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Zagreb, Croatia

The University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe. As of 2011, University of Zagreb is ranked among the 500 Best Universities of the world by the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities. Wikipedia.


Psychiatry is in the midst of the paradigm shift. The new field called theoretical psychiatry is fundamental for further scientific and professional maturation of psychiatry at the twenty first century. The cross disciplinary interactions and transdisciplinary systems approach are of great importance in science and the paradigm shift. © Medicinska naklada - Zagreb, Croatia. Source


Temmer M.,University of Graz | Veronig A.M.,University of Graz | Peinhart V.,University of Graz | Vrsnak B.,University of Zagreb
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We present a detailed study of the interaction process of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) successively launched on 2011 February 14 (CME1) and 2011 February 15 (CME2). Reconstructing the three-dimensional shape and evolution of the flux ropes, we verify that the two CMEs interact. The frontal structure of both CMEs, measured along different position angles (PAs) over the entire latitudinal extent, reveals differences in the kinematics for the interacting flanks and the apexes. The interaction process is strongly PA-dependent in terms of timing as well as kinematical evolution. The central interaction occurs along PA-100°, which shows the strongest changes in kinematics. During interaction, CME1 accelerates from ∼400 km s-1 to ∼700 km s-1 and CME2 decelerates from ∼1300 km s-1 to 600 km s-1. Our results indicate that a simplified scenario such as inelastic collision may not be sufficient to describe the CME-CME interaction. The magnetic field structures of the intertwining flux ropes and the momentum transfer due to shocks each play an important role in the interaction process. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Kopjar T.,University of Zagreb | Dashwood M.R.,University College London
Angiology | Year: 2016

The advantage in terms of wound infection, wound healing, and scarring has resulted in the recent adoption of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) as a standard of care for coronary artery bypass grafting in some centers. However, concerns regarding the quality of these grafts have been raised after recent evidence of decreased graft patency, increased reoperation rate, and myocardial infarct, problems that are associated with vascular trauma caused when using this technique. Simultaneously, an atraumatic, "no-touch" technique for harvesting the saphenous vein was developed producing grafts with improved patency comparable to the internal thoracic artery. However, wound complications remain a problem using this technique. This review outlines the need to consider the poor graft quality that may result from EVH and raises the question what is likely to be the "best practice principle" in saphenous vein harvesting? © The Author(s) 2015. Source


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is diagnosed already during childhood or adolescence in every fourth patient. Compared to adult population, whereby recent studies show a tendency towards stabilization, incidence rates for children continue to rise. Though many features are shared with adult onset disease, paediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease are, both, more aggressive and extensive already at diagnosis, with disease behaviour that changes with time. Therapeutic approaches, therefore, have to be adapted to specific needs of paediatric population. Aim of the article was to formulate guidelines on the role of biologic therapy in the treatment of paediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease, namely on the use of anti-TNF agent infliximab as it is the only biologic drug registrated for use in children with IBD. Recommendations are based on systematic review of the evidence in paediatric patients whenever it was available. However, due to lack of good randomised studies, adult practice was also taken into consideration. Finally, recommendations were dis-cussed on the consensus conference of all experts participating in the evelopment of guidelines for adult and paediatric pa-tients.The recommendations are developed for Crohn's Disease and for Ulcerative Colitis, separately with respect to remission induction and for relapse prevention. Level of evidence is stated and following this procedure, recommendations are graded. Practice points are also provided with the aim to guide clinicians on the ward how to use biologics in the clinical practice. Com-plications of the treatment that are specific for children with inflammatory bowel disease are also addressed. These guidelines and practice points provide a structured guide for the use of anti-TNF therapy in the treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis in paediatric patients. Source


Dragicevic T.,University of Aalborg | Guerrero J.M.,University of Aalborg | Vasquez J.C.,University of Aalborg | Skrlec D.,University of Zagreb
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2014

DC power systems are gaining an increasing interest in renewable energy applications because of the good matching with dc output type sources such as photovoltaic (PV) systems and secondary batteries. In this paper, several distributed generators (DGs) have been merged together with a pair of batteries and loads to form an autonomous dc microgrid (MG). To overcome the control challenge associated with coordination of multiple batteries within one stand-alone MG, a double-layer hierarchical control strategy was proposed. 1) The unit-level primary control layer was established by an adaptive voltage-droop method aimed to regulate the common bus voltage and to sustain the states of charge (SOCs) of batteries close to each other during moderate replenishment. The control of every unit was expanded with unit-specific algorithm, i.e., finish-of-charging for batteries and maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) for renewable energy sources, with which a smooth online overlap was designed and 2) the supervisory control layer was designed to use the low-bandwidth communication interface between the central controller and sources in order to collect data needed for adaptive calculation of virtual resistances (VRs) as well as transit criteria for changing unit-level operating modes. A small-signal stability for the whole range of VRs. The performance of developed control was assessed through experimental results. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source


Gabricevic M.,University of Zagreb
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis | Year: 2012

Hydroxyurea (HU) effectively reduces vanadate (VO2) into vanadyl (VO2) species in acidic aqueous solution acting as a two-electron donor. The reaction starts by the formation of a transient complex followed by an electron transfer process that includes the formation and subsequent fading out of a free radical, U• (U•:H2N-C(=O)N(H)O•). The rate determining step of the redox reaction is the formation of a free radical either by the inner-sphere one-electron transfer within the formed VO 2-complexes, or by an outer sphere one-electron transfer from VO 2-complex to the second VO2 ion. Assuming a rapid pre-equilibrium for the proton-transfer and complexation reactions, an inner-sphere electron transfer pathway has been proposed (VO2-U 2 k1 VO2-U•2, k1 = 1.4 s-1) when HU is in excess. When VO2in excess, an additional reaction possibly proceeds through two outer-sphere electron-transfer pathways: VO 2-U2++ VO2 ++ 2H2O k4 VO2 ++ VO2++ U•, and VO2-U2++ VO(OH) 2++ 2H2O k5 VO(OH)2++ VO2+ + U•, characterized by k4 = 22 s-1 mol-1 dm3, and k5 = 3.8 9 103 s-1 mol-1 dm3. © Akadémiai Kiadó , Budapest, Hungary 2011. Source


Cilloniz C.,University of Barcelona | Civljak R.,University of Zagreb | Nicolini A.,Respiratory Diseases Unit | Torres A.,University of Barcelona
Respirology | Year: 2016

Polymicrobial aetiology in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is more common than previously recognized. This growing new entity can influence inflammation, host immunity and disease outcomes in CAP patients. However, the true incidence is complicated to determine and probably underestimated due mainly to many cases going undetected, particularly in the outpatient setting, as the diagnostic yield is restricted by the sensitivity of currently available microbiologic tests and the ability to get certain types of clinical specimens. The observed rate of polymicrobial cases may also lead to new antibiotic therapy considerations. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, microbial interactions in pneumonia, epidemiology, biomarkers and antibiotic therapy for polymicrobial CAP. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source


Samarzija I.,University of Zagreb
Farmaceutski Glasnik | Year: 2013

Saint John's tree is a very useful plant whose fruit has a wide range of possible uses, especially as food (nutrition) or maintenance of health, as well as for curing some digestive problems. Saint John's bread is rich in various nutritive substances and is therefore one of the essential health food products. The flour of Saint John's bread is an excellent basis from which many different sweet and salty dishes can be prepared. Also, different beverages can be prepared from it, both nonalcoholic and alcoholic drinks. Various cakes or biscuits from Saint John's bread alone, or in combination with some fruit (apple), prepared in a number of ways are really delicious. Since it contains many high quality ingredients, such as sugar, starch, proteins, slimy polysaccharides, tannins, vitamins and minerals, this substance has strong healing properties as well. Thus, use of this fruit helps maintain health and regular digestion. It is also used in preparations against diarrhea or in the treatment of other gastrointestinal problems such as dyspepsia or enteritis. In addition, it is used in the pharmaceutical industry to make pill wrappers, and also as a component in different cosmetic preparations. Although there are many other uses of Saint John's tree or bread, it is not sufficiently used today; it is sometimes even neglected, which is highly unjustified. Source


Matkovic Z.,CIBER ISCIII | Matkovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Miravitlles M.,CIBER ISCIII
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Microorganisms, particularly bacteria, are frequently found in the lower airways of COPD patients, both in stable state and during exacerbations. The host-pathogen relationship in COPD is a complex, dynamic process characterised by frequent changes in pathogens, their strains and loads, and subsequent host immune responses. Exacerbations are detrimental events in the course of COPD and evidence suggests that 70% may be caused by microorganisms. When considering bacterial exacerbations, recent findings based on molecular typing have demonstrated that the acquisition of new strains of bacteria or antigenic changes in pre-existing strains are the most important triggers for exacerbation onset. Even in clinically stable COPD patients the presence of microorganisms in their lower airways may cause harmful effects and induce chronic low-grade airway inflammation leading to increased exacerbation frequency, an accelerated decline in lung function and impaired health-related quality of life. Besides intraluminal localisation in the distal airways, bacteria can be found in the bronchial walls and parenchymal lung tissue of COPD patients. Therefore, the isolation of pathogenic bacteria in stable COPD should be considered as a form of chronic infection rather than colonisation. This new approach may have important implications for the management of patients with COPD. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ukrainczyk N.,University of Zagreb
Advances in Cement Research | Year: 2015

The effect of polycarboxylate ether (PCE)-based superplasticiser on the fresh and hardened properties of calcium aluminate cement (CAC)-based materials was investigated. Cohesion of the fresh mortar was improved by addition of methyl cellulose, thus avoiding segregation induced by the superplasticiser action. As PCE significantly retarded the setting time, lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was investigated as an accelerator by calorimetric measurements. Compressive and flexural strengths, porosity and dynamic modulus were tested after 1 d and 9 d cured at 23°C and after transformation of metastable hydration products to stable ones at 60°C. The combined usage of PCE with methyl cellulose and lithium carbonate showed promising superplasticising properties for CAC that improved properties of the material. Source


Srica V.,University of Zagreb
Donald School Journal of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

Education is necessary but 'schools' (as we know them) are not. How much of what we formally learn is ever useful in real life? Some studies show that it's only between 8 and 12%. The article tries to analyze the challenges and issues facing contemporary education. What are the 'deadly sins': The existing educational system is not very useful as far as the quality of its outcome is concerned; it is not flexible in embracing the Wiki world and high technology; education is slow in moving from bureaucracy toward entrepreneurship and creativity; separation between learning and working should be abandoned; instead of cramming, the students should be stimulated to analyze, reason, research, inquire and 'think with their own head'; learning is important, but so is unlearning; teachers must be able to teach the rational stuff in a cool and inspirational way; the students should be trained for attitude, not just knowledge and skills; education must re-establish the lost connection between art and science, wisdom and practicality; education should go lower on theory, and higher on applicability. If we want to create a better educational system, changing culture is by far more important than changing curricula. Source


