Zaragoza, Spain
Zaragoza, Spain

The University of Zaragoza, sometimes referred to as Saragossa University is a university located in Zaragoza, in the Aragon region of Spain. Founded in 1542, it is one of the oldest universities in Spain, with a history dating back to the Roman period. The university has over 40,000 students in its 22 faculties. The university is the only public university in the region. Its activity is spread along the three provinces of Aragon, with teaching campuses and research centres in Huesca, Teruel and Zaragoza. Wikipedia.


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The Natural Science Museum of the University of Zaragoza houses one of the most important collections in Spain of fossils published in scientific journals. It is a new museum, which has brought together the fossil collections of the Palaeontological Museum of the University of Zaragoza with the university’s historical collections. It harbours 33,561 fossils, which have been studied in 524 scientific publications (dissertations, books and journals), and of which 243 are holotypes. All the material is inventoried in a FileMaker database and is available for consultation by any researcher who applies to do so. The type fossil collection is mainly from the Autonomous Region of Aragón in Spain (comprising the provinces of Zaragoza, Huesca and Teruel), with a small proportion from other Spanish regions (less than 10%) and from other countries (less than 1%). The collection is diverse on what concerns taxonomic groups, with arthropods, brachiopods, echinoderms and vertebrates standing out in terms of the number of specimens and of holotypes. The fossils date from the Upper Proterozoic to the Pleistocene, the Carboniferous-Triassic being the least-represented period. Particularly noteworthy are the collections of invertebrates from the Cambrian and of mammals from the Aragonian (Tertiary). © 2017 The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage


Straccia U.,CNR Institute of Information Science and Technologies Alessandro Faedo | Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2017

The aim of this chapter is to present a detailed, selfcontained and comprehensive account of the state of the art in representing and reasoning with fuzzy knowledge in Semantic Web Languages such as triple languages RDF/RDFS, conceptual languages of the OWL 2 family and rule languages. We further show how one may generalise them to so-called annotation domains, that cover also e.g. temporal and provenance extensions. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Izaga A.,University of Zaragoza | Herrera R.P.,University of Zaragoza | Gimeno M.C.,University of Zaragoza
ChemCatChem | Year: 2017

Several group11 metal complexes with chiral thiourea organocatalysts have been prepared and tested as organocatalysts. The promising results on the influence of metal-assisted thiourea organocatalysts in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with nitrostyrene are described. Better results with the metal complexes have been achieved because of the cooperative effects between the chiral thiourea and the metal. The synergic effect between both species is higher than the effect promoted by each one separately, especially for gold(I). These outcomes are attributed to a pioneering gold(I) activation of the thiourea catalysts, affording a more acidic and rigid catalytic complex than that provided by the thiourea alone. Furthermore, the use of the gold-thiourea organocatalyst allows reducing the catalyst loading to 1-3mol%. This contribution could become an important starting point for further investigations opening a new line of research overlooked so far in the literature. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Morales M.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Laguna-Bercero M.A.,University of Zaragoza
RSC Advances | Year: 2017

Different cell configurations of anode-supported microtubular solid oxide fuel cells (mT-SOFCs) using samaria-doped ceria (SDC) as the electrolyte were fabricated. Several cells were processed varying the porosity and wall thickness (outer diameter) of NiO-SDC tubular supports. Suitable aqueous slurry formulations of NiO-SDC for gel-casting were prepared using agarose, as a gelling agent, and sucrose, as a pore former. The subsequent NiO-SDC anode functional layer (AFL), the SDC electrolyte and the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ-SDC cathode were deposited by spray-coating. Afterwards, the electrochemical performance of different single cells was tested under humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. The mechanical strength of the supporting tubes at different processing stages (green, pre-/post-sintering, post-reduction, post-redox cycle conditions) were also determined to study the macro-mechanical failure behaviour of the cells. In addition, the mechanical strength of half-cells with different porosity, sintering temperature and wall thickness in the tubular supports was also determined. For this purpose, the modulus of rupture was measured by a three point bending test. This study shows that the electrochemical properties and mechanical strength are feasible for further development of anode-supported mT-SOFCs fabricated by gel-casting. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Urtizberea A.,University of Zaragoza | Roubeau O.,University of Zaragoza
Chemical Science | Year: 2017

The implementation of single-molecule magnet properties in spin crossover materials is sought as a unique source of magnetic multistability at the molecular level. Examples however remain extremely scarce, in part due to the diamagnetic state of most Fe(ii) spin crossover materials at low temperatures. We have studied the complex [Fe(mtz)6](CF3SO3)2 (mtz = 1-methyltetrazole) as a tantalizing candidate of such coexistence, due to its known partial spin crossover and therefore paramagnetic native low temperature phase. The single-crystal structures of [Fe(mtz)6](CF3SO3)2 reported here allow rationalizing its peculiar cooperative spin-crossover behavior. Importantly, the high-spin Fe crystallographic sites at low temperature exhibit a high symmetry with a local trigonal distortion, usually source of magnetic anisotropy. The analysis of equilibrium magnetic properties confirm the presence of a significant magnetic anisotropy at the Fe(ii) high spin sites in the high symmetry low temperature phase. This results in field-induced slow relaxation of their magnetization which is dominated at low temperature by tunneling and direct processes and is strongly enhanced above 3 K by Raman and Orbach processes. Unprecedentedly, these single-molecule magnet properties are observed in the native ground state of a spin crossover material and efficiently and reversibly switched OFF through visible light irradiation. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Martinez-Lera S.,University of Zaragoza | Pallares Ranz J.,University of Zaragoza
Fuel | Year: 2017

Gasification is a promising alternative for polymeric waste valorization when mechanical recycling is unfeasible on account of its heterogeneity or partial contamination, or simply when it yields a product of lower quality than what the market requires. Apart from its application for electricity generation, the waste-derived syngas shows a great potential for chemical waste recycling for the synthesis of hydrogen, methane, natural gas or methanol. In spite of the effort devoted so far to the experimental demonstration of these processes to enable this technology to access commercial stage, it is still necessary to develop detailed models of the process that allow a precise prediction of the resulting syngas composition, as well as tar formation and global efficiency of the process. This research work presents the development of a polyolefin gasification model for fluidized bed reactors. The model details the behaviour of primary pyrolysis and homogeneous reactions of oxidation, steam reforming, aromatization and thermal cracking. To accomplish this, it adopts new modelling strategies for the definition of primary tar species in order to reflect their twofold nature (aliphatic and aromatic), as well as to describe kinetics and stoichiometry involved in thermal cracking processes of tar species. The model is able to successfully predict the generation, volume composition and heating value of the syngas, final tar generation and global efficiency of the process. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Mulo P.,University of Turku | Medina M.,University of Zaragoza
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2017

Ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase (FNR) catalyzes the last step of linear electron transfer in photosynthetic light reactions. The FAD cofactor of FNR accepts two electrons from two independent reduced ferredoxin molecules (Fd) in two sequential steps, first producing neutral semiquinone and then the fully anionic reduced, or hydroquinone, form of the enzyme (FNRhq). FNRhq transfers then both electrons in a single hydride transfer step to NADP+. We are presenting the recent progress in studies focusing on Fd:FNR interaction and subsequent electron transfer processes as well as on interaction of FNR with NADP+/H followed by hydride transfer, both from the structural and functional point of views. We also present the current knowledge about the physiological role(s) of various FNR isoforms present in the chloroplasts of higher plants and the functional impact of subchloroplastic location of FNR. Moreover, open questions and current challenges about the structure, function, and physiology of FNR are discussed. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Maraver D.,University of Zaragoza | Royo J.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017

This work investigates, from a thermodynamic point of view, the possibility of integrating thermoelectric systems (TES) in existing solid biomass-fuelled ORC CHP plants in a cost-effective way. Thus, a simple plant layout was proposed. The benefits achieved in the overall plant performance, constrained by several technical parameters of the subsystems involved, are assessed in terms of the Second Law efficiency and other characteristic parameters such as the First Law efficiency and the Primary Energy Savings Ratio. The main conclusion obtained is anticipating the fact that exists a certain optimal TES driving temperature value leading to the maximisation of the plant's performance. According to the specific results extracted from the examples evaluated (TES integrated in Toluene and MDM ORC CHP plants), this temperature is about 245°C and 210°C, respectively, which leads to an increase in the overall Second Law efficiency of the plant up to 7–8%. Hence, it is clear that thermoelectric systems can contribute to the enhancement of the performance and to do so, there are guidelines to be considered prior to the detailed design of such systems to be integrated in existing ORC CHP plants. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Opydo-Chanek M.,Jagiellonian University | Gonzalo O.,University of Zaragoza | Marzo I.,University of Zaragoza
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2017

BH3 mimetics are a novel class of anticancer agents designed to specifically target pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Like endogenous BH3-only proteins, BH3 mimetics competitively bind to surface hydrophobic grooves of pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, counteracting their protective effects and thus facilitating apoptosis in cancer cells. Among the small-molecule BH3 mimetics identified, ABT-737 and its analogs, obatoclax as well as gossypol derivatives are the best characterized. The anticancer potential of these compounds applied as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs is currently being evaluated in preclinical studies and in clinical trials. In spite of promising results, the actual mechanisms of their anticancer action remain to be identified. Findings from preclinical studies point to additional activities of BH3 mimetics in cancer cells that are not connected with apoptosis induction. These off-target effects involve induction of autophagy and necrotic cell death as well as modulation of the cell cycle and multiple cell signaling pathways. For the optimization and clinical implementation of BH3 mimetics, a detailed understanding of their role as inhibitors of the pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, but also of their possible additional effects is required. This review summarizes the most representative BH3 mimetic compounds with emphasis on their off-target effects. Based on the present knowledge on the multifaceted effects of BH3 mimetics on cancer cells, the commentary outlines the potential pitfalls and highlights the considerable promise for cancer treatment with BH3 mimetics. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


de-Magistris T.,University of Zaragoza | Gracia A.,University of Zaragoza
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2017

The aim of this study is to investigate whether hunger matters in consumer purchase behaviour relating to processed food products. Therefore, a non-hypothetical experiment was implemented to assess truthful preferences by asking individuals the maximum price that they would pay for various processed cheese products. The findings indicated that consumers were willing to pay more when hungry than when satiated. Moreover, women and obese participants were willing to pay more than men and normal-weight participants. However, older and hungry people were willing to pay less than younger, satiated individuals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Perez-Moreno L.C.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Architecture | Year: 2017

It was in the 1960s when architects interested in organising the past had sufficient historical perspective to present different narratives for Spanish modern architecture. This paper discusses the writings of Carlos Flores and Juan Daniel Fullaondo, which were fundamental in the revision and reconstruction of the assimilation and evolution of modern architecture in Spain. Flores’s book Arquitectura Española Contemporánea stands out because of its spirited defence of modernity. Recognition of the iconographic value of architectural photography and the use of José Ortega y Gasset’s ‘The idea of the generations’ are the two main characteristics of this book. Whereas Fullaondo, who was in charge of a magazine, Nueva Forma, was a faithful advocate of the critical work of Bruno Zevi. He published different special issues in which he discussed the connection of German expressionism and Italian futurism in Spain, and defended organicism as the most influential tendency in Spanish architecture in the 1960s. This paper relates the main ideas of these authors with previous writings that began analysing modern buildings erected on Spanish soil, and with other remarkable books also published in the 1960s, such as those of Cesar Ortiz-Echagüe, Lluís Domènech and Oriol Bohigas. All in all, they established the principles of Spanish modern historiography, and influenced European magazines that were starting to pay attention to Spanish architecture by publishing special issues, such as the Swiss Werk or the Italian Zodiac. © 2017 RIBA Enterprises.


Ramirez-Aleson M.,University of Zaragoza | Fernandez-Olmos M.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2017

In spite of the extensive presence of Science Parks in developed countries, it is still unclear whether they have been successful in fostering the innovation performance of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The aim of this paper is to help answer exactly this question. Using an unbalanced panel of 7691 observations associated with 1933 Spanish NTBFs (2007–2013), located both on-park and off-park, our empirical results show no evidence of a direct relationship between being located on a Science Park and the innovation performance of the NTBFs. However, our findings reveal that Science Parks play a positive selection role by attracting NTBFs with high technological capabilities (indirect effect). Moreover, our results also indicate that the decision to locate in a Science Park may enhance the innovation performance of NTBFs that collaborate and jointly export (moderating effect). This paper provides new explanations that help provide a better understanding of the effects of Science Parks on innovation performance and also outlines several practical implications. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza | San Jose I.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica Camino Of Las Torres 53
Optics Communications | Year: 2010

From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Carroquino J.,Intergia Energia Sostenible S.L. | Dufo-Lopez R.,University of Zaragoza | Bernal-Agustin J.L.,University of Zaragoza
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

In the Mediterranean region, there are many drip irrigation systems with pumps that are powered by diesel generator sets (gensets). Although they could be powered by renewable energy produced on-site, technical and economic factors make that difficult. Moreover, the seasonal nature of demand requires an oversizing of energy generation and/or storage, increasing system costs. In this paper, we sought renewable energy systems that were economically optimal. We focused on six farming facility case studies to find the optimal energy generation solution using a simulation and optimization tool based on genetic algorithms. Photovoltaic-diesel hybrids and diesel systems were found to be optimal, with energy costs from 0.13 to 1.08€/kWh and from 0.32 to 0.52€/kWh, respectively. The strong effect of demand management was an interesting finding, as it may indicate significant system size and cost reductions. In addition, the optimum photovoltaic fixed tilt angles depended not only on the seasonal profile of the demand, but also on the pumping schedule. Although the difference between market interest rates and the rise of fuel prices strongly influences the advantage of incorporating, or not, renewable generation, this study supports that hybrid photovoltaic-diesel systems can make profitable use of renewable energy in drip irrigation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Balsa E.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Szklarczyk R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Landazuri M.O.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Enriquez J.A.,University of Zaragoza
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

The oxidative phosphorylation system is one of the best-characterized metabolic pathways. In mammals, the protein components and X-ray structures are defined for all complexes except complex I. Here, we show that NDUFA4, formerly considered a constituent of NADH Dehydrogenase (CI), is instead a component of the cytochrome c oxidase (CIV). Deletion of NDUFA4 does not perturb CI. Rather, proteomic, genetic, evolutionary, and biochemical analyses reveal that NDUFA4 plays a role in CIV function and biogenesis. The change in the attribution of the NDUFA4 protein requires renaming of the gene and reconsideration of the structure of CIV. Furthermore, NDUFA4 should be considered a candidate gene for CIV rather than CI deficiencies in humans. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gomez J.B.,University of Zaragoza
Energy | Year: 2011

We propose a model for an exhausted upper continental crust. The Crepuscular Earth represents a degraded planet where all resources have been extracted and dispersed, and all fossil fuels have been burned. The starting point of the model of crepuscular crust is the composition given by the geochemist Grigor'ev, which is constrained by the conservation of mass statement between the chemical composition of the crust in terms of elements and in terms of minerals. Additionally, the model is given geological consistence, by introducing a series of assumptions based on geological observations. As a result, the obtained crepuscular crust is composed of the 294 most abundant minerals. Together with the model of exhausted atmosphere and hydrosphere developed in a previous paper, the study will serve as a reference for calculating the exergy of the current mineral capital on Earth and its degradation velocity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza | Jose I.S.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

A general explicit algebraic characterization of Mueller matrices is presented in terms of the non-negativity of a set of leading principal minors of the coherency matrix CA associated with the arrow formMA of a given Mueller matrix M. This result is also formulated through a set of four characteristic Stokes vectors. The particular cases of Mueller matrices with zero degree of polarizance and symmetric Mueller matrices are analyzed. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza | Jose I.S.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica | Ossikovski R.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2013

The algebraic methods for serial and parallel decompositions of Mueller matrices are combined in order to obtain a general framework for a suitable analysis of polarimetric measurements based on equivalent systems constituted by simple components. A general procedure for the parallel decomposition of a Mueller matrix into a convex sum of pure elements is presented and applied to the two canonical forms of depolarizing Mueller matrices [Ossikovski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 123 (2010).], leading to the serial-parallel decomposition of any Mueller matrix. The resultant model is consistent with the mathematical structure and the reciprocity properties of Mueller matrices. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza | Jose I.S.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2013

A general formulation of the additive composition and decomposition of Mueller matrices is presented, which is expressed in adequate terms for properly performing the "polarimetric subtraction," from a given depolarizing Mueller matrix M, of the Mueller matrix of a given nondepolarizing component that is incoherently embedded in the whole system represented byM. A general and comprehensive procedure for the polarimetric subtraction of depolarizing Mueller matrices is also developed. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Sanz J.,University of Zaragoza | Xia C.-Y.,University of Zaragoza | Xia C.-Y.,Tianjin University of Technology | Meloni S.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. However, most epidemic models assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a metapopulation system, or a network of contacts). In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can be addressed only if we go beyond the scheme-one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows us to describe the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dynamics. Results show that there are regions of the parameter space in which the onset of a disease's outbreak is conditioned to the prevalence levels of the other disease. Moreover, we show, for the susceptible-infected-susceptible scheme, that under certain circumstances, finite and not vanishing epidemic thresholds are found even at the limit for scale-free networks. For the susceptibleinfected-removed scenario, the phenomenology is richer and additional interdependencies show up. We also find that the secondary thresholds for the susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptibleinfected-removed models are different, which results directly from the interaction between both diseases. Our work thus solves an important problem and paves the way toward a more comprehensive description of the dynamics of interacting diseases.


Gonzalez A.,University of Zaragoza | Bes M.T.,University of Zaragoza | Valladares A.,University of Seville | Peleato M.L.,University of Zaragoza | Fillat M.F.,University of Zaragoza
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in cyanobacteria is limited. In Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA is a constitutive and essential protein whose expression is induced under iron deprivation. Our previous analyses have shown that this protein acts as a global transcriptional regulator, controlling the expression of several genes belonging to different functional categories, including schT, a gene coding for a TonB-dependent schizokinen transporter. In the present study we analysed the impact of FurA overexpression and iron availability on the transcriptional modulation of a broad range of Anabaena iron uptake, transport, storage and cellular iron utilization mechanisms, including enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis, TonB-dependent siderophore outer membrane transporters, siderophore periplasmic binding proteins, ABC inner membrane permeases, ferritin Dps family proteins, and enzymes involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. By combining reverse transcription-PCR analyses, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments, we defined a variety of novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets of this metalloregulator, including genes encoding at least five enzymes involved in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. The results unravel the role of FurA as the master regulator of iron homeostasis in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, providing new insights into the Fur regulons in cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Resano H.,University of Zaragoza
Food Policy | Year: 2012

Using dry-cured ham as an anchor product, consumers' preferences for EU Quality Certification schemes, region of origin and price have been investigated with conjoint analysis. In order to achieve this aim, a mixed rank-ordered logit which allows for the investigation of heterogeneous preferences and their sources has been estimated. In particular, we have analysed to what extent consumers' socio-demographic traits affect their price-sensitiveness and whether consumers' sensory (hedonic) valuations and attitudes towards ham with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) affect the preferences for specific attributes. Results show that consumers with a low-medium age and income are more price sensitive. Consumers more inclined sensorially towards the regional specialty (with or without PDO) are more likely to purchase this product, and consumers with a more favourable attitude towards PDO ham are also more prone to purchase cured ham with quality certification. Findings also suggest that although the PDO scheme attracts a segment of consumers, the origin by itself is still a more powerful signal of quality, and more specifically the region of origin. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Aim The Chilean endemic Dioscorea biloba (Dioscoreaceae) is a dioecious geophyte that shows a remarkable 600km north-south disjunction in the peripheral arid area of the Atacama Desert. Its restricted present-day distribution and probable Neogene origin indicate that its populations have a history linked to that of the Atacama Desert, making this an ideal model species with which to investigate the biogeography of the region. Location Chile, Atacama Desert and peripheral arid area. Methods Two hundred and seventy-five individuals from nine populations were genotyped for seven nuclear microsatellite loci, and plastid trnL-F and trnT-L sequences were obtained for a representative subset of these. Analyses included the estimation of genetic diversity and population structure through clustering, Bayesian and analysis of molecular variance analyses, and statistical parsimony networks of chloroplast haplotypes. Isolation by distance was tested against alternative dispersal hypotheses. Results Microsatellite markers revealed moderate to high levels of genetic diversity within populations, with those from the southern Limarí Valley showing the highest values and northern populations showing less exclusive alleles. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data identified three genetic groups that corresponded to geographical ranges. Chloroplast phylogeography revealed no haplotypes shared between northern and southern ranges, and little haplotype sharing between the two neighbouring southern valleys. Dispersal models suggested the presence of extinct hypothetical populations between the southern and northern ranges. Main conclusions Our results are consistent with prolonged isolation of the northern and southern groups, mediated by the life-history traits of the species. Significant isolation was revealed at both large and moderate distances as gene flow was not evident even between neighbouring valleys. Bayesian analyses of microsatellite and chloroplast haplotype diversity identified the southern area of Limarí as the probable area of origin of the species. Our data do not support recent dispersal of D. biloba from the southern range into Antofagasta, but indicate the fragmentation of an earlier wider range, concomitant with the Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic oscillations, with subsequent extinctions of the Atacama Desert populations and the divergence of the peripheral ones as a consequence of genetic drift. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


San Jose I.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica | Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza
Optics Communications | Year: 2011

A proper set of indices characterizing the polarimetric purity of light and material media is defined from the eigenvalues of the corresponding coherency matrix. A simple and generalizable relation of these indices with the current parameter characterizing the global purity is obtained. A general definition for systems characterized by n × n positive semidefinite Hermitian matrices is introduced in terms of the corresponding eigenvalues and diagonal Gell-Mann matrices. The set of n - 1 indices of purity has a nested structure and provides complete information about the statistical purity of the system. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lanas A.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Tell G.,University of Valencia | Armada B.,Pfizer | Oteo-Alvaro A.,Hospital Gregorio Maranon
BMC Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be based on the assessment of both gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) risk for the individual patient. We aimed to assess the GI/CV risk profile and the pharmacological management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in clinical practice.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study of consecutive OA patients that visited 1,760 doctors throughout the Spanish National Health System (NHS) in a single day. The presence of GI risk factors, CV histories, hypertension and current pharmacological treatments was recorded.Results: Of the 60,868 patients, 17,105 had a diagnosis of OA and were evaluable. The majority (93.4%) had more than one GI risk factor and 60.3% were defined to be at high-GI risk. Thirty-two percent had a history of CV events, 57.6% were treated with anti-hypertensive therapy and 22.6% had uncontrolled hypertension. One-fifth of patients were treated with non-NSAID therapies, whereas the remaining patients received NSAIDs. Non-selective NSAIDs (nsNSAID) plus proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2)-selective NSAIDs alone were more frequently prescribed in patients at increased GI risk. Patients with a positive CV history received nsNSAIDs or COX-2-selective NSAIDs in 41.3% and 31.7% of cases, respectively. When both the GI and CV histories were combined, 51% of the overall population was being prescribed drugs that were either not recommended or contraindicated.Conclusions: Over 90% of patients with OA are at increased GI and/or CV risk. In over half of these patients, the prescription of NSAIDs was not in accordance with current guidelines or recommendations made by regulatory agencies. © 2011 Lanas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cuesta J.A.,Charles III University of Madrid | Cuesta J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Quintero N.R.,University of Seville | Alvarez-Nodarse R.,University of Seville
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

Ratchets are devices that are able to rectify an otherwise oscillatory behavior by exploiting an asymmetry of the system. In rocking ratchets, the asymmetry is induced through a proper choice of external forces and modulations of nonlinear symmetric potentials. The ratchet currents thus obtained in systems as different as semiconductors, Josephson junctions, optical lattices, or ferrofluids show a set of universal features. A satisfactory explanation for them has challenged theorists for decades, and so far, we still lack a general theory of this phenomenon. Here, we provide such a theory by exploring-through functional analysis-the constraints that the simple assumption of time-shift invariance of the ratchet current imposes on its dependence on the external drivings. Because the derivation is based on so general a principle, the resulting expression is valid irrespective of the details and the nature of the physical systems to which it is applied, and of whether they are classical, quantum, or stochastic. The theory also explains deviations observed from universality under special conditions and allows us to make predictions of phenomena not yet observed in any experiment or simulation.


Marchesano V.,National Research Council Italy | Hernandez Y.,University of Zaragoza | Salvenmoser W.,University of Innsbruck | Ambrosone A.,National Research Council Italy | And 4 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Gold nanoparticles have emerged as novel safe and biocompatible tools for manifold applications, including biological imaging, clinical diagnostics, and therapeutics. The understanding of the mechanisms governing their interaction with living systems may help the design and development of new platforms for nanomedicine. Here we characterized the dynamics and kinetics of the events underlying the interaction of gold nanoparticles with a living organism, from the first interaction nanoparticle/cell membrane, to the intracellular trafficking and final extracellular clearance. By treating a simple water invertebrate (the cnidarian Hydra polyp) with functionalized gold nanoparticles, multiple inward and outward routes were imaged by ultrastructural analyses, including exosomes as novel undescribed carriers to shuttle the nanoparticles in and out the cells. From the time course imaging a highly dynamic picture emerged in which nanoparticles are rapidly internalized (from 30 min onward), recruited into vacuoles/endosome (24 h onward), which then fuse, compact and sort out the internalized material either to storage vacuoles or to late-endosome/lysosomes, determining almost complete clearance within 48 h from challenging. Beside classical routes, new portals of entry/exit were captured, including exosome-like structures as novel undescribed nanoparticle shuttles. The conservation of the endocytic/secretory machinery through evolution extends the value of our finding to mammalian systems providing dynamics and kinetics clues to take into account when designing nanomaterials to interface with biological entities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Fdez-Gubieda M.L.,University of the Basque Country | Muela A.,University of the Basque Country | Alonso J.,University of the Basque Country | Garcia-Prieto A.,University of the Basque Country | And 3 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Magnetotactic bacteria biosynthesize magnetite nanoparticles of high structural and chemical purity that allow them to orientate in the geomagnetic field. In this work we have followed the process of biomineralization of these magnetite nanoparticles. We have performed a time-resolved study on magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1. From the combination of magnetic and structural studies by means of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we have identified and quantified two phases of Fe (ferrihydrite and magnetite) involved in the biomineralization process, confirming the role of ferrihydrite as the source of Fe ions for magnetite biomineralization in M. gryphiswaldense. We have distinguished two steps in the biomineralization process: the first, in which Fe is accumulated in the form of ferrihydrite, and the second, in which the magnetite is rapidly biomineralized from ferrihydrite. Finally, the XANES analysis suggests that the origin of the ferrihydrite could be at bacterial ferritin cores, characterized by a poorly crystalline structure and high phosphorus content. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Bellosta R.V.,University of Zaragoza | Sorribas V.,University of Zaragoza
Circulation Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Calcium phosphate deposition (CPD) is the hallmark of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. CPD is a thermodynamically-favored process under physiological conditions. Hydroxyapatite, the most common calcium phosphate in calcified arteries, is passively formed during VSMC calcification, independently on any direct cellular activity. Furthermore, in recent years it has been demonstrated there is an anti-calcifying effect by extracellular pyrophosphate, an endogenous inhibitor of CPD, both in vitro and in vivo, which directly blocks hydroxyapatite formation.Methods and Results: We have used the in vitro calcification model without cellular activity, by treating confluent rat aortic VSMC with paraformaldehyde. Fixed cells were incubated with the indicated media to obtain or inhibit calcification. The calcium content was determined colorimetrically. Calcification was observed after 3 weeks (21 days) using a physiological concentration of calcium (1.8mmol/L) and phosphate (1mmol/L). Calcium deposition was directly proportional to the amount of phosphate in the media, with a calcification rate of 3.5, 7.5, and 14.3μg·cm -2·day -1, using 1, 2, and 4mmol/L of phosphate, respectively. Under physiological conditions, pyrophosphate inhibits CPD with an IC50 of ≈200nmol/L.Conclusions: CPD occurs under a physiological concentration of calcium and phosphate, but this deposition is completely inhibited in the presence of a physiological concentration of pyrophosphate (3-5μmol/L).


Enriquez J.A.,University of Zaragoza
Annual Review of Physiology | Year: 2016

Since the discovery of the existence of superassemblies between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, such superassemblies have been the object of a passionate debate. It is accepted that respiratory supercomplexes are structures that occur in vivo, although which superstructures are naturally occurring and what could be their functional role remain open questions. The main difficulty is to make compatible the existence of superassemblies with the corpus of data that drove the field to abandon the early understanding of the physical arrangement of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a compact physical entity (the solid model). This review provides a nonexhaustive overview of the evolution of our understanding of the structural organization of the electron transport chain from the original idea of a compact organization to a view of freely moving complexes connected by electron carriers. Today supercomplexes are viewed not as a revival of the old solid model but rather as a refined revision of the fluid model, which incorporates a new layer of structural and functional complexity. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Hernandez-Ainsa S.,University of Zaragoza | Barbera J.,University of Zaragoza | Marcos M.,University of Zaragoza | Serrano J.L.,Institute Nanociencia Of Aragon
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

Two novel series of dendrimers constituted by the ionic grafting of poly(propyleneimine) PPI-(NH 2) x (x = 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) and poly(amidoamine) PAMAM-(NH 2) x (x = 64) with carboxylic acids bearing an oxadiazole ring have been synthesized, and their liquid crystalline properties have been investigated. Series I is generated by the ionic attachment between the dendrimers and 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing acids. Series II results from the ionic junction of the dendrimers to 1,2,4-oxadiazole-containing acids. The liquid crystalline behavior has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The liquid crystal properties are significantly improved in the dendrimers compared to the mesogenic precursors. The structural parameters determined by X-ray diffraction reflect the different supramolecular organization built by each kind of oxadiazole-containing acid introduced. On the basis of these experimental results, a packing model is proposed based on a microsegregation phenomenon and a variable degree of interdigitation between the mesogenic units. The absorption and emission properties of the compounds have also been studied. To our knowledge, these are the first dendrimers reported up to date combining oxadiazole units and liquid crystal properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Asin L.,University of Zaragoza | Ibarra M.R.,University of Zaragoza | Tres A.,Hospital Universitario Lozano Blesa | Goya G.F.,University of Zaragoza | Goya G.F.,Institute Nanociencia Of Aragon
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To investigate the effects of alternating magnetic fields (AMF) on the death rate of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as heating agents. AMF exposure time and amplitude as well as the MNPs concentration were screened to assess the best conditions for a controlled field-induced cell death. Methods: Human-monocyte-derived DCs were co-incubated with dextran-coated MNPs. The cells were exposed to AMF (f=260 kHz; 0


Escudero A.,University of Seville | Calvo M.E.,University of Seville | Rivera-Fernandez S.,University of Zaragoza | De La Fuente J.M.,University of Zaragoza | Ocana M.,University of Seville
Langmuir | Year: 2013

Europium-doped calcium hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite nanophosphors functionalized with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been synthesized through a one-pot microwave-assisted hydrothermal method from aqueous basic solutions containing calcium nitrate, sodium phosphate monobasic, and PAA, as well as sodium fluoride in the case of the fluoroapatite particles. In both cases a spindlelike morphology was obtained, resulting from an aggregation process of smaller subunits which also gave rise to high specific surface area. The size of the nanospindles was 191 (32) × 40 (5) nm for calcium hydroxyapatite and 152 (24) × 38 (6) nm for calcium fluoroapatite. The luminescent nanoparticles showed the typical red luminescence of Eu3+, which was more efficient for the fluoroapatite particles than for the hydroxyapatite. This is attributed to the presence of OH- quenchers in the latter. The nanophosphors showed negligible toxicity for Vero cells. Both PAA-functionalized nanophosphors showed a very high (up to at least 1 week) colloidal stability in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) at pH 6.5, which is a commonly used buffer for physiological pH. All these features make both kinds of apatite-based nanoparticles promising tools for biomedical applications, such as luminescent biolabels and tracking devices in drug delivery systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Raal F.J.,University of Witwatersrand | Stein E.A.,Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center | Dufour R.,University of Montréal | Turner T.,Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is characterised by low cellular uptake of LDL cholesterol, increased plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations, and premature cardiovascular disease. Despite intensive statin therapy, with or without ezetimibe, many patients are unable to achieve recommended target levels of LDL cholesterol. We investigated the effect of PCSK9 inhibition with evolocumab (AMG 145) on LDL cholesterol in patients with this disorder. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken at 39 sites (most of which were specialised lipid clinics, mainly attached to academic institutions) in Australia, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa between Feb 7 and Dec 19, 2013. 331 eligible patients (18-80 years of age), who met clinical criteria for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and were on stable lipid-lowering therapy for at least 4 weeks, with a fasting LDL cholesterol concentration of 2·6 mmol/L or higher, were randomly allocated in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to receive subcutaneous evolocumab 140 mg every 2 weeks, evolocumab 420 mg monthly, or subcutaneous placebo every 2 weeks or monthly for 12 weeks. Randomisation was computer generated by the study sponsor, implemented by a computerised voice interactive system, and stratified by LDL cholesterol concentration at screening (higher or lower than 4·1 mmol/L) and by baseline ezetimibe use (yes/no). Patients, study personnel, investigators, and Amgen study staff were masked to treatment assignments within dosing frequency groups. The coprimary endpoints were percentage change from baseline in LDL cholesterol at week 12 and at the mean of weeks 10 and 12, analysed by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01763918. Findings Of 415 screened patients, 331 were eligible and were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups: evolocumab 140 mg every 2 weeks (n=111), evolocumab 420 mg monthly (n=110), placebo every 2 weeks (n=55), or placebo monthly (n=55). 329 patients received at least one dose of study drug. Compared with placebo, evolocumab at both dosing schedules led to a significant reduction in mean LDL cholesterol at week 12 (every-2-weeks dose: 59·2% reduction [95% CI 53·4-65·1], monthly dose: 61·3% reduction [53·6-69·0]; both p<0·0001) and at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 (60·2% reduction [95% CI 54·5-65·8] and 65·6% reduction [59·8-71·3]; both p<0·0001). Evolocumab was well tolerated, with rates of adverse events similar to placebo. The most common adverse events occurring more frequently in the evolocumab-treated patients than in the placebo groups were nasopharyngitis (in 19 patients [9%] vs five [5%] in the placebo group) and muscle-related adverse events (ten patients [5%] vs 1 [1%]). Interpretation In patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, evolocumab administered either 140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg monthly was well tolerated and yielded similar and rapid 60% reductions in LDL cholesterol compared with placebo. Funding Amgen Inc. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Lisbona P.,Energy Resources and Consumption Research Center | Lisbona P.,University of Zaragoza | Martinez A.,Energy Resources and Consumption Research Center | Romeo L.M.,Energy Resources and Consumption Research Center | Romeo L.M.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

High temperature looping cycles involving solid circulation, such as carbonation-calcination, play an essential role among the CO2 capture technologies under development. The low cost and high availability of Ca-based sorbents together with the feasibility of integration between these capture systems and existing power plants lead to very competitive potential costs of avoided CO2, below 20€/tonne. Optimal configurations make use of several interconnected fluidized beds. One promising configuration for Ca-based sorbents looping systems relies on the use of two circulating beds (carbonator and calciner) and two bubbling beds acting as non-mechanical valves. Fluidized beds are well characterized when operating independently since they are extensively used in industrial applications, power and chemical plants. However, the operation when two or more fluidized beds exchange solid material through non-mechanical valves is still uncertain because of the more complex pressure balance of the system. Theoretical studies based on thermo-chemical simulations and experimental studies show that minimum CO2 capture cost is attained with large solid circulation flow between reactors. The challenge is to reach the required particle circulation in a system with a complex configuration and be able to control it. Solid internal recirculation in any of these fluidized beds would provide flexibility in its control but it will also make harder the characterization of the whole system. The aim of this work is to analyse the hydrodynamics of the system and to generate a comprehensive mathematical model to better understand the interaction between the elements of the system. Measurements of circulation rate, static pressure, voidage profiles and standpipe height of solids have been used to identify trends in the hydrodynamic behaviour of the whole system while varying fluidizing gas velocities in the risers, loop-seals, solid inventories in the reactors or size distribution of the particles. These measurements are also used to adjust and validate the mathematical model presented in this study. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wolff J.N.,University of New South Wales | Wolff J.N.,Monash University | Ladoukakis E.D.,University of Crete | Enriquez J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Dowling D.K.,Monash University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Fundamental biological processes hinge on coordinated interactions between genes spanning two obligate genomes-mitochondrial and nuclear. These interactions are key to complex life, and allelic variation that accumulates and persists at the loci embroiled in such intergenomic interactions should therefore be subjected to intense selection to maintain integrity of the mitochondrial electron transport system. Here, we compile evidence that suggests that mitochondrial-nuclear (mitonuclear) allelic interactions are evolutionarily significant modulators of the expression of key health-related and life-history phenotypes, across several biological scales-within species (intraand interpopulational) and between species.We then introduce a new frontier for the study of mitonuclear interactions-those that occur within individuals, and are fuelled by the mtDNA heteroplasmy and the existence of nuclearencoded mitochondrial gene duplicates and isoforms. Empirical evidence supports the idea of high-resolution tissue- and environment-specific modulation of intraindividual mitonuclear interactions. Predicting the penetrance, severity and expression patterns of mtDNA-induced mitochondrial diseases remains a conundrum. We contend that a deeper understanding of the dynamics and ramifications of mitonuclear interactions, across all biological levels, will provide key insights that tangibly advance our understanding, not only of core evolutionary processes, but also of the complex genetics underlying human mitochondrial disease. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Enriquez J.A.,University of Zaragoza
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Mitochondria are critical metabolic hubs in which catabolic and anabolic cellular processes converge and are integrated. To perform their function, mitochondria also need to respond to signals that monitor their function and send continuous feedback to the nucleus and other organelles to trigger the required expression programs (for example, stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 - α). Unsurprisingly, mitochondrial dysfunction results in wide range of disorders. Understanding how cells adapt to changes in mitochondrial function is critical for the evaluation of mitochondrial disorders and the development of potential treatments. Each type of mitochondrial dysfunction results in a unique transcriptional response. Here we review the role of nuclear-encoded factors in the response to changes in mitochondrial function and discuss their relevance to metabolic homeostasis, outlining the diverse and complex ways in which nuclei adapt to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vitezica Z.G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Varona L.,University of Zaragoza | Legarra A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Genetics | Year: 2013

Genomic evaluation models can fit additive and dominant SNP effects. Under quantitative genetics theory, additive or "breeding" values of individuals are generated by substitution effects, which involve both "biological" additive and dominant effects of the markers. Dominance deviations include only a portion of the biological dominant effects of the markers. Additive variance includes variation due to the additive and dominant effects of the markers. We describe a matrix of dominant genomic relationships across individuals, D, which is similar to the G matrix used in genomic best linear unbiased prediction. This matrix can be used in a mixed-model context for genomic evaluations or to estimate dominant and additive variances in the population. From the "genotypic" value of individuals, an alternative parameterization defines additive and dominance as the parts attributable to the additive and dominant effect of the markers. This approach underestimates the additive genetic variance and overestimates the dominance variance. Transforming the variances from one model into the other is trivial if the distribution of allelic frequencies is known. We illustrate these results with mouse data (four traits, 1884 mice, and 10,946 markers) and simulated data (2100 individuals and 10,000 markers). Variance components were estimated correctly in the model, considering breeding values and dominance deviations. For the model considering genotypic values, the inclusion of dominant effects biased the estimate of additive variance. Genomic models were more accurate for the estimation of variance components than their pedigree-based counterparts. © 2013 by the Genetics Society of America.


