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Paris, France

Paris Diderot University - Paris 7, also known as Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, is a leading French University located in Paris, France. It is one of the heirs of the Faculty of science of the University of Paris , which, founded in the mid-12th century, was one of the earliest universities established in Europe. It adopted its current name in 1994.Featuring two Nobel Prize laureates, a Fields Medal winner and two former French Ministers of Education among its faculty or former faculty, the University is famous for its teaching in science, especially in mathematics. Indeed many fundamental results of the theory of Probability have been discovered at one of its research centers, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires . The university is also known for its teaching in psychology, which adopts a specific approach drawing from both the domains of psychopathology and psychoanalysis.But the University also hosts many others disciplines: currently, there are 2300 educators and researchers, 1100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanities, science, and medicine.Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité which is a Public Institution for Scientific Cooperation bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes.Formerly based at the Jussieu Campus in the 5th arrondissement, the University moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighborhood. The first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has many facilities in Paris, and two in other parts of the general area. In 2012, the University completed its move in its new ultra-modern campus. Wikipedia.

Logeart D.,University Paris Diderot
European journal of heart failure | Year: 2013

To improve knowledge of epidemiological data, management, and clinical outcome of acute heart failure (AHF) in a real-life setting in France. We conducted an observational survey constituting a single-day snapshot of all unplanned hospitalizations because of AHF in 170 hospitals throughout France (the OFICA survey). A total of 1658 patients (median age 79 years, 55% male) were included. Family doctors were the first medical contact in 43% of cases, and patients were admitted through emergency departments in 64% of cases. Clinical scenarios were mainly acutely decompensated HF (48%) and acute pulmonary oedema (38%) with similar clinical and biological characteristics as well as outcome. Characteristics were different and severity higher in both shock and right HF. Infection and arrhythmia were the most frequent precipitating factors (27% and 24% of cases); diabetes and chronic pulmonary disease were the most frequent co-morbidities (31% and 21%). Over 80% of patients underwent both natriuretic peptide testing and echocardiography. LVEF was preserved (>50%) in 36% of patients and associated with specific characteristics and lower severity. Median hospital stay was 13 days; in-hospital mortality was 8.2%, and independent predictors were age, blood pressure, and creatinine. Treatment at discharge in patients with reduced LVEF included ACE inhibitors/ARBs, beta-blockers, and aldosterone inhibitors in 78, 67, and 27% cases. Non-surgical devices were reported in <20% of potential candidates. This comprehensive survey analysing AHF in real life emphasizes the heterogeneous nature and overall high severity of AHF. It could be a useful tool to identify unsolved medical issues and improve outcome. Trial registration: NCT01080937. Source

Carusotto I.,University of Trento | Ciuti C.,University Paris Diderot
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

This article reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in the fundamental understanding and active control of quantum fluids of light in nonlinear optical systems. In the presence of effective photon-photon interactions induced by the optical nonlinearity of the medium, a many-photon system can behave collectively as a quantum fluid with a number of novel features stemming from its intrinsically nonequilibrium nature. A rich variety of recently observed photon hydrodynamical effects is presented, from the superfluid flow around a defect at low speeds, to the appearance of a Mach-Cherenkov cone in a supersonic flow, to the hydrodynamic formation of topological excitations such as quantized vortices and dark solitons at the surface of large impenetrable obstacles. While the review is mostly focused on a specific class of semiconductor systems that have been extensively studied in recent years (planar semiconductor microcavities in the strong light-matter coupling regime having cavity polaritons as elementary excitations), the very concept of quantum fluids of light applies to a broad spectrum of systems, ranging from bulk nonlinear crystals, to atomic clouds embedded in optical fibers and cavities, to photonic crystal cavities, to superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions. The conclusive part of the article is devoted to a review of the future perspectives in the direction of strongly correlated photon gases and of artificial gauge fields for photons. In particular, several mechanisms to obtain efficient photon blockade are presented, together with their application to the generation of novel quantum phases. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Kervestin S.,University Paris Diderot | Jacobson A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Although most mRNA molecules derived from protein-coding genes are destined to be translated into functional polypeptides, some are eliminated by cellular quality control pathways that collectively perform the task of mRNA surveillance. In the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway premature translation termination promotes the recruitment of a set of factors that destabilize a targeted mRNA. The same factors also seem to have key roles in repressing the translation of the mRNA, dissociating its terminating ribosome and messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs), promoting the degradation of its truncated polypeptide product and possibly even feeding back to the site of transcription to interfere with splicing of the primary transcript. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Membrane proteins (MPs) are usually handled in aqueous solutions as protein/detergent complexes. Detergents, however, tend to be inactivating. This situation has prompted the design of alternative surfactants that can be substituted for detergents once target proteins have been extracted from biological membranes and that keep them soluble in aqueous buffers while stabilizing them. The present review focuses on three such systems: Amphipols (APols) are amphipathic polymers that adsorb onto the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of MPs; nanodiscs (NDs) are small patches of lipid bilayer whose rim is stabilized by amphipathic proteins; fluorinated surfactants (FSs) resemble detergents but interfere less than detergents do with stabilizing protein/protein and protein/lipid interactions. The structure and properties of each of these three systems are described, as well as those of the complexes they form with MPs. Their respective usefulness, constraints, and prospects for functional and structural studies of MPs are discussed. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Donaldson J.G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Jackson C.L.,University Paris Diderot
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of guanine-nucleotide- binding (G) proteins, including the ARF-like (ARL) proteins and SAR1, regulate membrane traffic and organelle structure by recruiting cargo-sorting coat proteins, modulating membrane lipid composition, and interacting with regulators of other G proteins. New roles of ARF and ARL proteins are emerging, including novel functions at the Golgi complex and in cilia formation. Their function is under tight spatial control, which is mediated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that catalyse GTP exchange and hydrolysis, respectively. Important advances are being gained in our understanding of the functional networks that are formed not only by the GEFs and GAPs themselves but also by the inactive forms of the ARF proteins. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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