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Abstract This paper analyzes the work of Eva Feder Kittay and studies in particular the role played in her philosophical reflection by her experience as a mother of a child with a severe cognitive disability. Kittay's critic of standard theories of justice, her redefinition of moral personhood as well as her reflection on the relationships between normality and the good life all stem from this experience. By taking it into account, Kittay is able to see problems and to raise questions that usually go unnoticed in traditional philosophy. Thus, her work illustrates how theoretically fruitful and how ethically central is the acknowledgement of personal experience. It also shows that philosophical work, when based on this acknowledgment, can become a form of care work. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Association ALTER. Source

Verdier M.,University Paris Ouest Nanterre
International Journal of Industrial Organization

Interchange fees are interbank transfers that are used by payment platforms to allocate the total cost of a payment card transaction between the cardholder's bank (the Issuer) and the merchant's bank (the Acquirer). Each time a consumer pays by card, the Issuer of the card pays an interchange fee to the Acquirer of the transaction. In this paper, I study how banks' investments in payment card systems impact the privately and the socially optimal interchange fees. I show that if the Acquirer's contribution to investments is high, and if the consumers benefit more than the merchants from investments, the payment platform may decide to lower the interchange fee so as to encourage banks' investments in quality. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ferreira A.J.M.,University of Porto | Carrera E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Cinefra M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Roque C.M.C.,University of Porto | Polit O.,University Paris Ouest Nanterre
Composites Part B: Engineering

In this paper, the static and free vibration analysis of laminated shells is performed by radial basis functions collocation, according to a sinusoidal shear deformation theory (SSDT). The SSDT theory accounts for through-the-thickness deformation, by considering a sinusoidal evolution of all displacements with the thickness coordinate. The equations of motion and the boundary conditions are obtained by the Carrera's Unified Formulation, and further interpolated by collocation with radial basis functions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Pepin F.,University Paris Ouest Nanterre
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

Did the Enlightenment anticipate modern reflections about the role of chance within cells or in living beings? No, especially if one pays attention to the very different scientific context of that periods and takes care to distrust the concept of " precursors" Nonetheless, several thinkers of the Enlightenment, scientists or philosophers, have constructed an opposition between the random and order that shares some links with modern concerns. More precisely, philosophers like Diderot and some physicians, chemists or naturalists, have articulated the necessity and contingency in opposition to the idea of an absolute natural order and to any preformed "germ" explaining the development of animals. But I will argue that this subtle concept also diverges from the idea of a universal determinism developed by Laplace. There is a way to deal with natural necessity and the universal interdependence of phenomena without excluding the random, going beyond the classical - though posterior to the eighteenth century - opposition between determinism and indeterminism. Particularly with Diderot, the Enlightenment presents an epistemology of the random loosely attached to the natural sciences, producing a philosophical reflection that can be linked with some modern issues of biology.I examine two examples: the criticism of the explanation of order by order, and the thesis that probability can tell us something about natural productions through the idea of randomized "expression," e.g., stochastic expression of genes for modern molecular biology and expressions of natural forms for Diderot. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vandevoorde J.,University Paris Ouest Nanterre | Le Borgne P.,Hopital Rene Dubos
Annales Medico-Psychologiques

This article offers a synthesis of available strategies to deal with a suicidal crisis. After recalling prior arrangements before any psychological intervention of this kind (updated beliefs of the caregivers, cons-attitude, handling of specific interview techniques), an overview of the available literature on the subject allows the suggestion of an action plan, named model GERE, composed of four stages: the immediate crisis management, psychological evaluation of suicidal processes, replenishment of the crisis, enunciation of the action plan. Singular processes of each of these stages are exposed. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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