Novio F.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Campo J.,University of Zaragoza | Ruiz-Molina D.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

A series of polymer 1 microcrystals with several different morphologies have been systematically synthesized by controlling experimental parameters, namely concentration of reactants, temperature, solvent nature, and the use of surfactants, and their valence tautomerism (VT) has been studied by combined electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction data, and magnetization. Our results indicate that all of them can be grouped exclusively into two different crystalline phases, or a mixture of them, that critically determine the VT process, independent of the morphology and/or dimensions of the crystals. Moreover, a difference in the critical temperature of both phases by more than 50 K allows us to regulate VT. These results head the use of valence tautomeric 1D polymers in devices where strict control and reproducibility of the switching behavior at different length scales and integration procedures is highly required. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Zhu J.,University of California at Berkeley | Christensen J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Jung J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Jung J.,University of Aalborg | And 5 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2011

For classical waves such as light or sound, diffraction sets a natural limit on how finely the details of an object can be recorded on its image. Recently, various optical superlenses based on the metamaterials concept have shown the possibility of overcoming the diffraction limit. Similar two-dimensional (2D) acoustic hyperlens designs have also been explored. Here we demonstrate a 3D holey-structured metamaterial that achieves acoustic imaging down to a feature size of λ/50. The evanescent field components of a subwavelength object are efficiently transmitted through the structure as a result of their strong coupling with Fabry-Pérot resonances inside the holey plate. This capability of acoustic imaging at a very deep-subwavelength scale may open the door for a broad range of applications, including medical ultrasonography, underwater sonar and ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Esteve J.,University of Zaragoza | Hughes N.C.,University of California at Riverside | Zamora S.,Natural History Museum in London
Geology | Year: 2011

Localities bearing abundant enrolled Cambrian trilobites are extremely rare, but here we report a new and exceptional such assemblage with a high diversity of enrolled specimens from the middle Cambrian of Spain. This novel fi nd demonstrates that encapsulated enrollment was a behavioral response available to many of the early benthic trilobite morphotypes. This result provides a new perspective for reviewing the evolution of trilobite enrollment through the Paleozoic. We fi nd a signifi cant and consistent increase in the proportion of enrolled trilobites within assemblages bearing abundant articulated trilobites. Similarly, the mean number of coaptative devices also increased progressively during the Paleozoic. Such devices likely provided later enrolled trilobites with greater structural integrity, and may support an escalatory model of trilobite defense evolution. Likewise, environmental circumstances favoring the preservation of enrolled trilobites may have become more common during post-Cambrian time. © 2011 Geological Society of America.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza | San Jose I.,Instituto Aragones Of Estadistica
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2016

Through a simple procedure based on the Lu–Chipman decomposition [S.-Y. Lu and R.C. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1106 (1996)], any depolarizing Mueller matrix can be transformed into a reduced form which accumulates the depolarization and polarizance properties into a set of six parameters. The simple structure of this reduced form provides straightforward ways for the general characterization of Mueller matrices as well as for the analysis of singular Mueller matrices. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-4-04 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2008

The main objective of the present project is to develop novel packaging technologies that will avoid/reduce and detect the growth of pathogens and spoilage microoganism responsible for product lost in perishable food products of interest: fresh fish, fresh chicken and minimally processed vegetables (MPVs). The target foods were selected among many, for different reasons: the consumption of MPVs is hugely increasing in all European countries and therefore, it is important to heighten the vigilance around that products; it is necessary to rebuild a consumers confidence for chicken; fish is probably the most perishable product. Anyway, any of them is an increasing area of consumption and interest. The new technologies will improve food quality and extend the relatively short life of these fresh food products. The concern about synthetic preservatives is steadily rising, due to a limited documentation on safety and tolerance. Instead, Natural Antimicrobials (NAs), which occur abundantly in environment where they evolved as host defence mechanisms, are generally considered as safer and better tolerable. Though NAs will be used in the active material development, a systematic and scientific based work will be carried out in order to fully assess the safety of the new packages developed. Thus, along three years, NAFISPACK will develop novel food packaging technologies and novel tools for risk-benefit assessment of these technologies (basis for a risk management tool and address policy needs in the area of food contact materials): i) Active packaging technologies based on natural antimicrobials ii) Intelligent packaging technologies based on monitoring of quality indicating metabolites iii) Combination of both antimicrobial and intelligent packaging technologies aimed to increase safety and quality of fresh food products during longer periods of time.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.7 | Award Amount: 7.86M | Year: 2012

Future advancements in ICT domain are closely linked to the understanding about how multi-level complex systems function. Indeed, multi-level dependencies may amplify cascade failures or make more sudden the collapse of the entire system. Recent large-scale blackouts resulting from cascades in the power-grid coupled to the control communication system witness this point very clearly. A better understanding of multi-level systems is essential for future ICTs and for improving life quality and security in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world. In this respect, complex networks science is particularly suitable for the many challenges that we face today, from critical infrastructures and communication systems, to techno-social and socio-economic networks.MULTIPLEX proposes a substantial paradigm shift for the development of a mathematical, computational and algorithmic framework for multi-level complex networks. Firstly, this will lead to a significant progress in the understanding and the prediction of complex multi-level systems. Secondly, it will enable a better control, and optimization of their dynamics. By combining mathematical analyses, modelling approaches and the use of massive heterogeneous data sets, we shall address several prominent aspects of multi-level complex networks, i.e. their topology, dynamical organization and evolution.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.4.3 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2010

PlanetData aims to establish a sustainable European community of researchers that supports organizations in exposing their data in new and useful ways. The ability to effectively and efficiently make sense out of the enormous amounts of data continuously published online, including data streams, (micro)blog posts, digital archives, eScience resources, public sector data sets, and the Linked Open Data Cloud, is a crucial ingredient for Europes transition to a knowledge society. It allows businesses, governments, communities and individuals to take decisions in an informed manner, ensuring competitive advantages, and general welfare. Research will concentrate on three key challenges that need to be addressed for effective data exposure in a usable form at global scale. We will provide representations for stream-like data, and scalable techniques to publish, access and integrate such data sources on the Web. We will establish mechanisms to assess, record, and, where possible, improve the quality of data through repair. To further enhance the usefulness of data - in particular when it comes to the effectiveness of data processing and retrieval - we will define means to capture the context in which data is produced and understood - including space, time and social aspects. Finally, we will develop access control mechanisms - in order to attract exposure of certain types of valuable data sets, it is necessary to take proper account of its owners concerns to maintain control and respect for privacy and provenance, while not hampering non-contentious use. We will test all of the above on a highly scalable data infrastructure, supporting relational, RDF, and stream processing, and on novel data sets exposed through the network, and derive best practices for data owners. By providing these key precursors, complemented by a comprehensive training, dissemination, standardization and networking program, we will enable and promote effective exposure of data at planetary scale.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: WASTE-5-2014 | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

PPI4Waste is based on an integrated approach which will permit to define needs, targets, improvement of functional performances, and monitor the complete cycle of preparation activities for PPI process to be implemented in the waste sector, while making know-how on procedures for innovation procurement widely available through the establishment of buyers group, making state-of-the-art solutions accessible to other procurers, capacity building and assessment of feasibility plan of uptaking PPI in the waste sector. This 30-month project, whose workplan has a concise structure that supports the workflow to achieve its main aim: The overall objective of the project is to achieve resource efficiency, sustainable waste management and sustainable consumption throughout Europe by increasing the use of innovative public procurement through coordinated a structured and coordination action of networking, capacity building, and dissemination. The cornerstone of the project is how to boost resource efficiency through PPI, on the basis of the waste hierarchy and the establishment of the buyers group of public procurers in the first phase of the project will permit to achieve all objectives towards the reinforcement of early deployment of eco-innovative solutions for resource efficiency and waste management through joint or coordinated PPI processes.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-IA | Phase: ECSEL-02-2014 | Award Amount: 48.05M | Year: 2015

The goal of the InForMed project is to establish an integrated pilot line for medical devices. The pilot line includes micro-fabrication, assembly and even the fabrication of smart catheters. The heart of this chain is the micro-fabrication and assembly facility of Philips Innovation Services, which will be qualified for small/medium-scale production of medical devices. The pilot facility will be open to other users for pilot production and product validation. It is the aim of the pilot line: to safeguard and consolidate Europes strong position in traditional medical diagnostic equipment, to enable emerging markets - especially in smart minimally invasive instruments and point-of-care diagnostic equipment - and to stimulate the development of entirely new markets, by providing an industrial micro-fabrication and assembly facility where new materials can be processed and assembled. The pilot line will be integrated in a complete innovation value chain from technology concept to high-volume production and system qualification. Protocols will be developed to ensure an efficient technology transfer between the different links in the value chain. Six challenging demonstrators products will be realized that address societal challenges in: Hospital and Heuristic Care and Home care and well-being, and demonstrate the trend towards Smart Health solutions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FoF-ICT-2011.7.1 | Award Amount: 5.91M | Year: 2012

The future in manufacturing is oriented to more flexible and adaptable systems. Customization is also a great challenge and a way of giving added value to the products. And aesthetic personalization is one of the main ways for achieving customization.\nUV-Marking project aims at demonstrating that unitary customization (individual configurations/designs of each customer) is possible, by developing a new laser in the ultraviolet (UV) range that provides high quality marking on different materials.\nA final user will be able to select or create its own aesthetical design (colour, size, text, pictures...) using easy ICT applications and these will be marked easily by manufacturers using the new UV-laser system. The marking process will achieve high quality on marks, and high durability compared to current printed techniques.\nThe new UV-laser system will help manufacturers with customized products, allowing shorter cycles, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency, higher integration and automation. One of the main goals will be to do the marking on-line at the end of the assembly line. It opens very interesting opportunities and possibilities for customization, but also for process optimization: delivery time, environmental impact, flexibility, shorter launching time, etc.\nThe marking customization will be achieved by:\n\tDeveloping a new laser in the UV range\n\tAdapting existing materials for having a better beam absorption\n\tIntegrating the laser in the industrial process\n\tDeveloping a user application for demonstrating the unitary customization with real customers\nBSH, one of the most important companies of the home appliance sector, will lead the project. They are the perfect validators because they use several materials and aesthetics for commercial purposes is very important for them. ROFIN will be the laser developer, which is a leader company in this sector. U-MARQ is an ICT company that will work in the software for the integration of the laser in the industrial process, and the user application; WIRTHWEIN and DATALASE are leader companies and will work with plastic materials to improve the absorption properties and to obtain concrete colors different than black or white. ILVA and TORRECID will work in the field of glass and ceramic materials. Finally, 3 different groups of ICMA (from University of Zaragoza and CSIC) will participate as experts on laser and materials.\n\nThe company Merck has also contributed to UV-Marking during the first months of the project, before the incorporation of DATALASE.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.5 | Award Amount: 6.19M | Year: 2011

Social exclusion has many causes, but major factors are the fear and apathy that often accompany a disability. The European e-Inclusion policy stresses the importance of ICT in improving the quality of life in potentially disadvantaged groups, including older people and persons with disabilities. In this project, we will develop ICT tools to support the treatment of people who are at risk of social exclusion due to fear and/or apathy associated with a disability. These tools will be in the form of personalised VR scenarios and serious games specifically designed for therapeutic targets and made broadly available via a novel integration of interactive 3D environments directly into Web browsers. We will perform cutting edge research into rendering and simulating personalised and populated VR environments, 3D web graphics, and serious games. These technical efforts will be underpinned by our clinical/laboratory and industry partners, who will be fully involved throughout in the requirements, design and evaluation of VERVE, and liaison with the stakeholders (i.e., participants, carers/family, and health professionals). They will implement the VERVE interventions in three use-cases, each targeting a different group of participants: Fear of falling, Apathy related to cognitive decline and behavioural disturbances, and other emotional disturbances linked to anxiety. While developing clinical assessment methods and interventions for the first two patient groups is our primary focus, our results will be applicable to a much wider range of potentially disadvantaged individuals.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2009

Objective: The ENERGY proposal addresses HEALTH-2007-3.3-1: Promoting healthy behaviour in children and adolescents. It will be specifically focussed on promoting health behaviours that contribute to prevention of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. Strategy: The project will use a multidisciplinary analysis of determinants and intervention schemes on extrinsic and intrinsic factors determining specific nutrition and physical activity behaviours in children and adolescents in different populations and regions. This in order to develop an evidence and theory-based new scheme to prevent unnecessary weight gain among youth in transition from childhood to adolescence. The new intervention scheme will be school-based and family-involved, thus combining a key intervention setting (schools) with a key behavioural determining environment (family). This new scheme will be validated for improved capacity to encourage and sustain healthful eating and physical activity behaviours, and the results will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Methods: In 10 work packages systematic reviews, secondary analyses of existing and accessible data sets, focus group research, survey and community-trial evaluation research among schoolchildren, parents and school staff will be conducted according to state-of-the art methodology guided by an established and approved research quality handbook. Consortium: The ENERGY project consortium spans the necessary multidisciplinary variety of experts such as public health experts, epidemiologists, nutritionists, physical activity experts, health promotion experts, paediatricians, psychologists, economists, totalling 14 partners, from 11 countries representing all regions of Europe. The consortium has ample experience in conducting and coordinating multi-centre international research as well as international dissemination to all relevant stakeholders.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.3.4 | Award Amount: 447.15K | Year: 2012

In 2010, the TOP500 project, which ranks and details the 500 (most powerful known computer systems in the world since the year of 1993, announced that the worlds most powerful computer system is Tianhe 1A in China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOP500). This project aims at establishing a strategic collaboration with the host and developer of this computer system in China to explore a range of research issues, which can be highlighted as: (i) further test and evaluation with complex computing tasks, especially those in the areas of modelling, simulation, visualization and imaging etc, and hence identify a range of research challenges for further development in the area of computing systems as well as their applications; (ii) discussion with series of targeted workshops and seminars to explore and generate ideas in further developing super computer architectures, algorithms, configurations, and any other important issues across the boundaries of software engineering, distributed computing, cloud computing, and grid computing etc. (iii) exchange visits and personnel in developing the discussed ideas into project proposals and research programmes. (iv) joint publications and other dissemination activities; (v) establishing long-term collaborations in addressing ambitious and challenging research issues. The SCC-Computing has drawn a strong consortium with complementary expertise and multi-disciplinary research know-how to ensure successful delivery of this project, leading to fruitful discussion and initiation of new ideas for further research on super-computing systems.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2015

A diverse, complex, and poorly characterised community of microorganisms lies at the heart of the wine an industry worth over 220 billion globally. These microorganisms play key roles at all stages of the viniculture and vinification processes, from helping plants access nutrients from the soil, driving their health through protection against pathogens, to fermentation processes that transform the must into wine with its complex array of aromas and flavours. Given this importance, an improved understanding of the microbial community and its interplay will have significant effects on the industry. In recent years, Next Generation DNA sequencing has revolutionised many areas of biology, including microbiology, through conferring the ability to characterise microbes on the deep community scale, through both shotgun and deep amplicon sequencing approaches. To exploit this power for the benefit of the wine industry, we propose MICROWINE, a 15 ESR Marie Curie Actions European Training Network. The network is constructed as a close collaboration between industry and academic partners, around the theme of the microbial communitys role in the wine production process. Through combining microbial metagenomic sequencing with powerful computation analyses, with metadata generated using techniques such as metabolomics and geochemistry, we will study the action of microbes from the plant protection and nutrition, through to wine fermentation process, using samples collected from both Europe and beyond. We will further train the ESRs across a wide range of relevant disciplines, and maximise information transfer through multiple host and academic-industry cosupervision and secondments. In this way, we anticipate contributing to the strength and scientific progress of the wine industry through training of a cohort of leading, interdisciplinary and tightly interconnected scientists at the forefront of modern microbiological, genomic, computational and related techniques.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-08-2014 | Award Amount: 25.06M | Year: 2015

The TBVAC2020 proposal builds on the highly successful and long-standing collaborations in subsequent EC-FP5-, FP6- and FP7-funded TB vaccine and biomarker projects, but also brings in a large number of new key partners from excellent laboratories from Europe, USA, Asia, Africa and Australia, many of which are global leaders in the TB field. This was initiated by launching an open call for Expressions of Interest (EoI) prior to this application and to which interested parties could respond. In total, 115 EoIs were received and ranked by the TBVI Steering Committee using proposed H2020 evaluation criteria. This led to the prioritisation of 52 R&D approaches included in this proposal. TBVAC2020 aims to innovate and diversify the current TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline while at the same time applying portfolio management using gating and priority setting criteria to select as early as possible the most promising TB vaccine candidates, and accelerate their development. TBVAC2020 proposes to achieve this by combining creative bottom-up approaches for vaccine discovery (WP1), new preclinical models addressing clinical challenges (WP2) and identification and characterisation of correlates of protection (WP5) with a directive top-down portfolio management approach aiming to select the most promising TB vaccine candidates by their comparative evaluation using objective gating and priority setting criteria (WP6) and by supporting direct, head-to head or comparative preclinical and early clinical evaluation (WP3, WP4). This approach will both innovate and diversify the existing TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline as well as accelerate development of most promising TB vaccine candidates through early development stages. The proposed approach and involvement of many internationally leading groups in the TB vaccine and biomarker area in TBVAC2020 fully aligns with the Global TB Vaccine Partnerships (GTBVP).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS-2007-4.0.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.29M | Year: 2008

Transnational exchange of experiences and dissemination of best practices can constitute an important supporting element in the work should provide the SiS NCPs, at the same time contributing to the realisation of the concept of the Science in Society. The experiences of the benchmarking exercises within the activities to realise the SiS might serve as a source of stimulation. Also several activities like training and info workshops, development of databases. EUROSiS will bring together all the NCPs for the Science in Society program in order to create a network and continually improve their services thought the exchange of good practices, communication of all the representatives, the creation of a well structure partner search tool. Furthermore a lot of events will be organised in order to train both the new NCPs as well as the already experience. One of the most important activities of the project will be the survey of the competence of the already nominated NCPs. This will be performed through mapping the SiS NCPs competences and stakeholders needs in order to launch the first knowledge management tool for the SiS NCP services. The main aim of the EUROSiS project is to create needed infrastructure in order to newly formed SiS NCP network set the basis in order to nominated NCPs start working as a team in order to have common benefits in their work and at the same time to provide the effective services to the stakeholders. As the project will last for two years the main effort will be allocated in order to create the framework and establish the basic procedures and framework so to have future collaboration within the NCP community. It has to be noted that SiS NCP Network is established for the first time to the basic issues for the period of the proposed project is to establish the needed communication in a very well structure way.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2016

The European chemical industry faces some very serious challenges if it is to retain its competitive position in the global economy. The new industries setting up in Asia and the Near East are based on novel process-intensification concepts, leaving Europe desperately searching for a competitive edge. The transition from batch to continuous micro- and milliflow processing is essential to ensure a future for the European fine-chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries. However, despite the huge interest shown by both academia and industrial R&D, many challenges remain, such as the problems of reaction activation, channel clogging due to solids formation and the scaling up of these technologies to match the required throughput. COSMIC, the European Training Network for Continuous Sonication and Microwave Reactors, takes on these challenges by developing material- and energy-efficient continuous chemical processes for the synthesis of organic molecules and nanoparticles. The intersectoral and interdisciplinary COSMIC training network consists of leading universities and industry participants and trains 15 ESRs in the areas of flow technology, millifluidics and external energy fields (ultrasound and microwaves). These energy fields can be applied in structured, continuous milli-reactors for producing high-value-added chemicals with excellent yield efficiencies in terms of throughput, waste minimization and product quality that simply cannot be achieved with traditional batch-type chemical reactors. The chemical processes that are at the heart of COSMICs game-changing research are catalytic reactions and solids-forming reactions. COSMICs success, which is based on integrating chemistry, physics and process technology, will re-establish European leadership in this crucial field and provide it with highly trained young experts ready for dynamic careers in the European chemical industry.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2012-3.3. | Award Amount: 791.75K | Year: 2012

The Socientize project will coordinate all the agents involved in the citizen science setting the basis of this new open science paradigm promoting the usage of the infrastructures composed by dedicated and external resources which are based on scientists and amateur people. It will set a network where infrastructure providers and scientific researchers will join with the society recruiting volunteers that perform science at home. With the citizen science term we mean both a) the participation of people in the scientific process, i.e. By collecting and analysing scientific data or by contributing with their own resources to form the research infrastructure, and b) the development of socio-artistic activities and dissemination material of scientific results for them.\n\nPeople will contribute with their own knowledge and resources participating in an active way. As we propose to open e-infrastructure to the people, even considering the knowledge and the time of the citizen scientists as part of the resources that constitute the infrastructure, he present here an innovative concept: the human-based e-infrastructure (he-infrastructure). These infrastructure allow researchers to deploy new studies, dealing with large-scale data. For instance, the research over the socio-technological networks is allowing to emerge a new collective intelligence able to deploy innovative scientific tasks.\n\nSOCIENTIZE will deploy a set of applications enabling volunteers as scientists and showing the capabilities of open resources. But the project will be focused in open workshops and conferences where the partnership will set the basis of the interaction with all the stakeholders. As a result of the discussions held in the SOCIENTIZE fora, we will present a white-book with the strategy for the citizen science enhancement, compiling best cases experiences and policy recommendations for he-infrastructure providers, scientific end-users, artists and the society in general.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SoU | Phase: EeB.ENERGY.2011.8.1-1 | Award Amount: 9.49M | Year: 2012

NEED4B aims to develop an open and easily replicable methodology for designing, constructing, and operating new low energy buildings, aiming to a large market uptake. The NEED4B methodology will be validated and refined by a strong demonstration programme, envisaging the construction of 27.000 square meters, spread among five different climatic zones, buildings types and uses. The weighted average of energy consumption in the demo sites, on primary energy, is 43 kWh/m2year, representing a 65% of reduction compared with the current regulation and regular practice. The weighed average of CO2 emissions is 1,91 kg/m2year, corresponding to a of 94% reduction compared to the current national regulations and regular practices. The total emissions avoided by the five demo sites are 831,9 tCO2/year. The proposed methodology will integrate tools and procedures that already exist or are under development, like Integrated Project Delivery, Building Information Modelling, Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost and simulation softwares, providing recommendations and guidelines, adapted to the different type of stakeholders (investors, promoters, owner, users, architects, contractors, public authorities, SMEs, etc.) for the whole construction process. NEED4B will be part of an ambitious initiative that will totally invest 191 M and involve around 46.000 person months for the design, construction and monitoring of the demo sites. The requested EC contribution (5,7 M grant and 590 persons months) will help to leverage these resources, obtaining an exemplary coordinated EU low energy buildings demonstration, with high replication potential due to the associated methodology, and a relevant visibility. The weighted average energy savings are 60 kWh/m2year, resulting in reduction of the bill of 9,6 /m2year. The weighted average cost for each kWh reduced is 0,81 / m2year, and the weighted average cost for each kgCO2 avoided is of 3,5 / m2year.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FoF-ICT-2013.7.1 | Award Amount: 5.41M | Year: 2013

Simulation can significantly improve the competitive position of manufacturing and engineering companies by reducing their costs and resulting in more efficient development, production, procurement, logistics or financial processes. However, the take-up of simulation software by SMEs has until now been low due to high barriers of entry that include hardware prices, licensing costs and technical expertise. The CloudSME project will develop a cloud-based, one-stop-shop solution that will significantly lower these barriers, provide a scalable platform for small or larger scale simulations, and enable the wider take-up of simulation technologies in manufacturing and engineering SMEs. The CloudSME Simulation Platform will support end user SMEs to utilise customised simulation applications in the form of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) based provision. Moreover, simulation software service providers and consulting companies will have access to a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) solution that enables them to quickly assemble custom simulation solutions in the cloud for their clients. The CloudSME Simulation Platform will be built on existing and proven technologies provided by the project partners and partially developed in previous European projects. Building on existing technology will enable the project to deliver its results quickly. The project consortium includes experienced partners, incorporating 12 SMEs, from cloud hardware and platform providers, to simulation software providers, end users and technology integrators. To guarantee greater impact of the developed solution, additional use-cases will be provided by a further 10 partners following an open call after the first year of the project. The CloudSME Simulation Platform will dramatically change the way in which manufacturing/engineering SMEs utilise simulation solutions today, and will provide new business opportunities not only to end-user SMEs, but also to simulation software and cloud service providers.\nA typical experimental scenario in the project is based around an insole design simulation program developed by one of the partners, used for designing tailored insoles for sports footwear and for people with foot problems. The end user company in the project has patented a method for scanning feet in 3D and the experiment will involve linking this to a cloud-based version of the simulation software to design insoles and simulate the interaction of feet and insoles. In turn, this design is loaded into a CNC machine to manufacture the insoles. The aim of the cooperation is to establish a portal through which scans can be uploaded to the cloud-based software service which then validates the scanned image to produce the design. The experiment will explore the extent to which the service supporting the lifecycle of tailored insole production can be achieved. This will immediately lead to extensions of the software for checking images within other industries unrelated to the footwear business.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 382.50K | Year: 2017

Networks are present in our lives in numerous different environments: to name just a few, networks can model social relationships, they can model the Internet and links between web pages, they might model the spread of a virus infection between people, and they might represent computer processors/sensors that have to exchange information. This project aims to obtain new insights into the behaviour of networks, which are studied from a geometric and computational perspective. Thereto, the project brings together researchers from different areas such as computational geometry, discrete mathematics, graph drawing, and probability. Among of the topics of research are enumerative problems on geometric networks, crossing numbers, random networks, imprecise models of data, restricted orientation geometry. Combinatorial approaches are combined with algorithms. Algorithmic applications of networks are also studied in the context of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and in the context of musical information retrieval (MIR). The project contains the work packages: Geometric networks, Stochastic Geometry and Networks, Restricted orientation geometry, Graph-based algorithms for UAVs and for MIR, and Dissemination and gender equality promotion. The project connects researchers from 14 universities located in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Italy, Mexico, and Spain, who will collaborate and share their different expertise in order to obtain new knowledge on the combinatorics of networks and applications.


Patent
University of Zaragoza and Nanoimmunotech | Date: 2014-03-12

The present invention describes a method for producing multifunctional materials comprising the steps of: a) chemically activating functional groups present in a micro- or nanoparticulate base material; b) performing a nucleophilic substitution reaction between at least one terminal amino, carboxyl or thiol group of a PNA or DNA type A chain and at least one activated functional group of the base material produced in step (a); c) conjugating to a biomolecule by means of chemically activating functional groups of a PNA/DNA type B chain, which is complementary to the PNA/DNA type A chain; and d) hybridizing the PNA/DNA type A chains which are bound to the base material according to step b) and the PNA/DNA type B chains having biomolecules bound thereto according to step c) by means of PNA-PNA or PNA-DNA molecular recognition.


Bourgain J.,Institute for Advanced Study | Grunbaum F.A.,University of California at Berkeley | Velazquez L.,University of Zaragoza | Wilkening J.,University of California at Berkeley
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

A notion of monitored recurrence for discrete-time quantum processes was recently introduced in Grünbaum et al. (Commun Math Phys (2), 320:543-569, 2013) taking the initial state as an absorbing one. We extend this notion of monitored recurrence to absorbing subspaces of arbitrary finite dimension.The generating function approach leads to a connection with the well-known theory of operator-valued Schur functions. This is the cornerstone of a spectral characterization of subspace recurrence that generalizes some of the main results in Grünbaum et al. (Commun Math Phys (2), 320:543-569, 2013). The spectral decomposition of the unitary step operator driving the evolution yields a spectral measure, which we project onto the subspace to obtain a new spectral measure that is purely singular iff the subspace is recurrent, and consists of a pure point spectrum with a finite number of masses precisely when all states in the subspace have a finite expected return time.This notion of subspace recurrence also links the concept of expected return time to an Aharonov-Anandan phase that, in contrast to the case of state recurrence, can be non-integer. Even more surprising is the fact that averaging such geometrical phases over the absorbing subspace yields an integer with a topological meaning, so that the averaged expected return time is always a rational number. Moreover, state recurrence can occasionally give higher return probabilities than subspace recurrence, a fact that reveals once more the counter-intuitive behavior of quantum systems.All these phenomena are illustrated with explicit examples, including as a natural application the analysis of site recurrence for coined walks. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Uche J.,University of Zaragoza | Royo J.,University of Zaragoza
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper is to assess a proposed simultaneous energy and water generation system through a main combination of technologies: organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for heat and power generation, multi-effect distillation (MED) water desalination and a cold generation thermally activated technology (TAT). It is also a primary objective the performance evaluation of the ORC subsystem applied to the use of high temperature renewable energy sources to activate the proposed configuration. This study is divided into three main sections. First of all, the energy feasibility of the proposed configuration is analysed through the Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) in order to determine the optimal distribution of the heat generated by the prime mover, i.e. the ORC, obtaining that the highest savings correspond to the complete use of heat for domestic hot water (DHW) or heating, which limits the amount of heat used for the activation of MED and TAT subsystems only up to 40%, when the polygeneration system is compared with a high performance stand-alone one. In addition, the ORC subsystem was modelled using the Aspen Plus process simulator, while heat to MED unit was simulated as an input of the model. This part of the paper analyzes a comprehensive list of candidate working fluids for the ORC polygeneration application, and a selection was made of the most interesting according to the preliminary conclusions extracted from the first section of this paper: fluorobenzene and octamethyltrisiloxane could be the most suitable organic fluids for the proposed system. The third main section of this paper deals with the liability of the proposed polygeneration configuration activated by biomass thermal oil boilers through a techno-economic evaluation, revealing that approximate payback periods between 4 and 20 years might be obtained for biomass prices and MED engine specific investment cost in the range of 0-200 /t and 0-15,000 /m3/day, respectively. The main conclusions extracted from the paper results reveal that the amount of heat generated in the ORC condenser used for desalination severely limits the primary energy savings in comparison to conventional systems, as well as the electric efficiency obtained with every single fluid. In consequence, the working fluids that might be used in order to obtain a valid FESR and an assumable economic performance for investors are limited. The importance of the proposed configuration activated by biomass combustion lies in the well-known environmental advantages of this renewable resource, plus the energy advantages from the efficiency point of view (despite the lower efficiency of the subsystems in comparison with internal combustion engines or compression chillers) proving that it is possible to achieve small scale water desalination and electricity, cold and heat generation with energy savings in comparison with conventional systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.4-06 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2012

Agricultural production faces numerous challenges regarding competitiveness, conserving natural and non-renewable resources (water, soil, air, phosphorus, fossil fuels) and ecosystem services (pollination, natural pest control, soil fertility). Society also expects from agriculture to be more environment-friendly in several issues such as climatic change, declining biodiversity, fossil energy depletion, and water shortage. To overcome these limitations, CANTOGETHER will design innovative sustainable mixed farming systems (MFS). A design-assessment-adjustment iterative cycle will be adopted to ensure continuous validation and improvement of the innovative investigated MFS through a participative approach involving stakeholders and researchers across Europe. It will bring together a European network of 24 existing experimental and commercial farms covering a wide diversity of natural and socio-economic conditions in which the most promising MFS will be implemented in order to verify their practicability and to perform an in-depth integrated assessment (economic and environmental). The MFS will be designed for individual farm level or collective implementation at the territorial level. At the same time, CANTOGETHER will define recommendations for a common agricultural policy promoting the development of these MFS. The innovative analysed MFS will be based on the simultaneous utilization of crops (cash, feed and energetic) and various rearing animals with full recycling practices of animal wastes in view to ensure high resource-use efficiency (notably of nutrients), reduction in dependence on external inputs (fertilisers, pesticides, concentrated feeds), and acceptable environmental and economic performances. CANTOGETHER will produce a complete picture of their effects and will facilitate their adoption by jointly involving researchers and the key actors of the agricultural sector (farmers, advisors, policy makers, and actors of the food supply chain).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-06 | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2008

Recent figures from WHO and ETSC reveal frightening statistics on road traffic accidents across Europe and beyond 1.2 million people worldwide are killed in road crashes each year with up to 43,000 dying in Europe Up to 50 million are injured with at least 600,000 hospital admissions on a European level directly attributed to road traffic accidents. This costs European society approximately 160 billion euro and uses up 10% of all health care resources With increased mobilization, these figures will increase by about 65% over the next 20 years unless there is new commitment to prevention. This would mean that by 2020 road traffic injuries will be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease and injury. World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention [WHO, 2004] Report on European Road Transport Safety [Prof. Mackay, ETSC, 2000] Many injuries and deaths are a result of impacts with current road restraint systems especially in the case of vulnerable road users such as motorcyclists, cyclists and passengers where impacts with supports or edges usually result in amputations or sectioning of torsos in a guillotine effect. Furthermore once an accident has occurred; the time between the impact and receiving immediate initial first aid can be crucial; delays in alerting emergency services or incorrect location information given to emergency can cause waste life saving moments for injured people or even result in emergency services going to the wrong location of the accident. This project will develop a new smart road restraint system that will reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused in road traffic accidents by integrating primary and tertiary sensor systems in a new RRS system; providing greater protection to all road users, alerting motorists and emergency services of danger so as to prevent accidents happening, and alerting them of accidents as they happen to maximise response time to the exact location of the incident.


