Zalingei, Sudan

University of Zalingei
Zalingei, Sudan

The University of Zalingei is a university based in the town of Zalingei in the state of Central Darfur, Sudan.The university was established in 1994 as a public university funded by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.As of September 2011, the university was a member in good standing of the Association of African Universities. Wikipedia.

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Ding Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ren J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Adam B.E.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Adam B.E.,University of Zalingei | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2017

Tool design and working parameters for subsoiling in wet clayey paddy soil are different from those for dry land cropping system. Investigation on the subsoiling process and the governing mechanisms requires detailed description on the underlying influential factors. Field soil parameters were used as a reference to construct a DEM model for subsoiling which was suitable for wet clayey soil analysis and performed in a EDEM software. The proposed DEM model of clayey paddy soil was then implemented to simulate a subsoiling process, in which directly measured draft and macroscopic disturbance of field soil was compared. Microscopic process and mechanisms of soil fragmentation were assessed with simulated stages. Results showed that simulation error with the proposed DEM model was less than 6.63%. Mean error of the resulted micro-relief was 4.39%. Mean error of elevated ridge was 19.22%. The measured results from microscopic approach were re-evaluated and the correctness of related assumptions from microscopic approach was confirmed by DEM results, soil failure boundary evolution and soil failure with particle contacting models were depicted. A soil fragmentation index was proposed for describing soil fragmentation behavior from DEM perspectives. The error of fragmentation index with respect to measured soil fragmentation parameter was less than 3.46%, affirming that the proposed parameter was a suitable tool for microscopic description of soil failure imposed by subsoiling. This research provides a powerful technical basis for the interaction mechanism between soil and soil, and lays a theoretical foundation for the optimization design of the soil contact parts. © 2017, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Zhou C.,Jiangsu University | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | Yu X.,Jiangsu University | Liu B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2013

The ultrasonic horn and bath reactors were compared based on production of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from defatted wheat germ proteins (DWGP). The DWGP was sonicated before hydrolysis by Alcalase. Degree of hydrolysis, ACE-inhibitory activity, surface hydrophobicity, fluorescence intensity, free sulfhydryl (SH), and disulfide bond (SS) were determined. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity of DWGP hydrolysate was obtained at power intensity of 191.1 W/cm2 for 10 min in the ultrasonic horn reactor. The fixed frequency of 33 kHz and the sweep frequency of 40 ± 2 kHz resulted in the maximum ACE-inhibitory activity. The combined irradiation of dual fixed frequency (24/68 kHz) produced significant increase in ACE-inhibitory activity compared with single frequency (33 kHz). The ultrasonic probe resulted in significant higher ACE-inhibitory activity compared with ultrasonic bath operating at single or dual fixed and sweep frequencies. The changes in conformation of the DWGP due to sonication were confirmed by the changes in fluorescence intensity, surface hydrophobicity, SHf and SS contents and they were found in conformity with the ACE-inhibitory activity in case of the ultrasonic horn reactor but not in bath reactor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yagoub A.A.,Jiangsu University | Yagoub A.A.,University of Zalingei | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | Zhou C.,Jiangsu University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2017

Ultrasonic extraction efficiency to maximize yield of rapeseed meal protein (RSP) was tested by response surface methodology. Protein isolates were obtained by acid precipitation at pH 5.8 and 3.6, pooled and the pH adjusted to 7. Protein isolate structure was screened by measuring free sulfhydryl (SHF) and disulfide bond (SS) contents, hydrophobicity (S0), fluorescence intensity, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). A high correlation of quadratic polynomial mathematical model was obtained. The optimal extraction conditions of RSP were: pH 11.71, time 41.48 min, and ultrasound power 40%. Power intensity of 0.228 W/cm2 was optimum for high yield of RSP. The yield of protein extracted increased by 43.3% and nitrogen resolubility by 18.13% over the conventional extraction (control). Changes in amino acids after sonication were noticed. Compared with the control, sonication increased SS and decreased SHF, hydrophobicity, and fluorescence intensity, and changes in FTIR spectra were also found, suggesting protein unfolding and aggregation. Sonication of RSP improves yield and change conformation, providing a future functional protein in food and pharmaceutical systems. © All Rights Reserved.

