University Pedagogica

Mozambique

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Mozambique
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Nhalevilo E.A.,University Pedagogica | Ogunniyi M.,University of the Western Cape
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education | Year: 2014

This article presents a reflection on an aspect of research methodology, particularly on the interpretation strategy of data from a Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems Project (SIKSP) in a South African university. The data interpretation problem arose while we were analysing the effects of a series of SIKSP-based workshops on the views of a group of participating science teachers concerning the importance and place of their religious, cultural and philosophical beliefs relative to their professional practice. When interpreting the data we noticed what seemed to us to be an incongruity in the data. In one instance teachers seemed to favour subjectivity in science teaching, but in another instance the views of science from the same teachers were distinctly objective. For some time we tried to make sense of this incongruity. In the midst of the confusion an emergent perspective surfaced concerning our own subjectivities in interpreting the data. We postponed the initial intention in interpreting the data—to evaluate the impact of the workshops—and our problem became the contradiction found in the data. Our emergent research questions underlying this article thus focused on methodological issues in terms of: (1) which epistemological standpoint did we take in analysing the data? (2) what possible different standpoints were taken by the subjects? and (3) what are the implications if different standpoints are taken? The purpose of this article, therefore, is to present our developing engagement with the data, a meta-reflection about the lenses we used in interpreting the data. © 2014 Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education (SAARMSTE).


Gomes A.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Azevedo A.,University of Porto | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | And 3 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2010

In 2005 we evaluated a nationally representative sample of the Mozambican adult population (n = 2913; 25-64 years old) following the STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance to estimate urban-rural differences in overweight and obesity and waist circumferences. The prevalences of obesity and overweight were, respectively, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1-8.6) and 11.8% (95% CI: 8.4-15.4) among women, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.1-3.6) and 9.4% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1) among men. Overweight/obesity was more frequent in urban settings (age-, income- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios; women, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.82-4.18; men, 1.76, 95% CI: 0.80-3.85). The average waist circumference in Mozambique was 75.2 cm (95% CI: 74.3-76.0) in women, significantly higher in urban than rural areas (age-, income- and education-adjusted β = 3.6 cm, 95% CI: 1.6-5.5) and 76.1 cm (95% CI: 75.0-77.3) in men, with no urban-rural differences (adjusted β = 1.3 cm, 95% CI: -0.9 to 3.5). Our results show urban-rural differences, as expected in a country under epidemiological transition, with urban areas presenting a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, but age- and education-specific estimates suggesting a trend towards smaller divergences. The development and implementation of strategies to manage the foreseeable obesity-related healthcare demands are needed. © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Padrao P.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | Lunet N.,University of Porto
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity, by intensity and domain, across urban and rural areas in Mozambican adults. Method: A national representative sample (n=3323) of subjects aged 25-64. years was evaluated in 2005 following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS), which includes the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We computed prevalences, and age- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR), with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Most of the Mozambicans reported a high physical activity level, according to the WHO criteria (urban women: 83.2%, 95%CI 77.4, 89.0; rural women: 93.2%, 95%CI 89.0, 97.3; urban men: 78.9%, 95%CI 74.7, 83.1; rural men: 91.6%, 95%CI 85.5, 97.6). The prevalences of <75. min/week of vigorous activities were higher in urban settings (women: PR=2.21; men: PR=2.28) and increased with education, regardless of place of residence (PR ranging between 1.75 and 5.72 for more vs. less educated subjects). Work activities were the most important contributor to the overall physical activity, followed by transport. Conclusion: Most of the Mozambicans reported to be physically active. Vigorous activities were less common in urban areas and among the more educated subjects, depicting an ongoing shift to more sedentary behaviours in this setting. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Gomes A.,University of Porto | Azevedo A.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Aim: The growing trend towards and deficient management of diabetes in Africa are important public-health challenges requiring surveillance. For this reason, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural Mozambique, and to describe its management. Methods: In 2005, a representative sample of the national Mozambican adult population (n=2343) was evaluated, according to the STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS). Twelve-hour fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured, using fingertip capillary whole blood, to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG; FBG ≥ 5.6. mmol/L and less than 6.1. mmol/L) and diabetes (FBG ≥ 6.1. mmol/L, or treatment with insulin and/or oral blood glucose-lowering drugs). Patients' awareness and management of diabetes were assessed by questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of diabetes and IFG was 2.9% [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.8-4.0] and 2.5% (95%CI: 1.3-3.7), respectively. Diabetes was more frequent among urban dwellers (OR = 2.92, 95%CI: 1.45-5.86), mostly due to urban-rural differences in age, education, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (adjusted OR = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.83-6.26). In all, 13% of those with diabetes were aware of their condition, 10.9% had undergone glycaemia determination during the previous year, and 9% were being treated with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs and 3% with insulin. Conclusion: Diabetes prevalence is low in Mozambique, but most diabetic patients were neither aware of their condition nor being treated pharmacologically, thus posing serious challenges to the provision of adequate care in an already disadvantageous context. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Padrao P.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Laszczynska O.,University of Porto | And 2 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