18% of the European consumption of bananas is produced in Canary Islands. Around 10 million banana plants are grown annually in Gran Canaria. The fibre obtained from the superposed layers of the pseudo-stem is called badana. In the past, the banana plant waste was used as a support element for tomato plants, and, for some decades, it was used in handicrafts such as basket-making and artificial flowers. The plant waste was used as fodder for cattle and goats, but factory farming has replaced it by pre-digested fodder. Today, however, these vegetable wastes are deposited in ravines where they become decomposition material. An estimated 25,000 tonnes per annum of natural fibre is found in this waste. The BADANA project will develop a process to extract high-quality natural fibre from this waste and to exploit the fibres properties in polymer composites to be used in rotational- and injection-moulded products. This will be for the benefit of SMEs involved in the production of bananas and SMEs that supply OEMs and end-users with sustainable moulded composite products in the automotive, packaging, and consumer goods industries. This will provide the SMEs new market opportunities through satisfying the rapidly-growing demand of product manufacturers for ecoaesthetic (green) materials. The fibre production will be integrated in a food production cycle where a fish culture in dams provides water to banana cultivation. The fish will be fed with flour made from banana wastes. This provides a truly sustainable process of materials production that is complementary to existing food production practices and will not displace food production.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SPIRE-05-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2015

In ADREM, leading industries and university groups in process intensification, catalytic reactor engineering and process control team up to address the domain of resource- and energy-efficient valorisation of variable methane feedstocks to C2\ hydrocarbons. The development of new and intensified adaptable catalytic reactor systems for flexible and decentralized production at high process performance is in focus, able to operate with changing feedstock composition and deliver on-demand the required product distribution by switching selected operational/control parameters and/or changing modular catalyst cartridges. In the long term, we expect the reactors to operate energy- and emission-lean using green electricity as the direct, primary energy source. In order to converge to the optimal design, the project will utilize the unique integral, four-domain process intensification (PI) methodology, pioneered by the consortium. This is the only approach able to deliver a fully intensified equipment/process. The key feature is the systematic, simultaneous addressing of the four domains: spatial, thermodynamic, functional and temporal. ADREM will provide: highly innovative, economic and environmentally friendly processes and equipment for efficient transformation of methane into useful chemicals and liquid fuels, for which monetary savings of more than 10% are expected. process technologies applying flexible modular one-step process with high selectivity for valorisation of methane from various sources. modular (and containerized and mobile) reactors permitting flexible adaptation of the plant size to demand and also utilizing smaller or temporary sources of methane or other feeds. The project will employ emerging reactor technologies coupled to especially designed catalytic systems to address a variety of scenarios embodying methane valorisation. The concepts developed can be later readily extrapolated on other types of catalytic processes of similar sizes.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2015

Enabling Excellence offers integral R&D training at PhD level around one of the most active and exciting topics at the forefront of nanoscience and nanotechnology, graphene-based nanostructures and materials. We propose a training experience built on three interrelated pillars, namely COMPREHENSION AND CONTROL, COMMERCE, and COMMUNICATION. *Comprehension & Control* covers fundamental knowledge of the nano-objects, the development of functionalities and processing into macroscopic advanced materials and devices, accompanied by a broad set of characterization techniques, to understand the interrelation between local and global properties and the requirements for functional end products. *Commerce* aims at market-ready graphene-based materials and commercial local probe Raman/AFM systems for routine quality control of graphene products. This is accompanied by innovative measures for start-up development and pitching to venture capitalists. *Communication* is the unique keystone in Enabling Excellence. The project is a novel experiment to find how best to develop the communication skills in our ESRs, creating optimum conditions under which they are best able to flourish. The results will serve as a model adaptable to European training and research at all levels. Enabling Excellence is formed by five partners from academic institutions and four private companies specialized in the above mentioned fields spanning TRL1-9. They offer a common and highly complementary modular structured training programme. During 468 ESR months we will address the need in Europe for nanocarbon specialists, training a new generation of highly skilled interdisciplinary clear thinking researchers. We will develop in these young people creativity, confidence and the ability to communicate with the most eminent scientists, technologists and business people. Enabling Excellence will equip them with the tools and self-belief necessary to maximize their potential in their future careers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 19.00M | Year: 2010

With 14.4 million prevalent cases and 1.7 million deaths tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most serious infectious diseases to date. An estimated 2 billion people are believed to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and at risk of developing disease. Multi- and extensively drug resistant strains are increasingly appearing in many parts of the world, including Europe. While with current control measures the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set for 2015 may be achieved, reaching these would still leave a million people per year dying from TB. Much more effective measures, particularly more effective vaccines will be essential to reach the target of eliminating TB in 2050. Two successive FP5 and FP6 funded projects, Tuberculosis (TB) Vaccine Cluster (2000-2003) and TBVAC (2004-2008), have in the recent decade made significant contributions to the global TB vaccine pipeline, with four vaccines (out of nine globally) being advanced to clinical stages. Both projects strongly contributed to the strengthening and integration of expertise and led to a European focus of excellence that is unique in the area of TB vaccine development. In order to sustain and accelerate the TB vaccine developments and unique integrated excellence of TBVAC, a specific legal entity was created named TuBerculosis Vaccine Initiative (TBVI). The NEWTBVAC proposal is the FP7 successor of TBVAC, and will be coordinated by TBVI. The proposal has the following objectives : 1) To sustain and innovate the current European pipeline with new vaccine discoveries and advance promising candidates to clinical stages; 2) To design new, second generation vaccines based new prime-boost strategies and/or new (combinations of) promising subunit vaccines, that will impact on reduction of disease in exposed individuals; 3) To sustain and innovate discovery, evaluation and testing of new biomarkers, that will be critically important for future monitoring of clinical trials.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 1.62M | Year: 2012

Wine market is very competitive. EU producers need to reduce production costs and increase their sustainability standard while improving the quality of their wine. Wine stability is one of the most important quality parameters. To avoid formation of cloudiness or precipitates in bottled wines, producers preventively treat it by mean of physical methods or additives. The present practices for tartaric, protein and oxidative stabilization are not suitable for each type of wine and production facility,in particular in small wineries (conventional and organic); moreover, they involve a large use of energy or water, can negatively affect overall wine quality and processing, impose sometimes the use of large quantities of coadjunts or additives, and can be at the original of significant product looses. Aim of the project is to test effectiveness and suitability in winemaking of biopolymers on new conception or already used in other sectors and to make these new practices available for EU SME wine producers. Addition of biopolymers to wine have shown the ability to inhibit the formation of tartrate crystals, potentially without negative side effects and with no use of energy and water. Other types of biopolymers are known for their ability to absorb proteins in a selective way, and can be adapted to winemaking purpose in order to avoid loss of product and to increase sensorial wine quality. Potential economical, environmental and social benefits are relevant. The project include evaluation of the effect of the treatments on human health and environment, and actions to facilitate the authorization of the new practices by international and European regulatory bodies for conventional and organic winemaking. Extensive dissemination and exploitation activities are foresees to allow fast tak-up of new technologies by SME-AG members and by all European wine producting SMEs.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2008

Improvements in TB control require the development of new tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis and intervention. This development is likely to benefit from more detailed knowledge of microbe-host relationships during infection. Following M. tuberculosis infection, only 5-10% of immunocompetent individuals develop TB. It is increasingly thought that the virulence of the infecting strain, together with host genetic factors, contribute to such differences between infected individuals. The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing lineage is one of the most successful mycobacterial families, in terms of morbidity and mortality. This lineage has been detected almost worldwide. The predominance of the W-Beijing lineage probably results from genetic advantages, including unidentified virulence factors and the induction/modification of specific host responses not yet thoroughly investigated. This project aims to unravel the links between differential host responses to M. tuberculosis infection and mycobacterial genetic diversity and virulence at the global genomic and post-genomic levels within the W-Beijing family, and between the W-Beijing family and other M. tuberculosis families, in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiological success of this particular lineage. Overall, this work will provide the scientific and clinical community with pioneering research and novel information increasing our understanding of the impact of M. tuberculosis strain diversity on virulence, immune response and pathology. This project will complement and expand the efforts of several internationally recognized laboratories to unveil new genotype-phenotype associations by integrating complex phenotypic data and information about mycobacterial genetic diversity.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: GC-SST.2010.7-5. | Award Amount: 3.02M | Year: 2011

OPTIBODY, is a new concept of modular structural architecture for electric light trucks or vans (ELTVs) that will focus on the improvement of passive safety in order to help to reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. This new structural concept is composed of a chassis; a cabin improving current levels of EVs comfort, occupant protection and ergonomics; and a number of add-ons bringing specific self protection in case of impacts or rollover, and providing partner protection (crash compatibility) while interacting with other vehicles or vulnerable users. Each module can be individually optimized. OPTIBODY, together with the less restrictive distribution of internal components of EVs (with less architectural constraints than conventional ones) will represent a unique opportunity to implement innovative solutions for passive safety in ELTVs. OPTIBODY, as a module-based design, has also important results in terms of repairability. An optimum choice for the different modules features will make repairability and maintenance procedures easier and more cost efficient. Currently, the EVs figures are still reduced, but the 21st century will most likely see the replacement of vehicles relying on the internal combustion engine by EVs (as stated in A Sustainable Future for Transport- Communication adopted by the EC -17/06/2009). In accordance with this idea, theNational Development Plan on Electric-Drive Vehicles (German Federal Cabinet -19/08/2009), plans to get 1 million EVs on Germany by 2020; the Spanish Ministry of Industry intends to reach the 1 million EVs in Spain by 2014; manufacturers like RENAULT have forecasted 6 million EVs in Europe by 2010; besides, encouraging the EV is one of the main objectives of the Spanish presidency of the UE. OPTIBODY will imply decreases in severity of injuries as a result of traffic accidents involving ELTVs, this will mean important reductions in sanitary costs to the National Health Services of the Member State


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-06 | Award Amount: 1.12M | Year: 2008

West Nile Fever (WNF), Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) are arthropod-borne diseases of different domestic and wild animals and can also affect humans, posing a great threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. Their geographical distribution has expanded in recent decades. WNF outbreaks have already occurred in Europe, CCHF is endemic in many countries including Europe. In 2000, RVF, was reported the first time outside of the African continent, cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This virgin-soil epidemic raises the threat of expansion into other parts of Asia and Europe. There is a general public concern regarding emerging zoonotic diseases which has gained new relevance in the light of global warming. This is especially true regarding the spread of vector-borne diseases such as CCHF, RVF and WNF. It is imperative to work out integrated control measures which include vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. The anticipated project will address these areas specifically aiming at: 1) creating common knowledge on the diseases, sharing and exchanging data, expertise, experiences and scientific information; 2) maintaining and expanding surveillance systems, monitoring disease occurrence, and vaccine use; 3) introducing, distributing and harmonizing disease detection and control tools; 4) disseminating knowledge and training staff of relevant third countries; 5) interlinking different scientific disciplines which look at the problem from differrent angles. A coordinated research programme including key laboratories in Europe and neighbouring countries can address scientific questions of joint interest enabling the development of effective control measures, aimed at improving the EUs response to outbreaks of diseases.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.4.1.1.1. | Award Amount: 7.91M | Year: 2009

EuroGEOSS demonstrates the added value to the scientific community and society of making existing systems and applications interoperable and used within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks. The project will build an initial operating capacity for a European Environment Earth Observation System in the three strategic areas of Drought, Forestry and Biodiversity. It will then undertakes the research necessary to develop this further into and advanced operating capacity that provides access not just to data but also to analytical models made understandable and useable by scientists from different disciplinary domains. This concept of inter-disciplinary interoperability requires research in advanced modelling from multi-scale heterogeneous data sources, expressing models as workflows of geo-processing components reusable by other communities, and ability to use natural language to interface with the models. The extension of INSPIRE and GEOSS components with concepts emerging in the Web 2.0 communities in respect to user interactions and resource discovery, also supports the wider engagement of the scientific community with GEOSS as a powerful means to improve the scientific understanding of the complex mechanisms driving the changes that affect our planet.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-3.4. | Award Amount: 912.70K | Year: 2011

GLOBAL excursion will introduce e infrastructures to educators and pupils. It provides scientists, policy makers, pupils and their teachers a package of activities, materials and tools for enabling the integration of e infrastructures into school curricula. Main access point is the GLOBAL Virtual Science Hub ViSH. It contains a selection of e Infrastructures, and a social network where scientists, teachers and pupils will be able to exchange and establish collaborations, and a virtual excursion room, where pupils will be able to experience real e-science applications in areas of high relevance for the future, such as nano- and biotechnologies.\nThe technological basis of the Virtual Science Hub is the VCC, a communication platform developed in the GLOBAL project, which has already proven to successfully link distant researchers and to integrate remote regions.\nTo allow for closer links between stakeholder communities, the hub will include a pedagogical framework that tailors science content to the needs of schools preconditions. With this aim, teachers and scientists will be involved in a user-centred design process and collaboratively elaborate generic tools and methods, offering joyful formats attractive to young people. With the ViSH portal as a hub, virtual excursions are possible through existing e-infrastructures and together with pedagogical concepts, a more efficient use of e infrastructures will be ensured. Teachers will have access to guided and compact materials, easy to implement and adapt in their teaching activities.\n\nTogether with end-users, GLOBAL excursion will develop a common understanding, teaching use cases, as well as pedagogical and technical artefacts. The aim of this project proposal is to provide young citizens and their educators (teachers, parents, etc.) across Europe with a range of e-Infrastructures and access to expert knowledge on its usage for a joyful exploration of e-Science through e-Infrastructure. Based on the experience from previous projects, we intend to target pupils between 14-18 years of age (upper stage school). Participating schools and science communicators will elaborate communication and teaching activities. The driving themes will be nano- and biotechnologies, as well as volunteer computing and life sciences with an interdisciplinary focus especially including ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA).\n\nThe main purpose of the GLOBAL excursion project is to enable students and teachers access to the experimental laboratories and resources of selected e-Infrastructures in order to improve science curricula by enriching schools existing teaching and learning materials. By connecting e Infrastructures, resources and tools with schools, pupils can experience challenging and authentic learning scenarios. Thus, students gain insights in scientific real work and relive interest in natural science education.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.42M | Year: 2013

Uncorrected refractive errors are the second leading cause of blindness. Procedures detecting and correcting those errors, such as regular eye exams, glasses or contact lenses or refractive laser based surgery, could thereby transform the lives of millions of people. It is known that successful laser based refractive eye surgery can reduce or even cure common vision refractive errors, as well as, degenerative disorders like keratoconus, which is due to a corneal disorder. But while refractive surgery is becoming more affordable and safer, results are not as successful as they should be. As a consequence, this technique might not be recommendable for everybody, thus a detailed patient evaluation of his or her cornea should be made before deciding whether a refractive laser based surgery is adequate or not. Based on this fact, the main objective of the POPCORN project is to develop a non-invasive and accurate corneal prediction system. This system will be based on a new imaging technology that will generate a personalised and in-vivo biomechanical model of the patients cornea. This model will be used to predict the biomechanical behaviour and status of the cornea after surgery. This will allow detecting and avoiding possible risks and negative side effects that could lead to the need of further additional treatments or even, long-term consequences in the visual health of the patients. This technology development will be possible thanks to the introduction of plenoptic imaging techniques that will allow generating the specific in-vivo patient model without any invasive technique. This will increase the comfort of the evaluation, while being highly accurate and providing precise diagnosis of corneal diseases. Until now, assessing the biomechanical properties of corneal tissue has not been possible besides measuring the Corneal Hysteresis parameter through an Ocular Response Analyser (ORA). This restrains practitioners and researchers from measuring nothing but merely geometrical aspects of the cornea, such as thickness and topography. The newly developed POPCORN system will allow a meticulous evaluation of patients before a laser based surgical procedure, avoiding future negative long-term side effects or patients being wrongly reoriented to other not as effective treatments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-1.1-2 | Award Amount: 5.09M | Year: 2008

Growth of eutectics is recognized as a paradigm for pattern-forming. Self-organised structures of size scales reaching down to submicron and nano scale regime emerge due to the interplay of chemical diffusion and capillarity. The fundamentally novel CONCEPT of the present proposal is to utilize - for the first time - the eutectic self-organisation mechanism for preparation of multi-component and multi-scale structures with controlled physicochemical and structural properties, with geometrical motifs capable of generating novel, predictable and controllable electromagnetic functionalities. This requires a deeper understanding of factors influencing eutectic self-organisation mechanism on a submicron/nanoscale. Accordingly, the main topic and activity of the present proposal is to generate new knowledge of the mechanism of eutectic self-organisation on this scale, by combining state-of-the-art experimental and modelling techniques. This new understanding of the underlying processes of eutectic self-organisation will then be used for the prediction and design of self-organised multi-component and multi-scale structures with controlled physicochemical and structural properties. This will be combined with the electromagnetic design of complex structures which can generate revolutionary electromagnetic functionalities. This will result in: a) the ability to predict the occurrence of patterns in eutectic systems, b) knowledge on how to design nanopatterned materials with controlled physicochemical and structural properties, c) methodologies to design and to fabricate self-organised multi-component and multi-scale structures with revolutionary electromagnetic functionalities, and d) the experimental realisation of these self-organised systems. The planned research is expected to open new horizons for utilizing self-organised structures in the development of the next generation of materials for photonic application that will exhibit revolutionary properties.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SFS-17-2014 | Award Amount: 2.24M | Year: 2015

Pulsed electric field technology (PEF) represents an innovative solution for sustainable processing in order to improve the competitiveness of the European food industry. Currently, in spite of the many advantages deriving from the introduction of the PEF technology in the food industry and the existence of different PEF manufactures at industrial-scale, applications of PEF in the food industry is still limited. FieldFOOD project is based on a preliminary analysis addressed to identify the bottlenecks that cause such limited application with the objective of providing SME companies (food producers, pulse power producers, equipment manufactures) with a clear competitive edge, as well as opportunities for growing, diversification and job creation but also of responding to consumer demand for foods with fresh characteristics or novel foods that contribute to individual health and wellbeing. This broad objective will be achieved by: a) a systematic process analysis of different specific applications (fruit juice processing, tomato product processing, winemaking, olive oil extraction and cider-making) for a successful integration of the PEF technology in order to replace or complement existing traditional food processing technologies and b) the design of modular, portable, low-cost pulse generators. The main deliverable of FieldFOOD project will be to validate and demonstrate, in co-operation with SMEs, implementation of modular, portable, low-cost pulse generators for different applications. The efforts needed to introduce this technology in the food industry for different applications are necessary to be multidisciplinary. Therefore, to be efficient and successful, strong links needs to be established between research institutions with a well-established expertise in PEF technology (4 partners), manufactures of PEF generator (1 SME partner) and food companies (5 SMEs partners) that represent the final users of the technology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.22. | Award Amount: 9.76M | Year: 2012

ESTEEM2 is an integrated infrastructure of electron microscopy facilities providing access for the academic and industrial research community in the physical sciences to some of the most powerful characterization techniques available at the nanoscale. Transnational access to ESTEEM2 centres is obtained through a transparent, simple peer review process based on merit and scientific priorities. Service to users is supported by a networking programme which addresses key issues such as specimen preparation, data interpretation through theory and simulation, and standardization of protocols and methodologies. A series of schools and workshops provide training in innovative methods in electron microscopy and a forum for discussing emerging (cutting-edge) techniques. Directed research programmes focus on the further development of electron diffraction, imaging and spectroscopy and the advancement of 3D methods and time resolved experiments. In all, ESTEEM2 establishes a strategic leadership in electron microscopy to guide future developments and promote electron microscopy to the wider research community at large.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-1.3-1 | Award Amount: 13.15M | Year: 2011

The growing development, production and use of engineered nanomaterials and associated products will increase exposure of both humans and ecosystems to these new materials. However, current knowledge is still incomplete and established test methods are as yet inappropriate to reliably assess the extent of exposure and risk of materials at the nano-scale. There is an urgent need to develop methods to overcome the current limitations of existing hazard and risk assessment schemes and to generate the body of reference data needed as the basis for regulative requirements and for measures to safeguard production, application and the disposal of nanomaterials. The proposed project will mobilize the critical mass of international scientific knowledge and technical expertise required to address these questions. Current analytical and toxicity test methods and models will be put to test and subjected to rigorous intercalibration and validation. Where necessary, methods and test materials will be modified, adapted and validated, and new reliable reference methods developed, in cooperation with international standardisation bodies and the concerned industry, to support both pre and co-normative activities and to make the applicability of existing RA and LCA schemes to ENPs more reliable. The feasibility of validated measurement, characterization and test methods will be assessed by selected case studies to help the significant improvement of the performance of existing exposure monitoring systems as well as the development of new risk management and reduction strategies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.2-2 | Award Amount: 13.07M | Year: 2014

Increase in antibiotic resistance is a global concern worldwide. The project NAREBs main objective is the optimization of several nanoformulations of antibacterial therapeutics in order to improve the therapy of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and MRSA infections in European MDR patients. NAREB will address the problem of drug bioavailability inside the infected macrophages, transport across the bacterial cell wall, and avoidance of escape mechanisms (expressed by the pathogen). The success of the utilization of nanoparticles in the improvement of drug targeting in other diseases opens the way for novel applications in nanotechnology-based treatments aimed at controlling MDR-TB and MRSA. Specific objectives to achieve the main goal are: (i) Screening of different combinations of antibiotic drugs (small chemical molecules and/or biomacromolecules - glycopeptides) with nanocarriers (lipid, polymeric, biopolymeric); (ii) Loading of Transcription Factor Decoys (TFDs) designed to block the expression of essential bacterial genes in compatible nanoparticle systems and their testing as novel antibacterials; (iii) In vitro and in vivo testing of the best therapeutic combinations in relevant experimental models and using innovative bioimaging; (iv) Improved formulations of multifunctional particles containing selected antibiotics and TFDs for increasing the bioavailability of active molecules in the site of infection (targeting strategy, adapted route of administration) (v) Assessing safety, regulatory and production (GLP/GMP) aspects in relation with the most promising nanoformulations; (vi) Clinical Development Plan for the preparatory work for the subsequent clinical testing of the selected nanoformulations. The project NAREB brings together 15 partners (including 4 SMEs and 1 industry) from 8 EU Member and Associated States with outstanding complementary expertise, ranging from material engineering to molecular biology, pharmacology and medicine.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-1-2014 | Award Amount: 4.25M | Year: 2015

The DOLFINS project addresses the global challenge of making the financial system better serve society by placing scientific evidence and citizens participation at the centre of the policy process in finance. The project strives to give scientific evidence and citizens participation central roles in the policy process concerning finance. DOLFINS will focus on two crucial and interconnected policy areas that will shape the public debate in the coming 5 years: How to achieve financial stability and how to facilitate the long-term investments required by the transition to a more sustainable, more innovative, less unequal and greener EU economy. The expected impact is to achieve crucial advances in reshaping the policy process to overcome the financial and political crisis faced by the EU. We will deliver quantitative tools to evaluate policies aiming to tame systemic risk and to foster sustainable investing. The tools will be based on fundamental research combining network models and algorithmic game theory with broader economic insights. This approach can provide a more satisfactory understanding of credit, risk and sustainable investments in an interconnected world. We will investigate how to engage citizens in the early stage of the policy making process and will develop evidence-based narratives in order to better shape policies in the public interest. To this end, our project will take advantage of semantic web technologies, big data and ICT in general. Given the highly technical nature of key issues in finance, we will explore how ICT and art can facilitate citizens engagement through innovative narratives, leading to better coordinated actions of stakeholders.


News Article | April 6, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

It is the elephant in the room for dark-matter research: a claimed detection that is hard to believe, impossible to confirm and surprisingly difficult to explain away. Now, four instruments that will use the same type of detector as the collaboration behind the claim are in the works or poised to go online. Within three years, the experiments will be able to either confirm the existence of dark matter — or rule the claim out once and for all, say the physicists who work on them. “This will get resolved,” says Frank Calaprice of Princeton University in New Jersey, who leads one of the efforts. The original claim comes from the DAMA collaboration, whose detector sits in a laboratory deep under the Gran Sasso Massif, east of Rome. For more than a decade, it has reported overwhelming evidence1 for dark matter, an invisible substance thought to bind galaxies together through its gravitational attraction. The first of the new detectors to go online, in South Korea, is due to start taking data in a few weeks. The others will follow over the next few years in Spain, Australia and, again, Gran Sasso. All will use sodium iodide crystals to detect dark matter, which no full-scale experiment apart from DAMA’s has done previously. Scientists have substantial evidence that dark matter exists and is at least five times as abundant as ordinary matter. But its nature remains a mystery. The leading hypothesis is that at least some of its mass is composed of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which on Earth should occasionally bump into an atomic nucleus. DAMA’s sodium iodide crystals should produce a flash of light if this happens in the detector. And although natural radioactivity also produces such flashes, DAMA’s claim to have detected WIMPs, first made in 1998, rests on the fact that the number of flashes produced per day has varied with the seasons. This, they say, is exactly what is expected if the signal is produced by WIMPs that rain down on Earth as the Solar System moves through the Milky Way’s dark-matter halo2. In this scenario, the number of particles crossing Earth should peak when the planet’s orbital motion lines up with that of the Sun, in early June, and should hit a low when its motion works against the Sun’s, in early December. There is one big problem. “If it’s really dark matter, many other experiments should have seen it already,” says Thomas Schwetz-Mangold, a theoretical physicist at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany — and none has. But at the same time, all attempts to find weaknesses in the DAMA experiment, such as environmental effects that the researchers had not taken into account, have failed. “The modulation signal is there,” says Kaixuan Ni at the University of California, San Diego, who works on a dark-matter experiment called XENON1T. “But how to interpret that signal — whether it’s from dark matter or something else — is not clear.” No other full-scale experiment has used sodium iodide in its detector, although the Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS), in South Korea, used caesium iodide. So the possibility remains that dark matter interacts with sodium in a different way to other elements. “Not until someone has turned on a detector made of the same material will you grow convinced that nothing is there,” says Juan Collar at the University of Chicago, Illinois, who has worked on several dark-matter experiments. Many have found it challenging to grow sodium iodide crystals with the required purity. Contamination by potassium, which has a naturally occurring radioactive isotope, is a particular problem. But now three dark-matter-hunting teams — KIMS; DM-Ice, run from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut; and ANAIS, at the University of Zaragoza, Spain — have each obtained crystals with about twice the level of background radioactivity of DAMA’s. That is pure enough to test its results, they say. The KIMS and DM-Ice teams have built a sodium iodide detector together at Yangyang Underground Laboratory, 160 kilometres east of Seoul. This instrument uses an ‘active veto’ sensor that will enable it to separate the dark-matter signal from the noise better than DAMA does, says Yeongduk Kim, the director of South Korea’s Center for Underground Physics in Daejeon, which manages KIMS. ANAIS is building a similar detector in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the Spanish Pyrenees. Together, KIMS/DM-Ice and ANAIS will have about 200 kilograms of sodium iodide, and they will pool their data. That is comparable to DAMA’s 250 kilograms, enabling them to catch a similar number of WIMPs, they say. Even though the newer detectors will have higher levels of background noise, it should still be possible to either falsify or reproduce the very large DAMA signal, says Reina Maruyama of Yale, who leads DM-Ice. But Calaprice argues that high purity is more important than mass. He and his collaborators have developed a technique to lower contamination, and in January announced that they were the first to obtain crystals purer than DAMA’s. He expects to reduce the background levels further, to one-tenth of DAMA’s. The project, SABRE (Sodium-iodide with Active Background Rejection), will put one detector at Gran Sasso and the other at the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory, which is being built in a gold mine in Victoria, Australia. SABRE will also use a sensor to pull out the dark-matter signal from noise, and will have a total mass of 50 kilograms. SABRE should complete its research and development stage in about a year, and will build its detectors soon after that, says Calaprice. It will then make its technology available to other labs — something that DAMA did not do. And having twin detectors in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres could clarify whether environmental effects could have mimicked dark matter’s seasonality in DAMA’s results — if the signal is from WIMPs, then both detectors should see peaks at the same time. DAMA will wait at least until 2017 to release its latest results, says spokesperson Rita Bernabei of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. She is not holding her breath about the upcoming sodium iodide detectors. “Our results have already been verified in countless cross-checks in 14 annual cycles, so we have no reason to get excited about what others may do,” she says. If other experiments do not see the annual modulation, she adds, her collaboration will conclude that they do not yet have sufficient sensitivity. Could the teams prove DAMA right? “I was unwilling to believe the DAMA results or even take them seriously at first,” says Katherine Freese, a theoretical astroparticle physicist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, who with her collaborators first proposed the seasonal modulation technique used by DAMA2. But, as DAMA’s data have accumulated, and no other explanation for their signal has arisen, Freese is now excited by the possibility that dark matter may have been discovered after all. The fact that many have tried and failed to repeat DAMA’s experiment shows that it is not easy, says Elisabetta Barberio at the University of Melbourne, who leads the Australian arm of SABRE. “The more one looks into their experiment, the more one realizes that it is very well done.”


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010

Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation, EGI.eu, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. EGI.eu will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.3-06 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2012

The Gene2Farm project will address the needs of the cattle industry, in particular of the SMEs and end users, for an accessible, adaptable and reliable system to apply the new genomic knowledge to underpin sustainability and profitability of European cattle farming. Gene2Farm will undertake a comprehensive programme of work from statistical theory development, through genome sequencing, to address new phenotyping approaches and the construction of tools, that will be validated in conjunction with SMEs and industry partners. Advanced statistical theory and applications will use the genomic and phenotypic information to optimise and customise genomic selection, breeding and population management and between breed predictions. The project will sequence key animals and exchange data with other international projects to create the most comprehensive bovine genome sequence database. Detailed analysis of these genome sequences will define genome structure, shared alleles, frequencies and historic haplotypes, within and between populations. This information will be used to optimise the informativeness of SNP panels and select SNPs to tag haplotypes, and hence ensure that genotype information can be used within and between breeds. The project will explore the opportunities for extended phenotypic collection, including the use of automated on farm systems and will develop standardisation protocols that, in consultation with ICAR, could be used by the industry for data collection and management. Developed tools will be tested and validated by demonstration in collaboration with dairy, dual purpose, beef and minority breed organisations. Finally a dissemination programme will ensure that training needs of the industry are served from an entry level training programme for farmers to advanced summer schools for the SMEs and expert user community.


