Richards Bay, South Africa

University of Zululand
Richards Bay, South Africa

The University of Zululand is the only comprehensive tertiary educational institution north of the Tugela River in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its new status is in accordance with South Africa's National Plan for Higher Education aimed at eradicating inequity and costly duplication. As a result, Unizulu offers career-focused programmes as well as a limited number of relevant university degree courses that have been structured with potential employees and employers in mind.The university has extended its existing links with a wide array of tertiary educational institutions in the United States and in Europe by establishing partnerships with the University of Mississippi, Radford University, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and Chicago State University. Unizulu pursues an agenda for scholarly investigation in response to social problems, with community service being systematically integrated into the formal curriculum. The University strives to produce graduates with high-level knowledge and skills and who have been educated for citizenship and for active participation in society. In order to do so effectively, it seeks to cultivate relationships with funding agencies at home and abroad. Wikipedia.

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Tlamelo P.,University of Zululand
Proceedings of the European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation, ECIME | Year: 2016

Cloud computing is changing the way organisations are operating using integrated supply chain management systems. Even though using cloud computing is becoming well-known the logical study of its operational implications is deficient. In this paper, a framework for integrating the triad of communications structure, information systems, and trust and integrity structures through cloud computing has been designed. In the theoretical framework, integration of communication structures, information systems, and trust and integrity has been presented to design an event-driven communications and operations management framework on cloud computing for solving the core research problems of lack of organisational and IT platforms integration in supply chains. The methodology presented has two stages. The first stage will comprise fundamental designs supporting the theoretical framework with the help of a review of existing theories. The second stage will formulate a model design of the proposed theoretical framework in OPNET Modeller software using the design details captured from theories on existing designs. The model will be simulated to test the functioning of the event-driven process steps, the functioning of the trust and integrity relationships, lead-times in completing each of the process steps, and problems/bottlenecks faced, if any. The results of the simulation are expected to reveal if this framework is feasible and provide inputs on how this framework can be implemented in real world supply chain management (SCM) systems. OPNET Modeller is chosen because it is a recognised commercial software in modelling and simulating application events and interactions.

Ramasamy K.,University of Alabama | Malik M.A.,University of Manchester | Revaprasadu N.,University of Zululand | O'Brien P.,University of Manchester
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2013

Recent advances in nanotechnology could facilitate the production of cheaper solar cells. This review describes synthetic routes to various nanostructured materials that are potentially useful in photovoltaic applications. We have focused on materials that are based on earth abundant elements and/or those that are held to have lower toxicity. Methods to synthesize binary chalcogenides with variable stoichiometries such as iron sulfide, copper sulfide, and nickel sulfide are described in detail. Other important photovoltaic materials such as cadmium telluride and lead sulfide are also covered. Methods to prepare emerging materials such as tin sulfide and bismuth sulfide are also discussed. Finally routes to ternary materials, e.g. copper indium sulfide and/or selenide and the quaternary material copper zinc tin sulfide, are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Jury M.R.,University of Zululand | Jury M.R.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

This study compares different methods of predicting crop-related climate in the Ethiopian highlands for the period 1979-2009. A target index (ETH4) is developed as an average of four variables in the June-September season-rainfall, rainfall minus evaporation, estimated latent heat flux, and vegetation, following correlation with crop yields at Melkassa, Ethiopia (8.4°N, 39.3°E, 1550 m elevation). Predictors are drawn from gridded near-global fields of surface temperature, surface air pressure, and 200-hPa zonal wind in the preceding December-March season. Prediction algorithms are formulated by stepwise multivariate regression. The first set of predictors derive fromobjective principal component (PC) time scores with tropical loading patterns, and the second set is based on key areas determined fromcorrelation with the target index. The second PC of upper zonal wind reveals a tropical-subtropical dipole that is correlated with ETH4 at two-season lead time (correlation coefficient r5 20.53). Point-to-field regression maps show high-latitude signals in surface temperature (positive in North America and negative in Eurasia) and air pressure (negative in the North Pacific Ocean and positive in the South Pacific). Upper zonal winds are most strongly related with ETH4 over the tropical Pacific and Africa at two-season lead time. The multivariate algorithm that is based on PC predictors has an adjusted r2 fit of 0.23, and the algorithm using key-area predictors achieves r2 = 0.37. In comparison, numerical model forecasts reach r2= 0.37 for ECMWF simulations but are lowfor othermodels. The statistical results are specific to the ETH4 index, which is a climate proxy for crop yields in the Ethiopian highlands. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Jury M.R.,University of Zululand | Jury M.R.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2013

Climatic trends over sub-Saharan Africa are described using major river flows, European Community Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Coupled Forecast System, global land surface data assimilation and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, Global Precipitation Climate Center gauge data, and satellite observations in the period 1995-2010. The Niger and Zambezi rivers reached flow levels last seen in the 1950s (2,000 and 5,000 m3 s-1, respectively), and rainfall across the Congo Basin increased steadily ~+0. 16 mm day-1 year-1. Weather events that contributed to flooding are studied and include the Zambezi tropical trough of 4 January 2008 and the Sahelian easterly wave of 19 July 2010. Diurnal summer rainfall increased threefold over the 1995-2010 period in conjunction with a strengthened land-sea temperature contrast, onshore flow, and afternoon uplift. 700 mb zonal winds over East Africa became easterly after 2001, so clean Indian Ocean air was entrained to the Congo, improving convective efficiency. Relationships between the African monsoon circulation and global teleconnections are explored. Zonal wind convergence around the Congo appears related with the tropical multi-decadal oscillation and signals in the Atlantic during the study period. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Jury M.R.,University of Zululand | Jury M.R.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez | Funk C.,University of California at Santa Barbara
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2013