Li G.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Song H.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Altigani L.A.A.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Altigani L.A.A.,University of Zalingei | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda’s response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda’s activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013–May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350–2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9–69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Saeed A.E.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Bashier R.S.M.,University of Zalingei
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy | Year: 2010

In this study, fixed oil was extracted from the seeds of Ximenia americana. The study covered the percentage yield, physical and chemical properties of the extracted oil. The highest oil obtained was 51% w/v. The physical properties of the oil were found to be reactive index (1.477), density (0.9376 g/ml), boiling point (157°C) and viscosity 42 at 70°C and 227.58 at 25°C. The chemical properties of the oil were: iodine value (47.59), acid value (0.2805), peroxide value (30), saponification value (11.43), ester value (9.82), and the ratio value (35.009). The molecular weight of the major component of the oil was 604. The major component of the oil (C 40H 76O 3) was identified as methyl-14,14- dimethyl - 18-hydroxy heptatriacont-27,35-dienoate [CH 3OCO(CH 2) 12C(CH 3) 2(CH 2) 3CHOH(CH 2) 8CH=CH(CH 2) 6CH=CHCH 3]. A compound was isolated from the fruit pulp, and purified using column and thin layer chromatography, with a molecular weight of 578, molecular formula (C 35H 62O 6) and was identified as dimethyl - 5- Methyl - 28,29 - dihydroxy dotriacont-3,14,26 - triendioate. These compounds were not reported before from X.americana seeds or fruit pulp [CH 3OCOCH 2CH=CHCH(CH 3(CH 2) 8CH=CH(CH 2) 10CH=CH(CHOH) 2(CH 2) 2COOCH 3]. © 2010 Academic Journals.

PubMed | Jiangsu University, University of Zalingei, Southwest University of Science and Technology and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Ultrasonics sonochemistry | Year: 2015

The impact of dual-frequency power ultrasound (DPU) on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of corn gluten meal (CGM) hydrolysates and its mechanism were investigated in the present study. The mechanism was studied from aspects of structural and nano-mechanical characteristics of the major protein fractions of CGM, viz. zein and glutelin. The results of molecular weight distribution indicated that DPU pretreatment of CGM was beneficial to the preparation of peptides with molecular weights of 200-1000Da. Moreover, FTIR spectral analysis and atomic force microscopy characterization showed that the DPU pretreatment changed the contents of secondary structure of proteins, decreased the particle height and surface roughness of glutelin, reduced the Youngs modulus and stiffness of zein while increased its adhesion force. In conclusion, DPU pretreatment of proteins before proteolysis is an efficient alternative method to produce short-chain peptides because of its positive effects originating from acoustic cavitation on the molecular conformation, nano-structures and nano-mechanical properties of proteins as well.

Eissa E.A.,Food Research Center | Babiker E.E.,University of Khartoum | Yagoub A.E.A.,University of Zalingei
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of fresh and cold-stored (5-15 days) fermented zabadi from goat's milk were analysed and then compared with those of cow's milk. Results indicated that the gross nutrients of fresh goat's milk changed after processing. Zabadi fermentation significantly decreased the lactose content and pH of the fresh milk in both zabadi types. Cow-milk zabadi was more viscous than goat-milk zabadi. Cold storage resulted in significant changes in gross composition of both zabadi types, in particular after 10 days of storage. Lactose and pH decreased further if the storage period was prolonged. Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. are the main active organisms in goat- and cow-milk zabadi. The number of total bacteria and yeast increased significantly within 10 days of storage, decreasing thereafter. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were absent. Coliforms and faecal coliforms were detected in both zabadi types; however, they disappeared after 5 days of storage. Goat-milk zabadi showed significantly lower sensory scores than cow-milk zabadi. Both zabadi types can withstand storage to a maximum of 10 days, with the sensory scores decreasing thereafter.

Abdelseed B.H.,University of Khartoum | Abdalla A.H.,University of Khartoum | Yagoub A.E.-G.A.,University of Zalingei | Mohamed Ahmed I.A.,Tottori University | Babiker E.E.,University of Khartoum
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Total energy, protein content and digestibility, antinutritional factors, and total and extractable minerals of normal sorghum (Type II) and four newly developed lines of sorghum (Eri-1, SHK-ABA-4, SHK-ABA-6 and SHK-ABA-10.) were studied before and after fermentation. Phytic acid and Tanin contents of raw flour of the normal sorghum were, respectively, 41.73 mg 100 g-1 and 170.54 mg 100 g-1, while the same values for the four lines ranged from 16.07 to 38.64 mg 100 g-1 and from 31.90 to 184.25 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Polyphenols content of raw flour of the normal sorghum was 604.56 mg 100 g-1, exceeding the values found for the four lines in the range of 476.46 to 544.44 mg 100 g-1. According to our results, fermentation of normal sorghum flour and that of the new lines significantly (P≤ 0.05) decreased the antinutritional factors i.e. phytate, tannins, and polyphenols. The total energy of raw flour of the normal sorghum was 369.87 Kcal 100 g-1 while it ranged from 367.23 to 372.57 Kcal 100 g-1 for the new lines. In all cases, this energy slightly decreased after fermentation. Protein digestibility of normal sorghum was 22.60% and, for the new lines, it ranged from 37.00 to 57.19%. After fermentation, protein digestibility and the total and extractable Ca, P, and Fe increased significantly (P≤ 0.05) for all genotypes studied.