Jimenez-Tuñon Brings Over 15 Years of Senior Telecom Industry Leadership and Operational Expertise with a Focus on Supporting the Acceleration of Pareteum Global Sales Program NEW YORK, Feb. 22, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Pareteum Corporation (NYSE MKT: TEUM) ("Pareteum" or the "Company"), a leading international provider of mobile networking software and services, today announced that its Nomination Committee has appointed Mr. Luis Jimenez-Tuñon to the Board of Directors effective March, 1, 2017. Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon is a distinguished mobile telecommunications industry leader, having served as CEO of Pareteum's largest customer, Vodafone Enabler Spain S.L. ("Vodafone Enabler") from July 2011 to December 2016. In addition to his role at Vodafone Enabler, during a decade at Vodafone, Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon has also held leadership positions at Vodafone Spain where he was responsible for business development and strategy of the group's Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs), enablers, roaming services, international carriers and wholesale fixed broadband business lines. "There can be no doubt that Luis is an accomplished industry leader and executive who brings with him invaluable insights, expertise and a global network of relationships that will contribute greatly to our corporate growth plans. We are especially honored that Luis, an early advocate of our platform business and over the past 5 years, one of our most valued partners within Vodafone, has agreed to join us and help build what we believe will be one of the preeminent mobile services and messaging companies in the world," said Hal Turner, Executive Chairman of Pareteum. "I am excited to be joining Pareteum Board of Directors, having witnessed first-hand the disruptive and transformational impact the Company's technology can have on mobile communications as evidenced by its central role in enabling multiple MNVOs such as Lebara and the launch of Lowi, Vodafone's digital low-cost mobile brand, which continues to earn industry accolades. I look forward to helping the team capitalize on the momentum building behind the Company's mobility cloud platform and its support for the Internet of Things and advanced messaging applications and I have confidence that Hal and his team are building a company that is well positioned to capitalize on the vast potential ahead of it," added Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon. Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon is currently founder and CEO of Red Queen Ventures, S.L. (www.redqueen-ventures.com) a global high-tech advisory and Investment Company focused on technology, telecom, MVNO/E, satellite and aerospace. As Chief Executive of Vodafone Enabler, he pioneered the Company's innovative business model and powered the launch of Vodafone Spain's second brand Lowi.es which was awarded best Spanish MVNO in 2015 and 2016. Started in 2011, under his leadership, Vodafone enabler boosted its revenue, profit and operational performance, and achieved internationalization. Previously, Luis held several executive positions at Vodafone Spain, including Senior Vice President where he grew business to hundreds of millions of euros in yearly revenue. Luis began his career in the satellite industry in 2002 holding various positions including Research engineer at the National Space Institute of Denmark and later Deputy Commercial Director of INSA (today ISDEFE), Spain's leading satellite operations company managing NASA and ESA tracking stations. Luis has received several professional and academic awards at international and national levels. Luis earned an Executive MBA from EOI Business School, a Master's Degree in Satellite Communications from Polytechnic University of Madrid, and an MSc in Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Zaragoza in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark. He also completed the Executive Management Program (SEP) from the Graduate School of business at Stanford University in California, of which he is lifetime alumni. Along with his executive career, Luis has been guest speaker at international business summits and has published several papers. About Pareteum Corporation: Pareteum Corporation and its subsidiaries provide a complete mobility cloud platform, utilizing messaging and security capabilities for the global Mobile, MVNO, Enterprise, Saas and IoT markets. Mobile Network Operator (MNO) customers include Vodafone, the world's second largest mobile operator by customer count, Zain, the 4th largest mobile operator in the world in terms of geographical presence and other Tier 1 operators, MVNO customers such as Lebara and Lowi, and partners including Cleartech and Expeto. For more information please visit: www.pareteum.com. Forward-Looking Statements: Certain statements contained herein constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements may include, without limitation, statements with respect to Pareteum's plans and objectives, projections, expectations and intentions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about Pareteum's industry, management's beliefs and certain assumptions made by management. Readers are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Because such statements involve risks and uncertainties, the actual results and performance of Pareteum may differ materially from the results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Given these uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Unless otherwise required by law, Pareteum also disclaims any obligation to update its view of any such risks or uncertainties or to announce publicly the result of any revisions to the forward-looking statements made here. Additional information concerning certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or suggested in Pareteum's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of which are available from the SEC or may be obtained upon request from Pareteum Corporation.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

MIAMI, FL--(Marketwired - October 28, 2016) - Dr. Sergio Gonzalez-Arias, chief of neurological surgery at Baptist Hospital and chair of the Department of Neuroscience at FIU's Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, will join the College of Medicine's executive team as executive associate dean for clinical affairs. Gonzalez-Arias, who will begin his new position with the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine in January 2017, will oversee all clinical functions at the College of Medicine, including the students' clinical experience; all strategic partnerships with hospitals and other clinical sites where students perform their clinical rotations; and development of Graduate Medical Education. "We have been fortunate to work with Dr. Gonzalez-Arias as a key member of our faculty since 2010. Now he brings to his new position a wealth of clinical experience that will add to the development of clinical programs to the College of Medicine," said Dr. John A. Rock, founding dean of the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine and FIU senior vice president for health affairs. Wayne Brackin, executive vice president and chief operating officer for Baptist Health South Florida, said Gonzalez-Arias has made important contributions to the field of neuroscience. "Dr. Gonzalez-Arias is a well-respected neurosurgeon who has advanced his profession and expanded the comprehensive neuroscience offerings at Baptist Health," Brackin said. "As the founding medical director of Baptist Health Neuroscience Center he has developed and implemented surgical and technological advancements that have had a profound impact on our patients." Gonzalez-Arias is the founding and current medical director of Baptist Health Neuroscience Center. He has served as chief of Baptist Hospital's Department of Surgery and is a past president of the medical staff. He is a fellow of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the American College of Surgeons. He served as chair of the international committee of the Joint Council of State Neurosurgical Societies and is a past president of the Florida Neurological Society. "I am excited about this new opportunity at the FIU College of Medicine, which will allow me to continue building on its impressive growth, which I am honored to have been part of for several years," Gonzalez-Arias said. "In keeping with the best practice of a multidisciplinary approach to medicine, I look forward to collaborating with the university's hospital and community partners to research, innovate and continue making a significant positive impact on medical education and healthcare in our community." Dr. Gonzalez-Arias is a graduate of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and completed his residencies at Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center and the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital. About Baptist Health South Florida: Baptist Health South Florida is the largest healthcare organization in the region, with seven hospitals (Baptist Hospital, Baptist Children's Hospital, Doctors Hospital, Homestead Hospital, Mariners Hospital, South Miami Hospital and West Kendall Baptist Hospital), nearly 50 outpatient and urgent care facilities, Baptist Health Medical Group, Baptist Health Quality Network and internationally renowned centers of excellence. The not-for-profit, faith-based Baptist Health has approximately 16,000 employees and 2,300 affiliated physicians. Baptist Health South Florida has been recognized as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For in America and as one of the World's Most Ethical Companies. For more information, visit BaptistHealth.net and connect with us on Facebook at facebook.com/BaptistHealthSF and on Twitter and Instagram @BaptistHealthSF. About The FIU Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine: The Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine was approved in 2006 by the Florida Board of Governors and the Florida Legislature, and in February 2013 the medical degree program received full accreditation from the Liaison Committee for Medical Education. The College graduated its inaugural class on April 29, 2013. Among the innovative elements of the HWCOM is a program called Green Family Foundation NeighborhoodHELP™ that sends teams of medical students along with their counterparts in social work, nursing, and law into the community. The College of Medicine's mission is to lead the next generation of medical education and improve the quality of health care available to the South Florida community. For more information visit http://medicine.fiu.edu/ About FIU: Florida International University is classified by Carnegie as a "R1: Doctoral Universities - Highest Research Activity" and recognized as a Carnegie Community Engaged university. It is a public research university with colleges and schools that offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral programs in fields such as business engineering, computer science, international relations, architecture, law and medicine. As one of South Florida's anchor institutions, FIU contributes almost $9 billion each year to the local economy and is ranked second in Florida in Forbes Magazine's "America's Best Employers" list. FIU graduates are consistently among the highest paid college graduates in Florida and are among the leaders of public and private organizations throughout South Florida. FIU is Worlds Ahead in finding solutions to the most challenging problems of our time. FIU emphasizes research as a major component of its mission with multiple state-of-the-art research facilities including the Wall of Wind Research and Testing Facility, FIU's Medina Aquarius Program and the Advanced Materials Engineering Research Institute. FIU has awarded more than 220,000 degrees and enrolls more than 54,000 students in two campuses and centers including FIU Downtown on Brickell, FIU@I-75, the Miami Beach Urban Studios, and Tianjin, China. FIU also supports artistic and cultural engagement through its three museums: Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum, the Wolfsonian-FIU, and the Jewish Museum of Florida-FIU. FIU is a member of Conference USA and more than 400 student-athletes participating in 18 sports. For more information about FIU, visit http://www.fiu.edu/.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.5.1.2 | Award Amount: 10.50M | Year: 2014

The key objective of the M4CO2 project is to develop and prototype Mixed Matrix Membranes based on highly engineered Metal organic frameworks and polymers (M4) that outperform current technology for CO2 Capture (CO2) in pre- and post-combustion, meeting the energy and cost reduction targets of the European SET plan. By applying the innovative concept of M4 by a consortium of world key players, continuous separation processes of unsurpassed energy efficiency will be realized as a gas-liquid phase change is absent, reducing the energy penalty and resulting in smaller CO2 footprints. Further, gas separation membrane units are safer, environmentally friendly and, in general, have smaller physical footprints than other types of plants like amine stripping. In this way this project aims at a quantum leap in energy reduction for CO2 separation with associated cost efficiency and environmental impact reduction. The developed membranes will allow CO2 capture at prices below 15 /ton CO2 ( 10-15 /MWh), amply meeting the targets of the European SET plan (90% of CO2 recovery at a cost lower than 25/MWh). This will be underpinned experimentally as well as through conceptual process designs and economic projections by the industrial partners. By developing optimized M4s, we will combine: i) easy manufacturing, ii) high fluxes per unit volume and iii) high selectivity through advanced material tailoring. The main barriers that we will take away are the optimization of the MOF-polymer interaction and selective transport through the composite, where chemical compatibility, filler morphology and dispersion, and polymer rigidity all play a key role. Innovatively the project will be the first systematic, integral study into this type of membranes with investigations at all relevant length scales; including the careful design of the polymer(s) and the tuning of MOF crystals targeting the application in M4s and the design of the separation process.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study by an international team of researchers led by the University of Minnesota highlights how manipulation of 2D materials could make our modern day devices faster, smaller, and better. The findings are now online and will be published in Nature Materials, a leading scientific journal of materials science and engineering research. Two-dimensional materials are a class of nanomaterials that are only a few atoms in thickness. Electrons in these materials are free to move in the two-dimensional plane, but their restricted motion in the third direction is governed by quantum mechanics. Research on these nanomaterials is still in its infancy, but 2D materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus have garnered tremendous attention from scientists and engineers for their amazing properties and potential to improve electronic and photonic devices. In this study, researchers from the University of Minnesota, MIT, Stanford, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, IBM, and universities in Brazil, UK and Spain, teamed up to examine the optical properties of several dozens of 2D materials. The goal of the paper is to unify understanding of light-matter interactions in these materials among researchers and explore new possibilities for future research. They discuss how polaritons, a class of quasiparticles formed through the coupling of photons with electric charge dipoles in solid, allow researchers to marry the speed of photon light particles and the small size of electrons. "With our devices, we want speed, efficiency, and we want small. Polaritons could offer the answer," said Tony Low, a University of Minnesota electrical and computer engineering assistant professor and lead author of the study. By exciting the polaritons in 2D materials, electromagnetic energy can be focused down to a volume a million times smaller compared to when its propagating in free space. "Layered two-dimensional materials have emerged as a fantastic toolbox for nano-photonics and nano-optoelectronics, providing tailored design and tunability for properties that are not possible to realize with conventional materials," said Frank Koppens, group leader at the Institute of Photonic Sciences at Barcelona, Spain, and co-author of the study. "This will offer tremendous opportunities for applications." Others on the team from private industry also recognize the potential in practical applications. "The study of the plasmon-polaritons in two-dimensions is not only a fascinating research subject, but also offers possibilities for important technological applications," said Phaedon Avoruris, IBM Fellow at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center and co-author of the study. "For example, an atomic layer material like graphene extends the field of plasmonics to the infrared and terahertz regions of the electromagnetic spectrum allowing unique applications ranging from sensing and fingerprinting minute amounts of biomolecules, to applications in optical communications, energy harvesting and security imaging." The new study also examined the possibilities of combining 2D materials. Researchers point out that every 2D material has advantages and disadvantages. Combining these materials create new materials that may have the best qualities of both. "Every time we look at a new material, we find something new," Low said. "Graphene is often considered a 'wonder' material, but combining it with another material may make it even better for a wide variety of applications." In addition to Low, Avoruris and Koppens, other researchers involved in the study include Andrey Chaves, Universidade Federal do Cearán (Brazil) and Columbia University; Joshua D. Caldwell, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; Anshuman Kumar, University of Minnesota and Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Nicholas X.Fang, MIT; Tony Heinz, Stanford University; Francisco Guinea, IMDEA Nanociencia and University of Manchester; Luis Martin-Moreno, University of Zaragoza (Spain) To read the full research paper, entitled "Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials," visit the Nature Materials website.


Quijandria F.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We present a scalable and tunable framework for the quantum simulation of critical dissipative models based on a circuit QED cavity array interacting with driven superconducting qubits. We will show that the strongly correlated many-body state of the cavities can be mapped into the state of propagating photons in a transmission line. This allows not only for an efficient way of accessing the correlations in the many-body system, but also provides a bright source of chiral entangled light where directionality and entanglement are assisted by collective phenomena and breaking of reflection symmetry. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gonzalez-Tudela A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Huidobro P.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Tejedor C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Here we present the theoretical foundation of the strong coupling phenomenon between quantum emitters and propagating surface plasmons observed in two-dimensional metal surfaces. For that purpose, we develop a quantum framework that accounts for the coherent coupling between emitters and surface plasmons and incorporates the presence of dissipation and dephasing. Our formalism is able to reveal the key physical mechanisms that explain the reported phenomenology and also determine the physical parameters that optimize the strong coupling. A discussion regarding the classical or quantum nature of this phenomenon is also presented. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Lanas A.,University Hospital | Lanas A.,University of Zaragoza | Lanas A.,CIBER ISCIII | Gargallo C.J.,University Hospital
Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Low-dose aspirin, alone or combined with other antiplatelet agents, is increasingly prescribed for cardiovascular prevention. However, the cardiovascular benefits should be evaluated together with the gastrointestinal risks. Low-dose aspirin is associated with upper and lower gastrointestinal injury, although lower gastrointestinal effects are poorly characterized. This gastrointestinal risk differs among antiplatelets drugs users. The most important risk factors are history of peptic ulcer, older age, and concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or dual antiplatelet therapy. Effective upper gastrointestinal prevention strategies are available and should be used in at-risk patients taking low-dose aspirin or clopidogrel. Proton pump inhibitors seem to be the best gastroprotective agents, whereas the benefits of Helicobacter pylori eradication are still unclear. Low-dose aspirin has additional effects in the gastrointestinal tract. A large body of evidence indicates that it can protect against different cancers, in particular colorectal cancer. This effect could modify the future indications for use of low-dose aspirin and the risk–benefit balance. © 2015, Springer Japan.


Lanas A.,University of Zaragoza | Tornero J.,Hospital General Universitario Of Guadalajara | Zamorano J.L.,Hospital San Carlos
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Medical management of adults with osteoarthritis (OA) who require non-steroidal antiinfl ammatory drugs (NSAIDs) must be decided after assessing prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) risks in the individual patient. Objective: To evaluate the GI and CV risk profile of patients with OA who require NSAIDs. Methods: A transversal, multicentre and observational study was conducted in consecutive patients with OA who were considered candidates for NSAID treatment and were visited by 374 unselected rheumatologists throughout the National Health System. Patients were classified into three risk groups (low, moderate and high) for their GI and CV characteristics. These were defined by considering the presence of a number of well-established GI risk factors or by application of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation model for assessing the overall risk for CV disease, respectively. Results: Of 3293 consecutive patients, most (86.6%) were at increased GI risk and a considerable number, 22.3%, were at high GI risk. The CV risk was high in 44.2% of patients, moderate in 28.5% and low in 27.3%. Overall, 15.5% of patients presented a very high-risk profile, having high GI and CV risks. The type of NSAID prescription was similar regardless of the associated GI and CV risk profile. Conclusion: Most patients with OA requiring NSAIDs for pain control showed a high prevalence of GI and CV risk factors. Over half of the patients were at either high GI or CV risk, or both, such that the prescription of OA treatments should be very carefully considered.


Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Yu.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We present an analytical expression for the electromagnetic field at the surface radiated by a hole in a metal film. This expression is valid for any metal, from the optical range to longer wavelengths, and for distances to the hole larger than a few tens of nanometers. The field pattern presents a rich behavior, showing three regions (a complex short distance, an intermediate range dominated by surface plasmon polaritons, and a long-distance one dominated by Norton waves). The crossover distances between these regimes depend strongly on both the wavelength and the angle with respect to the incident field. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Gonzalez-Tudela A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Cano D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Moreno E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We investigate qubit-qubit entanglement mediated by plasmons supported by one-dimensional waveguides. We explore both the situation of spontaneous formation of entanglement from an unentangled state and the emergence of driven steady-state entanglement under continuous pumping. In both cases, we show that large values for the concurrence are attainable for qubit-qubit distances larger than the operating wavelength by using plasmonic waveguides that are currently available. © 2011 The American Physical Society.


Evangelisti M.,University of Zaragoza | Roubeau O.,University of Zaragoza | Palacios E.,University of Zaragoza | Camon A.,University of Zaragoza | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Molecoolers: An unprecedentedly large cryogenic magnetocaloric effect is observed in gadolinium acetate tetrahydrate (see picture, Gd pink, O red, C gray). The change in its magnetic entropy is ascribed to the high magnetic density combined with dominant ferromagnetism. For the first time in a molecular complex, direct measurements of the magnetocaloric effect corroborate indirect estimates based on heat capacity and magnetization. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Bernardi S.,University of Turin | Merseguer J.,University of Zaragoza | Petriu D.C.,Carleton University
Software and Systems Modeling | Year: 2011

The importance of assessing software non-functional properties (NFP) beside the functional ones is well accepted in the software engineering community. In particular, dependability is a NFP that should be assessed early in the software life-cycle by evaluating the system behaviour under different fault assumptions. Dependability-specific modeling and analysis techniques include for example Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for qualitative evaluation, stochastic Petri nets for quantitative evaluation, and fault trees for both forms of evaluation. Unified Modeling Language (UML) may be specialized for different domains by using the profile mechanism. For example, the MARTE profile extends UML with concepts for modeling and quantitative analysis of real-time and embedded systems (more specifically, for schedulability and performance analysis). This paper proposes to add to MARTE a profile for dependability analysis and modeling (DAM). A case study of an intrusion-tolerant message service will offer insight on how the MARTE-DAM profile can be used to derive a stochastic Petri net model for performance and dependability assessment. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Arganda E.,University of Zaragoza | Herrero M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Marcano X.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Weiland C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Weiland C.,The University of Shimane
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

In this letter we study new relevant phenomenological consequences of the right-handed heavy neutrinos with masses at the O(1)TeV energy scale, working within the context of the Inverse Seesaw Model that includes three pairs of quasi-degenerate pseudo-Dirac heavy neutrinos. We propose a new exotic signal of these heavy neutrinos at the CERN Large Hadron Collider containing a muon, a tau lepton, and two jets in the final state, which is based on the interesting fact that this model can incorporate large Lepton Flavor Violation for specific choices of the relevant parameters, particularly, the neutrino Yukawa couplings. We will show here that an observable number of μτ. jj exotic events, without missing energy, can be produced at this ongoing run of the LHC. © 2015 The Authors.


Agudo A.,University of Zaragoza | Moreno-Noguer F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose a sequential solution to simultaneously estimate camera pose and non-rigid 3D shape from a monocular video. In contrast to most existing approaches that rely on global representations of the shape, we model the object at a local level, as an ensemble of particles, each ruled by the linear equation of the Newton's second law of motion. This dynamic model is incorporated into a bundle adjustment framework, in combination with simple regularization components that ensure temporal and spatial consistency of the estimated shape and camera poses. The resulting approach is both efficient and robust to several artifacts such as noisy and missing data or sudden camera motions, while it does not require any training data at all. Validation is done in a variety of real video sequences, including articulated and non-rigid motion, both for continuous and discontinuous shapes. Our system is shown to perform comparable to competing batch, computationally expensive, methods and shows remarkable improvement with respect to the sequential ones. © 2015 IEEE.


Agudo A.,University of Zaragoza | Moreno-Noguer F.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision | Year: 2016

In this paper, we address the problem of simultaneously recovering the 3D shape and pose of a deformable and potentially elastic object from 2D motion. This is a highly ambiguous problem typically tackled by using low-rank shape and trajectory constraints. We show that formulating the problem in terms of a low-rank force space that induces the deformation, allows for a better physical interpretation of the resulting priors and a more accurate representation of the actual object's behavior. However, this comes at the price of, besides force and pose, having to estimate the elastic model of the object. For this, we use an Expectation Maximization strategy, where each of these parameters are successively learned within partial M-steps, while robustly dealing with missing observations. We thoroughly validate the approach on both mocap and real sequences, showing more accurate 3D reconstructions than state-of-the-art, and additionally providing an estimate of the full elastic model with no a priori information. © 2015 IEEE.


Peropadre B.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Porras D.,University of Sussex | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The time and space resolved dynamics of a qubit with an Ohmic coupling to propagating 1D photons is studied, from weak coupling to the ultrastrong coupling regime. A nonperturbative study based on matrix product states shows the following results, (i) The ground state of the combined systems contains excitations of both the qubit and the surrounding bosonic field. (ii) An initially excited qubit equilibrates through spontaneous emission to a state, which under certain conditions is locally close to that ground state, both in the qubit and the field. (iii) The resonances of the combined qubit-photon system match those of the spontaneous emission process and also the predictions of the adiabatic renormalization [A. J. Leggett et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. Finally, nonperturbative ab initio calculations show that this physics can be studied using a flux qubit galvanically coupled to a superconducting transmission line. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Huidobro P.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Shen X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Cuerda J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Moreno E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

Here, we introduce the concept of magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs), magnetic dipole modes that are supported by cylindrical metal structures corrugated by very long, curved grooves. The resonance wavelength is dictated by the length of the grooves, allowing us to tune it to values much larger than the size of the particle. Moreover, magnetic LSPs also exist for extremely thin metal disks and, therefore, they could be used to devise metasurfaces with magnetic functionalities. Experimental evidence of the existence of these magnetic LSPs in the microwave regime is also presented, although the concept is very general and could be applied to terahertz or infrared frequencies.


Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Yu.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The extraordinary properties of graphene make it a very promising material for optoelectronics. However, basic attributes of the electromagnetic field in graphene are still unexplored. Here we report on the in-plane fields radiated by a nanoemitter lying on a graphene sheet in terahertz regime, which present a rich dependence on frequency, distance to the source, and orientation of the dipole moment. The field pattern is mainly composed of a core region, dominated by surface plasmons, where the electric field can be several orders of magnitude larger than in vacuum, and an outer region where the field is virtually the same as what it would be in vacuum. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Nikitin A.Y.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Y.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Surface plasmon modes supported by graphene ribbon waveguides are studied and classified. The properties of both modes with the field concentration within the ribbon area (waveguiding modes) and on the edges (edge modes) are discussed. The waveguide and edge modes are shown to be separated from each other by a gap in wave numbers. The even-parity hybridized edge mode results to be the fundamental electromagnetic mode of the ribbon, possessing also the lowest losses. All of the plasmonic modes in the ribbons have an optimum frequency, at which the absorption losses are minimum, due to compromise between the plasmon confinement and the decrease of the group velocity close to the modal cutoff. The presented results show that the diffraction limit in graphene ribbons can be surpassed. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Ilarri S.,University of Zaragoza | Mena E.,University of Zaragoza | Illarramendi A.,University of the Basque Country
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2010

The continuous development of wireless networks and mobile devices has motivated an intense research in mobile data services. Some of these services provide the user with context-aware information. Specifically, location-based services and location-dependent queries have attracted a lot of interest. In this article, the existing literature in the field of location-dependent query processing is reviewed. The technological context (mobile computing) and support middleware (such as moving object databases and data stream technology) are described, location-based services and location-dependent queries are defined and classified, and different query processing approaches are reviewed and compared. © 2010 ACM.


Luesma M.J.,University of Zaragoza | Luesma M.J.,Aragon Health Research Institute IIS Aragon | Gherghiceanu M.,Victor Babes National Institute of Pathology | Popescu L.M.,University of Bucharest | Popescu L.M.,Victor Babes National Institute of Pathology
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

The potential of stem cell (SC) therapies for eye diseases is well-recognized. However, the results remain only encouraging as little is known about the mechanisms responsible for eye renewal, regeneration and/or repair. Therefore, it is critical to gain knowledge about the specific tissue environment (niches) where the stem/progenitor cells reside in eye. A new type of interstitial cell-telocyte (TC) (www.telocytes.com) was recently identified by electron microscopy (EM). TCs have very long (tens of micrometres) and thin (below 200 nm) prolongations named telopodes (Tp) that form heterocellular networks in which SCs are embedded. We found TCs by EM and electron tomography in sclera, limbus and uvea of the mouse eye. Furthermore, EM showed that SCs were present in the anterior layer of the iris and limbus. Adhaerens and gap junctions were found to connect TCs within a network in uvea and sclera. Nanocontacts (electron-dense structures) were observed between TCs and other cells: SCs, melanocytes, nerve endings and macrophages. These intercellular 'feet' bridged the intercellular clefts (about 10 nm wide). Moreover, exosomes (extracellular vesicles with a diameter up to 100 nm) were delivered by TCs to other cells of the iris stroma. The ultrastructural nanocontacts of TCs with SCs and the TCs paracrine influence via exosomes in the epithelial and stromal SC niches suggest an important participation of TCs in eye regeneration. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Badia-Majos A.,University of Zaragoza | Lopez C.,University of Alcalá
Superconductor Science and Technology | Year: 2012

A theory for the electromagnetic response of type-II superconductors close beyond the critical state is presented. Our formulation relies on general physical principles applied to the superconductor as a thermodynamic system. Metastable equilibrium critical states, externally driven steady solutions, and transient relaxation are all described in terms of free energy and entropy production. This approach allows a consistent macroscopic statement that incorporates the intricate vortex dynamic effects, revealed in non-idealized experimental configurations. Magnetically anisotropic critical currents and flux stirring resistivities are straightforwardly included in three-dimensional scenarios. Starting from a variational form of our postulate, a numerical implementation for practical configurations is shown. In particular, several results are provided for infinite strip geometry: voltage generation in multicomponent experiments, and magnetic relaxation towards the critical state under applied field and transport current. Explicitly, we show that for a given set of external conditions, the well established critical states may be completely obtained as diffusive final profiles. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Carretero-Palacios S.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Rodrigo S.G.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We present a detailed theoretical study for the spectral position of transmission resonances appearing in isolated subwavelength apertures in metallic films. We provide analytical expressions for the resonant wavelength as a function of the film thickness and the dielectrics surrounding (and filling) the system that are valid for hole shapes supporting large-cutoff wavelengths and for both isolated and periodically arranged holes. Our results are quantitatively valid in the microwave and terahertz regimes, but they also have qualitative validity in the optical regime. Our results show that for unfilled holes, in the limiting case when the hole is in a very thin film (metal thickness much smaller than the wavelength), the transmission resonance is controlled by a length scale related to the vanishing of the effective admittance of vacuum, as seen from the hole. On the contrary, for metal thicknesses larger than half the wavelength, the transmission resonance is controlled by the cutoff of the fundamental waveguide mode inside the hole. When thin films and high-index dielectrics are combined, the spectral location of the maximum transmission can be strongly redshifted compared to the cutoff wavelength of the apertures, and transmission intensity is substantially enhanced. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Yu.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Resonance diffraction in the periodic array of graphene microribbons is theoretically studied following a recent experiment. Systematic studies over a wide range of parameters are presented. It is shown that a much richer resonant picture would be observable for higher relaxation times of charge carriers: More resonances appear and transmission can be totally suppressed. The comparison with the absorption cross-section of a single ribbon shows that the resonant features of the periodic array are associated with leaky plasmonic modes. The longest-wavelength resonance provides the highest visibility of the transmission dip and has the strongest spectral shift and broadening with respect to the single-ribbon resonance, due to collective effects. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Martinez De Morentin J.I.,University of the Basque Country | Cortes A.,University of Zaragoza | Medrano C.,University of the Basque Country | Apodaca P.,University of the Basque Country
Computers and Education | Year: 2014

The aim of this research project was to analyze the relationship between Internet use and parental mediation in a cross-cultural sample group. It also aimed to explore the relationship between parental mediation in Internet use and television viewing. The sample group comprised 1238 adolescents aged between 14 and 19, from eight different cultural contexts. The television viewing habits questionnaire (CH-TV.02) was used to analyze the following indicators: reason for use and hours spent on the Internet, parental mediation in Internet use and parental mediation in television viewing. The data were collected both by means of an online platform and in person. The results show a moderate use of the Internet with context-based variations, although the communicative function was predominant in all cultural contexts studied. Although significant differences were found between the different contexts, they were moderate in nature and should be interpreted with caution, given the size of the sample. In relation to parental mediation in Internet use, an exploratory factorial analysis found three types of mediation, with restrictive mediation and co-viewing being particularly relevant. As regards the profiles found, a Cluster analysis identified four profiles in the group of young people studied: instructive, inhibited, co-viewing and restrictive, with the inhibited profile being the one most frequently perceived by adolescents, followed by co-viewing, with significant differences being observed between cultures. Differences were observed in parental mediation in Internet use and television viewing in accordance with the medium in question and the context, a finding which may indicate that parents find it harder to engage in instructive mediation and co-viewing in relation to the Internet, since it is a medium that is less ergonomic and user-friendly than television. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arganda E.,University of Zaragoza | Herrero M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Marcano X.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Weiland C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

In this paper we consider a Higgs boson with mass and other properties compatible with those of the recently discovered Higgs particle at the LHC, and explore the possibility of new Higgs leptonic decays, beyond the standard model, with the singular feature of being lepton flavor violating (LFV). We study these LFV Higgs decays, H→lkl¯m, within the context of the inverse seesaw model (ISS) and consider the most generic case where three additional pairs of massive right-handed singlet neutrinos are added to the standard model particle content. We require in addition that the input parameters of this ISS model are compatible with the present neutrino data and other constraints, like perturbativity of the neutrino Yukawa couplings. We present a full one-loop computation of the BR(H→lkl¯m) rates for the three possible channels, lkl¯m=μτ¯, eτ¯, eμ¯, and analyze in full detail the predictions as functions of the various relevant ISS parameters. We study in parallel the correlated one-loop predictions for the radiative decays, lm→lkγ, within this same ISS context, and require full compatibility of our predictions with the present experimental bounds for the three radiative decays, μ→eγ, τ→μγ, and τ→eγ. After exploring the ISS parameter space we conclude on the maximum allowed LFV Higgs decay rates within the ISS. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Alonso-Zarza A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Melendez A.,University of Zaragoza | Martin-Garcia R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Herrero M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin-Perez A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2012

The Upper Miocene (Vallesian-Turolian) Unit II of the Teruel Graben comprises at its top a 25. m-thick sequence of palustrine deposits. Deposition of the entire unit commenced some 9 to 7. Ma ago in a half-graben basin. Here, via a recent quarry, we examine in detail the lateral and vertical distribution of Unit II's palustrine facies and their features to determine the palaeogeography and main controls on deposit formation. Our findings suggest the deposits formed at a low-gradient lake margin with different energy levels. These energy levels controlled the type of primary deposit within the lake; wackestone to packstone sediments formed in low-energy conditions, whereas cross-bedded rudstones to floatstones formed under higher energy conditions, by erosion and redeposition of prior lacustrine deposits. Pedogenic and diagenetic modifications of the primary sediments took place during sedimentary discontinuities (SD) when the lacustrine sediments were subaerially exposed. These processes serve to explain the formation of eight different palustrine limestones: limestones with root traces, mottled limestones, brecciated limestones, flat pebble breccias, granular limestones, micro-karstified limestones with laminar calcretes, carbonate mounds and clayey limestones with laminar calcretes. Based on the features and thicknesses of the modified sediments five different morphological stages (I to V) of palustrine carbonates are defined. Stage I is characterized by incipient mottling and brecciation. Stage II shows mottling and strong brecciation that lead to the formation of intraclast breccias, in which the fragments are mostly "in situ". In Stage III, the primary fabric is totally changed; intraclasts have moved and may have lost their initial morphology. This Stage III may also be characterized by the formation of micro-karst. Stage IV is typified by the presence of coated grains and thin root mats. The chronological data available suggest that the formation of Stage III (lacustrine deposition. +. palustrine modification) would require about 40,000. yr. Facies and the SD record changes across short horizontal distances, and thus reflect the topography of prior sedimentation/modification events. Small (50. cm) highs with micro-karst have their SD counterparts in lower areas of the lake, in which the SD is indicated by desiccation and mottling. The topographic differences of the micro-karst were filled by intraclastic rudstones sourced by the adjacent carbonate flats. The example examined not only clearly sketches the morphology of ancient palustrine systems or wetlands, it also provides evidence that recycling of previous carbonate deposits played an important role as a sediment source, apart from biogenic or physical-chemical production processes. Our geochemical data indicate LMC (Low Magnesian Calcite) as the main component and Fe contents lower than 1%, except for the mottled areas that are richer in FeO. Stable isotope compositions provide δ 18O values close to -6.5‰ VPDB, and more varied δ 13C (-3.39 to -6.97‰ PDB). Oxygen and carbon values reveal no covariation and clear trends are lacking. The homogeneity of δ 18O values reflects the intense effects of meteoric waters. The deposition of these palustrine limestones took place under suitable semi-arid to sub-humid climates. Climate could also have a role in determining subaerial exposure periods. However, its imprint is not easy to detect neither in the geochemical signals nor in the vertical arrangement of the facies. This could be attributed to climate changes probably occurring over shorter periods than those that can be recorded in this type of sediment, such as the astronomical precession cycles, and suggests the unsuitability of palustrine carbonates for detailed palaeoclimate analyses. Tectonism controlled the location of the main lacustrine depocentre close to the basin's main fault. The activity of this normal fault during the sedimentation of Unit II determined long- and short-term sedimentary sequences. Such sequences are the response to small-scale subsidence pulses followed by the infill of the created accommodation space by shallow lacustrine deposits, which underwent early pedogenic and diagenetic processes after subaerial exposure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Bernardi S.,Centro Universitario Of La Defensa | Merseguer J.,University of Zaragoza | Petriu D.C.,Carleton University
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2012

The goal is to survey dependability modeling and analysis of software and systems specified with UML, with focus on reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS). From the literature published in the last decade, 33 approaches presented in 43 papers were identified. They are evaluated according to three sets of criteria regarding UML modeling issues, addressed dependability characteristics, and quality assessment of the surveyed approaches. The survey shows that more works are devoted to reliability and safety, fewer to availability and maintainability, and none to integrity. Many methods support early life-cycle phases (from requirements to design). More research is needed for tool development to automate the derivation of analysis models and to give feedback to designers. © 2012 ACM.


