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Zakhu, Iraq

The University of Zakho was announced as an independent university on July 2010. Before this date, there were two colleges, Education and Commerce, which were affiliated to the University of Duhok. University of Zakho along with another three new universities were founded following the resolution made by the Parliament of Kurdistan Regional to address the increased demand for higher education studies in the region.Once the university was nominated, the colleges of Education and Commerce were reorganized into two faculties: Science and Humanities. Wikipedia.

Hussein N.R.,Duhok University | Tunjel I.,Fatih University | Majed H.S.,Nutrition Unit | Yousif S.T.,Duhok University | And 2 more authors.
New Microbes and New Infections | Year: 2015

Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/. vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR=2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H.pylori dupA-negative and H.pylori dupA1-positive strains (. dupA-negative: mean±median: 28±26 versus 30±27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure. © 2015 .

Mustafa Y.T.,University of Zakho | Tolpekin V.A.,University of Twente | Stein A.,University of Twente
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is a quantitative measure of canopy foliar area. LAI values can be derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. In this paper, MODIS pixels from a heterogeneous forest located in The Netherlands were decomposed using the linear mixture model using class fractions derived from a high-resolution aerial image. Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs) were applied to improve the spatio-temporal estimation of LAI by combining the decomposed MODIS images with a spatial version of physiological principles predicting growth (3PG) model output at different moments in time. Results showed that the spatial-temporal output obtained with the GBN was 40% more accurate than the spatial 3PG, with a root-mean-square error below 0.25. We concluded that the GBNs improved the spatial estimation of LAI values of a heterogeneous forest by combining a spatial forest growth model with satellite imagery. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

Al-Dabagh N.B.I.,University of Mosul | Ali I.A.,University of Zakho
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation, HPCS 2011 | Year: 2011

The network based denial of service attacks (DoS) are still the big challenge to the researchers in the field of network security. This paper handles the popular DoS attack called TCP-SYN flood attack, and presents the design and implementation of an Artificial Immune system for Syn flood Detection, abbreviated by AISD, based on the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). The AISD system is able to detect the generated SYN flood attack and response to its generator in a real-time. Performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated through five experiments. Results of the experiments showed the precision of intrusion detection process to the ratio of 100%, with a notable response speed, and this is shows the benefit and suitability of using artificial immune systems to the network security problems. © 2011 IEEE.

Eesa A.S.,University of Zakho | Orman Z.,Istanbul University | Brifcani A.M.A.,Duhok University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

This paper presents a new feature-selection approach based on the cuttlefish optimization algorithm which is used for intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Because IDSs deal with a large amount of data, one of the crucial tasks of IDSs is to keep the best quality of features that represent the whole data and remove the redundant and irrelevant features. The proposed model uses the cuttlefish algorithm (CFA) as a search strategy to ascertain the optimal subset of features and the decision tree (DT) classifier as a judgement on the selected features that are produced by the CFA. The KDD Cup 99 dataset is used to evaluate the proposed model. The results show that the feature subset obtained by using CFA gives a higher detection rate and accuracy rate with a lower false alarm rate, when compared with the obtained results using all features. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

In this paper, a new kind of set called an αγ-open set is introduced and investigated using the γ-operator due to Ogata. Such sets are used for studying new types of mappings, viz. αγ-continuous, α(γ,β)-irresolute, etc. Finally, new separation axioms: αγ-Ti (i = 0, 1/2, 1, 2), αγ-Di (i = 0, 1, 2), and a new notion of the graph of a function called an αγ-closed graph.

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