Aim: There is a clear lack of consensus on a validated definition of the term "polytrauma". This study presents and classifies the extent of injuries during wartime in Croatia using the Revised Trauma Score and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and compares the scores with a clinical estimation based on subjective assessments of polytraumatised and non-polytraumatised patients. Methods: We analysed the data from 426 war victims who sustained multiple injuries and were managed at Osijek University Hospital from September 1st 1991 to December 31st 1991. The victims were divided into polytraumatised (n = 149) and multitraumatised (n = 277) patients according to the initial clinical estimation of the extent of injury. Patients classified as monotraumatised were excluded from this study. The assessment was based on the following definition of polytrauma: simultaneous injury of two or more body regions or anatomical systems with at least one injury being life-threatening. All data were scored retrospectively using TRISS methodology. Results: Two patients classified as polytraumatised had an ISS of less than 16, and one patient classified as multitraumatised had an ISS of more than 16. The difference between the actual (29.5%) and expected (40.44%) postoperative mortality in the polytraumatised group was statistically significant (p = 0.0016), whereas in the multitraumatised group, the difference between the actual (3.2%) and expected (3.04%) postoperative mortality was not significant (p = 0.6103). Conclusions: The data show that clinical and subjective assessment of polytraumatised patients can be useful in the management of such cases and can be tested retrospectively using TRISS methodology. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Korsic M.,University of Zagreb
Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) | Year: 2012

Excess weight and obesity are common health problems with multifactorial and polygenic causes. Abdominal or visceral obesity is associated with a higher risk of obesity related complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 10 overweight women undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Following expression profiling using microarrays, a set of 294 genes that exhibited differential expression between VAT and SAT was further analyzed to test the functional correlation of gene sets using the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis method. To confirm the functional pathways involved in differential expression between SAT and VAT, additional pathway analysis was done using the GeneGo MetaCore software and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Ten differentially expressed genes were selected according to the microarray data, with seven exhibiting significant differential expression in the RT-PCR experiments. The data from this preliminary study suggest enrichment of inflammation and oxidative stress related pathways in VAT, while insulin homeostasis pathways as well as pathways pertaining to several growth factors are enriched in SAT. Source


Ganev H.G.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Brant S.,University of Zagreb
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The structure of the ΔJ=1 doublet bands in Cs128 is investigated within the framework of the interacting vector boson-fermion model. A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the used boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. The energy levels of the doublet bands as well as the absolute B(E2) and B(M1) transition probabilities between the states of both yrast and yrare bands are described quite well. The observed odd-even staggering of both B(M1) and B(E2) values is reproduced by the introduction of an appropriate interaction term of quadrupole type, which produces such a staggering effect in the transition strengths. The calculations show that the appearance of doublet bands in certain odd-odd nuclei could be a consequence of the realization of a larger dynamical symmetry based on the noncompact supersymmetry group OSp(2Ω/12,R). © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Milin M.,University of Zagreb
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2011

The experimental evidence for existence of cluster and molecular states in 10Be, 10B and 10C is presented in details. For the most studied of the three, 10Be, a rotational band have recently been firmly identified, with states having rather large moment of inertia. For the isobaric analogue states in 10B first experimental results have been obtained and presented; some simple predictions for the 10C nucleus are also given. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Bukovic D.,University of Zagreb
Medicinski arhiv | Year: 2011

To point out the dangers, side effects and risks of medical assisted fertilization, in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer and injection on sperm in ovum for mother and the child. On the one hand the negative side effects for women of an abrupt rising risk for the development of neoplasm under pharmaceutical therapy are mentioned. Especially under a therapy which has the purpose to stimulate the ovulation of the ovary it lies around 100%. An increased level of certain hormones, as for example HCG, which influences the ovulation, is closely related with the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Clinical studies at more than 12000 infertile women (primary and secondary acyesis), with an average age of 30 years, show an elevated risk for the development of a malignant tumor of 98%. Also the application of Gonadotrophin is connected with a risk of 146% for the occurrence of cancer after a period of 15 years. FDT involves a risk of about 12% for the occurrence of breast cancer and shows also an aggravation for the risk of cancer of the endometrium from 79% up to 1152%. On the other hand the risk of spontaneous miscarriages under MAF, which is near 20%, and serious illness of the children, including 47% with need of intensive care unit support after birth, need to be realized. Furthermore the investigation of naturally obtained twins and through ART obtained twins shows in the arrangement a slower and poorer development of the children in the ART group with also great differences in physical development. In total the number of inherent malformation of newborns under the use of ART rises from 47 to 177%. With an installment of 9% we notice that children who came into being by IVF and ICS also fall more frequently ill. (Teething troubles, more hospitalizations and operations, higher frequency of major inherent malformations). All women who want to undergo a medical assisted fertilization should be informed about the side effects and risks for mother and child. Source


Civljak M.,University of Zagreb
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one of these, all trial participants were provided with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Three other trials in adults did not detect significant long term effects. One of these provided access to a website as an adjunct to counselling and bupropion, one compared web-based counselling, proactive telephone-based counselling or a combination of the two as an adjunct to varenicline. The third only provided a list of Internet resources. One further short-term trial did show a significant increase in quit rates at 3 months. A trial in college students increased point prevalence abstinence after 30 weeks but had no effect on sustained abstinence. Two small trials in adolescents did not detect an effect on cessation compared to control, whilst a third small trial did detect a benefit of a web-based adjunct to a group programme amongst adolescents.Ten trials, all in adult populations, compared different Internet sites or programmes. There was some evidence that sites that were tailored and interactive might be more effective than static sites, but this was not detected in all the trials that explored this factor. One large trial did not detect differences between different Internet sites. One trial of a tailored intervention as an adjunct to NRT use showed a significant benefit but only had a 3-month follow up. One trial detected evidence of a benefit from tailored email letter compared to a non-tailored one. Trials failed to detect a benefit of including a mood management component (three trials), or an asynchronous bulletin board. Higher abstinence rates were typically reported by participants who actively engaged with the programme (as reflected by the number of log-ins). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that some Internet-based interventions can assist smoking cessation, especially if the information is appropriately tailored to the users and frequent automated contacts with the users are ensured, however trials did not show consistent effects. Source


Henigsberg N.,University of Zagreb | Mahableshwarkar A.R.,Takeda Global Research and Development Center | Jacobsen P.,Takeda Global Research and Development Center | Chen Y.,Takeda Global Research and Development Center | Thase M.E.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: Lu AA21004 is an investigational multimodal antidepressant. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of multiple doses of Lu AA21004 versus placebo in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Adults diagnosed with MDD (based on DSM-IV-TR criteria) with a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥ 26 were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive Lu AA21004 1 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg or placebo for 8 weeks (between August 2008 and August 2009). The primary endpoint was reduction in 24-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24) total score after 8 weeks of treatment compared with placebo for Lu AA21004 10 mg. Additional outcomes included response and remission rates, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement scale (CGI-I), MADRS total score, and HDRS-24 total score in subjects with baseline Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) score ≥ 20. Adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Results: A total of 560 subjects (mean age = 46.4 years) were randomized. There was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in HDRS-24 total score at week 8 for Lu AA21004 10 mg vs placebo (P < .001). There were improvements (nominal P values < .05 with no adjustment for multiplicity) in HDRS-24 total score, response and remission rates, CGI-I score, MADRS total score, and HDRS-24 total score in subjects with baseline HARS score ≥ 20 at week 8 for all Lu AA21004 treatment groups vs placebo. No significant differences were seen in SDS scores between any dose of Lu AA21004 and placebo. The most common adverse events were nausea, headache, and dizziness. Conclusions: After 8 weeks of treatment with Lu AA21004 10 mg, there was a significant reduction in HDRS-24 total score compared with placebo in adults with MDD. Lu AA21004 was well tolerated in this study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00735709. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. Source


This document presents recommended definitions of basic terms related to polymerization processes. Recent developments relating to the kinetics, thermodynamics, and mechanisms of polymerization have necessitated the introduction of new terms and some revision or augmentation of terms previously defined in the Compendium of Chemical Terminology (the "Gold Book") or the IUPAC "Glossary of Basic Terms in Polymer Science". Source


Sutej I.,University of Zagreb
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2012

To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking and salivary calcium on the periodontal status of young adults. Plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing, supragingival calculus, DMFT index, salivary flow, pH and salivary calcium in unstimulated salivary samples were recorded in smokers and nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to salivary flow (P = 0.08) and calcium level (P = 0.09). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were found between a higher calcium level and higher probing depth (r = 0.60), higher number of teeth with probing depth of more than 4 mm (r = 0.70), greater clinical attachment level (r = 0.49) and lower number of teeth bleeding on probing (r = -0.50). Moderate smoking of tobacco cigarettes in young healthy subjects may not have a significant impact on salivary flow or calcium concentrations in unstimulated saliva, but an association exists between an increased level of salivary calcium and development of periodontal disease. Source


Ciric L.,University of Zagreb | Samet B.,Ecole Superieure des science et Techniques de Tunis | Vetro C.,University of Palermo
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2011

We prove some common fixed point theorems in probabilistic semi-metric spaces for families of occasionally weakly compatible mappings. We also give a common fixed point theorem for mappings satisfying an integral-type implicit relation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Petak I.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2013

Keeping shelter dogs in groups provides them with a more socially and physically enriched environment, but eventually it may cause them stress. Understanding dogs' communication could help shelter staff recognize and prevent undesirable communicative patterns and encourage desirable ones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine communication patterns in a group of dogs in a shelter. The observed dogs were engaged in different classes of dyadic and group interactions. Certain dogs were frequently initiators of dyadic interactions, and different dogs were the recipients. The predominant form of dyadic interactions was a neutral one, and aggressive behavior was rarely observed. The tendency of certain dogs to interact continuously may represent a nuisance for less social individuals. All of the dogs participated in 3 defined classes of group interactions. At the group level, the dogs frequently interact vocally or olfactorily. A major welfare problem may be very vocal dogs because their vocalizations are noisy and broadcast far-reaching signals. The frequency of some group interactions was reduced by the amount of time the dogs had in the shelter. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Begovac J.,University of Zagreb
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2010

Patterns of HIV transmission in the seven countries of southeastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia) indicate that men who have sex with men (MSM) bear the highest burden of HIV. In 2008, MSM represented 56% of all HIV cases reported in Serbia, and 71 and 76% in Slovenia and Croatia, respectively. In other countries the number of reported HIV cases attributed to MSM remains low, which is likely due to under reporting. HIV prevalence measured in surveys was the highest among MSM compared with other at-risk groups, ranging from 0.7% in Bosnia and Herzegovina to 6.1% in Serbia. Data on sexual behaviors and HIV testing uptake indicate an urgent need to increase coverage with prevention services. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


Haas R.,Vienna University of Technology | Lettner G.,Vienna University of Technology | Auer H.,Vienna University of Technology | Duic N.,University of Zagreb
Energy | Year: 2013

