyczny edlcach
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2011

A practical and proecological improvement for synthesis of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (meso-TPP) under microwave irradiation is described. A cyclocondensation reaction of benzaldehyde and pyrrole followed by oxidation of the porphyrinogen formed as an intermediate in a small amount of propionic acid at 120 °C (under controlled microwave heating) resulted in conversion to meso-TPP in a reasonable yield (ca. 30%) in preparative-scale experiments (300-500 mg). The influence of many parameters such as the concentration of reagents, catalyst, solvent, temperature, reaction time, and oxidant on the reaction yield was studied. The environmental motive in this improvement is reduction of solvent volume (ca. 250 times). Also, some toxic reagents were eliminated from the procedure. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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