Jolly-Saad M.-C.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Duperon-Laudoueneix M.,UMR 5143 paleobiodiversite and paleoenvironnements |
Duperon J.,UMR 5143 paleobiodiversite and paleoenvironnements |
Bonnefille R.,British Petroleum
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2010
In this article we describe the microscopic structures of a silicified piece of wood collected in the Middle Awash Valley (Ethiopia). The fossil wood was extracted from sediment precisely dated 4.4 Ma. Its attribution to the Ficoxylon species is based upon detailed comparison with published data and with comparisons of some modern species of the genus Ficus and similar characters encountered in fossil woods from West Africa, Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia previously described and attributed to this taxon. © 2009 Académie des sciences.
PubMed | University Pierre and Marie Curie, University of Granada, Basque Center on Cognition and University Paris Ouest La Defense
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
Only a small fraction of all the information reaching our senses can be the object of conscious report or voluntary action. Although some models propose that different attentional states (top-down amplification and vigilance) are necessary for conscious perception, few studies have explored how the brain activations associated with different attentional systems (such as top-down orienting and phasic alerting) lead to conscious perception of subsequent visual stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural mechanisms associated with endogenous spatial attention and phasic alertness, and their interaction with the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. The only region demonstrating a neural interaction between endogenous attention and conscious perception was the thalamus, while a larger network of cortical and subcortical brain activations, typically associated with phasic alerting, was highly correlated with participants conscious reports. Activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields, thalamus, and caudate nucleus was related to perceptual consciousness. These data suggest that not all attentional systems are equally effective in enhancing conscious perception, highlighting the importance of thalamo-cortical circuits on the interactions between alerting and consciousness.
Fournet F.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Cussac M.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Cussac M.,University Paris Ouest la Defense |
Ouari A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss |
And 6 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010
Background: Several cases of malaria are frequently recorded during the dry period in Ouagadougou town (Burkina Faso). This has led to the design of a series of studies focusing on both parasitological and entomological investigations intended to provide relevant health data on the risk of local malaria transmission according to the way of urbanisation. Methods. A cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out in various districts of Ouagadougou in April and October 2006. Adult malaria vectors were collected using CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying performed in four houses during four consecutive days/nights. Intensive larval sampling was also done in available water ponds throughout the study sites. Results. In April, the anopheline breeding sites consisted only of semi-permanent or permanent swamps located mainly in the two peripheral districts. Despite the presence of anopheline larvae in these breeding sites, less than five Anopheles gambiae s.l. adults were caught by CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying. In October, additionally to the permanent breeding sites reported in April, some rainfall swamps were also found positive to anophelines. The number of adults' mosquitoes was higher than that collected in April (2 vs 159 in October). Out of 115 larvae of An. gambiae s.l. analysed by PCR in April, 59.1% (68/115) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis, 39.1% (45/115) as An. gambiae M while the S form represented less than 2%. Overall 120 larvae and 86 females were identified by PCR in October as An. gambiae M form (51%) and An. arabiensis (42.2%). The S form represented only 6.8%. The global sporozoite rate recorded was high (6.8%) and did not differ between the districts except in the central district where no positive mosquito was detected. Conclusion. Although only few adults' mosquitoes were actively caught during the driest month, malaria vectors persisted all year long that increases the risk of urban malaria transmission. The distribution of breeding sites and especially the occurrence of malaria vectors were more abundant in the periphery, which is more like that of a rural settlement. The evolution of malaria prevalence and the factors sustaining the risk of transmission in Ouagadougou as well in many African cities during the dry season are discussed. © 2010 Fournet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kotbagi G.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense |
Muller I.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center |
Romo L.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense |
Kern L.,University Paris Ouest la Defense
