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Guzmaan P.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Saldana B.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Kimiaeitalab M.V.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Garcia J.,Camar Agroalimentaria S.L | Mateos G.G.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

We investigated the effects of fiber inclusion in the diet on growth performance and digestive traits in pullets from hatching to 17 wk of age. The control diets of the 3 feeding periods (0 to 5 wk, 5 to 10 wk, and 10 to 17 wk) were based on corn and soybean meal and did not include any additional fiber source. The experimental diets included 2 or 4% of cereal straw or sugar beet pulp (SBP) at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. From 0 to 5 wk of age, fiber inclusion did not affect pullet performance. From hatch to 17 wk of age, the inclusion of straw had little effect on pullet performance but the inclusion of 4% SBP reduced (ADG) (P < 0.05) and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001). Pullets fed straw had greater ADG (P < 0.05) and better energy conversion ratio (P < 0.01) than pullets fed SBP. An increase in fiber from 2 to 4% reduced FCR (P < 0.05). Body weight uniformity was not affected by diet. Fiber inclusion increased the relative weight (% BW) of the gizzard at 5 wk (P = 0.056) and 10 wk (P < 0.01) of age, but no differences were detected between fiber sources. At same ages, the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the pullets (P = 0.058 and P < 0.01, respectively) and tarsus (P = 0.079 and P < 0.05, respectively) was higher in pullets fed SBP than in pullets fed straw. Fiber inclusion, however, did not affect any of these traits at 17 wk of age. In summary, the inclusion of 2% straw at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet did not affect pullet performance at 17 wk of age. An increase in the level of straw from 2 to 4% reduced FCR but did not affect ADG. The inclusion of SBP, however, reduced pullet growth, with effects being more pronounced at the higher level. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Saldana B.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Guzmaan P.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Safaa H.M.,University Politaecnica Of Madrid | Safaa H.M.,Cairo University | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

The effects of the main cereal and feed form of the rearing phase diets on growth performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and body traits were studied in brown-egg pullets from hatch to 17 wk of age. Eight dietary treatments that were a combination of 2 main cereals (corn vs. wheat) and 4 feeding programs were used. The feeding program consisted in feeding crumbles from 0 to 5, 0 to 10, or 0 to 17 wk of age followed by mash until 17 wk, or feeding mash continuously from 0 to 17 wk. Each treatment was replicated 9 times. From hatch to 17 wk of age, pullets fed corn had similar ADG but poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001) than pullets fed wheat. Also, pullets fed crumbles continuously (0 to 17 wk) had greater ADG (12.3 vs. 11.5 g; P < 0.001) and better FCR (4.21 vs. 4.36; P < 0.001) than pullets feed mash continuously, with pullets that were changed at any age of the rearing period from crumbles to mash feeding showing intermediate results. At 17 wk of age, the relative weights (% BW) of the gastrointestinal tract and gizzard were greater in pullets fed corn than in pullets fed wheat (P < 0.01) but the relative length (cm/kg full BW) of the small intestine, body, and tarsus was not affected. Pullets fed crumbles continuously had lighter gizzards (P < 0.001), higher gizzard pH (P < 0.001), and were shorter (P < 0.01) than pullets fed mash continuously, with pullets fed the other 2 treatments being intermediate. In summary, wheat can be used in substitution of corn in pullet diets without any adverse effect on growth performance. Feeding crumbles improves pullet performance but hinders gizzard and gastrointestinal tract development. Growth performance, gastrointestinal tract, and body traits of the pullets re-adapt quickly to changes in feed form of the rearing diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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