Sostres C.,University of Zaragoza | Sostres C.,CIBER ISCIII | Gargallo C.J.,University of Zaragoza
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Low dose aspirin (ASA) use has been associated with a wide range of adverse side effects in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which range from troublesome symptoms without mucosal lesions to more serious toxicity, including ulcers, GI bleeding, perforation and even death. Upper GI symptoms in low dose ASA users are common but often careless or misinterpreted and they are not always related to the presence of mucosal injury. Usually, low dose ASA related ulcers are reasonably small and asymptomatic, and probably heal over a period of weeks to a few months. But, the real clinical problem occurs when the ulcer results in a GI complication (mostly bleeding). The estimated average excess risk of symptomatic or complicated ulcer related to low dose ASA is five cases per 1000 ASA users per year. Death is the worst outcome of GI complications in low dose ASA users, but data about this aspect are scarce. Current evidence indicates that low dose ASA can damage the lower GI tract also, but the real size of the problem is still unknown. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Boccaletti S.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Bianconi G.,Queen Mary, University of London | Criado R.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Criado R.,Technical University of Madrid | And 9 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

In the past years, network theory has successfully characterized the interaction among the constituents of a variety of complex systems, ranging from biological to technological, and social systems. However, up until recently, attention was almost exclusively given to networks in which all components were treated on equivalent footing, while neglecting all the extra information about the temporal- or context-related properties of the interactions under study. Only in the last years, taking advantage of the enhanced resolution in real data sets, network scientists have directed their interest to the multiplex character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the time-varying and multilayer nature of networks. We offer here a comprehensive review on both structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse relationships (layers) between its constituents, and cover several relevant issues, from a full redefinition of the basic structural measures, to understanding how the multilayer nature of the network affects processes and dynamics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Rivera-Gil P.,University of Marburg | Jimenez De Aberasturi D.,University of Marburg | Jimenez De Aberasturi D.,University of the Basque Country | Wulf V.,University of Marburg | And 8 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Nanomaterials offer opportunities to construct novel compounds for many different fields. Applications include devices for energy, including solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells, and for health, including contrast agents and mediators for photodynamic therapy and hyperthermia. Despite these promising applications, any new class of materials also bears a potential risk for human health and the environment. The advantages and innovations of these materials must be thoroughly compared against risks to evaluate each new nanomaterial. Although nanomaterials are often used intentionally, they can also be released unintentionally either inside the human body, through wearing of a prosthesis or the inhalation of fumes, or into the environment, through mechanical wear or chemical powder waste. This possibility adds to the importance of understanding potential risks from these materials.Because of fundamental differences in nanomaterials, sound risk assessment currently requires that researchers perform toxicology studies on each new nanomaterial. However, if toxicity could be correlated to the basic physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, those relationships could allow researchers to predict potential risks and design nanomaterials with minimum toxicity.In this Account we describe the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and how they can be determined and discuss their general importance for cytotoxicity. For simplicity, we focus primarily on in vitro toxicology that examines the interaction of living cells with engineered colloidal NPs with an inorganic core. Serious risk assessment of NPs will require additional in vivo studies. Basic physicochemical properties of nanoparticulate materials include colloidal stability, purity, inertness, size, shape, charge, and their ability to adsorb environmental compounds such as proteins. Unfortunately, the correlation of these properties with toxicity is not straightforward. First, for NPs released either unintentionally or intentionally, it can be difficult to pinpoint these properties in the materials. Therefore, researchers typically use NP models with better defined properties, which don't include the full complexity of most industrially relevant materials. In addition, many of these properties are strongly mutually connected. Therefore, it can be difficult to vary individual properties in NP models while keeping the others constant. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Nesterov M.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Bravo-Abad J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Nikitin A.Y.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2013

Nonlinear propagation of light in a graphene monolayer is studied theoretically. It is shown how the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene at optical frequencies enables the formation of quasi one-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) featuring subwavelength widths at moderate electric-field peak intensities. A novel class of nonlinear self-confined modes resulting from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons with graphene optical solitons is also demonstrated. Nonlinear propagation of light in a graphene monolayer is studied theoretically. It is shown how the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene at optical frequencies enables the formation of quasi one-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) featuring subwavelength widths at moderate electric-field peak intensities. A novel class of nonlinear self-confined modes resulting from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons with graphene optical solitons is also demonstrated. © 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Ebbesen T.W.,University of Strasbourg | Kuipers L.,FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

This review provides a perspective on the recent developments in the transmission of light through subwavelength apertures in metal films. The main focus is on the phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission in periodic hole arrays, discovered over a decade ago. It is shown that surface electromagnetic modes play a key role in the emergence of the resonant transmission. These modes are also shown to be at the root of both the enhanced transmission and beaming of light found in single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations. This review describes both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject. For clarity, the physical mechanisms operating in the different structures considered are analyzed within a common theoretical framework. Several applications based on the transmission properties of subwavelength apertures are also addressed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Marti M.,La Paz University Hospital | Artigas J.M.,University of Zaragoza | Garzon G.,La Paz University Hospital | Alvarez-Sala R.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Soto J.A.,Boston Medical Center
Radiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of computed tomographic (CT) angiography as the initial diagnostic examination for patients presenting to the emergency room with acute lower intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods: The study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient or their closest relative when the clinical condition precluded consent by the patient. This prospective study comprised 47 patients (27 men, 20 women; mean age, 68 years) with acute lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding who were referred to undergo emergency colonoscopy for evaluation. CT angiography was performed in all patients shortly after arrival to the emergency room. Findings identified at CT angiography included active extravasation (ongoing hemorrhage) or hyperattenuating intraluminal contents on noncontrast material-enhanced images (recent hemorrhage). Presence and location of bleeding and likely cause of hemorrhage were determined and compared with the standard of reference (angiography, colonoscopy, or surgical findings). Data collected were analyzed with a statistical software package. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CT angiography in depicting ongoing or recent hemorrhage were calculated and compared with those of standard of reference. Results: CT angiography demonstrated active bleeding in 14 patients and intraluminal hyperattenuating material in six patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT angiography in depicting active or recent bleeding were 100% (19 of 19), 96% (27 of 28), 95% (19 of 20), and 100% (27 of 27), respectively. Findings of CT angiography and the standard of reference were concordant for determining definite or potential cause of bleeding in 44 of 47 patients (93% accuracy). Conclusion: CT angiography performed in the emergency setting in patients with acute lower intestinal bleeding is feasible and correctly depicts the presence and location of active or recent hemorrhage, as well as the potential cause, in the majority of patients. © RSNA, 2011.


Hernaiz M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alcantara A.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia J.I.,University of Zaragoza | Sinisterra J.V.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio-and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Roman M.V.,University of Alcalá | Azqueta D.,University of Alcalá | Rodrigues M.,University of Zaragoza
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

The potential impacts of fire are spatially-dependent, according to the ecosystems, people and properties at risk. This study aimed to develop a methodology for the assessment of the socio-economic vulnerability to fire using Geographic Information Systems. We have conducted the vulnerability assessment by estimating the potential losses fire might cause during the time required for the recovery of the pre-fire environmental conditions. We have considered that vegetation recovery time depends on the vegetation's structure, the reproductive strategy and the influence of constraining factors such as water availability, soil loss, fire frequency and fire intensity.Regarding the socioeconomic values at risk, three categories of impact have been assessed. The impact on properties consisting of the potential destruction of build-up structures situated in the wild land-urban interface. The impact on people, i.e.: the probability of wildfires causing victims. The third category of impact embraces losses of environmental services because of the potential interruption of the productive, ecologic and recreational function of the affected ecosystems. Conventional economic valuation methodologies (revealed or declared preference techniques) were applied. The application of the developed methodology to the case of continental Spain has resulted in several cartographic products (at a 1km2 resolution), thus presenting in a spatially explicit way the vulnerability of the territory to fire in different socio-economic aspects. According to the results, the average benefits derived from effective fire prevention measures because of avoided damages to properties, human life and ecosystems are 376,584 TEUR km-2, 9.17TEURkm-2 and 22.29TEURkm-2, respectively (TEUR=1000 EUR). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Pors A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Pors A.,University of Southern Denmark | Moreno E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We demonstrate that textured closed surfaces, i.e., particles made of perfect electric conductors (PECs), are able to support localized electromagnetic resonances with properties resembling those of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in the optical regime. Because of their similar behavior, we name these types of resonances as spoof LSPs. As a way of example, we show the existence of spoof LSPs in periodically textured PEC cylinders and the almost perfect analogy to optical plasmonics. We also present a metamaterial approach that captures the basic ingredients of their electromagnetic response. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Martin-Cano D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Moreno E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

We show how both the subwavelength confinement associated with surface plasmons and the one-dimensional character of plasmonic waveguides can be exploited to enhance the coupling between quantum emitters. Resonance energy transfer and the phenomenon of superradiance are investigated in three different waveguiding schemes (wires, wedges, and channels) by means of the Finite Element Method. We also develop a simplified model that is able to capture the main features of the numerical results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Yague C.,University of Zaragoza | Arruebo M.,University of Zaragoza | Santamaria J.,University of Zaragoza | Santamaria J.,CIBER ISCIII
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

The ability of core/shell SiO2/Au nanoparticles (NPs) to heat upon being exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation is well known. In this work we have modified the synthesis procedure to obtain a mesoporous SiO2 core and a porous Au shell that allows drugs to be loaded within the core porous space. The release of a model drug (ibuprofen) upon NIR activation is demonstrated. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Shin J.F.,University of Birmingham | Orera A.,University of Zaragoza | Apperley D.C.,Durham University | Slater P.R.,University of Birmingham
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this paper we report the successful incorporation of phosphate and sulfate groups into the ionic conductor, Ba2In2O 5, with the samples analysed through a combination of X-ray diffraction, NMR, TGA, Raman spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. The results show that such oxyanion incorporation leads to a conversion from an ordered brownmillerite-type structure to a disordered perovskite-type, and hence increases the conductivity at temperatures <800 °C. In wet atmospheres, there is evidence for a significant enhancement of the conductivity through a protonic contribution.


Huidobro P.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Nesterov M.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Nesterov M.L.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

A new strategy to control the flow of surface plasmon polaritons at metallic surfaces is presented. It is based on the application of the concept of transformation optics to devise the optical parameters of the dielectric medium placed on top of the metal surface. We describe the general methodology for the design of transformation optical devices for surface plasmons and analyze, for proof-of-principle purposes, three representative examples with different functionalities: a beam shifter, a cylindrical cloak, and a ground-plane cloak. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Christensen J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Christensen J.,CSIC - Institute of Optics | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper we explore from a fundamental theoretical point of view, transmission phenomena of acoustic waves transferred through a single subwavelength slit milled into a sound-hard plate that is textured by surface corrugations. It is shown that the enhanced acoustical transmission unambiguously is linked to the excitation of acoustic surface waves and Fabry-Perot modes within the aperture. With the former resonant condition, we give a prescription on how these surface waves are induced and connected to the formation of a collimated sound beam in the far field. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Alonso J.J.,University of Malaga | Fernandez J.F.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

By tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study site-diluted Ising systems of magnetic dipoles. All dipoles are randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice, and point along a given crystalline axis. For xc


Cuenca N.,University of Alicante | Fernandez-Sanchez L.,University of Alicante | Campello L.,University of Alicante | Maneu V.,University of Alicante | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2014

Retinal neurodegenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa each have a different etiology and pathogenesis. However, at the cellular and molecular level, the response to retinal injury is similar in all of them, and results in morphological and functional impairment of retinal cells. This retinal degeneration may be triggered by gene defects, increased intraocular pressure, high levels of blood glucose, other types of stress or aging, but they all frequently induce a set of cell signals that lead to well-established and similar morphological and functional changes, including controlled cell death and retinal remodeling. Interestingly, an inflammatory response, oxidative stress and activation of apoptotic pathways are common features in all these diseases. Furthermore, it is important to note the relevant role of glial cells, including astrocytes, Müller cells and microglia, because their response to injury is decisive for maintaining the health of the retina or its degeneration. Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to preserve retinal function or restore eyesight in pathological conditions. In this context, neuroprotective compounds, gene therapy, cell transplantation or artificial devices should be applied at the appropriate stage of retinal degeneration to obtain successful results. This review provides an overview of the common and distinctive features of retinal neurodegenerative diseases, including the molecular, anatomical and functional changes caused by the cellular response to damage, in order to establish appropriate treatments for these pathologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Perc M.,University of Maribor | Gomez-Gardenes J.,University of Zaragoza | Szolnoki A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Floria L.M.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2013

Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory. © 2013 The Authors.


Nikitin A.Y.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

An analytical general analysis of the electromagnetic dyadic Green's function for 2-D sheet (or a very thin film) is presented, with an emphasis on the case of graphene. A modified steepest descent treatment of the fields from a point dipole given in the form of Sommerfeld integrals is performed. We sequentially derive the expressions for both out-of-plane and in-plane fields of both polarizations. It is shown that the analytical approximation provided is very precise in a wide range of distances from a point source down to a deep subwavelength region (1/100 of wavelength). We separate the contribution from the pole, the branch point, and discuss their interference. The asymptotic expressions for the fields are composed of the plasmon, Norton wave, and the components corresponding to free space. © 1995-2012 IEEE.


Colmenar J.,University of Zaragoza | Harper D.A.T.,Durham University | Villas E.,University of Zaragoza
Palaeontology | Year: 2014

Geometric morphometric methods applied to the ventral muscle field outline of the various species of Svobodaina from south-western Europe identify criteria for discriminating among this key cluster of brachiopod species. These data indicate the close relationship between the patterns of the ventral muscle field in the Svobodaina species and the environmental conditions where each inhabited; the fields are better developed in species related to high-energy environments. For example, S. armoricana, with the smallest diductor scars, would have inhabited the quiet marine environments of the lower offshore or within protected lagoonal settings. S. feisti would have inhabited the upper offshore, a more energetic environment than S. armoricana. Finally, S. havliceki, with the largest diductor scars, would have thrived in the most energetic environments among all the south-western European Svobodaina species, living just above the fair-weather wave base in the lower shoreface. The palaeoecological results suggest a distribution of Svobodaina species during the Late Ordovician along an onshore-offshore transect across the shallow marine platforms of the Mediterranean margin of Gondwana. On the other hand, the occurrence in some localities of several species with overlapping ranges or within the same assemblage indicates that the biostratigraphical efficacy of the genus is restricted. Thus, the previously defined taxon-range biozones characterized by Svobodaina species of the north Gondwanan margin are in need of reassessment. The morphology of Svobodaina may be a considerable aid to environmental analyses rather than to precise biostratigraphical correlations. © The Palaeontological Association.


Ince M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martinez-Diaz M.V.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Barbera J.,University of Zaragoza | Torres T.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Torres T.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Two phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 1 and 2 incorporating either a rigid or a flexible spacer between the phthalocyanine and fullerene units, respectively, have been prepared. Indeed, the nature of the spacer has proven to play an important role in the liquid crystalline properties of these compounds. Phthalocyanine-C60 dyad 2, containing a flexible spacer, self-organizes in columnar stacks within a rectangular arrangement. On the other hand, dyad 1 does not present mesomorphic properties on its own, but forms columnar hexagonal mesophases when blended with equimolar amounts of an intrinsically mesomorphic phthalocyanine. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Sanchez-Soto L.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Monzon J.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Barriuso A.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Carinena J.F.,University of Zaragoza
Physics Reports | Year: 2012

We present a comprehensive and self-contained discussion of the use of the transfer matrix to study propagation in one-dimensional lossless systems, including a variety of examples, such as superlattices, photonic crystals, and optical resonators. In all these cases, the transfer matrix has the same algebraic properties as the Lorentz group in a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime, as well as the group of unimodular real matrices underlying the structure of the abcd law, which explains many subtle details. We elaborate on the geometrical interpretation of the transfer-matrix action as a mapping on the unit disk and apply a simple trace criterion to classify the systems into three types with very different geometrical and physical properties. This approach is applied to some practical examples and, in particular, an alternative framework to deal with periodic (and quasiperiodic) systems is proposed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Soriano L.C.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research | Bueno H.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Lanas A.,University of Zaragoza | Lanas A.,CIBER ISCIII | Rodriguez L.A.G.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

It was the aim of this study to investigate whether low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy for secondary cardiovascular prevention should continue, despite the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to make a clinically meaningful benefit-risk assessment regarding the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal consequences of ASA discontinuation.This case-control study usedThe Health Improvement Network UK primary care database to identify patients aged 50-84 years during 2000-2007 with a first ASA prescription for secondary cardiovascular prevention (N = 39,513). New cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)/coronary death (n = 1,222), ischaemic stroke (IS)/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (n = 673) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (n = 169) were identified after a mean follow-up of 3.2, 3.4 and 4.0 years, respectively. ASA discontinuers before the index date were identified. Attributable risks associated with ASA discontinuation were calculated and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence annual economic data were used to estimate healthcare costs. The cumulative incidences of non-fatal MI/coronary death, IS/TIA and UGIB among ASA discontinuers within the first year of follow-up were 17, 11 and 1.6 per 1,000 persons, respectively. This corresponds to eight extra cardiovascular events, and a reduction of 0.4 UGIB events per year compared with current ASA users. Extrapolating to the UK population aged over 50 years, avoiding discontinuation of ASA could prevent 12,786 coronary and 7,672 cerebrovascular events/year, at the expense of 1023 extra UGIB events, saving approximately £100 million/year. In conclusion, preventing patients with cardiovascular disease from discontinuing ASA could result in substantial clinical and economic gains. © Schattauer 2013.


Badia-Majos A.,University of Zaragoza | Lopez C.,University of Alcalá
Superconductor Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Based on recent experimental results, and in the light of fundamental physical properties of the magnetic flux in type-II superconductors, we introduce a practical expression for the material law to be applied in numerical modelling of superconducting applications. Focusing on the computational side, in this paper, previous theory is worked out, so as to take the celebrated form of a power-law-like dependence for the current voltage characteristic. However, contrary to the common approach in numerical studies, this proposal suits the general situation of current density flow with components either parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, and different constraints applying on each component. Mathematically, the theory is generated from an elliptic locus defined in terms of the current density vector components. From the physical side, this contour establishes the boundary for the onset of entropy production related to overcritical current flow in different conditions. The electric field is obtained by partial differentiation and points perpendicular to the ellipse. Some numerical examples, inspired by the geometry of a two-layer helical counter-wound cable are provided. Corrections to the widespread use of the implicit isotropic assumption (physical properties only depend on the modulus of the current density vector) are discussed, and essentially indicate that the current carrying capacity of practical systems may be underestimated by using such simplification. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Gonzalez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mozos D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Resano J.,University of Zaragoza | Plaza A.,University of Extremadura
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Hyperspectral remote sensing attempts to identify features in the surface of the Earth using sensors that generally provide large amounts of data. The data are usually collected by a satellite or an airborne instrument and sent to a ground station that processes it. The main bottleneck of this approach is the (often reduced) bandwidth connection between the satellite and the station, which drastically limits the information that can be sent and processed in real time. A possible way to overcome this problem is to include onboard computing resources able to preprocess the data, reducing its size by orders of magnitude. Reconfigurable field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are a promising platform that allows hardware/software codesign and the potential to provide powerful onboard computing capability and flexibility at the same time. Since FPGAs can implement custom hardware solutions, they can reach very high performance levels. Moreover, using run-time reconfiguration, the functionality of the FPGA can be updated at run time as many times as needed to perform different computations. Hence, the FPGA can be reused for several applications reducing the number of computing resources needed. One of the most popular and widely used techniques for analyzing hyperspectral data is linear spectral unmixing, which relies on the identification of pure spectral signatures via a so-called endmember extraction algorithm. In this paper, we present the first FPGA design for N-FINDR, a widely used endmember extraction algorithm in the literature. Our system includes a direct memory access module and implements a prefetching technique to hide the latency of the input/output communications. The proposed method has been implemented on a Virtex-4 XC4VFX60 FPGA (a model that is similar to radiation-hardened FPGAs certified for space operation) and tested using real hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion (a satellite instrument) and the Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer over the Cuprite mining district in Nevada and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in California. Experimental results demonstrate that our hardware version of the N-FINDR algorithm can significantly outperform an equivalent software version and is able to provide accurate results in near real time, which makes our reconfigurable system appealing for onboard hyperspectral data processing. © 2006 IEEE.


Gargallo C.J.,University of Zaragoza | Lanas A.,University of Zaragoza | Lanas A.,CIBER ISCIII
Journal of Digestive Diseases | Year: 2013

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are some of the most commonly used drugs worldwide; however, they are not innocuous. The spectrum of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage caused by NSAIDs has been well established, and strategies to prevent this have been widely studied and implemented. Removing modifiable risk factors, the selection of less toxic NSAIDs and treatment with gastroprotective drugs, if necessary, are the main strategies employed. However, injury of the NSAIDs-related lower GI tract remains poorly characterized. In the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in this field and the search for effective preventive treatments is under way. Use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, prostaglandin, antibiotic or drugs that are not yet commercially available such as nitric oxide-releasing and hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs compounds seem to reduce lower GI injury, but more evidence are needed before any of them are recommended in high-risk patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-1.1-01;ENERGY-2007-1.1-03 | Award Amount: 2.65M | Year: 2008

The PEMFC represents one of the most promising technologies in the field of fuel cells. One of the keys to the success of the PEMFC technology is the development of improved electrolyte membrane materials which can be produced in mass and can operate within a temperature range of 130-200C. The ZEOCELL project will develop a nanostructured electrolyte membrane based on a new composite multifunctional material consisting of the combination of 3 materials: zeolites, ionic liquids and polymers integrating their beneficial characteristics. The membrane will have an innovative structure comprising a 2D polymer matrix and two zeolite layers, with the following properties: - High ionic conductivity: 100 mS/cm at 150C.; - Suitability for operating at temperatures between 130-200C; - Good chemical, mechanical and thermal stability up to 200C; - Durability (<1% performance degradation during the first 1000 hours working); - Low fuel cross-over (


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2013

The production of the next generation of functional soft systems and materials capable of meeting the current and future demands of society in a sustainable manner will require both new technologies and highly trained scientists. Supramolecular chemistry provides a powerful approach to develop new self-assembled materials with emerging properties, such as healability, recyclability and facile processability. The SASSYPOL ITN will train the next generation of European scientists with the skills necessary to overcome such future demands and simultaneously develop new strategies for the preparation of hierarchically self-assembled polymeric soft systems, which greatly impact important fields such as biomedicine, energy, composite materials and sensing. The ITN unites many leading experts in the areas of supramolecular and polymer chemistry with partners from the industrial sector. Expertise of all partners encompasses the general areas of non-covalent chemistry, with individual research competencies focusing on a number of specific themes including liquid crystalline materials, hydrogen-bonded supramolecules, molecular systems based on host-guest interactions, and advanced modeling and characterisation techniques of complex polymeric and self-assembled materials. The complementarity and diversity realised in synthesis, analysis, and applications is crucial for successful research and training in this area. A number of partners from the private sector will extend the fellows training beyond that of traditional academic settings they will have the critical role of bridging fundamental science with application and commercialisation of the results. Indeed, SupraPolix (a SME), one of SASSYPOLs industrial full partners is a perfect example of the commercialisation of cutting-edge science initially developed at an academic laboratory. Our activities will thus possess both breadth and quality that can only be achieved through an interdisciplinary pan-European effort.


Patent
CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration, Research Center Y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria Of Aragon Cita, University of Zaragoza and University of La Laguna | Date: 2012-03-13

The present invention starts with a method for obtaining organic extracts of the Artemisia absinthium L. plant, which includes: a methodology phase for producing said plant, an extraction phase during which said essential oil and a non-volatile extract are obtained, and a phase of extracting supercritical extracts with CO_(2), and refers specifically to the use of the essential oil and/or the supercritical extract extracted as fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi. For said purpose, the Artemisia absinthium L. plant is used, specifically the Candial variety from Teruel and/or Sierra Nevada in Spain. The present invention also relates to the aqueous residue generated during said method, which includes an organic compound which in turn contains (Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-5,7-diene-2,3-diol as an active organic compound against nematodes. The method for obtaining said organic portion and the corresponding active organic component thereof is protected by the present application.


The present invention starts with a method for obtaining organic extracts of the Artemisia absinthium L. plant, which includes: a methodology phase for producing said plant, an extraction phase during which said essential oil and a non-volatile extract are obtained, and a phase of extracting supercritical extracts with CO_(2), and refers specifically to the use of the essential oil and/or the supercritical extract extracted as fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi. For said purpose, the Artemisia absinthium L. plant is used, specifically the Candial variety from Teruel and/or Sierra Nevada in Spain. The present invention also relates to the aqueous residue generated during said method, which includes an organic compound which in turn contains (Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-5,7-diene-2,3-diol as an active organic compound against nematodes. The method for obtaining said organic portion and the corresponding active organic component thereof is protected by the present application.


Patent
University of Zaragoza, Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Cientificas and University of the Basque Country | Date: 2010-08-12

The invention relates to the field of biotechnology and medicine. The invention specifically relates to a compound comprising a liposome covered or decorated at least with the extracellular domain of the APO2L/TRAIL protein, and to the use thereof far developing a medicament preferably for the treatment of a cancer or inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.


The Feel4Diabetes project addresses HCO5-2014: Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases: prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this project is to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention aiming to create a more supportive social and physical environment to promote lifestyle and behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes among families from low and middle income countries and from vulnerable groups in high income countries in Europe. Methods: The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model will provide the theoretical framework for the development, implementation and evaluation of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. The framework has two phases, namely the PRECEDE and PROCEED phase. During the PRECEDE phase, the target population as well as behaviours related to type 2 diabetes and their determinants will be identified. Existing research programs and guidelines for type 2 diabetes prevention, policies, legislation, local infrastructure and human resources will also be recorded. Based on the knowledge gained from this phase, a low-cost and applicable in low-resource settings community-based intervention programme will be developed, with the active engagement of local stakeholders, providing access to the existing infrastructure and human resources wherever feasible. During the PROCEED phase, the intervention will be implemented and its process, impact, outcome, cost-effectiveness and scalability will be evaluated. The results of the intervention will be disseminated, aiming to embed it into policy and practice. Consortium: The Feel4Diabetes multidisciplinary consortium incorporates the necessary expertise on diabetes prevention, behaviours, nutrition, physical activity, policy and health economics. It consists of 10 partners from 7 universities, 1 research institute, 1 advocacy group and a small-medium enterprise, representing European low-middle income, high income and under socioeconomic crisis countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-11-2015 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2016

WASTE2FUELS aims to develop next generation biofuel technologies capable of converting agrofood waste (AFW) streams into high quality biobutanol. Butanol is one of the most promising biofuels due to its superior fuel properties compared to current main biofuels, bioethanol and biodiesel. In addition to its ability to reduce carbon emissions, its higher energy content (almost 30% more than ethanol), its ability to blend with both gasoline and diesel, its lower risk of separation and corrosion, its resistance to water absorption, allowing it to be transported in pipes and carriers used by gasoline, it offers a very exciting advantage for adoption as engines require almost no modifications to use it. The main WASTE2FUELS innovations include: Development of novel pretreatment methods for converting AFW to an appropriate feedstock for biobutanol production thus dramatically enlarging current available biomass for biofuels production Genetically modified microorganisms for enhancing conversion efficiencies of the biobutanol fermentation process Coupled recovery and biofilm reactor systems for enhancing conversion efficiencies of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation Development of new routes for biobutanol production via ethanol catalytic conversion Biobutanol engine tests and ecotoxicological assessment of the produced biobutanol Valorisation of the process by-products Development of an integrated model to optimise the waste-to-biofuel conversion and facilitate the industrial scale-up Process fingerprint analysis by environmental and techno-economic assessment Biomass supply chain study and design of a waste management strategy for rural development By valorising 50% of the unavoidable and undervalorised AFW as feedstock for biobutanol production, WASTE2FUELS could divert up to 45 M tonnes of food waste from EU landfills, preventing 18 M tonnes of GHG and saving almost 0.5 billion litres of fossil fuels.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.17. | Award Amount: 15.90M | Year: 2012

Advanced solutions to the challenges that confront our technology-based society from energy and environment to health are crucially dependent on advanced knowledge of material properties down to the atomic scale. Neutron and Muon spectroscopy offer unique analytical tools for material investigation. They are thus an indispensible building block of the European Research Area and directly address the objectives of the Innovation Union Flagship Initiative. The knowledge creation via neutron and muon spectroscopy relies on the performance of a closely interdependent eco-system comprising large-scale facilities and academic and industrial users. The Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Neutron and Muon Spectroscopy (NMI3) aims at a pan-European integration of the main actors within this eco-system. The NMI3 coordination effort will render public investment more efficient by harmonizing and reinforcing the services provided to the user community. It will thus directly contribute to maintaining Europes world-leading position. NMI3 is a comprehensive consortium of 18 partners from 11 different countries that includes all major providers of neutrons and muons in Europe. NMI3 exploits all tools available within I3s to realize its objectives. - Transnational Open Access will build further capacity for European users. It will foster mobility and improve the overall creation of scientific knowledge by providing the best researchers with the opportunity to use the most adapted infrastructures. - Joint Research activities will create synergies in innovative instrument development that will feed directly into improved and more efficient provision of services to the users. - Networking activities will reinforce integration by harmonizing procedures, setting standards and disseminating knowledge. Particular attention is given to train young people via the European Neutron and Muon School as well as through an e-learning platform.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 11.58M | Year: 2012

Nutrition-related diseases caused a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life of European citizens in 2000. I.Family will make a significant contribution to reduce this burden by studying the interplay and impact of the main drivers of dietary behaviour and food choice. It will take advantage of the unique opportunity to follow-up the large IDEFICS childrens cohort to not only provide added value by maintaining the existing cohort but also, exceptionally, assess the dynamic nature of causal factors over time and during transition into adolescence. The projects acronym indicates its focus on the individual and its family. By re-assessing children and their parents I.Family will compare families who developed or maintained a healthy diet with those whose diet developed in an unfavourable direction to study the impact of biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors on dietary behaviour over time. Focus will be on the family environment, socio-behavioural and genetic factors determining familial aggregation. Subgroups with contrasting dietary profiles will undergo an enhanced protocol including measurement of brain activation, expression of genes related to food choice, biological and genetic basis for taste thresholds, role of sleep, sedentary time, physical activity and impact of the built environment. I.Family will also link health outcomes like body composition and cardio-metabolic markers to diet and interacting factors to determine their prognostic value. Thus I.Family provides strength of methodology, breadth of coverage and depth of investigation across the ecological model. Guided by research on ethical implications I.Family will be deriving effective communication strategies to empower European consumers to induce behaviour changes, supported by novel web-based, interactive personalised feedback on dietary behaviour. By building on existing success I.Family will take the research on dietary behaviour to the next level in a short time frame.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.4 | Award Amount: 3.68M | Year: 2010

Privacy and data protection are of concern to many stakeholders, including the data subjects (end-users), the data controllers (organisations) as well as legislative bodies, data protection agencies, consumer rights organisations and human rights advocates. End-users require assurances that their personal data is being fairly and correctly collected and managed for purposes for which they, ideally, have given explicit consent and is done so in a transparent manner. Organisations collecting personal data need to ensure that the data management practices employed are in compliance with legal requirements and not subject to misuse by its employees. These data protection requirements introduce an overhead (both financial and operational). For european SMEs, the need to ensure compliance can lead to a disproportionate cost when compared to core activities, inhibiting growth and opportunities in competitive global markets.What can help is an open source toolset which allows organisations to ensure that their personal data management policies are compliant with the appropriate legislation.ENDORSE will bring together a consortium of data protection legal experts, academic computer science partners, software implementors and interested industry players. The project will produce a privacy rule definition language which will be used to express the appropriate European directives together with national legislative implementations. The language and these legislative instances along with the toolset to create legally compliant privacy policies will be released as open source. A set of open source technology adapters will take these policies as input and produce access control specifications for deployment in the organisations infrastructure. Two industry players will perform trials using this toolset, a large multi-national insurance organisation and a start-up web based organisation providing voice and video communications services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.44M | Year: 2010

EDGIs aim is to deploy desktop grid (DG) and cloud services for EGI user communities that are heavy users of DCIs and require extremely large multi-national e-infrastructure. In order to achieve this goal software components of ARC, gLite, Unicore, BOINC, XWHEP, ADICS, 3G Bridge, OpenNebula, Eucalyptus will be integrated into SG?DG?Cloud platforms for service provision and as a result EDGI will extend ARC, gLite and Unicore grids with volunteer and institutional DG systems. EDGI will create novel QoS support for the DG systems and will explore new service provision models in order to ensure harmonised DG?Cloud interfaces to ARC, gLite, Unicore resources. EDGI will provide a workflow-oriented science gateway to enable user communities to more easily access the EDGI infrastructure. EDGI will establish the EuroCivis organization to coordinate DG-related activities in Europe both for solving technical issues as well as to attract volunteer DG resource donors by disseminating results of the EDGI and EGI projects. EuroCivis and EDGI will work in strong collaboration with EGI, EMI, NorduGrid, Unicore Forum and interested NGIs.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.2.1. | Award Amount: 4.34M | Year: 2011

SCI-BUS will create a generic-purpose gateway technology as a toolset to provide seamless access to major computing, data and networking infrastructures and services in Europe including clusters, supercomputers, grids, desktop grids, academic and commercial clouds. SCI-BUS will elaborate an application-specific gateway building technology and customisation methodology based on which user communities can easily develop their own customised gateways. SCI-BUS will use the gateway technology and customization methodology to create 11 application-specific gateways customized for various types of user communities (represented in the project) and to provide gateway services for these communities including astrophysics, seismology, helio-physics, bio-science, computational chemistry, biomedical communities, PireGrid SMEs. community, Blender community, citizens. web-2 community, DCI application developer community, business process modeling community. SCI-BUS will establish production gateway services for the represented user communities and will attract further user communities by training and by other forms of disseminations activities. SCI-BUS will use the established production customized gateways as best-practice case studies based on which other communities can build their own customized gateway. SCI-BUS will provide gateway development, operation and maintenance support for the new communities to build and operate their own customized gateways. SCI-BUS will provide user support for application developers and end-users to develop and run new DCI applications based on the developed gateways. SCI-BUS will develop business models to enable the commercial exploitation of the developed technologies and to guarantee the sustainability of the gateway services developed in the project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SFS-17-2014 | Award Amount: 2.42M | Year: 2015

The EcoPROLIVE project proposes an innovative processing for the full exploitation of high valuable constituents in the olive into novel products that are healthy and greener. The proposed process is very different from the current approaches of olive oil industrial production, and waste revalorization alternatives, as it follows a zero waste approach and all resulting products have commercial value. Part of the process is based on the patent WO2013030426 with further developments for quality and environmental improvements, such as the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 instead of n-hexane extraction, and including pulsed electric field (PEF) technology to improve the drying performance and the oil extraction yields. EcoPROLIVE project goals are: demonstration of the technical and economical feasibility of the processing and its environmental study; ensuring the market uptake of the technology and novel products, fully characterized (nutritional, functional, toxicological) to avoid market barriers; design of the optimal process, and scale-up from lab/pilot plant to preindustrial application (TRL6); validation at an operational environment (TRL7); monetizing the technology and developed process (patents) into scalable markets and replication in different scales and countries, starting with the main olive oil producers represented in the consortium (Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal). Replication is expected in a total of 504 olive oil mills, that will deliver 37,000 tn olive oil, 3,700 tn functional oil (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleocanthal, oleuropein, others), and 44,400 tn phenol-rich fibre ingredient with intended use in bakery products (biscuit, bread). The global estimated profit is high (63 Mll) as well as the environmental benefit associated to waste reduction (126,100 tn waste water). Conclusively EcoPROLIVE processing is presented as an economically and environmentally sustainable innovation that will promote the sector competitiveness.