The increase in PV (photovoltaic) capacities in Germany had since 2011 on some days already significant impacts on spot market prices at the German electricity exchange. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the possible effects of a further uptake of PV on the prices in electricity markets. We analyze two major effects: (i) the direct impact of PV at specific times of the year when PV shifts the supply curve of conventional electricity virtually out of the market, leading to temporarily very low market prices close to Zero; (ii) the indirect impact of PV (and wind) on the costs at which fossil capacities are offered at times when renewable energy sources are scarce. The major effects of these developments on the electricity markets will be: (i) a much higher price volatility from hour-to-hour and day-to-day; (ii) higher prices for electricity from fossil capacities and storage technologies for balancing the intermittent renewable generation; and (iii) growth of balancing markets and intensified competition at the level of decentralized balancing organizations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Raskovic P.,University of Nis | Guzovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Cvetkovic S.,University of Nis
Energy | Year: 2013

During the last decade, a design of an energy efficient and cost effective geothermal plant represents a significant and on-going technical challenge in all the Western Balkan countries. In the Republic of Croatia, the geothermal field Velika Ciglena is identified as one of the most valuable geothermal heat sources and probably the location where the first geothermal plant in the Western Balkan area will be built. The purpose of this work is the conceptual design and performance analysis of the binary plants-the one which operates under the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the other under Kalina (KLN) cycle-which can be used for geothermal energy utilization in Velika Ciglena. A conceptual plant design is performed by the equation-oriented modelling approach and supported by the two steady-state spreadsheet simulators. The performance analysis of all design solutions is conducted through energy and exergy analysis, and by the estimated total cost of operating units in the plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the plant design based on the ORC cycle has a higher thermodynamic efficiency and lower cost of equipment, and consequently, it is more suitable for the future geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Over the past two decades, the electrospinning process has shown a great potential in various applications, such as membrane filtration, catalytic processes, fibrous-sensor applications, drug delivery and tissue engineering, due to ability of facile producing high surface-to-volume fibrous structure. The most appealing electrospinning characteristic has shown to be the mimicking nano-scale fibrous topography of extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue engineering field. The wide range of electrospinnable synthetic biodegradable and natural polymers offers fabrication of fibrous nano-structures with specific biological responses and mechanical properties. Conducting different processing parameters (needle geometry, tip-to-collector distance, electric field strength, collector composition and geometry) allows the altering of fiber size, density, alignment and overall morphology. So far, electrospinning process has shown limitless application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The following review has been focused on studies of electrospinning process as the most promising fabrication technique for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Durin B.,University of Zagreb
Periodica Polytechnica: Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

This paper analyzes the impact of durations and starts of water pumping into the water reservoir on the capacity of the pumping station and water reservoir volume. Two different regimes of water consumption by the population are considered in combination with three different regimes of pumping station operation. The pumping station works in accordance with the usual regimes of the water pumping into the reservoir. The pumping is continuous, from 0 to 24 h, 22 to 6 h ("off-peak" period), and during the usual duration of solar radiation (from 6 to 18 h). A sensitivity analysis has been conducted, in the form of observing the effect of changes in duration and start of water pumping on the pumping station capacity and reservoir volume. The purpose of this research is to determine how the resulting functional dependencies can contribute to improving the operational characteristics of the pumping station and water reservoir. Also, this research provides new insights for the scientists and practical guidelines for the water supply system managers and engineers, allowing adjustment to the changes caused by the change of pumping station and water reservoir work regimes. © 2016, Technical University of Budapest. All rights reserved. Source


Beluhan S.,University of Zagreb | Ranogajec A.,Institute Of Public Health Dr Andrija Stampar
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, total carbohydrates, and ash) and non-volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids, and 5'-nucleotides) of 10 popular Croatian wild edible mushroom species (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis, Calocybe gambosa, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Entoloma clypeatum, Flammulina velutipes, Macroleptiota procera, Morchella elata, and Pleurotus ostreatus) were determined. All investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and total carbohydrates, with contents varying in the ranges of 27.95-38.89, and 42.62-66.78. g/100. g, respectively. In addition, the fat contents were very low 1.34-6.45. g/100. g. B. edulis (19.87. mg/g) showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids and M. elata (14.25. mg/g) the lowest concentration. Monosodium glutamate-like components and total flavour 5'-nucleotides were the highest in C. cornucopioides (45.85 and 13.88. mg/g, respectively), and lowest in F. velutipes (7.63 and 1.05. mg/g, respectively). Equivalent umami concentration values in 10 Croatian wild edible mushrooms ranged from 73.78 to 1186.45. g MSG/100. g dry weight, and overall, all these mushrooms possessed highly umami taste. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Aparicio-Pardo R.,Technical University of Cartagena | Skorin-Kapov N.,University of Zagreb | Pavon-Marino P.,Technical University of Cartagena | Garcia-Manrubia B.,Technical University of Cartagena
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2012

This paper investigates offline virtual topology design in transparent optical networks under a multihour traffic demand. The main problem variant addressed here designs a reconfigurable virtual topology that evolves over time to more efficiently utilize network resources (the MH-VTD-R problem). The case of designing a static non-reconfigurable virtual topology that can accommodate the time-varying traffic (the MH-VTD-NR problem) is also considered. The objectives are to minimize: 1) the number of transceivers, which make up for the main network cost; and 2) the frequency of reconfiguration (for MH-VTD-R), which incurs additional overhead and potential service disruption. We formulate this multiobjective problem as an exact mixed integer linear program (MILP). Due to its high complexity, we propose a very efficient heuristic algorithm called Greedy Approach with Reconfiguration Flattening (GARF). GARF not only solves both (non-)reconfigurable problem variants, but it allows for tuning of the relative importance of the two objectives. Exhaustive experiments on real and synthetic traffic and comparison to previous proposals and bounds reveal the merits of GARF with respect to both solution quality and execution time. Furthermore, the obtained results indicate that the maximal transceiver cost savings achieved by the fully reconfigurable case may not be enough to justify the associated increase in reconfiguration cost. However, results show that an advantageous tradeoff between transceiver cost savings and reconfiguration cost can be achieved by a allowing a small number of virtual topology reconfigurations over time. © 2012 IEEE. Source


The basic concepts and methods for multi-criteria synthesis of complex thin-walled ship structures in concept and preliminary design are presented. The principal steps in the definition of the design model, the selected general requirements on the design procedure and balanced and applicable combinations of design models are elaborated. The paper also provides an introduction to the basic theory, mappings, non-dominance concepts (Pareto frontier), spaces and sets used for the mathematical definition of design problems (DPs) together with the unified taxonomy applicable in the handling of complex DPs. System identification from the multi-stakeholder perspectives of owner and society and the formulations and solutions of structural DP are discussed. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Muha B.,University of Zagreb
Networks and Heterogeneous Media | Year: 2014

The purpose of this note is to prove a version of the Trace Theorem for domains which are locally subgraph of a Hölder continuous function. More precisely, let η ∈ C0,α(ω), 0 < α < 1 and let ωη be a domain which is locally subgraph of a function η. We prove that mapping γη : u → u(x,η(x)) can be extended by continuity to a linear, continuous mapping from H1(ωη) to Hs(ω), s < α/2. This study is motivated by analysis of uid-structure interaction problems. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Source


Lipozencic J.,University of Zagreb | Wolf R.,Dermatology Unit
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2010

We conducted a systematic Medline search of the literature (1998-2008) on the criteria for performing the skin prick test and atopy patch testing (APT) to determine their utility in atopic dermatitis (AD). The skin prick, scratch, and skin patch tests are performed to identify which allergen is causing eczematous skin symptoms in patients with AD, or sneezing, nasal congestion, itchy eyes, wheezing, skin rash, and swelling. Many allergens in foods, drugs, and environmental substances (eg, ragweed and fungus), as well as contact allergens, can elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. Because no gold standard exists for aeroallergen provocation in AD, the APT is currently used to evaluate allergen without comparison with another accurate and reliable method. The APT is presumed to reflect delayed-phase clinical reactions. Even with delayed onset of symptoms (more than 2 hours after food ingestion), APT findings were not consistent among AD children. The APT could be used in children with gastrointestinal reactions to foods as well as AD. After standardization, the APT may provide further diagnostic information in addition to the skin prick test and serum immunoglobulin E values and may be able to evaluate the actual clinical relevance of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitizations for eczematous lesions. The European APT model used with standardization of allergen concentration and vehicle may provide an important diagnostic tool to select patients for avoidance and for procedures of allergen-specific immunotherapy, but the clinical relevance of positive APT reactions awaits standardized provocation and avoidance testing. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Bozicevic M.S.,Croatian National Bank | Gajovic A.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Zjakic I.,University of Zagreb
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

This study explores the applicability of micro-Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive technique for the analysis of color toner printed counterfeits. The main aim of the research paper was to find out whether Raman spectroscopy is a suitable method for establishing the connection between different specimens of counterfeits suspected to be printed with the same toner on the same machine. Specimens of different types of toners printed on different types of paper are analyzed by means of the micro-Raman spectroscopy system with the excitation line at 514.5. nm. For each specimen cyan, magenta and yellow toners are analyzed separately. The yellow toners displayed the most distinctive Raman spectra. The results show that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be successfully applied as a method for the analysis of color toner printed counterfeits, such as banknotes and documents, in order to establish links between more or less different specimens of counterfeits by measuring the properties of a color toner. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Pavic D.,University of Zagreb
Collegium Antropologicum | Year: 2014

There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn’t result with the detection of a significant change in sex ratio at birth by the regression analysis or by the Box-Jenkins time series analysis. Although the numerous factors associated with the decline in sex ratio at birth did occur during the studied period (e.g. increased exposure to the environmental pollution through food, air and water, the rise of the obesity and diabetes incidence, the economic crisis etc.), it appears that none of them made the measurable impact on sex ratio at birth. Also, the possible marginally significant decline in sex ratio at birth could be the result of a high sex ratio at birth immediately after the World War II. The results of this study caution against rapid generalization of the factors found to influence the sex ratio at birth in the epidemiological and clinical studies on the population level data. © 2014, Croatian Anthropological Society. All rights reserved. Source


Filardo G.,Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute | Madry H.,Saarland University | Jelic M.,University of Zagreb | Roffi A.,Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute | And 2 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to examine the available clinical evidence in the literature to support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment strategies in orthopaedics for cartilage defect regeneration. Methods: The research was performed on the PubMed database considering the English literature from 2002 and using the following key words: cartilage, cartilage repair, mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs, bone marrow concentrate (BMC), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow stromal cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Results: The systematic research showed an increasing number of published studies on this topic over time and identified 72 preclinical papers and 18 clinical trials. Among the 18 clinical trials identified focusing on cartilage regeneration, none were randomized, five were comparative, six were case series, and seven were case reports; two concerned the use of adipose-derived MSCs, five the use of BMC, and 11 the use of bone marrow-derived MSCs, with preliminary interesting findings ranging from focal chondral defects to articular osteoarthritis degeneration. Conclusions: Despite the growing interest in this biological approach for cartilage regeneration, knowledge on this topic is still preliminary, as shown by the prevalence of preclinical studies and the presence of low-quality clinical studies. Many aspects have to be optimized, and randomized controlled trials are needed to support the potential of this biological treatment for cartilage repair and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages with respect to the available treatments. Level of evidence: IV. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Martinec R.,University of Zagreb
Hrvatska Revija Za Rehabilitacijska Istrazivanja | Year: 2013