This study aimed to describe alcohol consumption in Mozambique, discriminating binge drinking behaviour and the weekday variation in drinking patterns, and to quantify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol intake.A representative sample of 3265 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in 2005 following the World Health Organization Stepwise approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS). The consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage, during life and in the previous year, was recorded. Current drinkers were also asked about the number of standard drinks consumed in each day of the previous week.The overall prevalence of current dinking was 28.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 22.6-35.2] in women and 57.7% (95% CI: 49.8-65.7) in men. Forty percent of the current drinkers reported to have had at least one binge drinking occasion in the previous week. The prevalence of current drinking increased with age and education among women and with income among men. No consistent pattern was observed in binge drinking by education in both genders and by annual income among men, but it was significantly less frequent among the more affluent women. Both drinking and binge drinking peaked at the weekend.Knowing the drinking patterns in Mozambique enables the planning of interventions according to the local needs. Future surveys should also include non-adult populations as risk factors for chronic diseases occurs as early as childhood and adolescence, and are associated with increased risk of disease later in life. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ramalhete C.,University of Lisbon | Lopes D.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Molnar J.,University of Szeged | Mulhovo S.,University Pedagogica | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Karavilagenin C (1), a cucurbitane-type triterpenoid, previously isolated from the aerial parts of Momordica balsamina, was acylated with different alkanoyl, aroyl and cinnamoyl chlorides/anydrides, yielding ten new mono or diesters, karavoates F (7) and H-P (8-16). Furthermore, the new compound cucurbalsaminol C (17) was isolated from the same plant. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 17 and the acyl derivatives 8-16 along with other five esters (2-6, karavoates A-E), previously prepared from 1, were evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and the chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 1 exhibited a moderate activity and 17 was inactive. However, a remarkable antiplasmodial activity was observed for most of karavilagenin C alkanoyl and monoaroyl/cynamoyl derivatives. Karavoates B, D, E, I, and M were the most active, displaying IC50 values similar to those found for chloroquine, particularly against the resistant strain (IC50 <0.6 μM). Structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary toxicity toward human cells of compounds 1-17 was also evaluated in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Most of the esters showed no toxicity, displaying, in general, much higher selectivity index values than those obtained for the parent compound. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ramalhete C.,University of Lisbon | Magalhaes L.,University of Franca | Rodrigues V.,University of Sao Paulo | Mulhovo S.,University Pedagogica | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2012

Five cucurbitane-type triterpenes (1-5), previously isolated from the African medicinal plant Momordica balsamina, along with five ester derivatives (6-10) of karavilagenin C (2), were evaluated for their potential schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The natural compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of M. balsamina. In a preliminary study, a significant schistosomicidal activity was observed for both the crude methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. The compounds responsible for the activity were found to be balsaminol F (1) and karavilagenin C (2) with LCvalues of 14.7 ± 1.5 and 28.9 ± 1.8 μM, respectively, after 24 h of incubation (positive control praziquantel, LC= 1.2 ± 0.1 μM). Both compounds (1, 2), at 10-50 μM, induced significant reductions in the motor activity of the worms and significantly decreased the egg production. Furthermore, they were able (at 10-100 μM) to separate the adult worm pairs into male and female after 24 h. Compounds 3-5, bearing a sugar moiety as a substituent, and the acylated derivatives of karavilagenin C (6-10) were inactive, suggesting that the presence of free hydroxyl groups in the tetracyclic skeleton might be important for the activity. A correlation between activity and the molecular volume/weight of compounds was also found. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Munyaradzi M.,University of Cape Town | Munyaradzi M.,University Pedagogica
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2011

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. © Mawere Munyaradzi et al.


Munyaradzi M.,University of Cape Town | Munyaradzi M.,University Pedagogica
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2011

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem.


Gudo E.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | Jani I.V.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors independently associated with APFP. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique during the dry season. Apparently healthy children and adolescents were selected for the study. Results: Blood samples were collected from 348 participants. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 56.5% (194/343) of study subjects. APFP was more frequent in males and was associated with lower values of hemoglobin and platelets measurements. Parasitized and not parasitized individuals were similar in terms of lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelet count was the parameter with strongest association with APFP (OR: 0.991, p= 0.000) in children and its performance in guiding clinical suspicion was moderate (AUC: 0.70, p=0.000). Contrarily, in adolescents, the predictive value of platelets counts was low (AUC: 0.55).Conclusion: Overall, our finding demonstrated that APFP is highly prevalent in regions endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and was associated with lower hematological parameters but unaltered lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelets count was of moderate performance in guiding clinical suspicion of APFP in children but not in adolescents. © 2013 Gudo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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