Objective The ToyBox proposal addresses KBBE-2009-2-1-03 - Behavioural models for prevention of obesity, with a particular focus on children. It will primary aim to influence childrens behaviours and prevent obesity in early childhood. Strategy The proposal will identify key behaviours related to early childhood obesity and their determinants and evaluate behavioural models and educational strategies. Based on the obtained insights at a local level, a multidisciplinary team will develop and implement a school based family involved intervention programme that could be applied on a European scale. Process, impact, outcome and cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted to support decision making for European Public Health Policy. Methods The combined use of Precede-Proceed Model and Intervention Mapping will provide the framework for the development, implementation and evaluation of the ToyBox intervention. To achieve this, the project will be subdivided into 10 WPs. This carefully planned stepwise approach will include systematic reviews, secondary analyses of existing data sets, focus group research and school policies overview. Consortium The ToyBox project consortium spans the necessary multidisciplinary variety of experts such as public health experts, epidemiologists, nutritionists, physical activity experts, pedagogists, psychologists, behavioural scientists, nutritionists, paediatricians, early childhood psychologists, health economists, totalling 15 partners, from 10 countries. The consortium, consists of 11 universities, 1 research institute, 2 advocacy groups and an SME representing all regions of Europe. The consortium has ample experience in conducting and coordinating multi-centre international research as well as undertaking dissemination activities to all relevant stakeholders.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 16.70M | Year: 2011

The More Medicines for Tuberculosis (MM4TB) consortium evolved from the highly successful FP6 project, New Medicines for TB (NM4TB), that delivered a candidate drug for clinical development two years ahead of schedule. Building on these firm foundations and exploiting its proprietary pharmacophores, MM4TB will continue to develop new drugs for TB treatment. An integrated approach will be implemented by a multidisciplinary team that combines some of Europes leading academic TB researchers with two major pharmaceutical companies and four SMEs, all strongly committed to the discovery of anti-infective agents. MM4TB will use a tripartite screening strategy to discover new hits in libraries of natural products and synthetic compounds, while concentrating on both classical and innovative targets that have been pharmacologically validated. Whole cell screens will be conducted against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using in vitro and ex vivo models for active growth, latency and intracellular infection. Hits that are positive in two or more of these models will then be used for target identification using functional genomics technologies including whole genome sequencing and genetic complementation of resistant mutants, yeast three hybrid, click chemistry and proteomics. Targets thus selected will enter assay development, structure determination, fragment-based and rational drug design programs; functionally related targets will be found using metabolic pathway reconstruction. Innovative techniques, based on microfluidics and array platforms, will be used for hit ranking, determining rates of cidality and confirming mechanism of action. Medicinal chemistry will convert leads to molecules with drug-like properties for evaluation of efficacy in different animal models and late preclinical testing.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.8 | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2010

The aim of this project is to transfer the latest advances in plasmonics achieved in the visible to the mid-IR. The main objectives of the project are (1) to look at the fundamental limits and develop new simulation tools for plasmons in the mid-IR, (2) to develop plasmon enhanced surfaces for spectroscopic chemical sensing (SCS), and (3) to use plasmon enhanced surfaces for light harvesting technology. The result of the project will include new software, SCS surfaces for infra-red spectroscopy and smart, cheaper, mid-IR photodetectors. \nThe term plasmonics refers to the investigation, development and application of enhanced electromagnetic properties of metallic (nano-) structures and is starting to find applications in a range of photonic devices such as VCSELs and high speed photodetectors. While the promise of plasmonics photonic components in the visible and NIR is very promising, this project will exploit the huge potential for plasmonics in the IR (i.e. the 1.6-16 m range) that could be truly disruptive.\nIn the mid-IR (a) plasmon losses are much lower than in the visible so the range of possible devices is much larger (b) this area is largely unexplored for applied plasmonics, and (c) IR technology is undergoing a quiet revolution due to key advances such as such room temperature Quantum Cascade Lasers and miniature Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). This project will help launch the IR revolution by enabling both SCS surfaces and better mid-IR detectors.\nPLAISIR will develop SCS with sensitivity more than 200 times larger than that of a simple surface. This will be combined with microfluidics and integrated into a FTS. The project will work with both InGaAs and HgCdTe photodetectors, by using LHT to improve their noise performance, and tailor their spectral and polarization response. \nThis project includes 4 major actors in fundamental and applied plasmon research, 3 SMEs and an external advisory board made up of strategic end users and key academics


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2007-1.1-01 | Award Amount: 6.20M | Year: 2008

Main objectives of ReCosy are the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment/Safety Case. Although redox is not a new geochemical problem, different questions are still not resolved and thus raised by implementers and scientists. From a top-down approach, the reliability of redox measurements for site characterization, redox disturbances by the near-field materials, changes induced by glaciation scenarios or the redox buffer capacity of host-rocks and the kinetics of response to redox perturbations are addressed. From a bottom-up approach, questions concerning the interpretation of mixed potentials, surface mediated reactions, redox states of actinides and long-lived fission products, the source term of spent nuclear fuel in the presence of corroding steel as well as the role of microbes and biofilms on the evolution of the redox state are tackled. Radionuclide redox transformations on minerals are decisive scenarios in the NEA FEP list and in the RETROCK project. In the large FP 6 IPs NF-PRO and FUNMIG, redox phenomena controlling the retention of radionuclides were addressed, although not systematically considered. The ReCosy concept is innovative in the scientific approach to the redox phenomena, including i) advanced analytical tools, ii) investigations of processes responsible for redox control iii) required data on redox controlling processes, and iv) response to disturbances in disposal systems. To this aim, the scientific-technical work program is structured along six RTD workpackages, covering near-field and far-field aspects as well as all relevant host-rocks considered in Europe. The 28 partners of ReCosy include the key European Research Institutes and Universities from 12 European countries, and Russia.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-3.3 | Award Amount: 871.70K | Year: 2010

The FP7 EDGeS project has successfully set up a production-level distributed computing infrastructure (DCI) consisting of more than 100.000 PCs from several volunteer and low-cost Desktop Grids, which have been connected to existing Service Grids (including EGEE, SEE-GRID, etc. with about 150.000 processors) based on the new 3G Bridge technology and application development methodology.\n\nThe main aim of the DEGISCO project is the further extension of the European DCI infrastructure that is already interconnected by EDGeS to International Cooperation Partner Countries (ICPC) in strong collaboration with on the one hand local partners in ICPC countries and on the other hand European e-Infrastructure experts (including 3G Bridge know-how) and thus, reinforce the global relevance and impact of European distributed infrastructures.\n\nThe project will support the creation of new Desktop Grids in ICPC countries and the connection of these Grids to European DCIs and existing Service Grids in ICPC countries by employing 3G Bridge technology. Moreover, building on the solid expertise of the DEGISCO partners, the project will provide recommendations on best practices and define joint roadmaps for ICPC countries and Europe.\n\nThe application support activities of DEGISCO support the use of the already two dozen ported applications on new connected DCIs in ICPC countries and support new applications.\n\nThe dissemination and training activities will promote via various channels such interoperation between Desktop Grid and Service Grid infrastructures on a global scale, which leads to more awareness under the general public of computational science and distributed computing co-funded by the EC. As a result more citizens, students, and companies are expected to donate resources to scientific purposes.\n\n\nAs part of these activities an International Desktop Grid Federation will be operated allowing for effective exchange of information through participation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2011.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2012

The CRONOS project seeks to develop a quantitative, flexible and fully atomistic theory of ultrafast dynamics in real materials. Our effort will create the necessary knowledge for advancing two technological areas crucial for the economic future of Europe and the well being of its citizens: new materials for solar energy harvesting and ultra-high density magnetic data storage. In particular we will construct the necessary theoretical tools for addressing the problems of energy photo-conversion and laser-induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics. Crucially CRONOS will not just look at how an optical excitation perturbs a materials system but also at how such an excitation can be engineered to produce a desired response. Hence both the direct and the inverse problem will be tackled. CRONOS theoretical program will be validated by a broad experimental activity on ultra-fast pump-probe spectroscopy and by the presence in the consortium of European companies. Equally important is the fact that the consortium will produce a substantial amount of high-end scientific software, which will then be distributed freely to the academic community. The project will develop a quantitative and materials-specific theory for electron dynamics in nano-structures, which, at the same time, is fully atomistic, efficient, scalable to large systems, and rigorously theoretically formulated. The core of our method is time-dependent density functional theory, TDDFT, which was invented by a member of our consortium and has been developed over the years . Our workplan comprises formal methodological development, algorithm implementation, applications to both solar cells and magnetic recording, and experimental validation. A significant deliverable of this project will also be the wide distribution of computational packages


Patent
University of Zaragoza and University of the Basque Country | Date: 2012-06-27

The invention relates to the field of biotechnology and medicine. The invention specifically relates to a compound comprising a liposome covered or decorated at least with the extracellular domain of the APO2L/TRAIL protein, and to the use thereof for developing a medicament preferably for the treatment of a cancer or inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.


Colacio E.,University of Granada | Ruiz J.,University of Granada | Lorusso G.,University of Zaragoza | Brechin E.K.,University of Edinburgh | Evangelisti M.,University of Zaragoza
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A novel diphenoxo-bridged Gd3+-Mn2+ dimer is proposed as a good candidate for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. The large MCE is enhanced by the ferromagnetic interaction between the two metal ions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Langley S.K.,Monash University | Chilton N.F.,Monash University | Moubaraki B.,Monash University | Hooper T.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Science | Year: 2011

The use of triethanolamine (teaH3) in 3d/4f chemistry produces the enneanuclear cluster compound [CuII 5GdIII 4O2(OMe)4(teaH)4(O2CC(CH3)3)2(NO3)4]·2MeOH·2Et2O (1·2MeOH·2Et2O) whose molecular structure comprises a series of vertex- and face-sharing {GdIIICuII 3} tetrahedra. Magnetic studies reveal a large number of spin states populated even at the lowest temperatures investigated. Combined with the high magnetic isotropy, this enables 1 to be an excellent magnetic refrigerant for low temperature applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.


Chinesta F.,University of Nantes | Ammar A.,CNRS Rheology Laboratory | Cueto E.,University of Zaragoza
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper the coupling of a parabolic model with a system of local kinetic equations is analyzed. A space-time separated representation is proposed for the global model (this is simply the radial approximation proposed by Pierre Ladeveze in the LATIN framework (Non-linear Computational Structural Mechanics. Springer: New York, 1999)). The originality of the present work concerns the treatment of the local problem, that is first globalized (in space and time) and then fully globalized by introducing a new coordinate related to the different species involved in the kinetic model. Thanks to the non-incremental nature of both discrete descriptions (the local and the global one) the coupling is quite simple and no special difficulties are encountered by using heterogeneous time integrations. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Varona L.,University of Zaragoza | Sorensen D.,University of Aarhus
Genetics | Year: 2010

An analysis of mortality is undertaken in two breeds of pigs: Danish Landrace and Yorkshire. Zero-inflated and standard versions of hierarchical Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial Bayesian models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The objectives of the study were to investigate whether there is support for genetic variation for mortality and to study the quality of fit and predictive properties of the various models. In both breeds, the model that provided the best fit to the data was the standard binomial hierarchical model. The model that performed best in terms of the ability to predict the distribution of stillbirths was the hierarchical zero-inflated negative binomial model. The best fit of the binomial hierarchical model and of the zero-inflated hierarchical negative binomial model was obtained when genetic variation was included as a parameter. For the hierarchical binomial model, the estimate of the posterior mean of the additive genetic variance (posterior standard deviation in brackets) at the level of the logit of the probability of a stillbirth was 0:173(0:039)in Landrace and 0:202(0:048) in Yorkshire. The implications of these results from a breeding perspective are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 by the Genetics Society of America.


Wu Y.-T.,University of Cambridge | Fratiglioni L.,Karolinska Institutet | Matthews F.E.,Institute of Public Health | Matthews F.E.,Newcastle University | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2016

Dementia is receiving increasing attention from governments and politicians. Epidemiological research based on western European populations done 20 years ago provided key initial evidence for dementia policy making, but these estimates are now out of date because of changes in life expectancy, living conditions, and health profiles. To assess whether dementia occurrence has changed during the past 20-30 years, investigators of five different studies done in western Europe (Sweden [Stockholm and Gothenburg], the Netherlands [Rotterdam], the UK [England], and Spain [Zaragoza]) have compared dementia occurrence using consistent research methods between two timepoints in well-defined geographical areas. Findings from four of the five studies showed non-significant changes in overall dementia occurrence. The only significant reduction in overall prevalence was found in the study done in the UK, powered and designed explicitly from its outset to detect change across generations (decrease in prevalence of 22%; p=0·003). Findings from the study done in Zaragoza (Spain) showed a significant reduction in dementia prevalence in men (43%; p=0·0002). The studies estimating incidence done in Stockholm and Rotterdam reported non-significant reductions. Such reductions could be the outcomes from earlier population-level investments such as improved education and living conditions, and better prevention and treatment of vascular and chronic conditions. This evidence suggests that attention to optimum health early in life might benefit cognitive health late in life. Policy planning and future research should be balanced across primary (policies reducing risk and increasing cognitive reserve), secondary (early detection and screening), and tertiary (once dementia is present) prevention. Each has their place, but upstream primary prevention has the largest effect on reduction of later dementia occurrence and disability. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Gil-Extremera B.,University of Granada | Cia-Gomez P.,University of Zaragoza
International Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Background. The incidence of hypertension in the Western countries is continuously increasing in the elderly population and remains the leading cause of cardiovascular and morbidity. Methods. we analysed some significant clinical trials in order to present the relevant findings on those hypertensive population. Results. Several studies (SYST-EUR, HYVET, CONVINCE, VALUE, etc.) have demonstrated the benefits of treatment (nitrendipine, hydrochrotiazyde, perindopril, indapamide, verapamil, or valsartan) in aged hypertensive patients not only concerning blood pressure values but also the other important risk factors. Conclusion. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the Western countries, and the relevance of receiving pharmacological treatment of hypertension in aged patients is crucial; in addition, the results suggest that combination therapynitrendipine plus enalaprilcould have more benefits than those observed with the use of nitrendipine alone. © 2012 Blas Gil-Extremera and Pedro Cía-Gómez.


Del Pino P.,University of Marburg | Del Pino P.,University of Zaragoza | Munoz-Javier A.,University of Marburg | Vlaskou D.,TU Munich | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Lipospheres made from soy bean oil and a combination of the cationic lipid Metafectene and the helper lipid dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine were functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The resulting magnetic lipospheres loaded with siRNA are proven here as efficient nonviral vectors for gene silencing. Embedding magnetic NPs in the shell of lipospheres allows for magnetic force-assisted transfection (magnetofection) as well as magnetic targeting in both static and fluidic conditions mimicking the bloodstream. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Diaz J.A.,University of Granada | Navarro R.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

We generalize the analytical form of the orthonormal elliptical polynomials for any arbitrary aspect ratio to arbitrary orientation and give expression for them up to the 4th order. The utility of the polynomials is demonstrated by obtaining the expansion up to the 8th order in two examples of an off-axis wavefront exiting from an optical system with a vignetted pupil. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


de la Fuente J.,SaBio | de la Fuente J.,Oklahoma State University | Estrada-Pena A.,University of Zaragoza | Cabezas-Cruz A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Kocan K.M.,Oklahoma State University
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2016

The tick-borne rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum develops within membrane-bound inclusions in the host cell cytoplasm. This pathogen has evolved with its tick and vertebrate hosts through dynamic processes involving genetic traits of the pathogen and hosts that collectively mediate pathogen infection, development, persistence, and survival. Herein, we challenge the evidence of tick-host-pathogen coevolution by hypothesizing that A. phagocytophilum utilizes common molecular mechanisms for infection in both vertebrate and tick cells, including remodeling of the cytoskeleton, inhibition of cell apoptosis, and manipulation of the immune response. The discovery of these common mechanisms provides evidence that a control strategy could be developed targeted at both vertebrate and tick hosts for more complete control of A. phagocytophilum and its associated diseases. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Martinez-Lostao L.,University of Zaragoza | Anel A.,University of Zaragoza | Pardo J.,University of Zaragoza | Pardo J.,Aragon ID Foundation
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

In the past few years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for treatment of cancers that do not respond to classical treatments, including those types with high aggressiveness. New immune modulators, such as cytokines, blockers of CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) and PD-1(programmed cell death protein 1)/PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), and interaction or adoptive cell therapy, have been developed and approved to treat solid and hematologic carcinomas. In these scenarios, cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL), mainly cytotoxic T cells (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells, are ultimately responsible for killing the cancer cells and eradicating the tumor. Extensive studies have been conducted to assess how Tc and NK cells get activated and recognize the cancer cell. In contrast, few studies have focused on the effector molecules used by CLs to kill cancer cells during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. In this article, the two main pathways involved in CL-mediated tumor cell death, granule exocytosis (perforin and granzymes) and death ligands, are briefly introduced, followed by a critical discussion of the molecules involved in cell death during cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. This discussion also covers unexpected consequences of proinflammatory and survival effects of granzymes and death ligands and recent experimental evidence indicating that perforin and granzymes of CLs can activate nonapoptotic pathways of cell death, overcoming apoptosis defects and chemoresistance. The consequences of apoptosis versus other modalities of cell death for an effective treatment of cancer by modulating the patient immune system are also briefly discussed. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Puig L.,University of Pennsylvania | Guerrero J.J.,University of Zaragoza | Daniilidis K.,University of Pennsylvania
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2014

In this paper we propose a new approach to compute the scale space of any central projection system, such as catadioptric, fisheye or conventional cameras. Since these systems can be explained using a unified model, the single parameter that defines each type of system is used to automatically compute the corresponding Riemannian metric. This metric, is combined with the partial differential equations framework on manifolds, allows us to compute the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) operator, enabling the computation of the scale space of any central projection system. Scale space is essential for the intrinsic scale selection and neighborhood description in features like SIFT. We perform experiments with synthetic and real images to validate the generalization of our approach to any central projection system. We compare our approach with the best-existing methods showing competitive results in all type of cameras: catadioptric, fisheye, and perspective. © 1979-2012 IEEE.


Prado S.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Villarroya M.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Medina M.,University of Zaragoza | Armengod M.-E.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

MnmE is a homodimeric multi-domain GTPase involved in tRNA modification. This protein differs from Ras-like GTPases in its low affinity for guanine nucleotides and mechanism of activation, which occurs by a cis, nucleotide- and potassium-dependent dimerization of its G-domains. Moreover, MnmE requires GTP hydrolysis to be functionally active. However, how GTP hydrolysis drives tRNA modification and how the MnmE GTPase cycle is regulated remains unresolved. Here, the kinetics of the MnmE GTPase cycle was studied under single-turnover conditions using stopped- and quench-flow techniques. We found that the G-domain dissociation is the rate-limiting step of the overall reaction. Mutational analysis and fast kinetics assays revealed that GTP hydrolysis, G-domain dissociation and Pi release can be uncoupled and that G-domain dissociation is directly responsible for the 'ON' state of MnmE. Thus, MnmE provides a new paradigm of how the ON/OFF cycling of GTPases may regulate a cellular process. We also demonstrate that the MnmE GTPase cycle is negatively controlled by the reaction products GDP and Pi. This feedback mechanism may prevent inefficacious GTP hydrolysis in vivo. We propose a biological model whereby a conformational change triggered by tRNA binding is required to remove product inhibition and initiate a new GTPase/tRNA- modification cycle. © 2013 The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


Greynat D.,University of Zaragoza | Greynat D.,University of Savoy | Sesma J.,University of Zaragoza
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2014

Assuming that the parameters of a generalized hypergeometric function depend linearly on a small variable ε, the successive derivatives of the function with respect to that small variable are evaluated at ε=0 to obtain the coefficients of the ε-expansion of the function. The procedure, which is quite naive, benefits from simple explicit expressions of the derivatives, to any order, of the Pochhammer and reciprocal Pochhammer symbols with respect to their argument. The algorithm may be used algebraically, irrespective of the values of the parameters. It reproduces the exact results obtained by other authors in cases of especially simple parameters. Implemented numerically, the procedure improves considerably, for higher orders in ε, the numerical expansions given by other methods. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Varona L.,University of Zaragoza | Sorensen D.,University of Aarhus
Genetics | Year: 2014

This work presents a model for the joint analysis of a binomial and a Gaussian trait using a recursive parametrization that leads to a computationally efficient implementation. The model is illustrated in an analysis of mortality and litter size in two breeds of Danish pigs, Landrace and Yorkshire. Available evidence suggests that mortality of piglets increased partly as a result of successful selection for total number of piglets born. In recent years there has been a need to decrease the incidence of mortality in pig-breeding programs. We report estimates of genetic variation at the level of the logit of the probability of mortality and quantify how it is affected by the size of the litter. Several models for mortality are considered and the best fits are obtained by postulating linear and cubic relationships between the logit of the probability of mortality and litter size, for Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. An interpretation of how the presence of genetic variation affects the probability of mortality in the population is provided and we discuss and quantify the prospects of selecting for reduced mortality, without affecting litter size. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.


Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Delgado M.,University of Granada | Gomez-Romero J.,Charles III University of Madrid
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Today, there is a growing interest in the development of knowledge representations able to deal with uncertainty, which is a very common requirement in real world applications. Despite the undisputed success of ontologies, classical ontologies are not suitable to deal with uncertainty and, consequently, several extensions with fuzzy logic and rough logic, among other formalisms, have been proposed. In this article we describe DeLorean 2, the first ontology reasoner that supports fuzzy extensions of the standard languages OWL and OWL 2. In a strict sense, DeLorean is not a reasoner but a translator from fuzzy rough ontology languages (GZSROIQ(D)) into classical ontology languages (SROIQ(D)). This allows using classical (widely available) Description Logic inference engines to reason with the representation resulting from the transformation. We describe the main features of the application: evolution, functionality, architecture, graphical interface, input language, and implementation details. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Estrada-Pena A.,University of Zaragoza | Ayllon N.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos | de la Fuente J.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos | de la Fuente J.,Oklahoma State University
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. © 2012 Estrada-Peña, Ayllón and de la Fuente.


Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza | Chedraui P.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil | Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas
Maturitas | Year: 2011

Background: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are common and may be associated with morbidity and mortality (and indeed with frailty more generally). This association is not restricted to the links between vitamin D and calcium and bone metabolism. Objective: To review the influences of vitamin D on the aging process other than those related to bone and calcium. Its effect on mortality is also assessed. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles relating to vitamin D, using the following MeSH terms: vitamin D, mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and frailty. In addition, searches were carried out with Google. Results: Although some of the reported results have proved controversial, overall the evidence seems to support an association between low serum 25[OH]D levels and mortality rates (all-cause and cardiovascular). Frailty is a condition frequently associated with low serum 25[OH]D levels. Conclusion: The aging process and mortality are associated with low vitamin D levels. Prospective controlled trials are warranted to determine whether vitamin D supplements can increase longevity and reduce the incidence of certain conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fernandez J.F.,University of Zaragoza | Fernandez J.F.,University of Granada
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

By tempered Monte Carlo simulations, an Almeida-Thouless (AT) phase-boundary line in site-diluted Ising spin systems is searched for. Spins interact only through dipolar fields and occupy a small fraction of lattice sites. The spin-glass susceptibility of these systems and of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model are compared. The correlation length as a function of system size and temperature is also studied. The results obtained are contrary to the existence of an AT line. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Pelaz B.,University of Zaragoza | Charron G.,University Paris Diderot | Pfeiffer C.,University of Marburg | Zhao Y.,National Center for Nanosciences and Technology of China | And 4 more authors.
Small | Year: 2013

The innovative use of engineered nanomaterials in medicine, be it in therapy or diagnosis, is growing dramatically. This is motivated by the current extraordinary control over the synthesis of complex nanomaterials with a variety of biological functions (e.g. contrast agents, drug-delivery systems, transducers, amplifiers, etc.). Engineered nanomaterials are found in the bio-context with a variety of applications in fields such as sensing, imaging, therapy or diagnosis. As the degree of control to fabricate customized novel and/or enhanced nanomaterials evolves, often new applications, devices with enhanced performance or unprecedented sensing limits can be achieved. Of course, interfacing any novel material with biological systems has to be critically analyzed as many undesirable adverse effects can be triggered (e.g. toxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, etc.) and/or the performance of the nanomaterial can be compromised due to the unexpected phenomena in physiological environments (e.g. corrosion, aggregation, unspecific absorption of biomolecules, etc.). Despite the need for standard protocols for assessing the toxicity and bio-performance of each new functional nanomaterial, these are still scarce or currently under development. Nonetheless, nanotoxicology and relating adverse effects to the physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials are emerging areas of the utmost importance which have to be continuously revisited as any new material emerges. This review highlights recent progress concerning the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems and following adverse effects. The biological fate of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in physiological media is discussed. The four color-labeled scenarios illustrate (green) potential adverse effects following protein adsorption, (orange) functionalization of NPs with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antibodies (active targeting), (yellow) the possibility of 'passivating' NPs with suitable coatings, (blue) and adverse effects such as 'NP dissolution' and reactive oxygen species generation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-09-2014 | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2015

The rapid increase in demand for data-intensive applications capable of exploiting Big Data technologies such as Hadoop/MapReduce, NoSQL, cloud-based storage, and stream processing is creating massive growth opportunities for European independent software vendors (ISVs). However, developing software that meets the high-quality standards expected for business-critical cloud applications remains a barrier to this market for many small and medium ISVs, which often lack resources and expertise for advanced quality engineering. DICE will tackle this challenge by defining a quality-driven development methodology and related tools that will markedly accelerate the development of business-critical data-intensive applications running on public or private clouds. Building on the principles of model-driven development (MDD) and on popular standards such as UML, MARTE and TOSCA, the project will first define a novel MDD methodology that can describe data and data-intensive technologies in cloud applications. A quality engineering toolchain offering simulation, verification, and numerical optimisation will leverage these extensions to drive the early design stages of the application development and guide software quality evolution. DevOps-inspired methods for deployment, testing, continuous integration and monitoring feedback analysis will be used to accelerate the incorporation of quality in data-intensive cloud application both in public and private deployments, enhancing the capability of small and medium European ISVs to enter the Big Data market.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.66M | Year: 2015

Developing models of real-world societal scenarios and systems is a key topic in the research agenda of social sciences, but is hindered by the lack of controlled experimentation with large groups of people. IBSEN will provide a breakthrough by building a repertoire of human behaviour in large (1000\ persons) structured groups using controlled experiments. To that end, we will develop a novel setup for large groups of people that will provide an experimental protocol, the necessary software and analytical tools to allow us to deal with thousands of people at the same time. We will apply our setup to specific research questions, focusing on novel phenomenology that may arise in large systems as compared to typical smaller ones, to find the rules that govern human behaviour in those cases, including the influence of social context and individual identity on them. We will assess our approach by building a model of human interaction in groups based on the behavioural rules we have found. The project requires a high-degree of interdisciplinarity; accordingly, the team consists of physicists, economists, social psychologists, and computer scientists. On the other hand, this is a high-risk project, as the experimental design may prove unfeasible for really large systems and extracting meaningful data from the participants actions may not be possible. Notwithstanding, encouraging results in some pilot studies run by partners underpin the scientific feasibility of the concept and approach. If successful, researchers will be able to build on our findings to develop a human behaviour simulator, a technology providing a basis for socio-economic simulations that would radically change many fields, from robotics to economics, with technological and societal impacts, including policy-making in socially pressing issues. We will thus lay the foundations to kick start a new way of doing social science for the problems arising in a technologically highly connected society.


Berlanga F.J.,University of Zaragoza | Rivera A.J.,University of Jaén | del Jesus M.J.,University of Jaén | Herrera F.,University of Granada
Information Sciences | Year: 2010

In this paper we propose GP-COACH, a Genetic Programming-based method for the learning of COmpact and ACcurate fuzzy rule-based classification systems for High-dimensional problems. GP-COACH learns disjunctive normal form rules (generated by means of a context-free grammar) coded as one rule per tree. The population constitutes the rule base, so it is a genetic cooperative-competitive learning approach. GP-COACH uses a token competition mechanism to maintain the diversity of the population and this obliges the rules to compete and cooperate among themselves and allows the obtaining of a compact set of fuzzy rules. The results obtained have been validated by the use of non-parametric statistical tests, showing a good performance in terms of accuracy and interpretability. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Blasco E.,University of Zaragoza | Schmidt B.V.K.J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Barner-Kowollik C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Pinol M.,University of Zaragoza | Oriol L.,University of Zaragoza
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel azobenzene-containing miktoarm star polymer AB3 (Mn=9700 gmol-1, M = 1.10) as well as its self-assembly properties in water. The miktoarm copolymer is composed of a hydrophobic azopolymer and three hydrophilic PEG arms (Mn = 600 g mol-1). The hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio of the amphiphilic miktoarm polymer is 78/22, leading to the formation of stable polymeric vesicles in water evidenced via TEM and cryo-TEM imaging. The photoresponse of these vesicles has been investigated by irradiation with UV light (= 350-400 nm) causing the disruption of the self-assemblies. Encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent probes, i.e., Nile Red and Rhodamine B, and the use of light as an external stimulus to trigger the release of the probes have also been demonstrated. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2008

In LIMOUSINE multi-disciplinary research and training is provided to address the problem and provide tools to design and operate gas turbine engines in a robust way with a diversity of fuels and operation conditions. Their robustness is dependent on their design and operation however. The major risk of failure is due to mechanical failure of combustor components. This failure is most often caused by fatigue of liner or burner parts, that have been exposed to an anomalous oscillating pressure load. This load is caused by thermo-acoustic instabilities. LIMOUSINE is a multi-disciplinary project providing training in mathematics, structural mechanics, acoustics, fluid mechanics, combustion experimental techniques, and control systems theory. The project objective in research is to predict the mechanical vibration in a gas turbine engine and the resulting fatigue and time to failure. Active and passive control processes will be developed to allow safe operation of the gas turbine on a variety of fuels and operating conditions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 21.00M | Year: 2008

Key objectives of EUWB are i) to explore the enormous economic potential of the ground-breaking Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radio technology, ii) to extend the UWB concept with advanced cognitive radio, multiband/multimode networking, and multiple antenna system concepts, iii) to enable the introduction of advanced services and competitive applications using the radio spectrum in a sophisticated manner.\nThe advanced scientific and technical project work will be accompanied by activities in European and world wide regulation and standardisation bodies in which EUWB partners are highly committed. As a key for economic success of UWB, the project partners will continue to devote significant efforts to participation in CEPT ECC, IEEE, ITU, ETSI, and ECMA working towards consensus building and iterative improvement of the initial European and world-wide UWB regulation and standardisation.\nUWB technology enables gigabits per second short range communications and inherent precise real-time location tracking. Prominent examples to be implemented in the EUWB project are the Intelligent Home environment, the Public Transport environment, the Automotive environment and the Next Generation of Heterogeneous Public Access Network environment, following a strong demand from the mentioned industry sectors.\nEUWB is an industry-led initiative of 22 highly regarded industrial, consulting, and academic organisations. It builds on previous projects, such as PULSERS, and take into account stakeholders of the whole value chain. Major aim is to consolidate the technology advances in scientific areas related to UWB and to define system concepts for the envisaged four application areas. The results will be materialised in four application platforms built on the open UWB technology developed in EUWB. Besides integration in the AIRBUS plane, the DAIMLER car, the PHILIPS future home, and the TELEFNICA access network, scientific studies will guide industry to gain competitiveness with their UWB system.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.22M | Year: 2008

Dendrimers are new materials obtained with a highly controlled molecular structure in several space orientations. Liquid Crystals (LC) Dendrimers are a part of them that incorporate directional properties to these materials. If we append active molecules into these engineered molecules, we can obtain multifunctional anisotropic molecules that open the possibility of achieving a wide variety of physical properties and new applications. Among the numerous possibilities to be explored within this field, we have chosen two fundamental lines, which are Biomedicine and Advanced Molecular Materials. Training of multidisciplinary personnel in this field of research will contribute to concentrate the knowledge spread in different countries and to accelerate the development within Europe by means of industrial collaboration. This collaboration will provide an up-to-date list of requirements for better planning the research lines that ensure a rapid evolution of the existing ones in Europe, all of which are oriented to the synthesis of compounds easily transferable to industrial use. The aim is to reduce the existing gap between academically developed new materials and their industrial application. Multidisciplinary training will include modelling of new materials, chemical synthesis and controlled chemical orientation, structural functional studies, physical characterization of structural properties, biological modelling, molecular activity analyses, technology oriented samples and product escalation towards industry processes. These training aspects will go parallel to a research career, complementary formation and cooperation key-events.


Villa-Bellosta R.,University of Zaragoza | Sorribas V.,University of Zaragoza
Circulation Journal | Year: 2013

Background: In recent decades, the prevention of vascular calcification (VC) by pyrophosphate (PPi), bisphosphonates, and polyphosphates has been extensively reported. However, the possibility of direct inhibition of calcium phosphate deposition (CPD) by nucleoside-associated polyphosphates has not been addressed. We analyzed the role of ATP as an inhibitor of calcification in 2 ways: by characterizing the extracellular hydrolysis of ATP as source of PPi in the aorta, and by demonstrating the ability of ATP to prevent CPD by acting as a polyphosphate. Methods and Results: In our study, both PPi and ATP hydrolysis in the rat aorta was kinetically characterized, thereby resulting in apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of 179 and 435 μmol/l, respectively, with the corresponding maximal velocities of 55.1 and 6,177 nmol g-1 min-1. According to these kinetic parameters, the theoretical PPi concentration in the aortic wall was 0.4-3.5 μmol/L (for an ATP concentration range of 0.1-1.0 μmol/L). In addition, we showed that nonhydrolyzable molecules are more efficient as CPD inhibitors than endogenous compounds, in accordance with the IC50 values: 1.2-2.4 μmol/L for bisphosphonates vs. 8.8 μmol/L for PPi, and 0.5-1.5 μmol/L for nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs vs. 3.2 μmol/L for ATP. Conclusions: Extracellular ATP can play an important role in the prevention of VC, not only as the source of PPi but also as a direct inhibitor of CPD.


Hernandez M.,University of Zaragoza
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

In this work, we propose a novel preconditioned optimization method in the paradigm of Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). The preconditioned update scheme is formulated for the non-stationary and the stationary parameterizations of diffeomorphisms, yielding three different LDDMM methods. The preconditioning matrices are inspired in the Hessian approximation used in Gauss-Newton method. The derivatives are computed using Frechet differentials. Thus, optimization is performed in a Sobolev space, in contrast to optimization in L2commonly used in non-rigid registration literature. The proposed LDDMM methods have been evaluated and compared with their respective implementations of gradient descent optimization. Evaluation has been performed using real and simulated images from the Non-rigid Image Registration Evaluation Project (NIREP). The experiments conducted in this work reported that our preconditioned LDDMM methods achieved a performance similar or superior to well-established-in-literature gradient descent non-stationary LDDMM in the great majority of cases. Moreover, preconditioned optimization showed a substantial reduction in the execution time with an affordable increase of the memory usage per iteration. Additional experiments reported that optimization using Frechet differentials should be preferable to optimization using L2differentials. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


Perez-Palacin D.,University of Zaragoza | Merseguer J.,University of Zaragoza
ICPE'11 - Proceedings of the 2nd Joint WOSP/SIPEW International Conference on Performance Engineering | Year: 2011

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a paradigm where applications are built on services offered by third party providers. Behavior of providers evolves and makes a challenge the performance prediction of SOA applications. A proper decision about when a provider should be substituted can dramatically improve the performance of the application. We propose hidden Markov models (HMM) to help service integrators to foretell the current state of third-parties. The paper leverages different algorithms that change providers based on predictions about their states. We also integrate these algorithms and HMMs in an architectural solution to coordinate them with other challenges in the SOA world.