Dance Movement Therapy is a complementary method which includes using and analyzing of different aspects of body-experience and body-expression such us movement, mimics, pantomime, touch. In Dance Movement Therapy body is dominant media of therapeutic process. So this kind of therapy may have positive influence on physiological awareness, body expression of emotions, inducing unconscious impulses, and improving new strategies of behaviour through exploring new patterns and qualities of movement, and integration of cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects in person. In this article some main aspects of dance movement therapy are described such as historical and theoretical background, observation and assessment elements, as well as methods and therapeutic influence in the frame of individual or group process. Source


Domijan A.-M.,University of Zagreb
Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju | Year: 2012

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB1 is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB1 has a wide range of toxic effects, depending on animal species. In horses FB1 causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), in pigs pulmonary oedema and in experimental rodents nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. In humans exposure to FB1 is linked with higher incidence of primary liver cancer and oesophageal cancer, which are frequent in certain regions of the world (such as Transkei region in South Africa) where maize is staple food. The occurrence of neural tube defect in children in some countries of Central America (such as Mexico and Honduras) is connected with the consumption of FB1-contaminated maize-based food. However, possible involvement of FB1 in the development of human diseases is not clear. Nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified FB1 as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). FB 1 is a causative agent of ELEM, a brain disorder in equines, indicating that brain is a target organ of FB1 toxicity. Several studies on experimental animals or on cell cultures of neural origin have established that FB1 has a neurodegenerative potential, although the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still vague. The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature on FB1 neurotoxicity and involved mechanisms, and to offer a new perspective for future studies. Source


Engaging in recreational and regatta sailing has a long tradition throughout the world, and increasingly become accessible to persons with disabilities. The aim of this study was to gain insight the motivation for sailing as a leisure activity and to determine the benefits and positive effects of the sailing Participants were the domestic and international recreational sailors with physical disabilities, and sailors athletes with experience of sailing in the class adapted for the people with disabilities (N=12). Data were collected by using structured individual interview The results of qualitative analysis indicate that both groups of participants have chosen sailing as their leisure activity, stimulated primarily by their environment, and then by personal desire to improve their physical condition. However, after the start-up and active engagement in regular sailing activities, personal motivation of participants was increased, and that encouraged them to continue with sailing. Improvement of physical and psychological health, development of their mental capacities and practical skills, better conditions for their social adaptation and integration, participants recognized as their benefits and positive effects achieved from sailing. These components are also their important motives to continue with practicing sailing. Participants of the study emphasized the importance of promoting sailing as a leisure activity that improves physical condition and health, and as an activity which is available to all people and to the people with disability as well. Furthermore, participation in sailing brings to the participants the possibility to expand their social network, to explore the nature and the sea, and increases feelings of confidence, competence and freedom. Source


Lukic A.,University of Zagreb
European Countryside | Year: 2013

Plurality is considered to be one of the most important indicators of rurality in the contemporary society. But in what sense can plurality and diversified geographic context of countryside make a difference for development of farm tourism, if any? This paper aims to explore the significance of rural diversity of Croatia for farm diversification into leisure-orientated activities. The main method is comparison of spatial distribution of those farms, on the one hand, and seven different types of rural areas, on the other. Among others, the results indicate the significance of overall (mass) tourism development along the coast for development of tourism on agricultural households. Furthermore, age and education are confirmed as important factor in the process. Source


Vukovic-Cvetkovic V.,University of Zagreb
Stroke Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Transcranial Doppler can detect microembolic signals which are characterized by unidirectional high intensity increase, short duration, random occurrence, and a whistling sound. Microembolic signals have been detected in a number of clinical settings: carotid artery stenosis, aortic arch plaques, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, prosthetic heart valves, patent foramen ovale, valvular stenosis, during invasive procedures (angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty), surgery (carotid, cardiopulmonary bypass, orthopedic), and in certain systemic diseases. Microembolic signals are frequent in large artery disease, less commonly detected in cardioembolic stroke, and infrequent in lacunar stroke. This article provides an overview about the current state of technical and clinical aspects of microembolus detection. © 2012 Vlasta Vukovi-Cvetkovi. Source


Bukac M.,University of Houston | Canic S.,University of Houston | Glowinski R.,University of Houston | Glowinski R.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

We present a new model and a novel loosely coupled partitioned numerical scheme modeling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in blood flow allowing non-zero longitudinal displacement. Arterial walls are modeled by a linearly viscoelastic, cylindrical Koiter shell model capturing both radial and longitudinal displacement. Fluid flow is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are fully coupled via kinematic and dynamic coupling conditions. Our numerical scheme is based on a new modified Lie operator splitting that decouples the fluid and structure sub-problems in a way that leads to a loosely coupled scheme which is unconditionally stable. This was achieved by a clever use of the kinematic coupling condition at the fluid and structure sub-problems, leading to an implicit coupling between the fluid and structure velocities. The proposed scheme is a modification of the recently introduced " kinematically coupled scheme" for which the newly proposed modified Lie splitting significantly increases the accuracy. The performance and accuracy of the scheme were studied on a couple of instructive examples including a comparison with a monolithic scheme. It was shown that the accuracy of our scheme was comparable to that of the monolithic scheme, while our scheme retains all the main advantages of partitioned schemes, such as modularity, simple implementation, and low computational costs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Christiaans H.,Technical University of Delft | Almendra R.A.,University of Zagreb
Design Studies | Year: 2010

This paper presents an analysis of software design protocols as one of the contributions to the 2010 international workshop 'Studying Professional Software Design'. The aim of the study described here is to analyse the design process of software designers and to compare the results with that of product designers, an area familiar to the authors. Decision-making is the main focus of this study. A descriptive model of decision-making, developed by the authors, has been used to analyse the protocols of the three software design teams. The results give insight in how software designers process their activities, on the influence of individual or team differences, and what the consequences for their outcomes are. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kupciac I.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The triple-resonant (TR) second-order Raman scattering mechanism in graphene is re-examined. It is shown that the magnitude of the TR contribution to the photon-G' mode coupling function in graphene is one order of magnitude larger than the widely accepted two-resonant coupling. Enhancement of the order of 100 in the Raman intensity, with respect to the usual double-resonant model, is found for the G' band in graphene, and is expected in the related sp 2-based carbon materials, as well. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Kovacic M.,University of Zagreb
Kemija u industriji/Journal of Chemists and Chemical Engineers | Year: 2016

Vials of 2 ml volume for autosamplers are unavoidable laboratory glassware when performing in-strumental analysis. Due to their small size, washing them is a daunting task. Since they are usually used in vast numbers, washing and reusing the vials in a simpler manner could offer cost benefits. This article presents the ALVA-Automated Laboratory Vial washing Assistant innovation, which simplifies and quickens the vial washing procedure, thereby achieving a significant reduction in labour. Source


There is a huge gap between possibilities for achieving high treatment effectiveness and poor results in clinical practice. It is possible to achieve a more positive impact and better treatment outcome by individualizing and personalizing treatments in a more creative and rational manner. This review describes the short history and principles of creative psychopharmacotherapy. © Medicinska naklada. Source


Bozicevic I.,University of Zagreb | Riedner G.,World Health Organization | Haghdoost A.,Kerman Medical University
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of HIV case reporting data for the year 2011 from the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR). Fourteen countries provided data for the year 2011 and reported a total of 4263 HIV cases of which 66.8% were men. The highest number of reported HIV cases in men per 100,000 population was in Oman (5.8), Somalia (5.5) and Iran (3.3), while in women in Somalia (7.6), Oman (3.9) and Morocco (2.4). In the majority of the countries, the most common reported mode of transmission was heterosexual. This could be due to under-reporting of male-to-male transmission and more frequent testing of men than women. © 2014 Bozicevic I et al; licensee International AIDS Society. Source


Jakovcevic D.,University of Zagreb
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND:: Oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in etiology of many cancers, including breast cancer. 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most abundant marker of oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of oxidative DNA damage in different breast cancer molecular surrogate subtypes to investigate the prognostic relevance and role of oxidative base lesion (8-OHdG) in the etiology of breast cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS:: 8-OHdG expression was immunohistochemicaly studied on tissue microarrays constructed from 152 patients with invasive breast cancer. Expression was correlated with other prognostic factors, as well as different breast cancer molecular surrogate subtypes such as luminal A, luminal B [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative], luminal B (HER2 positive), HER2-enriched ad triple-negative tumors.RESULTS:: Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) were more frequently 8-OHdG negative compared with non-TNBCs (P=0.036). There was no statistically significant difference between 8-OHdG expression and other breast cancer molecular subtypes.In univariate analysis, there was no significant difference between 8-OHdG expression and breast cancer–specific death, although in multivariate analysis 8-OHdG overexpression was associated with better breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) (odds ratio=0.04, 95% confidence interval, 0.002-0.62). In Cox regression analysis, patients with moderate and strong 8-OHdG expression had 0.9 times smaller breast cancer death hazard ratio than patients with negative 8-OHdG expression.CONCLUSIONS:: Oxidative stress may have less impact in the pathogenesis of TNBCs compared with other surrogate breast cancer molecular subtypes. 8-OHdG may be a promising biomarker in the prediction of prognosis for breast cancer patients. © 2015 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source


Trkulja V.,University of Zagreb
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety | Year: 2016

Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting. Apixaban displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties: simple twice-daily dosing, low inter- and intrasubject variability, dose and time linearity, and multiple elimination pathways not critically dependent on either renal or metabolic mechanisms. An extensive nonclinical program and the overall clinical development program (all approved and tested indications) provided no signal that would indicate any particular specific safety concern related to apixaban apart from the increased risk of bleeding. With regard to the approved VTE indications, safety (and efficacy) was assessed in five large pivotal Phase III trials. In comparison to currently recommended standard treatments, apixaban shows superior efficacy, while at the same time no excess risk of bleeding in patients undergoing total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty. In treatment of VTE, apixaban shows noninferior efficacy and a reduced risk of bleeding, whereas in extended prophylaxis it reduced the risk of VTE/VTE-related deaths, with no increased risk of relevant bleedings in comparison to placebo. Documented clinical experience with apixaban in daily practice is currently sparse. However, its use is progressively increasing, and there has been no signal so far that would materially change the perception of its safety profile as defined in the premarketing trials. © 2016 Trkulja. Source


Jaric S.,University of Delaware | Markovic G.,University of Zagreb
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

