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Munyaradzi M.,University of Cape Town | Munyaradzi M.,University Pedagogica
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2011

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. © Mawere Munyaradzi et al.


Munyaradzi M.,University of Cape Town | Munyaradzi M.,University Pedagogica
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2011

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem.


Ramalhete C.,University of Lisbon | Magalhaes L.,University of Franca | Rodrigues V.,University of Sao Paulo | Mulhovo S.,University Pedagogica | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2012

Five cucurbitane-type triterpenes (1-5), previously isolated from the African medicinal plant Momordica balsamina, along with five ester derivatives (6-10) of karavilagenin C (2), were evaluated for their potential schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The natural compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of M. balsamina. In a preliminary study, a significant schistosomicidal activity was observed for both the crude methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. The compounds responsible for the activity were found to be balsaminol F (1) and karavilagenin C (2) with LCvalues of 14.7 ± 1.5 and 28.9 ± 1.8 μM, respectively, after 24 h of incubation (positive control praziquantel, LC= 1.2 ± 0.1 μM). Both compounds (1, 2), at 10-50 μM, induced significant reductions in the motor activity of the worms and significantly decreased the egg production. Furthermore, they were able (at 10-100 μM) to separate the adult worm pairs into male and female after 24 h. Compounds 3-5, bearing a sugar moiety as a substituent, and the acylated derivatives of karavilagenin C (6-10) were inactive, suggesting that the presence of free hydroxyl groups in the tetracyclic skeleton might be important for the activity. A correlation between activity and the molecular volume/weight of compounds was also found. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Ramalhete C.,University of Lisbon | Lopes D.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Molnar J.,University of Szeged | Mulhovo S.,University Pedagogica | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Karavilagenin C (1), a cucurbitane-type triterpenoid, previously isolated from the aerial parts of Momordica balsamina, was acylated with different alkanoyl, aroyl and cinnamoyl chlorides/anydrides, yielding ten new mono or diesters, karavoates F (7) and H-P (8-16). Furthermore, the new compound cucurbalsaminol C (17) was isolated from the same plant. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 17 and the acyl derivatives 8-16 along with other five esters (2-6, karavoates A-E), previously prepared from 1, were evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and the chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 1 exhibited a moderate activity and 17 was inactive. However, a remarkable antiplasmodial activity was observed for most of karavilagenin C alkanoyl and monoaroyl/cynamoyl derivatives. Karavoates B, D, E, I, and M were the most active, displaying IC50 values similar to those found for chloroquine, particularly against the resistant strain (IC50 <0.6 μM). Structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary toxicity toward human cells of compounds 1-17 was also evaluated in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Most of the esters showed no toxicity, displaying, in general, much higher selectivity index values than those obtained for the parent compound. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gudo E.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | Jani I.V.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors independently associated with APFP. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique during the dry season. Apparently healthy children and adolescents were selected for the study. Results: Blood samples were collected from 348 participants. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 56.5% (194/343) of study subjects. APFP was more frequent in males and was associated with lower values of hemoglobin and platelets measurements. Parasitized and not parasitized individuals were similar in terms of lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelet count was the parameter with strongest association with APFP (OR: 0.991, p= 0.000) in children and its performance in guiding clinical suspicion was moderate (AUC: 0.70, p=0.000). Contrarily, in adolescents, the predictive value of platelets counts was low (AUC: 0.55).Conclusion: Overall, our finding demonstrated that APFP is highly prevalent in regions endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and was associated with lower hematological parameters but unaltered lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelets count was of moderate performance in guiding clinical suspicion of APFP in children but not in adolescents. © 2013 Gudo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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