Greynat D.,University of Zaragoza | De Rafael E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | De Rafael E.,Universites Aix Marseille 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon which are relevant for the confrontation between theory and experiment at the present level of accuracy, are evaluated within the same framework: the constituent chiral quark model. This includes the contributions from the dominant hadronic vacuum polarization as well as from the next-to-leading order hadronic vacuum polarization, the contributions from the hadronic light-by-light scattering, and the contributions from the electroweak hadronic Zγγ vertex. They are all evaluated as a function of only one free parameter: the constituent quark mass. We also comment on the comparison between our results and other phenomenological evaluations.


Navarro R.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Vision | Year: 2010

The problem of measuring the objective refractive error with an aberrometer has shown to be more elusive than expected. Here, the formalism of differential geometry is applied to develop a theoretical framework of refractive error sensing. At each point of the pupil, the local refractive error is given by the wavefront curvature, which is a 2 × 2 symmetric matrix, whose elements are directly related to sphere, cylinder, and axis. Aberrometers usually measure the local gradient of the wavefront. Then refractive error sensing consists of differentiating the gradient, instead of integrating as in wavefront sensing. A statistical approach is proposed to pass from the local to the global (clinically meaningful) refractive error, in which the best correction is assumed to be the maximum likelihood estimation. In the practical implementation, this corresponds to the mode of the joint histogram of the 3 different elements of the curvature matrix. Results obtained both in computer simulations and with real data provide a close agreement and consistency with the main optical image quality metrics such as the Strehl ratio. © ARVO.


Ortega E.,University of Zaragoza | de Marcos S.,University of Zaragoza | Galban J.,University of Zaragoza
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Our general aim is to develop reversible optical biosensors which can be used for continuous monitoring. In this paper we propose a biosensor for H2O2 determination. The bioreceptor is catalase (Cat) previously linked to a Ruthenium O2-sensitive fluorophore (Cat-Ru). It is based on the reversible H2O2 disproportionation into O2 and H2O.First, the fluorescent-enzymatic system was optimized for batch measurements (linear response ranges from 1×10-4 to, at least, 1×10-3M H2O2). Because of its reversibility, the same enzyme aliquot can be used for performing the whole calibration step (and the subsequent determination). Secondly, the optical sensor was prepared by Cat-Ru immobilization in a polyacrylamide film. The sensor permits H2O2 determination in a similar concentration range as in batch mode and can be used during at least 1 month. A mathematical model has also been developed which permits the effect of the experimental parameters to predict. The model also explains the sensor behavior if different fluorophores are used, and shows that the analytical signal only slightly depends on the initial concentration of the O2 in the sample.Finally an alternative sensor is presented based on a commercially available O2 fluorescence sensor linked to catalase. This system gives an analytical behavior similar to that shown for the Cat-Ru sensor. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Fandos-Herrera C.,University of Zaragoza
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

The growing concern about quality in food products has substantially increased the competitiveness of agro-food products that possess quality-system certifications compared to non-certificated products. This research focused on understanding how consumer trust is greater when agro-food products have a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). In particular, we analyze whether the influence of consumers’ perceived quality of a PDO product has a direct effect on their perceived risk or whether this relationship is mediated by consumer trust, which can help us advance in the study of consumer behavior within the agro-food marketing discipline. Our findings obtained through the comparison of two models, the proposal and another rival, suggest that the initially proposed model present a better fit and explains the relationships better than the rival model, which highlights the essential role of consumer trust in explaining consumers’ perceived risk and their subsequent purchasing behavior. Consequently, managers should pay special attention to consumer trust because trust is the key mediating aspect which allows the incorporation of characteristics highly valued by consumers in food products like origin, tradition and production methods to reduce perceived risk. © 2016 INIA.


Conesa C.,University of Zaragoza | Calvo M.,University of Zaragoza | Sanchez L.,University of Zaragoza
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2010

Lactoferrin, the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities that are essential for the newborn and are beneficial for adults. Given this beneficial effect, there is broad interest in exogenous sources of lactoferrin in human nutrition. Consequently, several transgenic approaches to produce lactoferrin have been achieved. However, the activity of heterologous lactoferrin cannot be assumed to identically mimic that of the homologous protein. Human lactoferrin obtained from yeast, transgenic cows, and rice has met the criteria of structural similarity, high yield, and ease of protein isolation. Human lactoferrin from Aspergillus awamori has been mainly directed to therapeutic uses with advanced phases of clinical trials currently in progress. In contrast, human lactoferrin produced in transgenic cows and rice brings the clear advantage of origins compatible with use in foods, although the approval for these applications is still in process. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Gonzalo-Tirado C.,University of Zaragoza | Jimenez S.,University of Zaragoza
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2015

The accuracy of the single-film model in the calculation of char burning rates and particle temperatures in conventional and oxy-fuel combustion conditions has been investigated taking as a reference the results obtained with a model with detailed gas-phase kinetics. Both models have been applied to subbituminous coal and anthracite char particles in different sizes (60-1000 μm), in N2 and CO2-rich atmospheres with a low and a high oxygen concentration. For 120 μm char particles, the models' predictions have been also compared over an ample range of ambient gas temperatures (1373-1823 K) and oxygen concentrations (4-50%). High particle diameters, bulk gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations result in CO-flames closer to the particle surface; however, the specific effects of the flame strongly depend on the coal rank and combustion conditions. In general, the single-film model accuracy is quite high in terms of burning rate predictions, except for fine anthracite particles burning at moderate bulk gas temperatures and high O2 concentrations; greater deviations have been found regarding particle temperatures, even in cases where the corresponding combustion rates are very similar. The oxy-combustion of the reactive coal char is found to be faster than its conventional combustion, except for the finest particles; although qualitatively similar, the difference in rates is overestimated if the single-film model is considered. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Galve F.,Campus University Illes Balears | Pachon L.A.,National University of Colombia | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Decoherence due to contact with a hot environment typically restricts quantum phenomena to the low temperature limit, kBT/ω1 (ω is the typical energy of the system). Here we report the existence of a nonequilibrium state for two coupled, parametrically driven, dissipative harmonic oscillators which, contrary to generalized intuition, has stationary entanglement at high temperatures. This clarifies the role of temperature and could lighten the burden on quantum experiments requiring delicate precooling setups. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Casellas J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Varona L.,University of Zaragoza
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Gene expression data are influenced by multiple biological and technological factors leading to a wide range of dispersion scenarios, although skewed patterns are not commonly addressed in microarray analyses. In this study, the distribution pattern of several human transcriptomes has been studied on free-access microarray gene expression data. Our results showed that, even in previously normalized gene expression data, probe and differential expression within probe effects suffer from substantial departures from the commonly assumed symmetric Gaussian distribution. We developed a flexible mixed model for non-competitive microarray data analysis that accounted for asymmetric and heavy-tailed (Student's t distribution) dispersion processes. Random effects for gene expression data were modeled under asymmetric Student's t distributions where the asymmetry parameter (λ) took values from perfect symmetry (λ = 0) to right- (λ>0) or left-side (λ>0) over-expression patterns. This approach was applied to four free-access human data sets and revealed clearly better model performance when comparing with standard approaches accounting for traditional symmetric Gaussian distribution patterns. Our analyses on human gene expression data revealed a substantial degree of right-hand asymmetry for probe effects, whereas differential gene expression addressed both symmetric and left-hand asymmetric patterns. Although these results cannot be extrapolated to all microarray experiments, they highlighted the incidence of skew dispersion patterns in human transcriptome; moreover, we provided a new analytical approach to appropriately address this biological phenomenon. The source code of the program accommodating these analytical developments and additional information about practical aspects on running the program are freely available by request to the corresponding author of this article. © 2012 Casellas, Varona.


Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Bou F.,University of Barcelona | Straccia U.,CNR Institute of Information Science and Technologies Alessandro Faedo
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2011

Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) are a family of logics which allow the representation of (and the reasoning with) structured knowledge affected by vagueness. Although most of the not very expressive crisp DLs, such as ALC, enjoy the Finite Model Property (FMP), this is not the case once we move into the fuzzy case. In this paper we show that if we allow arbitrary knowledge bases, then the fuzzy DLs ALC under Łukasiewicz and Product fuzzy logics do not verify the FMP even if we restrict to witnessed models; in other words, finite satisfiability and witnessed satisfiability are different for arbitrary knowledge bases. The aim of this paper is to point out the failure of FMP because it affects several algorithms published in the literature for reasoning under fuzzy DLs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


We review the four main extinction events in the Paleogene, from the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, integrating the results obtained from a study of foraminiferal assemblages with other paleontological and geological data. Different survival strategies followed by the species are described and the duration of the phases of extinction, survival, and recovery is estimated. The models and patterns of extinction of the foraminifera are highlighted. We present a range of evidence and paleo-environmental factors and analyze the possible causes of extinction. A new terminology for mass extinction events is proposed: sudden mass extinction would have happened virtually instantaneously and the process would have taken a few years or decades (Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary). Rapid mass extinction is defined as that which occurred in relatively short events, around 100. kyr (Paleocene/Eocene and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries). Slow mass extinctions are suggested to have lasted around 1. Myr (Bartonian/Priabonian transition) and may even have lasted for several million years. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Echegoyen Y.,University of Zaragoza | Nerin C.,University of Zaragoza
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Polymer nanocomposites incorporating metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have been developed to improve their characteristics (flexibility, gas barrier properties, antimicrobial or antioxidant properties, etc.). Among them silver nanoparticles are used because of their antimicrobial effect in many daily life materials, i.e. food packaging. However, there is not any reference to the migration of nanoparticles to the food. In this paper the results of migration studies (with different simulant solutions and times) in three commercial nanosilver plastic food containers are shown. Migration solutions were evaluated by ICP-MS and SEM-EDX analysis and silver in dissolved form and silver as nanoparticles were analyzed, a key aspect for the toxicity. Silver migration was observed for all samples studied, with the total silver migration values ranging between 1.66 and 31.46ng/cm2 (lower than the permissible limits). Size and morphology of the silver nanoparticles changed for the different samples (ranging between 10 and 60nm) and migration of other nanosized materials was also confirmed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of the European Optical Society | Year: 2015

The second-order characterization of a three-dimensional (3D) state of polarization is provided either by the corresponding 3D coherency matrix or (equivalently) by the associated 3D Stokes parameters. The analysis of the polarization properties that are invariant under orthogonal transformations of the laboratory reference frame allows to define a set of six intrinsic Stokes parameters which provides a simplified interpretation of 3D states of polarization in terms of meaningful physical properties. The rotationally invariant properties of 2D states of polarization are straightforwardly retrieved in a consistent way, so that the 2D intrinsic Stokes parameters are constituted by the intensity, the degree of linear polarization and the degree of circular polarization. © 2015, European Optical Society (EOS). All rights Reserved.


Naether U.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Mazo J.J.,University of Zaragoza | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

The semiclassical and quantum dynamics of two ultrastrongly coupled nonlinear resonators cannot be explained using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation or the Bose-Hubbard model, respectively. Instead, a model beyond the rotating wave approximation must be studied. In the semiclassical limit this model is not integrable and becomes chaotic for a finite window of parameters. For the quantum dimer we find corresponding regions of stability and chaos. The more striking consequence for both semiclassical and quantum chaos is that the tunneling time between the sites becomes unpredictable. These results, including the transition to chaos, can be tested in experiments with superconducting microwave resonators. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Ranada M.F.,University of Zaragoza
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

Two important advances in integrability have been the recent discovery of the higher-order superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system (related to the harmonic oscillator) and the Post-Winternitz system (related to the Kepler problem). The properties of the TTW system have been recently studied on the two-dimensional spherical Sκ2 (κ>0) and hyperbolic Hκ2 (κ<0) spaces by making use of a curvature-dependent formalism and the existence of a complex factorization for the higher-order constant of motion. Now in this Letter we prove that a similar technique can also be applied for the study of the PW system. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Visbal R.,University of Zaragoza | Lopez-De-Luzuriaga J.M.,University of La Rioja | Laguna A.,University of Zaragoza | Gimeno M.C.,University of Zaragoza
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

A selected group of cationic three-coordinate Au(i)-NHC complexes of the form [Au(NHC)(dppbz)]OTf have been prepared from a commercially available bidentate phosphine. All complexes have been fully characterised by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The [Au(NHC)]+ fragment shows a pronounced tendency to form linear complexes which is confirmed by the molecular structure of [Au(IPr)(dppbz)]OTf in the solid state. The complexes are brightly luminescent and present very high quantum yield values in the solid state. The assignments of the electronic transitions involved in the emissions are of a phosphorescent nature and it is proposed that the origin of the emissions is derived from the ligand (dppbz) to metal-ligand (Au-NHC) charge-transfer (LML′CT) transition. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Carbajosa P.,Almeria Penitentiary Institutions | Boira S.,University of Zaragoza | Tomas-Aragones L.,University of Zaragoza
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2013

As a consequence of its coercive context, psychological interventions with men convicted of intimate partner violence in Spain involve a series of challenges in the design and development of the therapy program. This article reviews the main international contributions that have considered the difficulties produced by the context and analyzes the most important skills that the therapist can utilize in order to facilitate the therapeutic process. The difficulties have been grouped in accordance with origin: (a) difficulties derived from the context of the intervention; (b) the characteristics of the offender; (c) the therapist. The principal skills and strategies of the therapist seem to be related to the clear definition of the intervention context, the management of therapeutic relationship and the therapist's capacity for analysis and reflection. Finally, this work recognizes the need for research projects that focus on the therapist and aspects of the therapeutic process that could optimize the implementation of therapist training actions and improve treatment results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Escolano C.,University of Zaragoza | Antelis J.M.,University of Zaragoza | Minguez J.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

This paper reports an electroencephalogram-based brain-actuated telepresence system to provide a user with presence in remote environments through a mobile robot, with access to the Internet. This system relies on a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and a mobile robot with autonomous navigation and camera orientation capabilities. The shared-control strategy is built by the BCI decoding of task-related orders (selection of visible target destinations or exploration areas), which can be autonomously executed by the robot. The system was evaluated using five healthy participants in two consecutive steps: 1) screening and training of participants and 2) preestablished navigation and visual exploration telepresence tasks. On the basis of the results, the following evaluation studies are reported: 1) technical evaluation of the device and its main functionalities and 2) the users' behavior study. The overall result was that all participants were able to complete the designed tasks, reporting no failures, which shows the robustness of the system and its feasibility to solve tasks in real settings where joint navigation and visual exploration were needed. Furthermore, the participants showed great adaptation to the telepresence system. © 2012 IEEE.


Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Straccia U.,CNR Institute of Information Science and Technologies Alessandro Faedo
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2011

The need to deal with vague information in Semantic Web languages is rising in importance and, thus, calls for a standard way to represent such information. We may address this issue by either extending current Semantic Web languages to cope with vagueness, or by providing a procedure to represent such information within current standard languages and tools. In this work, we follow the latter approach, by identifying the syntactic differences that a fuzzy ontology language has to cope with, and by proposing a concrete methodology to represent fuzzy ontologies using OWL 2 annotation properties. We also report on some prototypical implementations: a plug-in to edit fuzzy ontologies using OWL 2 annotations and some parsers that translate fuzzy ontologies represented using our methodology into the languages supported by some reasoners. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gomez-Cabello A.,University of Zaragoza | Ara I.,University of Zaragoza | Ara I.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Gonzalez-Aguero A.,University of Zaragoza | And 2 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

It is widely recognized that the risk of fractures is closely related to the typical decline in bone mass during the ageing process in both women and men. Exercise has been reported as one of the best non-pharmacological ways to improve bone mass throughout life. However, not all exercise regimens have the same positive effects on bone mass, and the studies that have evaluated the role of exercise programmes on bone-related variables in elderly people have obtained inconclusive results. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of different types of training programmes on bone mass in older adults and elderly people as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a healthy bone mass and higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime.A literature search using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted and bibliographies for studies discussing the effect of exercise interventions in older adults published up to August 2011 were examined. Inclusion criteria were met by 59 controlled trials, 7 meta-analyses and 8 reviews. The studies included in this review indicate that bone-related variables can be increased, or at least the common decline in bone mass during ageing attenuated, through following specific training programmes. Walking provides a modest increase in the loads on the skeleton above gravity and, therefore, this type of exercise has proved to be less effective in osteoporosis prevention. Strength exercise seems to be a powerful stimulus to improve and maintain bone mass during the ageing process. Multi-component exercise programmes of strength, aerobic, high impact andor weight-bearing training, as well as whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with exercise, may help to increase or at least prevent decline in bone mass with ageing, especially in postmenopausal women. This review provides, therefore, an overview of intervention studies involving training and bone measurements among older adults, especially postmenopausal women. Some novelties are that WBV training is a promising alternative to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis. Because this type of exercise under prescription is potentially safe, it may be considered as a low impact alternative to current methods combating bone deterioration. In other respects, the ability of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess bone strength and geometric properties may prove advantageous in evaluating the effects of training on bone health. As a result of changes in bone mass becoming evident by pQCT even when dual energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements were unremarkable, pQCT may provide new knowledge about the effects of exercise on bone that could not be elucidated by DXA. Future research is recommended including longest-term exercise training programmes, the addition of pQCT measurements to DXA scanners and more trials among men, including older participants. © 2012 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.


Villuendas P.,University of Zaragoza | Urriolabeitia E.P.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Isoquinolines, benzoisoquinolines, thieno[3,2-c]pyridines and fused heteroaryl[2,3-c] pyridines, with a wide variety of substituents at different positions of the aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, have been synthesized by Ru-catalyzed oxidative coupling of a broad range of benzylamines or heterocycles with internal alkynes. All benzylamines and heterocycles have unprotected primary amines as efficient directing groups. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Mur-Artal R.,University of Zaragoza | Tardos J.D.,University of Zaragoza
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation | Year: 2014

In this paper we present for the first time a relocalisation method for keyframe-based SLAM that can deal with severe viewpoint change, at frame-rate, in maps containing thousands of keyframes. As this method relies on local features, it permits the interoperability between cameras, allowing a camera to relocalise in a map built by a different camera. We also perform loop closing (detection + correction), at keyframerate, in loops containing hundreds of keyframes. For both relocalisation and loop closing, we propose a bag of words place recognizer with ORB features, which is able to recognize places spending less than 39 ms, including feature extraction, in databases containing 10K images (without geometrical verification). We evaluate the performance of this recognizer in four different datasets, achieving high recall and no false matches, and getting better results than the state-of-art in place recognition, being one order of magnitude faster. © 2014 IEEE.


Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We show that a graphene sheet perforated with micro- or nano-size antidots has prominent absorption resonances in the microwave and terahertz regions. These resonances correspond to surface plasmons of a continuous sheet perturbed by a lattice. They are excited in different diffraction orders, in contrast to cavity surface plasmon modes existing in disconnected graphene structures. The resonant absorption by the antidot array can essentially exceed the absorption by a continuous graphene sheet, even for high antidot diameter-to-period aspect ratios. Surface plasmon-enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission are more efficient for higher relaxation times of the charge carriers. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Hirner A.V.,University of Zaragoza
Metal ions in life sciences | Year: 2010

While the metal(loid)s arsenic, bismuth, and selenium (probably also tellurium) have been shown to be enzymatically methylated in the human body, this has not yet been demonstrated for antimony, cadmium, germanium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, and tin, although the latter elements can be biomethylated in the environment. Methylated metal(loid)s exhibit increased mobility, thus leading to a more efficient metal(loid) transport within the body and, in particular, opening chances for passing membrane barriers (blood-brain barrier, placental barrier). As a consequence human health may be affected. In this review, relevant data from the literature are compiled, and are discussed with respect to the evaluation of assumed and proven health effects caused by alkylated metal(loid) species.


Caviedes-Voullieme D.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Navarro P.,University of Zaragoza | Murillo J.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012

Hydrological simulation of rain-runoff processes is often performed with lumped models which rely on calibration to generate storm hydrographs and study catchment response to rain. In this paper, a distributed, physically-based numerical model is used for runoff simulation in a mountain catchment. This approach offers two advantages. The first is that by using shallow-water equations for runoff flow, there is less freedom to calibrate routing parameters (as compared to, for example, synthetic hydrograph methods). The second, is that spatial distributions of water depth and velocity can be obtained. Furthermore, interactions among the various hydrological processes can be modeled in a physically-based approach which may depend on transient and spatially distributed factors. On the other hand, the undertaken numerical approach relies on accurate terrain representation and mesh selection, which also affects significantly the computational cost of the simulations. Hence, we investigate the response of a gauged catchment with this distributed approach. The methodology consists of analyzing the effects that the mesh has on the simulations by using a range of meshes. Next, friction is applied to the model and the response to variations and interaction with the mesh is studied. Finally, a first approach with the well-known SCS Curve Number method is studied to evaluate its behavior when coupled with a shallow-water model for runoff flow. The results show that mesh selection is of great importance, since it may affect the results in a magnitude as large as physical factors, such as friction. Furthermore, results proved to be less sensitive to roughness spatial distribution than to mesh properties. Finally, the results indicate that SCS-CN may not be suitable for simulating hydrological processes together with a shallow-water model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Fino A.,University of Turin | Ugarte L.,University of Zaragoza
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2011

We show that supersymmetric flux vacua with constant intermediate SU(2) structure are closely related to some special classes of half-flat structures. More concretely, solutions of the SUSY equations IIA possess a symplectic half-flat structure, whereas solutions of the SUSY equations IIB admit a half-flat structure which is in a certain sense near to the balanced condition. Using this result we show that compact simply connected manifolds do not admit type IIB solutions. New solutions of the SUSY equations IIA and IIB are constructed from hyperkähler 4-manifolds, special hypo 5-manifolds and six-dimensional solvmanifolds. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Rodriguez R.J.,University of Zaragoza
Automated Software Engineering | Year: 2015

Functional and non-functional properties analysis (i.e., dependability, security, or performance) ensures that requirements are fulfilled during the design phase of software systems. However, the Unified Modelling Language (UML), standard de facto in industry for software systems modelling, is unsuitable for any kind of analysis but can be tailored for specific analysis purposes through profiling. For instance, the MARTE profile enables to annotate performance data within UML models that can be later transformed to formal models (e.g., Petri nets or timed automatas) for performance evaluation. A performance (or throughput) estimation in such models normally relies on a whole exploration of the state space, which becomes unfeasible for large systems. To overcome this issue upper throughput bounds are computed, which provide an approximation to the real system throughput with a good complexity-accuracy trade-off. This paper introduces a tool, named PeabraiN, that estimates the performance of software systems via their UML models. To do so, UML models are transformed to Petri nets where performance is estimated based on upper throughput bounds computation. PeabraiN also allows to compute other features on Petri nets, such as the computation of upper and lower marking place bounds, and to simulate using an approximate (continuous) method. We show the applicability of PeabraiN by evaluating the performance of a building closed circuit TV system. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Munguia-Izquierdo D.,Pablo De Olavide University | Legaz-Arrese A.,University of Zaragoza
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the reliability, standard error of the mean (SEM), clinical significant change, and known group validity of 2 assessments of endurance strength to low loads in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). Design: Cross-sectional reliability and comparative study. Setting: University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain. Participants: Middle-aged women with FS (n=95) and healthy women (n=64) matched for age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were recruited for the study. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The endurance strength to low loads tests of the upper and lower extremities and anthropometric measures (BMI) were used for the evaluations. The differences between the readings (tests 1 and 2) and the SDs of the differences, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model (2,1), 95% confidence interval for the ICC, coefficient of repeatability, intrapatient SD, SEM, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences in test values between the patient group and the control group. We hypothesized that patients with FS would have an endurance strength to low loads performance in lower and upper extremities at least twice as low as that of the healthy controls. Results: Satisfactory test-retest reliability and SEMs were found for the lower extremity, dominant arm, and nondominant arm tests (ICC=.973-.979; P<.001; SEMs=1.44-1.66 repetitions). The differences in the mean between the test and retest were lower than the SEM for all performed tests, varying from -.10 to.29 repetitions. No significant differences were found between the test and retest (P>.05 for all). The Bland-Altman plots showed 95% limits of agreement for the lower extremity (4.7 to -4.5), dominant arm (3.8 to -4.4), and nondominant arm (3.9 to -4.1) tests. The endurance strength to low loads test scores for the patients with FS were 4-fold lower than for the controls in all performed tests (P<.001 for all). Conclusions: The endurance strength to low loads tests showed good reliability and known group validity and can be recommended for evaluating endurance strength to low loads in patients with FS. For individual evaluation, however, an improved score of at least 4 and 5 repetitions for the upper and lower extremities, respectively, was required for the differences to be considered as substantial clinical change. Patients with FS showed impaired endurance strength to low loads performance when compared with the general population. © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.


Lorusso G.,University of Zaragoza | Palacios M.A.,University of Edinburgh | Nichol G.S.,University of Edinburgh | Brechin E.K.,University of Edinburgh | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

The magnetothermal properties of a coordination polymer and a metal-organic framework (MOF) based on Gd 3+ ions are reported. An equally large cryogenic magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is found, irrespective of the dimensionality. This combined with their robustness makes them appealing for widespread magnetic refrigeration applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Sorribas S.,University of Zaragoza | Zornoza B.,University of Zaragoza | Tellez C.,University of Zaragoza | Coronas J.,University of Zaragoza
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Silica-(ZIF-8) core-shell spheres with tuneable ordered meso-microporosity have been synthesized, showing that the hydrophobic micropore ZIF-8 shell controls the access of guest molecules into the hydrophilic silica mesoporous structure. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Gil J.J.,University of Zaragoza
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

The measured Mueller matrices contain until sixteen independent parameters for each measurement configuration (spectral profile of the wave probe of the polarimeter, angle of incidence, observation direction⋯) and for each spatially resolved element of the sample (imaging polarimetry). Thus, the polarimetric techniques are widely used for the study of a great variety of material samples in optics and remote sensing. Nevertheless, the relevant physical information does not appear explicitly in the measured parameters and thus the best knowledge of the structure of the physical information contained in a Mueller matrix is required in order to develop appropriate procedures for the polarimetric analysis. In this paper, the physically invariant polarimetric quantities are identified and decoupled, and the main approaches for serial and parallel decompositions of measured Mueller matrices into simple components are reviewed. © 2013 SPIE.


Ebrahimi-Fard K.,University of Zaragoza | Patras F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Annales Henri Poincare | Year: 2010

Moving beyond the classical additive and multiplicative approaches, we present an "exponential" method for perturbative renormalization. Using Dyson's identity for Green's functions as well as the link between the Faà di Bruno Hopf algebra and the Hopf algebras of Feynman graphs, its relation to the composition of formal power series is analyzed. Eventually, we argue that the new method has several attractive features and encompasses the BPHZ method. The latter can be seen as a special case of the new procedure for renormalization scheme maps with the Rota-Baxter property. To our best knowledge, although very natural from group-theoretical and physical points of view, several ideas introduced in the present paper seem to be new (besides the exponential method, let us mention the notions of counter-factors and of order n bare coupling constants). © 2010 Springer Basel AG.


Clemente M.J.,University of Zaragoza | Romero P.,University of Zaragoza | Serrano J.L.,University of Zaragoza | Fitremann J.,CNRS Laboratory for Molecular and Photochemical Reactions | Oriol L.,University of Zaragoza
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2012

Supramolecular hydrogelators based on amphiphilic glycolipids have been prepared by clicking different sugar polar heads to a hydrophobic linear chain by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. The influence of the sugar polar head on the gelation properties in water has been studied, and the liquid crystalline properties of the amphiphilic materials have also been characterized. Stable hydrogels at room temperature have been obtained and the fibrillar supramolecular structures formed by the self-assembly have been studied by different microscopic techniques on the dried gel (xerogel) and hydrated conditions in order to characterize the micro- and nanostructures. Self-assembly gives rise to supramolecular ribbons with a torsion that is related to a chiral supramolecular arrangement of amphiphiles. The formation of an opposite helical arrangement of the ribbons has been found to depend on the sugar polar head. This fact was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD). © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Cebrian A.C.,University of Zaragoza | Abaurrea J.,University of Zaragoza
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

Droughts, as many climatic and environmental phenomena, are events with a random duration. In the monitoring and risk management of this type of phenomena, it is important the development of measures of the risk that an ongoing event ends. This work develops a risk measure conditional on the current state of the event, that can be easily updated in real time. The measure is based on the hazard function of the duration of an event, that is modeled as a parametric function of covariates describing the current state of the process. The use of (time-dependent) internal covariates is often required to describe that state, and maximum likelihood methods cannot be used to estimate the model. Therefore, an approach based on partial likelihood functions that permit the inclusion of both external and internal covariates is suggested. This approach is very general but it has the drawback of requiring some programming to be implemented. However, it is proved that for durations with a geometric distribution, an equivalent and easily implemented approach based on generalized linear models can be used to estimate the hazard function. This methodology is applied to develop a risk measure in drought analysis. The approach is exemplified using the drought series from a Spanish location (Huesca) and internal covariates derived from the rainfall series. The whole modeling process is thoroughly described, including the covariate selection procedure and some new validation tools. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Martin S.,University of Liverpool | Martin S.,University of Zaragoza | Haiss W.,University of Liverpool | Higgins S.J.,University of Liverpool | Nichols R.J.,University of Liverpool
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

The single molecule conductance of the E and Z isomers of 4,4′-(ethene-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid has been determined using two scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) methods for forming molecular break junctions [the I(s) (I = current and s is distance) method and the in situ break junction technique]. Isomerization leads to significant changes in the electrical conductance of these molecules, with the Z isomer exhibiting a higher conductance than the E isomer. Isomerization is achieved directly on the gold surface through photoirradiation, and the STM is used to determine conductance before and after irradiation; reversible switching between the two isomers could be achieved through irradiation of the surface bound species at different wavelengths. In addition, three groups of molecular conductance values [A ("low"), B ("medium"), and C ("high")] have been measured for these carboxylate-terminated molecules. The origin of these conductance groups as well as the increase of the conductance for the Z isomer have been analyzed by comparing the length of the molecules extended in the gap, derived from molecular modeling, with the experimentally observed break-off distance for both isomers. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Cenerario N.,Lille Laboratory of Mechanics | Delot T.,Lille Laboratory of Mechanics | Ilarri S.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on intelligent transportation systems and, more precisely, on intervehicle ad hoc networks. A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a highly dynamic network as the vehicles communicate using short-range wireless communications and can move very quickly. Thus, for example, we can only rely on short interactions between vehicles to exchange information about relevant events. In this paper, we describe in detail a dissemination protocol that vehicles can use to share information by using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The dissemination approach considers the relevance of the data, represented by what we call encounter probability, to decide when a rediffusion is needed. The protocol is able to disseminate data about any type of event in the network (e.g., available parking spaces, accidents or obstacles in the road, information about moving objects such as emergency vehicles that should get the right of way, etc.) by setting appropriate weights for the different factors that affect the computation of the encounter probability. An extensive experimental evaluation with different types of events shows the interest of the proposal: The vehicles receive the relevant messages in time, and the network overload is limited. © 2006 IEEE.


Paesa D.,University of Zaragoza | Banos A.,University of Murcia | Sagues C.,University of Zaragoza
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2011

A reset adaptive observer (ReAO) is an adaptive observer consisting of an integrator and a reset law that resets the output of the integrator depending on a predefined reset condition. The inclusion of reset elements can improve the observer performance but it can also destroy the stability of the estimation process if the ReAO is not properly tuned. As contribution, a method to optimally tune the parameters and gains of the ReAO is presented. They are optimally chosen by solving the L2 gain minimization problem, which can be rewritten as an equivalent LMI problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is checked by simulations comparing the results of an optimal ReAO with an optimal traditional adaptive observer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lloret-Gazo J.,University of Zaragoza
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

As more and more collections of data are becoming available on the web to everyone, non expert users demand easy ways to retrieve data from these collections. One solution is the so called Visual Query Systems (VQS) where queries are represented visually and users do not have to understand query languages such as SQL or XQuery. In 1996, a paper by Catarci reviewed the Visual Query Systems available until that year. In this paper, we review VQSs from 1997 until now and try to determine whether they have been the solution for non expert users. The short answer is no because very few systems have in fact been used in real environments or as commercial tools. We have also gathered basic features of VQSs such as the visual representation adopted to present the reality of interest or the visual representation adopted to express queries. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Villa J.L.,University of Zaragoza | Sallan J.,University of Zaragoza | Sanz Osorio J.F.,University of Zaragoza | Llombart A.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

Inductively coupled power transfer systems (ICPT) are an interesting alternative to conductive solutions for vehicle battery charge, particularly in electric public transport applications if operator-free fast charge is required along the route. To perform this task using ICPT systems, current solutions require an almost perfect alignment between coils in order to have optimal power transfer. This condition makes necessary a precise positioning maneuver from the driver or an electromechanic alignment system for the secondary winding, causing the process to be slow. This paper shows that it is possible to transfer rated power even with high misalignment if a suitable compensation topology is selected. The performance of the four basic compensation topologies is analyzed, and a series-parallel-series (SPS) topology is proposed, showing a suitable behavior for both the load and the power source. The theoretical results are validated in two series-series and SPS 2-kW prototypes with a 15-cm air gap between coils. © 2011 IEEE.