It is well known that in vitro muscles maximize their power output when acting against a moderate resistance regarding their maximum strength. Similar behavior has been observed from in vivo muscular systems in both single-joint and most of the multi-joint maximum performance tasks. We refer to that phenomenon as a strength-dependent behavior, since the optimum external load that maximizes the mechanical power output of particular muscle(s) or neuro-musculoskeletal system corresponds to a certain percent of maximum strength. In this review paper, we present evidence that the optimum load in maximum vertical jumps is one's own body mass, regardless of the strength of the lower limb muscles (i.e., the strength-independent behavior). Although the discussed phenomenon is still underexplored, we believe that several neuro-mechanical mechanisms are involved. Among these are a long-term adaptation of the muscular force-velocity relationship to the body weight and inertia, alteration of the jumping technique, load-specific muscle activation and jumping skills. Further exploration of the discussed strength-independent behavior of the lower limb muscles is of importance for refining various training and rehabilitation procedures, as well as for understanding the design and function of lower limb muscles. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Important characteristics of the Adriatic Sea are the following: a) position of the Po River which is the largest source of fresh water and nutrients in the Mediterranean; b) winter bora winds which participate in the creation of the Northern Adriatic dense water and initiate circulation in the eastern part of the Mediterranean; c) East Adriatic current which brings oligotrophic water from the Eastern Mediterranean along the Croatian coast; d) Istrian front; e) longitudinal and transverse gradient of distribution of physico-chemical and biological characteristics; f) phytopiankton bloom with appearance of matter in organic macro-aggregates in the Northern Adriatic; g) small difference between ebb and tide; h) karst hydrogeology and existence of highly stratified estuaries along the Croatian coast; i) larger share of small-size fractions of phytopiankton in the total primary biomass, and a larger share of bacterial biomass in the total microbial biomass in the Southern Adriatic than in the Northern Adriatic; j) isolated habitats originating from karst submersion. The most important characteristic of the Eastern Adriatic (which differentiates it from the Western Adriatic) is its oligotrophy, which is a comparative advantage which Croatia needs to use for development of appropriate economic activities. Source


Ukrainczyk N.,University of Zagreb
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2010

The hydration of iron-rich calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been investigated by differential calorimeter and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (QXRD). A simplified stoichiometric model of early age CAC hydration based on reaction schemes of the principal mineral monocalcium aluminate was employed. The CAC characteristic feature of retardation of nucleation and growth mechanism with temperature requires employing more than one kinetic mechanism to describe the resulting complex hydration kinetics. This paper proposes a single equation kinetic model of CAC hydration which comprises simultaneously three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, chemical interaction and mass transfer. A gradual change between kinetic mechanisms was grasped with a reasonable inter-dependency of the kinetic parameters. The overall hydration kinetics was described relative to the amount of the both reactants, cement and free water. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Serman A.,Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Serman L.,University of Zagreb
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2011

Rodents provide an excellent experimental model to study human placental development. In this review, our aim was to explain major events that underlie the placental development in mammals in general, and specifically in rodent. Those events include trophoblast cell proliferation, decidual reaction and contact between the mesenchyme of the allantois with ectoplacental cone, all orchestrated by activation of a series of genes. We also aimed to compare molecular and genetic events of rodent and human placentation. Employing the rodent placenta development model will yield better understanding of these processes in other mammals, especially in humans. Source


Segvic S.,University of Zagreb | Remazeilles A.,Tecnalia | Chaumette F.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, the performance of a topological-metric visual-path- following framework is investigated in different environments. The framework relies on a monocular camera as the only sensing modality. The path is represented as a series of reference images such that each neighboring pair contains a number of common landmarks. Local 3-D geometries are reconstructed between the neighboring reference images to achieve fast feature prediction. This condition allows recovery from tracking failures. During navigation, the robot is controlled using image-based visual servoing. The focus of this paper is on the results from a number of experiments that were conducted in different environments, lighting conditions, and seasons. The experiments with a robot car show that the framework is robust to moving objects and moderate illumination changes. It is also shown that the system is capable of online path learning. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Background: While the research and treatment focus of biological aspects of depression has traditionally centered on neutrotransmitters disturbances, there has been relatively little attention paid to the chronobiological aspects of depression that offer rapid acting chronotherapeutis and from recently also an innovative circadian rhythms resynchronizing antidepressant. Objective: This article discusses chronobiological aspects of psychiatric treatment, particularly related to depression. It is concerned with chronotherapeutics and pharmacological interventions to resychronize circadian rhythms, particularly focused on agomelatine, an innovative antidepressant targeting melatonergic M1/M2 and serotonergic 5-HT2c receptors. Discussion: Depression can be explained as dysfunction at the nexus of the body, brain and mind, three mutually very dependent components, associated through circadian pace makers at the molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. Mental disorders, particularly depression, are common in people with circadian rest-activity cycle disturbances and sleep-wake problems. The circadian rest-activity and sleep-wake cycle disturbances are risk factors for developing and recurrence of mental disorders as well as, what is very important, they are associated with worse outcome. The interrelationships between circadian rhythm disturbances and depression is very complex, and the fundamental question is whether they trigger depression or whether these disturbances arise as a consequence of the disease. However, both depression and circadian rhythm disturbances may have a common aetiology: a decreased cellurar resilience associated with lower resistance to stressful events. Treating depression pharmacologicaly through the restoration of circadian rhythms may open a new era of superior management of depression and other mental disorders. Conclusion: Chronotherapeutic strategies that reset the internal clock may have specific advantage for the treatment of depression and other mental disorders. There is still a lot of research to be done on utilising chronotherapeutic principles in clinical practice, particularly regarding the specific indications. Agomelatine seems to be an promising resynchronizing agent expanding the field of chronopharmacology and inducing new treatment strategy. © Medicinska naklada. Source


Asic K.,University of Zagreb
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2016

The effectiveness of targeted therapies is currently limited, as almost all patients eventually acquire resistance within year/year and a half from therapy initiation and a small subset of a patients fail to respond at all, demonstrating intrinsic resistance. The aim of this review was to determine the potential common features and differences between the mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to targeted therapies by analyzing established resistance-generating alterations for ten FDA-approved targeted drugs. The frequency of alterations underlying intrinsic and acquired resistance shows distinctive pattern, where dominant mechanisms of intrinsic resistance include aberrations of signals downstream or upstream of the targeted protein and dominant mechanisms of acquired resistance refer to lesions in the target itself or alterations of signals at target-level that can mimic or compensate for target function. It appears that during the evolution of acquired resistance, the tumor cell is inclined to preserve the same oncogene addiction on a targeted protein it had prior to drug administration. On the other hand, intrinsic resistance develops early in tumorogenesis and is based on randomly selected mutated signals between targeted and non-targeted signaling pathways, leading to the acquisition of cancer hallmarks. In general, there is an overlap between the mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance, but the occurrence frequency and distribution of alterations underlying intrinsic and acquired resistance to targeted therapies are significantly different. Focus should be placed on different group of genes in pursuing predictive markers for intrinsic and acquired resistance to targeted therapies. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Vrcek V.,University of Zagreb | Vinkovic Vrcek I.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study was undertaken (i) to optimise and validate a suitable method for multi-element determination in cereal products and (ii) to evaluate multi-element content differences in commercially available conventional vs. organic wheat flours. Presented ICP-MS method is simple and accurate for the determination of eighteen elements in cereal food. Obtained results show differences in metal content between conventional and organic wheat flours and confirm that both types of production are well within the toxicological safety limits regarding the metal contents. The significant differences among conventional vs. organic wheat flours were obtained for As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni and V. Toxic metals (Al, As, Cd and Pb) input was higher in conventional compared with organic wheat flours. However, further and long-term research is needed to clearly underline the effects of organic agricultural practice on the quality of food products. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source


Peric T.,University of Zagreb | Babic Z.,University of Split | Veza I.,University of Split
International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing | Year: 2013

One of the possible conceptions for the survival in a turbulent world market is a chain cooperation among the producer, his suppliers and customers, according to the concept of supply chain management. The problem of vendor selection and determination of material quantities supplied is one of the most important activities in the supply chain. The purpose of this article is to propose a model for vendor selection and determination of supply quotas in the area of flour supply by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective linear programming (LP) model solved by fuzzy LP method, based on the decision-making in a fuzzy environment, and to point to the advantages of the proposed model in comparison to some other vendor selection and supply quantity determination models. The proposed model applied in the concrete problem of vendor selection and determination of supply quotas proved to be very efficient in determining the priority of alternatives, taking into account all the criteria and sub-criteria, as well as in defining criteria weights that express the decision-maker's preferences, which allows a simple sensitivity analysis of the obtained solutions. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Cindric M.,University of Zagreb
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2013

Alterations in the intestinal barrier permeability occur in a broad spectrum of abdominally related pathologies, mostly due to disturbed oxidative homeostasis and increased lipid peroxidation. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation product, is physiologically present in healthy gastric mucosa, but is increased in early stages of colon cancer and patients with duodenal peptic ulcer. Nevertheless, such supraphysiological levels of HNE have not yet been associated with increased intestinal permeability, even though, as we have described in this paper, they could play important role. In vitro model of intestinal barrier was established by growing Caco-2 cell line on cell culture permeable inserts. The pyridoindole derivative stobadine in hydrophilic and lipophilic form was used for barrier model protection. Both forms of stobadine were able to prevent damaging HNE effects, and reduce generation of reactive oxygen species and permeability of the intestinal barrier. Immunocytochemical analysis has confirmed beneficial effect of stobadine in reducing the formation of HNE-protein conjugates in the cells. Lipophilic form of stobadine proved to be more efficient than hydrophilic, implying importance of lipids in maintaining barrier function. The results obtained indicate that HNE might be important factor affecting intestinal barrier integrity, while stobadine could efficiently protect intestinal cells against harmful HNE effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kodiah Beyeh N.,University of Jyvaskyla | Cetina M.,University of Jyvaskyla | Cetina M.,University of Zagreb | Rissanen K.,University of Jyvaskyla
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The first examples of halogen bonded analogues of deep cavity cavitands with guest binding properties, formed between N-alkyl ammonium resorcinarene halides as acceptors and bromotrichloromethane as the donor, are reported in the solid state and in solution. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Paar N.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2010

This paper provides an insight into several open problems in the quest for novel modes of excitation in nuclei with isospin asymmetry, deformation and finite-temperature characteristics in stellar environments. Major unsolved problems include the nature of pygmy dipole resonances, the quest for various multipole and spin-isospin excitations both in neutron-rich and proton drip-line nuclei mainly driven by loosely bound nucleons, excitations in unstable deformed nuclei and evolution of their properties with the shape phase transition. Exotic modes of excitation in nuclei at finite temperatures characteristic of supernova evolution present open problems with a possible impact in modeling astrophysically relevant weak interaction rates. All these issues challenge self-consistent many-body theory frameworks at the frontiers of on-going research, including nuclear energy density functionals, both phenomenological and constrained by the strong interaction physics of QCD, models based on low-momentum two-nucleon interaction Vlow-k and correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction VUCOM, supplemented by three-body force, as well as two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived from the chiral effective field theory. Joined theoretical and experimental efforts, including research with radioactive isotope beams, are needed to provide insight into dynamical properties of nuclei away from the valley of stability, involving the interplay of isospin asymmetry, deformation and finite temperature. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Herceg-Bulic I.,University of Zagreb | Kucharski F.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

