Paris, France
Paris, France

Paris Diderot University - Paris 7, also known as Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, is a leading French University located in Paris, France. It is one of the heirs of the Faculty of science of the University of Paris , which, founded in the mid-12th century, was one of the earliest universities established in Europe. It adopted its current name in 1994.Featuring two Nobel Prize laureates, a Fields Medal winner and two former French Ministers of Education among its faculty or former faculty, the University is famous for its teaching in science, especially in mathematics. Indeed many fundamental results of the theory of Probability have been discovered at one of its research centers, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires . The university is also known for its teaching in psychology, which adopts a specific approach drawing from both the domains of psychopathology and psychoanalysis.But the University also hosts many others disciplines: currently, there are 2300 educators and researchers, 1100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanities, science, and medicine.Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité which is a Public Institution for Scientific Cooperation bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes.Formerly based at the Jussieu Campus in the 5th arrondissement, the University moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighborhood. The first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has many facilities in Paris, and two in other parts of the general area. In 2012, the University completed its move in its new ultra-modern campus. Wikipedia.


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Patent
French Institute of Health, Medical Research and University Paris Diderot | Date: 2015-04-09

The present invention relates to a method for preventing Gram-negative bacterial colonization of an oropharyngeal material, the said method comprising bringing into contact a composition comprising a cranberry-derived proanthocyanidin extract on at least a part of the surface area of the said material.


Patent
French National Center for Scientific Research and University Paris Diderot | Date: 2015-05-04

The present invention relates to porphyrins of formula (I): wherein R^(1 )to R^(6), R^(1) to R^(6), X, X Y and Y are as described in claim 1. The invention also relates to complexes of said porphyrins with transition metals, in particular iron, preferably as Fe(III) or Fe(0) complex, and salts thereof, use thereof as catalysts for the selective electrochemical reduction of CO_(2 )into CO, electrochemical cells comprising said complexes, and a method for selectively reducing electrochemically CO_(2 )into CO using said complexes.


Patent
French Institute of Health, Medical Research, University Paris Diderot, University of Paris 13 and Assistance Publique Hopitaux De Paris | Date: 2016-11-22

The present invention relates to various soluble forms of CD31, including a novel form which is shed by activated platelets and released into the circulation. Methods for detecting said soluble forms of CD31 are disclosed, as are methods of specifically 1 detecting said platelet-derived shed CD31 and the use of such methods as a diagnostic tool.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 7.15M | Year: 2016

Viral infections diagnosis demands novel, cheaper and rapid technologies to overcome present constraints. Current gold standard for diagnosis of viral infections is based on pathogen-targeted nucleic acid identification; thus, it cannot discern infectious stages from latent ones and it demands time consuming adjustments when mutations occur or new emerging viruses are to be included in the diagnostic protocols. Lately, optomechanics has served to fundamental advancements in physics, from gravitational wave detection to the study of mechanical quantum ground states but it has not yet delivered its full applicability potential. VIRUSCAN aims to apply frontier advancements in optomechanics to the biosensing and diagnostic fields and to create a new interdisciplinary research community with the goal to advance optomechanics, nanoelectromechanics, native mass spectrometry and biophysics towards clinical applications. VIRUSCAN will provide a novel technology capable to identify viral particles and asses their infective potential through the characterization of two physical parameters: mass and stiffness. Stiffness of viral particles has been recently known to act as a regulator of their infectivity at different stages of the virus life cycle. In parallel, advancements in nanoelectromechanical systems have recently demonstrated that stiffness and mass information from nanoscale adsorbates can be disentangled. Targeting intrinsic physical properties of viral particles will allow developing an open platform that will tackle any virus and their mutations. VIRUSCAN will have impact at all levels by: providing a personalized treatment to the patients, reducing the use of not effective antibiotics, increasing safety in blood transfusions, allowing a quick and trustworthy response to emergency situations (e.g. recent EBOLA in West Africa and the ZIKA in Brazil), reducing the spread of viral infections, reducing costs per analysis and screening of a wide range of pathogens.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 5.82M | Year: 2017

Social media and the digitization of news and discussion fora are having far-reaching effects on the way individuals and communities communicate, organize, and express themselves. Can the information circulating on these platforms be tapped to better understand and analyze the enormous problems facing our contemporary society? Could this help us to better monitor the growing number of social crises due to cultural differences and diverging world-views? Would this facilitate early detection and perhaps even ways to resolve conflicts before they lead to violence? The Odycceus project answers all these questions affirmatively. It will develop the conceptual foundations, methodologies, and tools to translate this bold vision into reality and demonstrate its power in a large number of cases. Specifically, the project seeks conceptual breakthroughs in Global Systems Science, including a fine-grained representation of cultural conflicts based on conceptual spaces and sophisticated text analysis, extensions of game theory to handle games with both divergent interests and divergent mindsets, and new models of alignment and polarization dynamics. The project will also develop an open modular platform, called Penelope, that integrates tools for the complete pipeline, from data scraped from social media and digital sources, to visualization of the analyses and models developed by the project. The platform features an infrastructure allowing developers to provide new plug-ins for additional steps in the pipeline, share them with others, and jointly develop the platform as an open source community. Finally, the project will build two innovative participatory tools, the Opinion Observatory and the Opinion Facilitator, which allow citizens to monitor, visualize and influence the dynamics of conflict situations that involve heterogeneous cultural biases and non-transparent entanglements of multilateral interests.


