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Richards Bay, South Africa

The University of Zululand is the only comprehensive tertiary educational institution north of the Tugela River in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its new status is in accordance with South Africa's National Plan for Higher Education aimed at eradicating inequity and costly duplication. As a result, Unizulu offers career-focused programmes as well as a limited number of relevant university degree courses that have been structured with potential employees and employers in mind.The university has extended its existing links with a wide array of tertiary educational institutions in the United States and in Europe by establishing partnerships with the University of Mississippi, Radford University, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and Chicago State University. Unizulu pursues an agenda for scholarly investigation in response to social problems, with community service being systematically integrated into the formal curriculum. The University strives to produce graduates with high-level knowledge and skills and who have been educated for citizenship and for active participation in society. In order to do so effectively, it seeks to cultivate relationships with funding agencies at home and abroad. Wikipedia.

Jury M.R.,University of Zululand | Jury M.R.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Theoretical and Applied Climatology

Climatic trends over sub-Saharan Africa are described using major river flows, European Community Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Coupled Forecast System, global land surface data assimilation and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, Global Precipitation Climate Center gauge data, and satellite observations in the period 1995-2010. The Niger and Zambezi rivers reached flow levels last seen in the 1950s (2,000 and 5,000 m3 s-1, respectively), and rainfall across the Congo Basin increased steadily ~+0. 16 mm day-1 year-1. Weather events that contributed to flooding are studied and include the Zambezi tropical trough of 4 January 2008 and the Sahelian easterly wave of 19 July 2010. Diurnal summer rainfall increased threefold over the 1995-2010 period in conjunction with a strengthened land-sea temperature contrast, onshore flow, and afternoon uplift. 700 mb zonal winds over East Africa became easterly after 2001, so clean Indian Ocean air was entrained to the Congo, improving convective efficiency. Relationships between the African monsoon circulation and global teleconnections are explored. Zonal wind convergence around the Congo appears related with the tropical multi-decadal oscillation and signals in the Atlantic during the study period. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Jury M.R.,University of Zululand | Jury M.R.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez | Funk C.,University of California at Santa Barbara
International Journal of Climatology

This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year-1 and downward trends in rainfall of - 0.4 mm month-1 year-1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Rural and semi-rural communities in third world countries harness solar energy mostly by using standalone Photovoltaic (PV) battery charging systems. Basic electronics circuits that do not include direct current to direct current (DC-DC) voltage converters are employed. These provide raw voltage levels from the solar PV modules that sometimes charge batteries insufficiently, leading to shorter battery lives. By modelling the solar PV module using a voltage source circuit representation, the effects of temperature on the PV module voltage could easily be illustrated to these rudimentary trained communities that deal mostly with voltage sources and not current sources. A Voltage Source PV Model (VSPVM) was developed from the well understood PV cell mathematical model. Microsoft Excel (MSE) was used as the data fitting environment and the PSpice environment was used to capture the electronic circuit topology proposed for the VSPVM. Validating the model against experimental data fitted maximum power points within 5% of the experimental data. Observations made on I-V characteristics plotted on the same graph showed interesting patterns of crossing points referred to here as Photovoltaic Temperature Crossing Points (PVTCP). A low temperature cluster and a high temperature cluster which were indicative of thresholds of some sort were observed. For hot climate regions, the power point voltage which exists between the two clusters could be considered as a guide to the possible range within which a PV battery charging system should operation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Semple S.J.,University of Zululand
Lipids in Health and Disease

In a bid to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, statin therapy has become a cornerstone treatment for patients with dyslipideamia. Statins, or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are effective in blocking hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and are generally regarded as safe. Although rare, severe adverse side effects such as rhabdomyolysis have been reported, however, the more common complaint from patients is that related to myopathy. There is also mounting evidence that exercise may exacerbate these side effects, however the mechanisms are yet to be fully defined and there is controversy regarding the role that inflammation may play in the myopathy. This paper reports a patients experience during 6 months of simvastatin therapy and provides some insight into the white cell count (inflammation) following two bouts of moderate intensity exercise before and during statin therapy. It also highlights the need for rehabilitation practitioners to be aware of the adverse effects of statins in exercising patients. © 2012 Semple; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Shonhai A.,University of Zululand
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology

Heat shock proteins act as molecular chaperones, facilitating protein folding in cells of living organisms. Their role is particularly important in parasites because environmental changes associated with their life cycles place a strain on protein homoeostasis. Not surprisingly, some heat shock proteins are essential for the survival of the most virulent malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This justifies the need for a greater understanding of the specific roles and regulation of malarial heat shock proteins. Furthermore, heat shock proteins play a major role during invasion of the host by the parasite and mediate in malaria pathogenesis. The identification and development of inhibitor compounds of heat shock proteins has recently attracted attention. This is important, given the fact that traditional antimalarial drugs are increasingly failing, as a consequence of parasite increasing drug resistance. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70/Hsp40 partnerships and small heat shock proteins are major malaria drug targets. This review examines the structural and functional features of these proteins that render them ideal drug targets and the challenges of targeting these proteins towards malaria drug design. The major antimalarial compounds that have been used to inhibit heat shock proteins include the antibiotic, geldanamycin, deoxyspergualin and pyrimidinones. The proposed mechanisms of action of these molecules and the pathways they inhibit are discussed. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Source

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