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2014
Behavioral addictions are of growing interest in today's world indicating the need for novel therapeutic methods of biopsychosocial type. Amongst the numerous behavioral addictions, our clinical experience at CAPS (Centre d'Accompagnement et de Prévention pour les Sportifs) brought to our attention the problem of exercise dependency in sports population. This addiction categorized as positive addiction faces a significant problem with respect to definitions, epidemiology, models, diagnostic criteria and measurement scales. Through this clinical case study, we intend to throw light upon the different aspects of this addiction, particularly its co-occurrence with eating disorders and methods of treatment. Unlike other addictions where the consequences are said to be harmful, exercise dependency is valorized by the individual and society. This article also throws light upon the different measurement scales used to quantify exercise dependency. It also discusses the clinical significance of a tool being currently validated which aims to evaluate the intricacy of exercise dependency and eating disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Milhau A.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Brouillet T.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Brouillet D.,Montpellier University
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2015
According to the body specificity hypothesis, the way we interact with our environment participates in our conceptualization of concepts and word meanings. For instance, valence is associated to horizontal space because of the motor fluency by which one acts with one's dominant hand. We propose that the decisive factor in the compatibility effects between valence and lateral actions is the interaction between the fluency of response movement and the situational constraints of the task. In a valence judgement task with positive and negative words, right-handers (Experiment 1) and left-handers (Experiment 2) responded with lateralized actions of either their dominant or their nondominant hand. To do so, we used a response device that was either congruent or noncongruent with the fluency of the response hand. Results highlighted that when the response device was congruent with the fluency of the responding hand, response times to positive evaluations were shorter than those to negative evaluations. Conversely, when the response device was noncongruent with the fluency of the responding hand, we observed faster responses for negative evaluations than for positive evaluations. Furthermore, we obtained similar patterns for right- and left-handers, supporting the idea that compatibility effects are driven by the situated fluency of the responding hand. © 2014, The Experimental Psychology Society.
Poupart F.,Center hospitalier Leon Jean Gregory |
Pirlot G.,University Paris Ouest La defense
Evolution Psychiatrique | Year: 2011
The notion of hysterical psychosis implies the paradox of a psychotic genitality. Leaning on the psychoanalytic, phenomenological and gestaltist approach of Gisela Pankow, we try to define this nosographic entity, by underlining in a patient a special kind of relationship with imagos and own body we called dialectic of penetration. In that kind of pathological functioning, De Clérambault's syndrome could be understood as the realization, in the psychotic experience area, of a sort of intrusive genital sexuality, and delusion as a new performance of œdipal drama on the delusional scene. We finally question the place of a lacunar Oedipus complex in non-schizophrenic psychoses. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Jolly-Saad M.-C.,University Paris Ouest la Defense |
Bonnefille R.,Aix - Marseille University
Palaeontographica Abteilung B: Palaeophytologie | Year: 2012
The Middle Awash palaeontological study area in Ethiopia is widely known for the recovery of abundant faunal remains including the recently discovered hominid Ardipithecus ramidus. In this paper, we describe eleven new fossil wood specimens from three distinct units of the Pliocene Sagantole Formation. The anatomical (xylotomical) characters of the silicified woods were studied using thinsections. The material has been assigned to five species of five genera and five (botanical) families. These species are Anogeissus cf. leiocarpus (Combretaceae) and Vitex cf. simplicifolia (Verbenaceae) from the Haradaso Member (4.85 Ma), Syzygium cf. guineense (Myrtaceae) from the Aramis Member (4.4 Ma), Ficus sp. (Moraceae) and Rothmannia cf. whitfieldii (Rubiaceae) from the Adgantole Member (4.3 Ma). Our comparison of the Middle Awash wood with the fossil record is mainly focused on African records and their stratigraphic and palaeogeographic data. The distribution of the respective nearest living relative species provides remarkable palaeoenvironmental information. Ficus sp. and Rothmannia whitfieldii have modern representatives in the riparian forest along the Awash River. Anogeissus leiocarpus, Vitex simplicifolia, and Syzygium guineense are not present in the present-day steppic vegetation at low elevations but can be found in different forests on the Ethiopian plateaux. They indicate wetter palaeoclimatic conditions at the Middle Awash area during the lower Pliocene. ©2012 E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.