Eldoma I.M.,Lanzhou University | Eldoma I.M.,University of Zalingei | Li M.,Lanzhou University | Zhang F.,Lanzhou University | Li F.-M.,Lanzhou University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Ridge-furrow with plastic film mulch is a key method now used by local farmers to overcome the challenges of cooling and low rainfall in a production of major food grains in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Field experiments were conducted over two consecutive seasons, 2014 and 2015, to determine if alternating or equal ridge-furrow patterns would increase maize (Zea mays L.) growth and grain yield. The experiment comprised five treatments: (1) flat-bare plot (CK); (2) ridge-furrow with equal ridge widths of 55cm (RFE); (3) ridge-furrow with alternating wide (0.7m) and narrow (0.4m) ridges (RFA); (4) ridge-furrow with equal ridge widths and completely mulched by plastic (colorless and transparent polyethylene) film (RFME); and (5) ridge-furrow alternating wide and narrow ridges, completely mulched with the film (RFMA). Grain yields for RFE, RFA, RFME and RFMA were -23.3%, -18%, 185% and 177% in 2014, respectively, and -22.3%, -6.7%, 207% and 215% in 2015, respectively, less/more than CK. Correspondingly 100-seed weights of grain were -12.6%, -4.6%, 79% and 63% different than CK CK in 2014, and -6%, -1.2%, 78% and 86% in 2015. Corresponding total plant dry mass (DM) was 4.6%, -0.4%, 53.4% and 51.3% less/more than CK in 2015; and maximum leaf area index (LAI) differed from CK by -0.15, -0.15, 0.42 and 0.45m2 m-2 in 2015. The yield was highest for RFME in 2014 (6780kgha-1) and for RFMA treatment in 2015 (6250kgha-1). There were no significant differences in grain yield, 100-seed weight, DM and LAI among CK, RFE and RFA or between RFME and RFMA; however, there were significant differences between each of CK, RFE or RFA and either RFME or RFMA due to the effect of plastic mulch. This effect was associated with significant increases in both soil moisture and temperature: in the first half of the season in 2014, topsoil temperatures (at 10cm depth) of RFE, RFA, RFME and RFMA treatments were 0°C, 0°C, 1.7°C and 1.6°C higher compared with CK, respectively; and correspondingly in 2015, soil water storage (SWS) within 0-140cm depth was 1.3, 1.7, 9.2 and 7.2% higher. Without film mulch, the patterns of equal and alternate ridge widths had no significant effect on yield components, LAI, DM, SWS and soil temperature during both seasons. Nevertheless, the alternate pattern with film mulch is useful and necessary for labor to pass through crop rows during crop tending, as well as being a better method for maize production in this semi-arid rain-fed area. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Zhou C.,Jiangsu University | Ma H.,Jiangsu University | Ding Q.,Jiangsu University | Lin L.,Jiangsu University | And 5 more authors.
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2013

The impact of ultrasound pretreatment of corn gluten meal (CGM) protein and neutrase on the ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitory activity of hydrolysate was studied. The UV-vis differential spectra and fluorescence spectra of the CGM protein and neutrase were determined. The neutrase activity and the ACE inhibitory activity of the CGM protein hydrolysates were analyzed. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was obtained at 10 min hydrolysis when the CGM protein was pretreated at 20 kHz for 10-30 min and at a power of 1000 W. The neutrase activity and ACE inhibitory activity were at their maxima at sonication of 250 W and sonication time of 15 min. The fluorescence and UV differential spectra of the proteins of CGM and neutrase reflected molecular unfolding due to sonication. Sonication of the protein substrate and the enzyme before hydrolysis may be an effective way to enhance the ACE inhibition attributes of the hydrolysate. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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