This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year-1 and downward trends in rainfall of - 0.4 mm month-1 year-1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

Rural and semi-rural communities in third world countries harness solar energy mostly by using standalone Photovoltaic (PV) battery charging systems. Basic electronics circuits that do not include direct current to direct current (DC-DC) voltage converters are employed. These provide raw voltage levels from the solar PV modules that sometimes charge batteries insufficiently, leading to shorter battery lives. By modelling the solar PV module using a voltage source circuit representation, the effects of temperature on the PV module voltage could easily be illustrated to these rudimentary trained communities that deal mostly with voltage sources and not current sources. A Voltage Source PV Model (VSPVM) was developed from the well understood PV cell mathematical model. Microsoft Excel (MSE) was used as the data fitting environment and the PSpice environment was used to capture the electronic circuit topology proposed for the VSPVM. Validating the model against experimental data fitted maximum power points within 5% of the experimental data. Observations made on I-V characteristics plotted on the same graph showed interesting patterns of crossing points referred to here as Photovoltaic Temperature Crossing Points (PVTCP). A low temperature cluster and a high temperature cluster which were indicative of thresholds of some sort were observed. For hot climate regions, the power point voltage which exists between the two clusters could be considered as a guide to the possible range within which a PV battery charging system should operation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Semple S.J.,University of Zululand
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2012

In a bid to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, statin therapy has become a cornerstone treatment for patients with dyslipideamia. Statins, or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are effective in blocking hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and are generally regarded as safe. Although rare, severe adverse side effects such as rhabdomyolysis have been reported, however, the more common complaint from patients is that related to myopathy. There is also mounting evidence that exercise may exacerbate these side effects, however the mechanisms are yet to be fully defined and there is controversy regarding the role that inflammation may play in the myopathy. This paper reports a patients experience during 6 months of simvastatin therapy and provides some insight into the white cell count (inflammation) following two bouts of moderate intensity exercise before and during statin therapy. It also highlights the need for rehabilitation practitioners to be aware of the adverse effects of statins in exercising patients. © 2012 Semple; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

The prevalence of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is increasing among Black African women and requires urgent attention in the form of preventive strategies. To date, there is limited scientific evidence highlighting the efficacy of Tae-bo as an intervention for reducing weight and CMD risk factors. Prospective experimental. South Africa, University of Zululand. Sixty previously sedentary participants (25 +/- 5 y) who were overweight (BMI>25-29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI> or =30-39.9 kg/m2). Participants performed a 10-week aerobic (Tae-bo) program 60 min/day for three days a week at moderate intensity for the first five weeks and high intensity for the last five weeks. Anthropometric parameters (height, weight, waist and hip circumference and sum of skinfolds), blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipoproteins were measured at baseline, after six weeks and 24 hours after completion of the 10-week program. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a Tukey Post hoc test. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 26.7% pre-intervention and decreased to 16.3% post intervention. There was a statistically significant (P< or =.05) improvement in weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, resting heart rate and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures following the intervention. A 10-week 30-session Tae-bo exercise program was effective in reducing traditional risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic disease in overweight/obese university students.

Shonhai A.,University of Zululand
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Heat shock proteins act as molecular chaperones, facilitating protein folding in cells of living organisms. Their role is particularly important in parasites because environmental changes associated with their life cycles place a strain on protein homoeostasis. Not surprisingly, some heat shock proteins are essential for the survival of the most virulent malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This justifies the need for a greater understanding of the specific roles and regulation of malarial heat shock proteins. Furthermore, heat shock proteins play a major role during invasion of the host by the parasite and mediate in malaria pathogenesis. The identification and development of inhibitor compounds of heat shock proteins has recently attracted attention. This is important, given the fact that traditional antimalarial drugs are increasingly failing, as a consequence of parasite increasing drug resistance. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70/Hsp40 partnerships and small heat shock proteins are major malaria drug targets. This review examines the structural and functional features of these proteins that render them ideal drug targets and the challenges of targeting these proteins towards malaria drug design. The major antimalarial compounds that have been used to inhibit heat shock proteins include the antibiotic, geldanamycin, deoxyspergualin and pyrimidinones. The proposed mechanisms of action of these molecules and the pathways they inhibit are discussed. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

University of Zululand | Date: 2014-08-06

A solution-based route to biocompatible, cysteine-capped gold-zinc telluride (AuZnTe) core/shell nanoparticles with potential in biomedical applications is described. The optical properties of the core/shell nanoparticles show no features of the individual parent components. The tunable emission properties of the semiconductor shell render the system useful for imaging and biological labelling applications.

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