In this paper a potential seasonally lagged impact of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the subsequent spring climate over the European region is explored. Supported by the observational indication of the wintertime NAO-spring climate connection, a modeling approach is used that employs the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) as a stand-alone model and that is also coupled with a mixed layer ocean in the North Atlantic. Both observational and modeled data indicate a pattern of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic as a possible link between wintertime NAO and climate anomalies in the following spring. The SST pattern is associated with wintertime NAO and persists through the following spring. It is argued that these SST anomalies can affect the springtime atmospheric circulation and surface conditions over Europe. The atmospheric response is recognized in observed as well as in modeled data (mean sea level pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Additionally, an impact on springtime storm activity is found as well. It is demonstrated that the SST anomalies associated with wintertime NAO persist into the subsequent spring. These SST anomalies enable atmosphere-ocean interaction over the North Atlantic and consequently affect the climate variability over Europe. Although it has a relatively weak impact, the described mechanism provides a temporal teleconnection between the wintertime NAO and subsequent spring climate anomalies. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source


The problem of plate stability under patch-loading can be analyzed using a variety of mathematical models by which the problem can be more or less realistically described. Models adopted in this paper serve as the basis for checking applicability of the analytical solution when subjected to complex load conditions. The accuracy of the procedure, proven by comparison with the data obtained through numerical models, and achieved by introduction of the exact stress function and use of appropriate deflection functions, confirms correctness of the solution presented in the paper. Source


Lipozencic J.,Academy of Medical science of Croatia | Hadzavdic S.L.,University of Zagreb
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2014

Perioral dermatitis is a relatively common inflammatory facial skin disorder that predominantly affects women. It is rarely diagnosed in children. A typical perioral dermatitis presentation involves the eruption of papules and pustules that may recur over weeks to months, occasionally with fine scales. The differential diagnosis includes seborrheic dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, acne vulgaris, lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei, polymorphous light eruption, steroidinduced rosacea, granulomatous perioral dermatitis, contact dermatitis (allergic and irritant), and even basal cell carcinoma. The histopathology is similar to that of rosacea, with a perivascular and perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and sebaceous hyperplasia. The etiology of perioral dermatitis is unknown, but the uncritical use of topical corticosteroids often precedes skin lesions. Physical sunscreens with high sun protection factors may cause perioral dermatitis in children. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kaufmann P.R.,University of Zagreb
Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik | Year: 2016

With the goal of analysing the forms of scenarios relevant for spatial research and planning, and ways in which the scenario method is contextually used at different spatial levels, a wide encompassing literature review was conducted in relation to typologies and examples of scenario method usage. Given the spatial and temporal frame, the purpose and procedure of scenario construction and resulting scenarios, eleven scenario studies in European countries and nine studies in other countries, described in published academic papers, were selected for closer analysis. On the basis of analysis of scenario typologies, underlying scenarios were recognised: A) explorative, descriptive, forecasting – normative, anticipatory, backcasting; b) qualitative – quantitative; c) expert – participatory; d) baseline – policy; and e) other types of scenarios. The analysis of selected examples of scenario method usage showed especially: The presence of the scenario method in different countries on different spatial levels; relevance in evaluating of alternatives of possible future developments and providing a firm ground for strategies and specific planning and policy measures; connections of the method to the integral approach to spatial development, but also to regionally and locally specific topics; the role of scenarios as links between environmental science research and spatial planning. © 2016, Croatian Geographical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Gasparovic S.,University of Zagreb
Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik | Year: 2016

This paper deals with the issue of transport disadvantage with the aim of giving a comprehensive overview of transport disadvantage theoretical postulates to provide a better understanding of the mentioned issue and to contribute to future research in the area of transport geography and transport planning. Transport disadvantage is a phenomenon that can affect both people and spaces, and occurs if mobility and accessibility are hindered, limited or disabled. The first part of this paper introduces definitions of transport disadvantage based on an extensive data collection and relevant scientific and professional literature. Next, various aspects of the impact of transport disadvantage on space and society are presented, while the last part of the paper describes the consequences of the impact of transport disadvantage. Transport disadvantage may also lead to social exclusion and, therefore, it should become an integral part of social policy and transport planning. © 2016, Croatian Geographical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Malvic T.,University of Zagreb
Geological Quarterly | Year: 2012

The Neogene and Quaternary depositional and structural characteristics of the southwestern Croatian Pannonian Basin System (CPBS) are unique within the Pannonian Basin System. Due to its position at the basin margin, the area was covered by shallow and partially isolated parts of the Pannonian Sea in the Badenian (Middle Miocene). Later, in the Pannonian and Pontian ages, the area contained several brackish lakes, the largest being Sava Lake and Drava Lake. Tectonic events, sedimentation and depositional mechanisms occurring during the Neogene in the CPBS have revealed that those areas can be considered as former shallow seas or lakes dominated by clastic sedimentation. Marine coarse-grained clastic sedimentation took place during the Badenian, with local sources of material and numerous alluvial fans developed during the first transtensional phase. In the Pannonian and Pontian (Late Miocene), sediments were deposited by turbidity currents from a single, distal material source located in the Eastern Alps during the second transtensional tectonic phase. Source


Sremac J.,University of Zagreb
Geologia Croatica | Year: 2012

Sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian age outcrop at several regions in Croatia. Most of these rocks were deposited in a marine environment, in different tectonic units: Karst (External) Dinarides, Internal Dinarides and Tisia. Pennsylvanian deposits contain a significant amount of terrestrial debris, related to the uplift of the Hercynian mountain belt and its intense erosion. Remnants of land flora are not common, but are present at almost all localities. The most diverse and the best preserved Pennsylvanian land flora in Croatia was discovered on the Velebit Mt. and in the Lika Region. It was dominated by ferns, pteridosperms and cordaitales. The fossil flora from Banovina is less diverse, with pteridosperms, scarce ferns, horsetails and lycopods. The sporadic occurrence of lycopods and horsetails was reported from the mountains of NW Croatia. In the Gorski Kotar Region only plant detritus was observed. Ferns and pteridosperms from Papuk Mt. were discovered in older, Mississippian deposits.Palaeobotanical data reopen the discussion about the palaeogeographic position of the research areas. Source


Alajbeg I.,University of Zagreb
Medicus | Year: 2012

This review discusses oral aspects of sexually transmissible diseases (STDs). STDs can affect oral mucosa, either due to a local infection or a systemic infection. Furthermore, whether they are transmitted orally or genitally, some STDs may produce characteristic oral findings, which often lead to a correct diagnosis. The review addresses oral aspects of bacterial (gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydial infection), viral (HSV-1&2, HPV, HIV), and candidal infections. Special attention is given to controversial standpoints, such as the existence of gonococcal stomatitis and the role of oral sex in oral cancer development. The role of oral care professionals will be essential in a multidisciplinary approach to the prevention and diagnosis of STDs. Source


Martinec R.,University of Zagreb
Archive of Oncology | Year: 2012

Aromatherapy is related to the controlled use of essential oils obtained from the named botanical sources. Results of a number of investigations show that chemically active substances in essential oils could have positive effect on different physiological, psychological, endocrine and immunological functions. Because of useful effectiveness on human well-being, aromatherapy could be a part of the complementary therapies practiced by rehabilitation and different health care professionals in hospital, hospice and community settings. Also, it can be used to enhance the quality of life in cancer patients and to help control the side-effects and symptoms of the disease. Because of specific psychophysiological reactions in cancer patients, application of aromatherapy demands a serious approach in evaluation of the patient's needs, essential oils' selections, planning of treatment and monitoring. © 2012, Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica. Source


Orsolic N.,University of Zagreb | Car N.,PLIVA Inc
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression, and genotoxicity are the major limitation for the clinical use of cisplatin as an anti-tumoural drug. Hyperthermia enhances the clastogenicity of cisplatin. In addition, hyperthermia is a promising approach for cancer therapy because it not only kills cancer cells directly, but also activates anti-cancer immunity as an indirect effect. The aim of this study was to determine whether preventive treatment with quercetin (QU) can reduce cisplatin-induced DNA damage in liver, kidney and blood cells and whether QU has the potential to serve as a beneficial supplement before cisplatin hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in order to gain immunomodulatory responses of mice to the tumor. Preventive treatment of mice with QU (50 mg kg-1) had a protective effect on cisplatin-induced DNA damage in normal cells, except kidney cells, in both normothermic and hyperthermic conditions without interfering with the antitumor efficacy of the combined regimen. Immunostimulation by QU is stressed as an important factor in the tumor-inhibiting effect of hyperthermia in addition to the well known selective heat killing of neoplastic cells. In conclusion, these results suggested that preventive treatment with QU could protect the blood, liver and kidney cells of mice against HIPEC-induced injury and increase survival of mice by improving the antitumor adaptive immunity with hyperthermia. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source


Duic N.,University of Zagreb | Rosen M.A.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

The 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) was held in 2013 and was attended by 550 experts from 62 countries representing six continents. The conference was focused on the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing or enhancing them with a knowledge-based economy. The conference covered the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainability, along with methods for assessing and measuring the sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. The special issue of Energy Conversion and Management includes selected contributions from the 8th SDEWES Conference and aims to provide energy researchers and experts information about future developments in this area. Source


Kupcic I.,University of Zagreb
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2015

The frequency and wave-vector-dependent memory function in the longitudinal conductivity tensor of weakly interacting electronic systems is calculated by using an approach based on quantum transport equations. In this paper, we show that there is a close relation between the single-electron self-energy, the electron-hole pair self-energy, and the memory function. It is also shown in which way singular long-range Coulomb interactions, together with other q≈0 scattering processes, drop out of both the memory function and the related transport equations. The theory is illustrated on heavily doped graphene, which is the prototype of weakly interacting single-band electron-phonon systems. A steplike increase of the width of the quasiparticle peak in angle-resolved photoemission spectra at frequencies of the order of the frequency of in-plane optical phonons is shown to be consistent with the behavior of an intraband plasmon peak in the energy loss spectroscopy spectra. Both anomalies can be understood as a direct consequence of weak electron scattering from in-plane optical phonons. ©2015 American Physical Society. Source