Representation of illness and of treatment side effects as determinants of adherence to treatment of HIV patients [Les représentations de la maladie et des effets secondaires du traitement antirétroviral comme déterminants de lobservance chez les patients VIH]
Ferreira C.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Gay M.-C.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Regnier-Aeberhard F.,Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales |
Bricaire F.,Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2010
One of the major axes of the current research in the field of HIV concerns the problems of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment (ART). It proves that a quasi-perfect adherence is necessary so that the treatment is effective. In this study, the authors studied one of the determinants of the adherence: the patient's representations relating to his/her disease, its treatment and its side effects. The self-regulation model proposed by Leventhal (1980) postulates that patients suffering from a chronic illness construct a representation of their disease containing several dimensions to give it sense. The impact of these dimensions on adherence to treatment was demonstrated in various chronic illnesses. In the field of HIV, two studies relate to this subject, but require to be deepened. Therefore, the authors set up a study to complete these data with 61 HIV patients under antiretroviral treatment recruited by means of the service of the infectious and tropical diseases of the hospital of Pitié-Salpêtrière in Paris. Illness representation and representation of treatment's side effects were evaluated using the self-administered questionnaire of illness representation: the IPQ-R (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire [Psychol Health 17 (2002) 1-16]). Adherence to ART was evaluated using the self-administered questionnaire of adherence worked out by Tarquinio et al. [Rev Int Psychol Soc 2 (2000) 61-91] and revised by Gauchet [Les déterminants psychosociaux de l'observance thérapeutique chez les personnes infectées par le VIH : représentations et valeurs. Thèse de Doctorat non publiée. France: Université de Metz; 2005]. The results indicate that illness representation has an influence on adherence. Furthermore, HIV patients build a representation of the side effects which is different than the representation of symptoms attributed to the HIV. It turns out that the representation of personal control, the representation of the cause of contagion, as well as that of the side effects influence adherence to ART. These results indicate that the self-regulation model proposed by Leventhal provides a theoretical base to understanding the behavior of coping with illness in the case of HIV. Moreover, they give arguments in favour of the implementation and of the evaluation of the efficiency of behavioral and cognitive therapies or therapies of counseling to increase adherence of HIV patients. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Freddi S.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Tessier M.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Lacrampe R.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Dru V.,University Paris Ouest La Defense
British Journal of Social Psychology | Year: 2014
Several studies have shown that social judgement may be defined by two dimensions, competence and warmth. From a functional perspective, embodied theories have proposed that warmth may be associated with physical distance, whereas competence may be connected to a vertical motion (UPWARD/DOWNWARD). Two main studies were conducted to examine if approach-avoidance and vertical motion could influence affective judgements about traits representing these two social dimensions. Valence judgements about warmth traits that were moving towards the subject resulted in more positive judgement than when they were moving away (approach/avoidance). Furthermore, competence traits were judged more positively when they moved in an UPWARD direction, compared with when they moved DOWNWARD. A metacognitive account of confidence is offered to explain how cognitions about warmth and competence are connected to the physical world. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Elbeze Rimasson D.,University Paris Ouest La Defense |
Gay M.-C.,University Paris Ouest La Defense
Annales Medico-Psychologiques | Year: 2012
Pain mobilizes numerous psychological variables, which involve the interaction of cognitions (attention, interpretation of the situation), feelings (fear, anger, anxiety) and behaviors (immobilization, avoidance). These various aspects generally have an adaptive role, necessary for the conservation of the body. However, in chronic pain, these mechanisms can become dysfunctional and cannot answer their initial function, and can even influence the appearance of psychopathologies. In this framework, feelings and emotional processing play an important role in the modulation of the intensity of sensory and emotional aspects of pain. In this particular case, suppression, emotional avoidance and alexithymia are associated with a greater intensity of the sensory or emotional aspects of pain. Although recent studies have employed relatively rigorous methodological devices, sometimes they used many tools which do not yet measure the dysfunction directly. Furthermore, emotional suppression was mainly studied during anger, which constitutes a specific phenomenon that cannot be generalized to all emotions. New studies are to be envisaged which would allow in particular the study of the effect of unregulated (insufficient control of experience or emotional expression) and untreated (arousing intrusive thoughts and the obstinacy of the emotional experience) emotions, defined by Baker et al. (2007), and the use of a tool permitting the differentiation and measurement of all possible dysfunctions. They could also allow for the control of the concomitant presence of various emotional dysfunctions in participants. Ideally, the realization of forward-looking studies could define the nature of the links between emotional dysfunctions and chronic pain. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.