De-Los-Santos A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Laporte G.,HEC Montréal | Mesa J.A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Perea F.,University of Zaragoza
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2012

The purpose of this paper is to provide passenger robustness measures for a rail transit network. A network is robust when it reacts well to disruptions on links or stations. In order to measure robustness, indexes relative to the overall travel time of a network when links fail are introduced for two different cases: without-bridging interruptions and with-bridging interruptions. In the first case, passengers either have to wait for the failure to be repaired or find an alternative route in the network, whereas in the second case a bus service between the affected stations is provided and only the failing link is disrupted. A computation of these indexes for the Madrid commuter system shows their applicability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Brucoli G.,University of Zaragoza | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We revisit the scattering of surface plasmons by shallow surface defects for both protrusions and indentations of various lengths, which are deemed infinite in one dimension parallel to the surface. Subwavelength protrusions and indentations of equal shape present different scattering coefficients when their height and width are comparable. In this case, a protrusion scatters plasmons like a vertical point dipole on a metal surface, while an indentation scatters like a horizontal point dipole on a metal surface. We corroborate that long and shallow asymmetrically shaped surface defects have very similar scattering coefficients, as already found with approximate methods. In the transition from short shallow scatterers to long shallow scatterers, the radiation can be understood in terms of interference between a vertical and a horizontal dipole. The results attained numerically are exact and accounted for with analytical models. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Pomar L.,University of the Balearic Islands | Morsilli M.,University of Ferrara | Hallock P.,University of South Florida | Badenas B.,University of Zaragoza
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2012

Internal waves occur nearly ubiquitously in lakes and oceans yet their sedimentary records remain largely unrecognized. Waves propagate at the interface between fluids of different densities. Surface waves propagate at the interface between air and water, which is a strong density gradient. Internal waves propagate along weaker gradients (pycnoclines) within density-stratified fluids, behaving similarly to surface waves but typically at lower frequencies and larger amplitudes. Internal waves that occur at tidal frequencies are called internal tides; they are very common on the outer continental shelf and slope, and are generated as the surface tides move stratified water up and down a sloping surface. Large internal solitary waves known as solitons are ubiquitous wherever strong currents and stratification occur in the vicinity of irregular topography. These waves can force short-period, strong bottom-current pulses and may trigger upslope-surging vortex cores of dense fluid (boluses) that can induce mobilization of bottom sediments.Internal-wave deposits (internalites) are highly variable and definitive criteria for recognition are still to be developed. In terrigenous-clastic systems and shallow-water settings, internalites can be seen as "out-of-context" tempestites, detached from shore-related deposits and lacking thickening/coarsening upward sequences. In contrast to surface storm waves, the impact of internal waves is usually strongest in mid-outer-shelf regions and weaker in shallow water. Internal waves also provide a plausible mechanism to explain the origin of hummocky cross-stratification, especially their occurrence in different depositional environments. In deeper settings (continental slopes and canyons), internalites may have sedimentary structures indicating tidal currents and may coexist with turbidites. In carbonate systems, internal waves influence both sediment remobilization and the carbonate-producing biota. Differentiation between internal waves and surface storm waves is more reliable because many skeletal constituents have specific bathymetric distributions. Moreover, internal waves influence nutrient, plankton and larval distributions while inducing thermal variations by vertical displacements of the thermocline. The sharp gradient in nutrients and the chlorophyll-maximum zone typically correspond with the base of the seasonal pycnocline, which is commonly in the lower part of the photic zone. Suspension-feeding metazoans can thrive near the pycnocline, which explains the common occurrence of Phanerozoic metazoan buildups at mid- and outer ramp settings. During paleoceanographic changes that have influenced ocean stratification, internal waves may also have been a mechanism influencing diversification and extinction of these mid- and outer-ramp benthic communities. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Aragues R.,University of Zaragoza | Cortes J.,University of California at San Diego | Sagues C.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we study the feature-based map merging problem in robot networks. While in operation, each robot observes the environment and builds and maintains a local map. Simultaneously, each robot communicates and computes the global map of the environment. Communication between robots is range-limited. We propose a dynamic strategy, based on consensus algorithms, that is fully distributed and does not rely on any particular communication topology. Under mild connectivity conditions on the communication graph, our merging algorithm, asymptotically, converges to the global map. We present a formal analysis of its convergence rate and provide accurate characterizations of the errors as a function of the timestep. The proposed approach has been experimentally validated using real visual information. © 2004-2012 IEEE.


Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Straccia U.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

Description logics (DLs) are a family of logics for representing structured knowledge which have proved to be very useful as ontology languages. Classical DLs are not suitable to represent vague pieces of information. The attempts to achieve a solution have led to the birth of fuzzy DLs and rough DLs. In this work, we provide a simple solution to join these two formalisms and define a fuzzy rough DL. This logic is more general than other related approaches, including tight and loose fuzzy rough approximations and being independent of the fuzzy logic operators considered. We show the usefulness of our approach by presenting some uses case, and we also describe how to extend two reasoning algorithms for fuzzy DLs, which are implemented in the fuzzy DL reasoners fuzzyDL and DeLorean. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Galvez-Lopez D.,University of Zaragoza | Tardos J.D.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2012

We propose a novel method for visual place recognition using bag of words obtained from accelerated segment test (FAST)+BRIEF features. For the first time, we build a vocabulary tree that discretizes a binary descriptor space and use the tree to speed up correspondences for geometrical verification. We present competitive results with no false positives in very different datasets, using exactly the same vocabulary and settings. The whole technique, including feature extraction, requires 22 ms/frame in a sequence with 26300 images that is one order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.


Vazquez C.R.,University of Zaragoza | Silva M.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2012

Fluidization constitutes a relaxation technique to study discrete event systems through a continuous approximated model, thus overcoming the state explosion problem. In this paper, the approximation of the average marking of Markovian Petri nets by the marking of the corresponding timed continuous Petri nets, under infinite-server semantics, is studied. This represents a sort of legitimization for the use of a continuous Petri net as a relaxation of a discrete Petri net. The main contribution is the addition of Gaussian noise in order to improve the approximation when the number of active servers (enabling degree) is large. The improvement is more evident when the system evolves close to the boundary of regions. In such a case, not only the expected value but also the probability distribution function of the marking may be approximated. © 2012 IEEE.


Colon M.,University of Zaragoza | Nerin C.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Brucoli G.,University of Zaragoza | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Surface plasmon scattering by bidimensional indentations and protrusions is examined, mainly in the optical regime. The width of the defects is fixed, while their height is varied. Both individual defects and arrays of defects are considered. Protrusions mainly reflect the incident plasmons in the optical range. Indentations mainly radiate the incident plasmon out of plane. An indentation produces maximum reflection and out-of-plane radiation at the same wavelength when its interaction with the incident surface plasmon is resonant. Protrusions, in general, exhibit maximum reflection and radiation at different wavelengths. Shallow arrays of either defects produce a photonic band gap, whose spectral width can be broadened by increasing the defects height or depth. At wavelengths inside the band gap, ridge arrays reflect surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) better than groove arrays while groove arrays radiate SPP's better than ridge arrays. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Stankiewicz J.,University of Zaragoza | Evangelisti M.,University of Zaragoza | Fisk Z.,University of California at Irvine
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We measured the heat capacity on random alloys of Nd1-xCa xB6 (x< 0.4) in the 0.4 to 300 K temperature range. We calculated the lattice contribution to the specific heat, arising from the Debye-type phonons of the boron framework and Einstein-type oscillators of the cation sublattice. Subtracting lattice and Schottky-type contributions from the measured heat capacity, we find that the electronic portion, linear in temperature, decreases sharply upon doping with Ca. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Blasco J.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia J.,University of Zaragoza | Subias G.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The magnetite structure was studied with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction above and below the Verwey transition. A symmetry-mode analysis was performed to obtain the atomic displacements from the amplitudes of condensing modes. The main contributing modes that drive the structural phase transition at the Verwey temperature correspond to the irreducible representations Δ5, X1, X4, W1, and W 2. The W modes, neglected so far, must be taken into account so a reliable description of the low-temperature crystal structure can be obtained. This is refined in the nonpolar space group C2/c with ten nonequivalent octahedral irons. The condensation of the mentioned modes leads to a wide distribution of local environments around the octahedral iron atoms, whose valences range between 2.53 and 2.84. This finding rules out any bimodal charge disproportionation of the octahedral iron atoms, i.e., an Fe2 +-like/Fe3+-like ordering. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Bermudez-Cameo J.,University of Zaragoza | Puig L.,University of Zaragoza | Guerrero J.J.,University of Zaragoza
Robotics and Autonomous Systems | Year: 2012

In central catadioptric systems 3D lines are projected into conics. In this paper we present a new approach to extract conics in the raw catadioptric image, which correspond to projected straight lines in the scene. Using the internal calibration and two image points we are able to compute analytically these conics which we name hypercatadioptric line images. We obtain the error propagation from the image points to the 3D line projection in function of the calibration parameters. We also perform an exhaustive analysis on the elements that can affect the conic extraction accuracy. Besides that, we exploit the presence of parallel lines in man-made environments to compute the dominant vanishing points (VPs) in the omnidirectional image. In order to obtain the intersection of two of these conics we analyze the self-polar triangle common to this pair. With the information contained in the vanishing points we are able to obtain the 3D orientation of the catadioptric system. This method can be used either in a vertical stabilization system required by autonomous navigation or to rectify images required in applications where the vertical orientation of the catadioptric system is assumed. We use synthetic and real images to test the proposed method. We evaluate the 3D orientation accuracy with a ground truth given by a goniometer and with an inertial measurement unit (IMU). We also test our approach performing vertical and full rectifications in sequences of real images. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Diaz F.,University of Miami | Enriquez J.A.,Centro National Of Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos Iii | Enriquez J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Moraes C.T.,University of Miami
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2012

Mitochondrial respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain (CI, CIII, and CIV) can be assembled into larger structures forming supercomplexes. We analyzed the assembly/stability of respiratory complexes in mouse lung fibroblasts lacking the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP knockout [KO]cells), one of the catalytic subunits of CIII. In the absence of RISP, most of the remaining CIII subunits were able to assemble into a large precomplex that lacked enzymatic activity. CI, CIV, and supercomplexes were decreased in the RISP-deficient cells. Reintroduction of RISP into KO cells restored CIII activity and increased the levels of active CI, CIV, and supercomplexes. We found that hypoxia (1% O 2) resulted in increased levels of CI, CIV, and supercomplex assembly in RISP KO cells. In addition, treatment of control cells with different oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) inhibitors showed that compounds known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g., antimycin A and oligomycin) had a negative impact on CI and supercomplex levels. Accordingly, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic compound and SOD2 overexpression provided a partial increase in supercomplex levels in the RISP KO cells. Our data suggest that the stability of CI, CIV, and supercomplexes is regulated by ROS in the context of defective oxidative phosphorylation. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Sarnago H.,University of Zaragoza | Lucia O.,University of Zaragoza | Mediano A.,University of Zaragoza | Burdio J.M.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Domestic induction appliances require power converters that feature high efficiency and accurate power control in a wide range of operating conditions. To achieve this modulation techniques play a key role to optimize the power converter operation. In this paper, a series resonant inverter featuring reverse-blocking insulated gate bipolar transistors and an optimized modulation technique are proposed. An analytical study of the converter operation is performed, and the main simulation results are shown. The proposed topology reduces both conduction and switching losses, increasing significantly the power converter efficiency. Moreover, the proposed modulation technique achieves linear output power control, improving the final appliance performance. The results derived from this analysis are tested by means of an experimental prototype, verifying the feasibility of the proposed converter and modulation technique. © 2012 IEEE.


Diaz De Villegas M.D.,University of Zaragoza | Galvez J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Etayo P.,University of Zaragoza | Badorrey R.,University of Zaragoza | Lopez-Ram-De-Viu P.,University of Zaragoza
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Recent years have witnessed increasing interest in the field of asymmetric organocatalysis. In particular, efforts in this field have been devoted to the use of small organic molecules in asymmetric processes based on enantiotopic face discrimination and, only recently, efforts have also been devoted to asymmetric organocatalytic desymmetrization of prochiral substrates - a process based on enantiotopic group discrimination. This critical review documents the advances in the use of organocatalysis for the enantioselective desymmetrization of achiral and meso anhydrides and its application to the synthesis of valuable compounds as reported until 2010 (134 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Martinez-Lostao L.,University of Zaragoza | Marzo I.,University of Zaragoza | Anel A.,University of Zaragoza | Naval J.,University of Zaragoza
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Apo 2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL), is a member of the TNF family of cytokines, which can induce apoptotic cell death in cells expressing at least one of their specific death receptors, DR4 (TRAIL-R1) or DR5 (TRAIL-R2). In the last decade, the Apo2L/TRAIL system of apoptosis has attracted significant interest as a potential drug-targeting pathway for human therapy, due to the ability of that cytokine to trigger apoptosis in various types of cancer cells while displaying low or no toxicity to normal cells. Recent results suggest that manipulating the Apo2L/TRAIL system may be also useful for the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. For its possible therapeutic use, a number of receptor-specific Apo2L/TRAIL molecular variants and agonistic monoclonal antibodies have been developed, and some of them are in clinical trials. In addition, Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumors can be sensitized to Apo2L/TRAIL by selected novel or classical chemotherapeutic agents, opening new possibilities for combined therapies. We will briefly review the current status of Apo2L/TRAIL-based therapies for human disease, their promises and limitations. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Aromi G.,University of Barcelona | Barrios L.A.,University of Barcelona | Roubeau O.,University of Zaragoza | Gamez P.,University of Barcelona
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2011

The current great interest in preparing functional metal-organic materials is inevitably associated with tremendous research efforts dedicated to the design and synthesis of new families of sophisticated multi-nucleating ligands. In this context, the N-donor triazole and tetrazole rings represent two categories of ligands that are increasingly used, most likely as the result of the recent dramatic development of " click chemistry" and Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs). Thus, azole-based complexes have found numerous applications in coordination chemistry.In the present review, we focus on the utilization of 1,2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole and tetrazole ligands to create coordination polymers, metal complexes and spin-crossover compounds, reported to the end of 2009. In the first instance, we present a compendium of all the relevant ligands that have been employed to generate coordination polymers and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). Due to the huge amount of reported MOFs and coordination polymers bearing these azole rings, three representative examples for each category (therefore nine in total) are described in detail. The second section is devoted to the use of the bridging abilities of these azole ligands to prepare metal complexes (containing at least two metal centers). Given the large number and the great structural diversity of the polynuclear compounds found in the literature, these have been grouped according to their nuclearity. Finally, in the last section, the triazole- and tetrazole-containing coordination compounds exhibiting spin-crossover properties are presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang Z.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Yang L.,China University of Geosciences | Teng J.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Badal J.,University of Zaragoza
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

We assess the results of a number of deep seismic soundings performed in China over the last few decades, and study the variations in crustal structure in 18 tectonic units comprised of three platforms and 15 fold systems. Thickness data on 344 Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins, as well as data on Moho depth are collected in order to discuss the relationship between the thickness of the basins and the average thickness of the consolidated crust in each tectonic unit. The degree of mirror-image symmetry between Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins and the uplifting topmost parts of the mantle is herein analyzed using deep geophysical data on sedimentary basins. By applying standard methods of least-squares analysis to both datasets, we have obtained both the average thickness of the consolidated crust and the mirror-image symmetry factor for every platform and tectonic fold system, thereby allowing us to explore the correlation between the depths of the bottom of the sedimentary basins and the top of the uplifting mantle. The thickness of the consolidated crust in China is found to be between 20 and 63. km, following a pattern of gradual thickening from east to west. Expressed in terms of spatial seismicity and the concentration of seismic energy, and according to the sharing-out of earthquake hypocenters in the top 80. km of the earth, the rheology of the area does not appear to suit the widely accepted "jelly-sandwich" model for the continents, which does not seem to be entirely valid in China. The findings on the mirror-image symmetry factor show that this parameter varies mainly in the range -0.5 to -1.8 compared with each other tectonic unit. Most of the tectonic systems in China appear to be isostatically compensated. Tibet is an exception, in that the symmetry factor is positive for the Gangdise-Nyainqentanglha (1.0) and Himalayan (0.1) fold systems, implying that these tectonic zones are far from being in the isostatic equilibrium of the other regions. We have also analyzed the zoning characteristics through the logarithmic relationship ln R=ln (h/|. a|), using the average thickness of the consolidated crust and the absolute value of the symmetry factor. The key finding is that regardless of geographical location, all the values of R= h/|a| for those sedimentary basins in which oil/gas reservoirs have to date been found, fall into the narrow range of values between 19.38 and 37.40. There is some appeal in a possible relationship involving the ratio of crustal thickness to symmetry factor, more so when the results obtained appear to suggest a prognostic tool for exploratory practice in relation to oil/gas reservoirs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Aider M.,Laval University | Barbana C.,University of Zaragoza
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

There is a well-recognized connection between the use of plant proteins in functional foods, nutraceuticals and other natural health products and health promotion and disease risk reduction. Plant proteins are largely used in the food industry, and canola/rapeseed proteins are regarded as potential ingredients that may be used as food additives. In this review, the chemical composition (amino acids and protein fractions), production and isolation techniques, functional properties, allergenicity, food applications and potential uses of canola proteins for the production of bioactive compounds are highlighted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Resano M.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Ruiz E.,University of Zaragoza
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The recent arrival of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry represents a potential revolution in this field, in particular for direct analysis of complex samples. This review tries to illustrate the main advantages of this technology, paying particular attention to the development of direct solid sampling methods. Three solid sampling applications will be discussed, each one of them highlighting one of the main advantages of this technique. The review also intends to clarify some misconceptions on the true potential of the instrumentation that is currently commercially available, such as its performance for multielemental analysis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Asorey M.,University of Zaragoza | Munoz-Castaneda J.M.,University of Leipzig
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2013

The infrared behaviour of quantum field theories confined in bounded domains is strongly dependent on the shape and structure of space boundaries. The most significant physical effect arises in the behaviour of the vacuum energy. The Casimir energy can be attractive or repulsive depending on the nature of the boundary. We calculate the vacuum energy for a massless scalar field confined between two homogeneous parallel plates with the most general type of boundary conditions depending on four parameters. The analysis provides a powerful method to identify which boundary conditions generate attractive or repulsive Casimir forces between the plates. In the interface between both regimes we find a very interesting family of boundary conditions which do not induce any type of Casimir force. We also show that the attractive regime holds far beyond identical boundary conditions for the two plates required by the Kenneth-Klich theorem and that the strongest attractive Casimir force appears for periodic boundary conditions whereas the strongest repulsive Casimir force corresponds to anti-periodic boundary conditions. Most of the analysed boundary conditions are new and some of them can be physically implemented with metamaterials. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Franco-Luesma E.,University of Zaragoza | Ferreira V.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

A total of 21 different wines (13 reds, 5 whites, and 3 rosés) were kept at 25 °C in anoxia for 379 days. Free and total forms of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) were measured initially and after 117, 221, and 379 days of storage. Levels of free H2S, free and total MeSH, and DMS continuously increased during storage, while levels of total H2S remained essentially unchanged. Average increases of free H2S amount to 6.2 μg/L (from 1.1 to 12.9 μg/L), those of free MeSH to 1.6 μg/L (from 0.7 to 3.5 μg/L), and those of total MeSH to 1.9 μg/L (from 1.1 to 3.0 μg/L), whereas those of DMS were 27.8 μg/L (from 11 to 69 μg/L). The fraction of H2S under free forms significantly increased, suggesting that release is a major factor explaining H2S increases. All increases can be satisfactorily predicted from data obtained at 50 °C. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Yahlali N.,Institute Fsica Corpuscular Centro Mixto UV CSIC | Irastorza I.G.,University of Zaragoza
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

The NEXT collaboration aims at building a 100 kg high-pressure Xenon gas TPC enriched in 136Xe isotope, to measure its two double-beta decay modes and to explore the degenerate hierarchy of the neutrino mass. The high-pressure Xenon gas offers the possibility to record the event energy with near-intrinsic resolution using electroluminescence, as well as the event track and topology patterns. These are the key features of a robust double-beta decay experiment which are presently being investigated in the first NEXT prototypes, the so-called NEXT0 and NEXT1. In this paper, the prototypes being developed at IFIC and University of Zaragoza are described and preliminary results are outlined. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Raada M.F.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2012

The first part of the paper is devoted to the theory of master symmetries using the geometric formalism as an approach. It is shown that certain superintegrable systems are endowed with this property as a consequence of the existence of a family of master symmetries. In the second part, the properties of dynamical but non-Hamiltonian symmetries are studied. It is proved that the higher order superintegrability of the generalized SmorodinskyWinternitz system is a consequence of the existence of symplectic symmetries not preserving the Hamiltonian function. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Inda L.A.,University of Zaragoza | Pimentel M.,University of La Coruña | Chase M.W.,Jodrell Laboratory
Annals of Botany | Year: 2012

Background and aimsTribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) comprises around 62 mostly terrestrial genera, which are well represented in the Northern Temperate Zone and less frequently in tropical areas of both the Old and New Worlds. Phylogenetic relationships within this tribe have been studied previously using only nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, nrITS). However, different parts of the phylogenetic tree in these analyses were weakly supported, and integrating information from different plant genomes is clearly necessary in orchids, where reticulate evolution events are putatively common. The aims of this study were to: (1) obtain a well-supported and dated phylogenetic hypothesis for tribe Orchideae, (ii) assess appropriateness of recent nomenclatural changes in this tribe in the last decade, (3) detect possible examples of reticulate evolution and (4) analyse in a temporal context evolutionary trends for subtribe Orchidinae with special emphasis on pollination systems.MethodsThe analyses included 118 samples, belonging to 103 species and 25 genera, for three DNA regions (nrITS, mitochondrial cox1 intron and plastid rpl16 intron). Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods were used to construct a well-supported and dated tree. Evolutionary trends in the subtribe were analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods of character evolution.Key ResultsThe dated phylogenetic tree strongly supported the recently recircumscribed generic concepts of Bateman and collaborators. Moreover, it was found that Orchidinae have diversified in the Mediterranean basin during the last 15 million years, and one potential example of reticulate evolution in the subtribe was identified. In Orchidinae, pollination systems have shifted on numerous occasions during the last 23 million years.ConclusionsThe results indicate that ancestral Orchidinae were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants and that these traits have been dominant throughout the evolutionary history of the subtribe in the Mediterranean. Evidence was also obtained that the onset of sexual deception might be linked to an increase in labellum size, and the possibility is discussed that diversification in Orchidinae developed in parallel with diversification of bees and wasps from the Miocene onwards. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.


Abecia J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Forcada F.,University of Zaragoza | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,Ctra. de la Coruna
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012

Reproduction of small ruminants can be controlled by several methods developed in recent decades. Some of these involve administration of hormones that modify the physiological chain of events involved in the sexual cycle. Methods which utilise progesterone or its analogues are based on their effects in the luteal phase of the cycle, simulating the action of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum after ovulation, which is responsible for controlling LH secretion from the pituitary. Use of prostaglandins is an alternative method for controlling reproduction by eliminating the corpus luteum and inducing a subsequent follicular phase with ovulation. Finally, the discovery of the properties of melatonin in photoperiod-dependent breeding animals opened up a new methodology to control reproduction in these species, inducing changes in the perception of photoperiod and the annual pattern of reproduction. Use of hormones to induce oestrus has allowed increased use of artificial insemination in small ruminants, a very useful management tool, considering the difficulty of detecting oestrus in these species. At commercial level, synchronisation of oestrus allows control of lambing and kidding, with subsequent synchronisation of weaning of young animals for slaughter. Also, it allows more efficient use of labour and animal facilities. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer programmes are also possible with the use of oestrus synchronisation and artificial insemination. Finally, hormonal treatments have also been used to induce puberty in ewe-lambs and doelings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Miranda-de la Lama G.C.,University of Zaragoza | Mattiello S.,University of Milan
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

The domestic goat is a sociable, inquisitive, and intelligent species, which has been used for its meat, milk, skin, and fur since it was first domesticated ca. 10,000 years ago. Although it exhibits a wide range of behaviours, the domesticated goat has been the subject of relatively few behavioural studies. In domestic goats, the opportunity to express certain social behaviours can be limited by captivity and management systems, especially in modern production systems, where goats are reared intensively under high stocking densities, sexual segregation, early separation of kids from their mothers, frequent regrouping, and manipulation during critical periods, including gestation and weaning. To better understand the requirements of this species and to identify possible tools for the detection of early modifications in natural behaviours that might indicate poor welfare and the establishment of positive human-animal interactions, this review provides a detailed description of goat social behaviour. Practical recommendations arising from observations of goat social behaviour are provided in the conclusions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Strasdat H.,Imperial College London | Davison A.J.,Imperial College London | Montiel J.M.M.,University of Zaragoza | Konolige K.,Willow Garage, Inc.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision | Year: 2011

We present a novel and general optimisation framework for visual SLAM, which scales for both local, highly accurate reconstruction and large-scale motion with long loop closures. We take a two-level approach that combines accurate pose-point constraints in the primary region of interest with a stabilising periphery of pose-pose soft constraints. Our algorithm automatically builds a suitable connected graph of keyposes and constraints, dynamically selects inner and outer window membership and optimises both simultaneously. We demonstrate in extensive simulation experiments that our method approaches the accuracy of offline bundle adjustment while maintaining constant-time operation, even in the hard case of very loopy monocular camera motion. Furthermore, we present a set of real experiments for various types of visual sensor and motion, including large scale SLAM with both monocular and stereo cameras, loopy local browsing with either monocular or RGB-D cameras, and dense RGB-D object model building. © 2011 IEEE.


Craig G.A.,University of Barcelona | Roubeau O.,University of Zaragoza | Aromi G.,University of Barcelona
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

The area of spin crossover (SCO) attracts interest both on a fundamental level and in terms of potential applications for compounds displaying this phenomenon. A few families of Fe(II) complexes have become paramount for the advance of this topic, for example, compounds based on bis-pyrazolylpyridine (bpp) ligands. Here, we describe the versatile and rich SCO behaviour shown by the group of SCO compounds based on the related ligand 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (L1) and its recently developed derivatives. The use of derivatives of L1 represents an advance, as prior to 2011, no functionalised L1-type ligands had been employed to obtain SCO systems. These compounds are highly sensitive to the anion and degree of solvation within their lattices, many of which have been observed through single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The structural data that have been published in recent years has permitted a magneto-structural correlation to be described, which proves to nicely complement the properties shown by the family based on L1's regio-isomer, 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lozano M.A.,University of Zaragoza | Carvalho M.,University of Zaragoza | Serra L.M.,University of Zaragoza
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

This paper presents a thermoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system interacting with the economic environment. The aim is to determine the energy and total costs of internal flows and final energy services (electricity, cooling and heat). One of the main difficulties in calculating these costs in trigeneration plants within buildings is the continuous variation of energy supply services. Fuel prices and purchase/sale electricity tariffs can also vary. As a consequence there are different operation conditions that combine the possibilities of purchasing or selling electricity, consuming heat from auxiliary boilers, and wasting the excess of cogenerated heat. A novel cost allocation method valid for all possible operation conditions of the trigeneration system is proposed. The heat produced by cogeneration modules is disaggregated into three fractions: Heat that meets the heat demand directly, heat utilized to drive absorption chillers (producing cooling), and heat dissipated to the environment. Cost allocation to all cogeneration co-products is determined by applying the principle of avoided expenditures. The cost allocation proposal is applied to a trigeneration system providing energy services to a hospital with 500 beds located in Zaragoza (Spain), encouraging rational and efficient energy services production and consumption. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Resano M.,University of Zaragoza | Aramendia M.,Centro Universitario Of La Defensa Academia General Militar Of Zaragoza | Belarra M.A.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2014

The purpose of this review is to examine the literature devoted to direct sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry in a tutorial way, in an attempt to provide guidelines on the most critical issues to consider when developing a new method. This review discusses in detail the advantages and limitations of this technique, highlighting its benefits in comparison with classic line source atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation in the context of direct analysis of solid samples, slurries and complex liquid samples, trying to establish in which situations the use of this technique can be particularly beneficial. Some of the aspects that are addressed comprise: (i) the improved potential to detect and correct for spectral interferences; (ii) the different options to adjust the sensitivity to the analyte content; (iii) strategies to minimize matrix effects and calibrate with aqueous standard solutions; (iv) possibilities to carry out multi-element analysis. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Gutierrez L.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Morales M.P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Lazaro F.J.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Methods for the quantitative determination of magnetic nanoparticles in biological matrices, in the frame of biomedical applications, are required to evaluate the particles biodistribution after systemic administration. AC magnetic susceptibility measurements are an alternative method to quantify magnetic nanoparticles in tissues, being able to provide also information on the particle transformations over time and allowing the distinction of the particles from other endogenous species such as the ferritin iron cores. The protocol for particle quantification using AC magnetic susceptibility measurements is described in detail in this article. A summary of synthesis routes towards magnetic nanoparticles is also provided. © 2014 the Owner Societies.


Bobillo F.,University of Zaragoza | Straccia U.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Fuzzy Description Logics are a formalism for the representation of structured knowledge affected by imprecision or vagueness. They have become popular as a language for fuzzy ontology representation. To date, most of the work in this direction has focused on the so-called Zadeh family of fuzzy operators (or fuzzy logic), which has several limitations. In this paper, we generalize existing proposals and show how to reason with a fuzzy extension of the logic SROIQ, the logic behind the language OWL 2, under finitely many-valued Łukasiewicz fuzzy logic. We show for the first time that it is decidable over a finite set of truth values by presenting a reasoning preserving procedure to obtain a non-fuzzy representation for the logic. This reduction makes it possible to reuse current representation languages as well as currently available reasoners for ontologies. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Becerra H.M.,University of Zaragoza | Lopez-Nicolas G.,University of Zaragoza | Sagues C.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2011

Driving mobile robots to precise locations is of recognized interest, and using vision sensors in this context supplies many advantages. We propose a novel control law based on sliding-mode theory in order to drive mobile robots to a target location, which is specified by a previously acquired reference image. The control scheme exploits the piecewise epipolar geometry of three views on the basis of image-based visual servoing, in such a way that no 3-D scene information is required. The contribution of the paper is a new control law that achieves convergence to the target with no auxiliary images and without changing to any approach other than epipolar-based control. Additionally, the use of sliding-mode control deals with singularities, thus allowing the robot to move directly toward the target as well as avoiding the need of a precise camera calibration. The effectiveness of our approach is tested with simulations and real-world experiments. © 2010 IEEE.


Bernardi S.,Centro Universitario Of La Defensa | Campos J.,University of Zaragoza | Merseguer J.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2011

Software systems that do not meet their timing constraints can cause risks. In this work, we propose a comprehensive method for assessing the risk of timing failure by evaluating the software design. We show how to apply best practises in software engineering and well-known Time Petri Net (TPN) modeling and analysis techniques, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with reference to a case study in the domain of real-time embedded systems. The method customizes the Australian standard risk management process, where the system context is the UML-based software specification, enriched with standard MARTE profile annotations to capture nonfunctional system properties. During the risk analysis, a TPN is derived, via model transformation, from the software design specification and TPN bound techniques are applied to estimate the probability of timing failure. TPN bound techniques are also exploited, within the risk evaluation and treatment steps, to identify the risk causes in the software design. © 2006 IEEE.


Pascau A.,University of Zaragoza
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids | Year: 2011

The use of a colocated variable arrangement for the numerical solution of fluid flow is becoming more and more popular due to its coding simplicity. The inherent decoupling of the pressure and velocity fields in this arrangement can be handled via a special interpolation procedure for the calculation of the cell face velocity named pressure-weighted interpolation method (PWIM) (AIAA J. 1983; 21(11):1525-1532). In this paper a discussion on the alternatives to extend PWIM to unsteady flows is presented along with a very simple criterion to ascertain if a given interpolation practice will produce steady results that are relaxation dependent or time step dependent. Following this criterion it will be shown that some prior schemes presented as time step independent are actually not, although by using special interpolations can be readily adapted to be. A systematic way of deriving different cell face velocity expressions will be presented and new formulae free of Δt dependence will be derived. Several computational exercises will accompany the theoretical discussion to support our claims. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Focks J.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Brouwer M.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Oijen M.G.H.,University Utrecht | Van Oijen M.G.H.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 3 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2013

Background Clopidogrel as an adjunct to aspirin has improved outcomes after acute coronary syndromes, but laboratory studies suggest a reduced antiplatelet effect when proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are co-administered. Despite corroborating data from retrospective studies, new clinical data fuel the controversy on this issue. Purpose Systematic review of the impact of the addition of PPIs to clopidogrel on platelet function and cardiovascular outcome. Data sources PubMed, Web-of-Science, Cochrane Database and reference lists of related articles. Study selection Published articles on controlled studies addressing the addition of PPIs to clopidogrel. Platelet function studies describe patients as well as healthy volunteers. Clinical studies concern patients using clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes or because of stent implantation for stable coronary disease. Data extraction Two investigators independently reviewed the identified articles for eligibility, and one author extracted the data. Data synthesis In 70% (7/10) of the laboratory studies examining healthy volunteers on clopidogrel, addition of PPIs resulted in a significant reduction in platelet inhibition. For patients, this was observed in 11/ 18 (61%) studies. The 33 clinical studies showed significant heterogeneity in observed outcomes, with risk ratios for major adverse cardiovascular events varying from 0.64 to 4.58 in the case of PPI use, which was randomly allocated in only two studies. Consequently, imbalances between prognosticators at baseline and PPI prescription bias markedly contributed to the variability in results. Conclusions Despite indications of reduced antiplatelet activity ex vivo in the case of PPI administration in clopidogrel users, data on the clinical consequences are controversial. With the accumulating evidence from better designed, prospective clinical studies, an adverse effect of PPI use on clinical outcome in patients on clopidogrel cannot be substantiated. This review challenges the validity of conclusions based on quantitative analyses of predominantly non-randomised data.


Jodra P.,University of Zaragoza
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation | Year: 2010

We provide procedures to generate random variables with Lindley distribution, and also with Poisson-Lindley or zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distribution, as simple alternatives to the existing algorithms. Our procedures are based on the fact that the quantile functions of these probability distributions can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function. As a consequence, the extreme order statistics from the above distributions can also be computer generated in a straightforward manner. © 2010 IMACS.


Vzquez C.R.,University of Zaragoza | Silva M.,University of Zaragoza
Automatica | Year: 2011

Fluidification constitutes a relaxation technique for studying discrete event systems through fluidified approximated models, thus avoiding the state explosion problem. Moreover, the class of continuous models thus obtained may be interesting in itself. In Petri nets, fluidification leads to the so-called continuous Petri nets, which are technically hybrid models. Under infinite server semantics, timing a continuous Petri net model preserves the liveness property, but the converse is not necessarily true, and if the autonomous net model is not live, the timing may transform it into a live model. In this paper, we investigate the conditions on the firing rates of timed continuous models that make a given continuous system live. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Navascues M.A.,University of Zaragoza
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory | Year: 2010

In the present article every complex square integrable function defined in a real bounded interval is approached by means of a complex fractal function. The approximation depends on a partition of the interval and a vectorial parameter of the iterated function system providing the fractal attractor. The original may be discontinuous or undefined in a set of zero measure. The fractal elements can modify the features of the originals, for instance their character of smooth or non-smooth. The properties of the operator mapping every function into its fractal analogue are studied in the context of the uniform and least square norms. In particular, the transformation provides a decomposition of the set of square integrable maps. An orthogonal system of fractal functions is constructed explicitly for this space. Sufficient conditions for the uniform convergence of the fractal series expansion corresponding to this basis are also deduced. The fractal approximation of real functions is obtained as a particular case. © 2009 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland.


Lucia O.,University of Zaragoza | Burdio J.M.,University of Zaragoza | Barragan L.A.,University of Zaragoza | Carretero C.,University of Zaragoza | Acero J.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Operation under light-load conditions is a general issue when developing power converters as it can lead to system instability and/or decreased performance. This topic is particularly important for resonant converters as their efficiency significantly reduces when their operation point is set outside their resonant conditions. Considering the importance of efficiency for power converter reliability, environmental impacts, and regulation concerns, a major effort to improve the operation under light-load conditions is justified. Domestic induction heating is an application where variable loads and output power requirements imply operation under a wide range of conditions, including long-term light-load operation. The aim of this paper is to propose an improved control scheme for series resonant multiinverters, which are a cost-effective topology for supplying multiple inductive loads, based on discontinuous-mode operation. Two different control strategies are proposed: regenerative control and direct conduction control. An analytical study is performed, and the main simulation results are presented. An experimental series resonant multiinverter prototype is used to validate the simulation results. © 2006 IEEE.