Sesar B.,University of Washington | Sesar B.,California Institute of Technology | Juric M.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Ivezic Z.,University of Washington | Ivezic Z.,University of Zagreb
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We use Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data for 170 deg 2, recalibrated and transformed to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri photometric system, to study the distribution of near-turnoff main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo along four lines of sight to heliocentric distances of 35kpc. We find that the halo stellar number density profile becomes steeper at Galactocentric distances greater than R gal 28kpc, with the power-law index changing from ninner = -2.62 ± 0.04 to n outer = -3.8 ± 0.1. In particular, we test a series of single power-law models and find them to be strongly disfavored by the data. The parameters for the best-fit Einasto profile are n = 2.2 ± 0.2 and R e = 22.2 ± 0.4kpc. We measure the oblateness of the halo to be q ≡ c/a = 0.70 ± 0.01 and detect no evidence of it changing across the range of probed distances. The Sagittarius stream is detected in the l = 173° and b = -62° direction as an overdensity of [Fe/H] ∼ -1.5dex stars at R gal ∼ 32kpc, providing a new constraint for the Sagittarius stream and dark matter halo models. We also detect the Monoceros stream as an overdensity of [Fe/H] > ∼ -1.5dex stars in the l = 232° and b = 26° direction at R gal ≲ 25kpc. In the two sight lines where we do not detect significant substructure, the median metallicity is found to be independent of distance within systematic uncertainties ([Fe/H] -1.5 0.1dex). © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Ilic O.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Jablan M.,University of Zagreb | Joannopoulos J.D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Celanovic I.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Soljacic M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems with carefully tailored emitter-PV properties show large promise for a new temperature range (600 - 1200K) solid state energy conversion, where conventional thermoelectric (TE) devices cannot operate due to high temperatures and far-field TPV schemes suffer from low efficiency and power density. We present a detailed theoretical study of several different implementations of thermal emitters using plasmonic materials and graphene. We find that optimal improvements over the black body limit are achieved for low bandgap semiconductors and properly matched plasmonic frequencies. For a pure plasmonic emitter, theoretically predicted generated power density of 14 W/cm2 and efficiency of 36% can be achieved at 600K (hot-side), for 0.17eV bandgap (InSb). Developing insightful approximations, we argue that large plasmonic losses can, contrary to intuition, be helpful in enhancing the overall near-field transfer. We discuss and quantify the properties of an optimal near-field photovoltaic (PV) diode. In addition, we study plasmons in graphene and show that doping can be used to tune the plasmonic dispersion relation to match the PV cell bangap. In case of graphene, theoretically predicted generated power density of 6(120) W/cm 2 and efficiency of 35(40)% can be achieved at 600(1200)K, for 0.17eV bandgap. With the ability to operate in intermediate temperature range, as well as high efficiency and power density, near-field TPV systems have the potential to complement conventional TE and TPV solid state heat-to-electricity conversion devices. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source


Sondi I.,Center for Marine and Environmental Research Institute | Juracic M.,University of Zagreb
Sedimentology | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the formation of whiting events, drifting milky clouds of water, and their role in the formation of recent aragonite sediments in a semi-enclosed, karstic, marine lake on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). This study is based on detailed structural, morphological and sedimentological characterization of, and strontium distribution in, particles originating from suspended matter and sediments. The particles were examined by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction analyses, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as electron microprobe energy dispersive X-ray analyses and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Morphological features, granulometric characteristics, strontium enrichment and characteristic details of the aragonite structure in the needle-like particles were identical in both the suspended matter collected during whiting events and in the bottom sediments. The whiting events, which occasionally occurred in surface waters, were found to be sites of short-term active authigenic aragonite precipitation and the main source of fine-grained aragonite mud. This study exemplifies the role of biologically induced inorganic precipitation processes in the formation of recent aragonite mud in a restricted Mediterranean environment. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 International Association of Sedimentologists. Source


Cindric K.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service | Pasaric Z.,University of Zagreb | Gajic-Capka M.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2010

Systematic statistical analysis of dry day sequences, which are defined according to 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mm of precipitation-per-day thresholds, is performed on seasonal and yearly basis. The data analysed come from 25 Croatian meteorological stations and cover the period 1961-2000. Climatological features of the mean and maximum dry spell durations, as well as the frequency of long dry spells (>20 days) are discussed. The results affirm the three main climatological regions in Croatia, with the highlands exhibiting shorter dry spells than the mainland, and the coastal region exhibiting longer dry spells. The prevailing positive trend of both mean and maximal durations is detected during winter and spring seasons, while negative trend dominate in autumn for all thresholds. Positive field significant trends of mean dry spell duration with 5 and 10 mm thresholds are found during spring and the same is valid for annual maximum dry spell duration with a 10 mm threshold. It is found that the Discrete Autoregressive Moving Average (DARMA(1,1)) model can be used to estimate the probabilities of dry spells in Croatia that are up to 20-30 days long. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Two-dimensional gravity modelling is applied to the contact of the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin as a contribution to solving structural and tectonic relations in the area characterised by very complex relations. An interpretation procedure, which improves the resolution of gravity modelling by the use of seismic refraction data, has been developed. On the Alp07 profile, which is set up in the framework of the ALP 2002 seismic experiment and stretches in Croatia from Istra over the Dinarides to the Drava River, seismic modelling was performed in order to determine the structure of the lithosphere. A 2-D gravity modelling was also carried out on the profile to obtain calibrated rock densities using interfaces from the seismic model.Calibrated densities were applied to other profiles set up in the study area for the purpose of determining the structural relations. The structural units determined on the Alp07 profile (Pannonian crust, Transition zone and Dinaridic crust) can be easily followed on all other profiles. The Transition zone, which separates the Pannonian and the Dinaridic crusts, is very wide and characterised by lateral and vertical changes in velocities and densities. It corresponds with the ophiolite zones in more recent tectonic maps. The Tisia block can be compared with the Pannonian crust, whereas the Dinaridic crust would relate to the structural unites of the Adriatic. However, the NE boundary of the Transition zone is located much further north than the boundary of the Tisia block in published tectonic maps. Due to a marked 2-D structure, the obtained results enabled the development of a 3-D structural map of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. The main fault in the upper mantle, which was defined on the basis of geometrical relations, indicates a subduction of the Adriatic microplate beneath the Pannonian segment in the NE wing of the Dinarides. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source


Di Napoli E.,Julich Research Center | Di Napoli E.,RWTH Aachen | Berljafa M.,University of Zagreb
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2013

In Density Functional Theory simulations based on the LAPW method, each self-consistent field cycle comprises dozens of large dense generalized eigenproblems. In contrast to real-space methods, eigenpairs solving for problems at distinct cycles have either been believed to be independent or at most very loosely connected. In a recent study (Di Napoli et al., 2012) [13], it was demonstrated that, contrary to belief, successive eigenproblems in a sequence are strongly correlated with one another. In particular, by monitoring the subspace angles between eigenvectors of successive eigenproblems, it was shown that these angles decrease noticeably after the first few iterations and become close to collinear. This last result suggests that we can manipulate the eigenvectors, solving for a specific eigenproblem in a sequence, as an approximate solution for the following eigenproblem. In this work we present results that are in line with this intuition. We provide numerical examples where opportunely selected block iterative eigensolvers benefit from the reuse of eigenvectors by achieving a substantial speed-up. The results presented will eventually open the way to a widespread use of block iterative eigensolvers in ab initio electronic structure codes based on the LAPW approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Dumic M.,University of Zagreb
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

We report herein a remarkable family in which the mother of a woman with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis was found to have a 46,XY karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes, mosaicism in cultured skin fibroblasts (80% 46,XY and 20% 45,X), and a predominantly 46,XY karyotype in the ovary (95% 46,XY and 5% 45,X). © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Korpela C.,Drexel University | Orsag M.,University of Zagreb | Oh P.,Drexel University
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems | Year: 2014

We propose a framework for valve turning using an aerial vehicle endowed with dual multi-degree of freedom manipulators. A tightly integrated control scheme between the aircraft and manipulators is mandated for tasks requiring aircraft to environmental coupling. Feature detection is well-established for both ground and aerial vehicles and facilitates valve detection and arm tracking. Force feedback upon contact with the environment provides compliant motions in the presence of position error and coupling with the valve. We present recent results validating the valve turning framework using the proposed aircraft-arm system during flight tests. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Mikus P.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service | Telisman Prtenjak M.,University of Zagreb | Strelec Mahovic N.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2012

In this study, deep convective activity, identified by lightning measurements and associated favorable synoptic conditions, is analyzed. The focus was on the warm part of the year (April to October) during the period 2006-2009 over six sub-regions in Croatia. A convectively active day is defined as a day with at least ten lightning strikes over the target sub-region. The obtained dataset is used to determine the climatology of the frequency and regional distribution of convective days and their inter-month variability. The analysis shows that 56% of all examined days, i.e., every second day during the warm part of the year, are days with convective activity. The most convectively active sub-region is the North Adriatic, with 62.4% of all days in the analyzed sample. The areas eastward of 16°E exhibit a peak in convective activity in June, contrary to the more western sub-regions, which show a maximum later in the summer, from July to August. The average temporal characteristics, such as typical duration, onset and cessation of convection, are also estimated. In all sub-regions, the convective activity begins in the early afternoon and ends mostly in the evening. Nocturnal convection occurs more frequently along the Adriatic coast.In the second part of this study, the dominant large-scale weather types and upper-level flow regimes, corresponding to the convectively active days, were determined using surface and upper-levels pressure fields. The lightning flashes are frequently detected in the non-gradient pressure field (23%); in the center (18%), in the leading (15%) and in the rear (12%) parts of the cyclone; and in the front part of a trough (11%). The southwesterly upper-level flow represents the most common flow regime (38%) in the days with convective activity. Slightly less is the northeasterly flow, which occurs with a frequency of approximately 23%, and the northwesterly flow, with a frequency of 18% of all selected days. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bulic I.H.,University of Zagreb
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2012

The sensitivity of winter atmosphere to ENSO forcing is analysed from an ensemble of integrations forced with observed monthly sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1854-2002 with particular interest on the North Atlantic European (NAE) region. A categorisation into warm and cold events, according to the strength of Niño3.4 index, is performed providing main features of simulated atmospheric response to ENSO forcing. A symmetry in a spatial pattern of the atmospheric response to warm and cold phase is found, but with stronger amplitude for warm events. An additional experiment with SST forcing restricted to the tropical Pacific confirmed that atmospheric variability over the Northern Hemisphere is considerably affected by ENSO, even over the distant NAE region. Signals calculated over the Niño3.4, Pacific-North American (PNA) and NAE regions are analysed as functions of the amplitude of the winter (JFM) SST anomalies in the Niño3.4 region. Both the precipitation and large-scale circulation signals over the Niño3.4 and PNA regions gradually increase with the intensity of SST forcing. However, an asymmetry in amplitude of atmospheric response respecting the polarity of the tropical SST anomalies is found. The tropical and PNA signals associated with warm ENSO events are found to be stronger than the signals related to the cold events. A saturation effect is noticed for the cold events. No such evident characteristics are obtained for the NAE region, but the results imply discernible ENSO impact on atmospheric signals over that region. Using a correlation coefficient approach, it is shown that the JFM Niño3.4 SST anomaly affects not only the atmospheric response in the simultaneous season, but also during the next few seasons. Significant correlations between the strength of ENSO and the signals are found for the Niño3.4 and PNA regions. Although with smaller absolute values, statistically significant correlations are also found for the NAE region. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society. Source