Carusotto I.,University of Trento | Ciuti C.,University Paris Diderot
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

This article reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in the fundamental understanding and active control of quantum fluids of light in nonlinear optical systems. In the presence of effective photon-photon interactions induced by the optical nonlinearity of the medium, a many-photon system can behave collectively as a quantum fluid with a number of novel features stemming from its intrinsically nonequilibrium nature. A rich variety of recently observed photon hydrodynamical effects is presented, from the superfluid flow around a defect at low speeds, to the appearance of a Mach-Cherenkov cone in a supersonic flow, to the hydrodynamic formation of topological excitations such as quantized vortices and dark solitons at the surface of large impenetrable obstacles. While the review is mostly focused on a specific class of semiconductor systems that have been extensively studied in recent years (planar semiconductor microcavities in the strong light-matter coupling regime having cavity polaritons as elementary excitations), the very concept of quantum fluids of light applies to a broad spectrum of systems, ranging from bulk nonlinear crystals, to atomic clouds embedded in optical fibers and cavities, to photonic crystal cavities, to superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions. The conclusive part of the article is devoted to a review of the future perspectives in the direction of strongly correlated photon gases and of artificial gauge fields for photons. In particular, several mechanisms to obtain efficient photon blockade are presented, together with their application to the generation of novel quantum phases. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Kervestin S.,University Paris Diderot | Jacobson A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Although most mRNA molecules derived from protein-coding genes are destined to be translated into functional polypeptides, some are eliminated by cellular quality control pathways that collectively perform the task of mRNA surveillance. In the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway premature translation termination promotes the recruitment of a set of factors that destabilize a targeted mRNA. The same factors also seem to have key roles in repressing the translation of the mRNA, dissociating its terminating ribosome and messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs), promoting the degradation of its truncated polypeptide product and possibly even feeding back to the site of transcription to interfere with splicing of the primary transcript. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Logeart D.,University Paris Diderot
European journal of heart failure | Year: 2013

To improve knowledge of epidemiological data, management, and clinical outcome of acute heart failure (AHF) in a real-life setting in France. We conducted an observational survey constituting a single-day snapshot of all unplanned hospitalizations because of AHF in 170 hospitals throughout France (the OFICA survey). A total of 1658 patients (median age 79 years, 55% male) were included. Family doctors were the first medical contact in 43% of cases, and patients were admitted through emergency departments in 64% of cases. Clinical scenarios were mainly acutely decompensated HF (48%) and acute pulmonary oedema (38%) with similar clinical and biological characteristics as well as outcome. Characteristics were different and severity higher in both shock and right HF. Infection and arrhythmia were the most frequent precipitating factors (27% and 24% of cases); diabetes and chronic pulmonary disease were the most frequent co-morbidities (31% and 21%). Over 80% of patients underwent both natriuretic peptide testing and echocardiography. LVEF was preserved (>50%) in 36% of patients and associated with specific characteristics and lower severity. Median hospital stay was 13 days; in-hospital mortality was 8.2%, and independent predictors were age, blood pressure, and creatinine. Treatment at discharge in patients with reduced LVEF included ACE inhibitors/ARBs, beta-blockers, and aldosterone inhibitors in 78, 67, and 27% cases. Non-surgical devices were reported in <20% of potential candidates. This comprehensive survey analysing AHF in real life emphasizes the heterogeneous nature and overall high severity of AHF. It could be a useful tool to identify unsolved medical issues and improve outcome. Trial registration: NCT01080937.


Castera L.,University Paris Diderot
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

The prognosis and management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C depend on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis and the risk for cirrhosis. Liver biopsy, traditionally considered to be the reference standard for staging of fibrosis, has been challenged over the past decade by the development of noninvasive methodologies. These methods rely on distinct but complementary approaches: a biologic approach, which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis, and a physical approach, which measures liver stiffness by ultrasound or magnetic resonance elastography. Noninvasive methods were initially studied and validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C but are now used increasingly for patients with hepatitis B, reducing the need for liver biopsy analysis. We review the advantages and limitations of the noninvasive methods used to manage patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C infection. © 2012 AGA Institute.


Membrane proteins (MPs) are usually handled in aqueous solutions as protein/detergent complexes. Detergents, however, tend to be inactivating. This situation has prompted the design of alternative surfactants that can be substituted for detergents once target proteins have been extracted from biological membranes and that keep them soluble in aqueous buffers while stabilizing them. The present review focuses on three such systems: Amphipols (APols) are amphipathic polymers that adsorb onto the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of MPs; nanodiscs (NDs) are small patches of lipid bilayer whose rim is stabilized by amphipathic proteins; fluorinated surfactants (FSs) resemble detergents but interfere less than detergents do with stabilizing protein/protein and protein/lipid interactions. The structure and properties of each of these three systems are described, as well as those of the complexes they form with MPs. Their respective usefulness, constraints, and prospects for functional and structural studies of MPs are discussed. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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