Kovac S.,University College London | Kovac S.,University of Munster | Domijan A.-M.,University of Zagreb | Walker M.C.,University College London | Abramov A.Y.,University College London
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Seizure activity has been proposed to result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then contribute to seizureinduced neuronal damage and eventually cell death. Although the mechanisms of seizure-induced ROS generation are unclear, mitochondria and cellular calcium overload have been proposed to have a crucial role. We aim to determine the sources of seizureinduced ROS and their contribution to seizure-induced cell death. Using live cell imaging techniques in glioneuronal cultures, we show that prolonged seizure-like activity increases ROS production in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, however, mitochondria did not contribute to ROS production during seizure-like activity. ROS were generated primarily by NADPH oxidase and later by xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in a calcium-independent manner. This calcium-independent neuronal ROS production was accompanied by an increase in intracellular [Na+] through NMDA receptor activation. Inhibition of NADPH or XO markedly reduced seizure-like activity-induced neuronal apoptosis. These findings demonstrate a critical role for ROS in seizureinduced neuronal cell death and identify novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Borrelli F.,University of California at Berkeley | Baotic M.,University of Zagreb | Pekar J.,Honeywell | Stewart G.,Honeywell
Automatica | Year: 2010

Finite-time optimal control problems with quadratic performance index for linear systems with linear constraints can be transformed into Quadratic Programs (QPs). Model Predictive Control requires the on-line solution of such QPs. This can be obtained by using a QP solver or evaluating the associated explicit solution. The objective of this note is twofold. First, we shed some light on the computational complexity and storage demand of the two approaches when an active set QP solver is used. Second, we show the existence of alternative algorithms with a different tradeoff between memory and computational time. In particular, we present an algorithm which, for a certain class of systems, outperforms standard explicit solvers both in terms of memory and worst case computational time. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kovsca Janjatovic A.,University of Zagreb
European journal of histochemistry : EJH | Year: 2012

Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP)] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS), were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc) but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP). Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days), reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs) between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95), SP (rs=0.97/0.97) and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95), respectively, showed positive correlations (P<0.05) according to Roemer Orphal scale. Current study showed that postnatal development of porcine IMIS was accompanied by a substantial increase in the secretion of neuropeptides/enzyme tested and that these molecules may participate in the functional maturation of immunoregulatory/bactericidal mechanisms of the local (intestinal) immune defense in young pigs. Source


Cala S.,University of Zagreb
CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal | Year: 2012

BackgroundRecent studies have indicated stabilization in the incidence rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a number of European countries, the USA, and Japan. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the incidence and prevalence trends of RRT in Croatia over the past decade. MethodsData from the Croatian Registry of Renal Replacement therapy from 2000 to 2009 were analysed. Trends in incidence and prevalence were examined using the Poisson regression and Joinpoint regression analysis. ResultsThe total adjusted incidence rate of RRT for ESRD increased from 106.1 per million population (pmp) in 2000 to 140.4 pmp in 2004, at annual percentage change (APC) 7.0 [95 confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 12.6]. From 2004 to 2009, there was no rise in incidence [APC-1.0 (95 CI-4.5, 2.6)]. Continuous growth in incidence was present only in males [APC 2.6 (95 CI 0.9, 4.4)], in patients 65 years and older [APC 5.5 (95 CI 3.4, 7.6)], in patients with diabetes [APC 2.4 (95 CI 0.5, 4.4)], hypertension/renovascular disease [APC 6.1 (95 CI 1.6, 10.8)] and unknown/missing diagnosis [APC13.8 (95 CI 9.0, 18.8)]. The total adjusted prevalence rate rose from 598.7 pmp in 2000 to 785.6 pmp in 2004, at an annual rise of 7.5 (95 CI 5.8, 9.3). In the 200409 period, the growth of RRT slowed to APC 2.4 (95 CI 1.2, 3.5), and reached 890.8 pmp in 2009. ConclusionsAfter a rapid increase in the incidence of RRT in Croatia from 2000 to 2004, the incidence rate has stabilized during the 200409 period. The stabilization of incidence is followed by a reduction in the growth in prevalence rate. The stabilization of RRT incidence could be attributed to the successful prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases that simultaneously improved renal survival. © 2012 The Author. Source


Guengerich F.P.,Vanderbilt University | Rendic S.,University of Zagreb
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2010

The field of drug metabolism has changed dramatically in the past generation. Two of the driving forces are the advances in analytical chemistry and our understanding of the biological systems. With regard to the former, the advances in liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS) are extremely impressive, and the speed of analysis has been increased even more with the recent developments in ultraperformance LC (UPLC). NMR analysis on a sub-microgram scale is not unusual, and the 2-dimensional methods are also very impressive. The biology underlying gene regulation is highly developed, and the recombinant methods have greatly facilitated progress in the field. Today it is common to design discovery and development efforts focused on critical human phenomena from, the very start, with animal studies supporting the efficacy and safety efforts. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Negative pressure sound therapy is one of the supportive options for chronic wound treatment. Good results have been reported in increasing angiogenesis, improving blood flow in the wounds, decreasing edema, regulating moist environment, granulation tissue stimulation and wound retraction. In addition, there is significant reduction in bacterial burden and in the amount of harmful products (exotoxins, endotoxins, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases) in the wound. The healing time for chronic wounds is reduced in comparison with other conservative treatments. Source


Nicaise C.,Free University of Colombia | Mitrecic D.,Free University of Colombia | Mitrecic D.,University of Zagreb | Pochet R.,Free University of Colombia
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Stem cell research raises hopes for incurable neurodegenerative diseases. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affecting the motoneurones of the central nervous system (CNS), stem cell-based therapy aims to replace dying host motoneurones by transplantation of cells in disease-affected regions. Moreover, transplanted stem cells can serve as a source of trophic factors providing neuroprotection, slowing down neuronal degeneration and disease progression. Aim: To determine the profile of seven trophic factors expressed by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and neural stem cells (NSC) upon stimulation with CNS protein extracts from SOD1-linked ALS rat model. Methods: Culture of rat MSC, NSC and fibroblasts were incubated with brain and spinal cord extracts from SOD1(G93A) transgenic rats and mRNA expression of seven growth factors was measured by quantitative PCR. Results: MSC, NSC and fibroblasts exhibited different expression patterns. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotropic factor were significantly upregulated in both NSC and MSC cultures upon stimulation with SOD1(G93A) CNS extracts. Fibroblast growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor and glial-derived neurotropic factor were upregulated in NSC, while the same factors were downregulated in MSC. Vascular endothelial growth factor A upregulation was restricted to MSC and fibroblasts. Surprisingly, SOD1(G93A) spinal cord, but not the brain extract, upregulated brain-derived neurotropic factor in MSC and glial-derived neurotropic factor in NSC. Conclusions: These results suggest that inherent characteristics of different stem cell populations define their healing potential and raise the concept of ALS environment in stem cell transplantation. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society. Source


Meinsma G.,University of Twente | Mirkin L.,University of Zagreb
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

This paper puts to use concepts and tools introduced in Part I to address a wide spectrum of noncausal sampling and reconstruction problems. Particularly, we follow the system-theoretic paradigm by using systems as signal generators to account for available information and system norms (L2 and L ∞) as performance measures. The proposed optimization-based approach recovers many known solutions, derived hitherto by different methods, as special cases under different assumptions about acquisition or reconstructing devices (e.g., polynomial and exponential cardinal splines for fixed samplers and the Sampling Theorem and its modifications in the case when both sampler and interpolator are design parameters). We also derive new results, such as versions of the Sampling Theorem for downsampling and reconstruction from noisy measurements, the continuous-time invariance of a wide class of optimal sampling-and-reconstruction circuits, etcetera. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Mikulic P.,University of Zagreb
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

This case study reports the results of a 6-year (2005-2010) follow-up study of a world-class rowing crew, the current world champions. The rowers were 15-16 years old and prospective competitors at the junior level when the study began in 2005, and we monitored their physical, physiological, and rowing ergometer performance data annually. Our findings indicated that over the 6-year period gains in stature, averaged across rowers, amounted to only +2 cm (+1%). In contrast, body mass increased by +9 kg (+10%) and fat-free mass by +11 kg (+15%). A significant linear trend (R 2 = 0.998, P<0.001) and a +26% increase in maximal oxygen uptake (in L min -1) was evident from 2005 to 2009, resulting in a leveling-off and a crew average of ∼6.6 L min -1 (∼70 mL kg -1 min -1) during the last 2 years of assessment. Power output at anaerobic threshold increased by +23%, subsequently amounting to a crew average of 359 W in 2010. Oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold, expressed as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, changed little and ranged between 82 and 85%. A curvilinear regression provided the best fit to describe the 6-year improvement (+7%) in 2000 m (R 2 = 0.984, P<0.001) and 6000 m (R -2 = 0.989, P<0.001) rowing ergometer performance times. Performance-related physical and physiological parameters seem to level-off at about 20 years of age, which may partly explain the corresponding stabilization in ergometer performance times over the last years of assessment. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source


Jurjevic I.,University of Zagreb
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement | Year: 2012

To study the effect of blood osmolarity on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and CSF pressure in cats. Three types of methods were used on anesthetized cats. The first, ventriculo-cisternal perfusion (12.96 μL/min) before and after i.v. application of 20% mannitol; the second, measuring the outflow of CSF by cisternal free drainage; and the third, measuring CSF pressure in the ventricles of an intact CSF system, with the second and third method being performed before and after the i.p. application of a hypo-osmolar substance (distilled water). In the first group, the application of 20% mannitol led to a significantly reduced (p < 0.005) outflow volume (from 12.60 ± 0.29 to 0.94 ± 0.09 μL/min). In the second group, the outflow CSF volume significantly increased (p < 0.001) after the application of distilled water (from 18.8 ± 0.3 to 28.2 ± 0.7 μL/min). In the third group, after the application of distilled water, the CSF pressure also significantly increased (p < 0.05; from 8.3 ± 0.8 to 16.1 ± 0.14 cm H(2)O). We conclude that changes in serum osmolarity change the CSF volume because of the osmotic gradient between the blood and all of the CSF compartments, and also that the change in CSF pressure is closely associated with changes in CSF volume. Source


Sambunjak D.,Croatian Medical Journal | Sambunjak D.,University of Zagreb | Straus S.E.,University of Toronto | Marusic A.,Croatian Medical Journal | Marusic A.,University of Split
Journal of General Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Mentorship is perceived to play a significant role in the career development and productivity of academic clinicians, but little is known about the characteristics of mentorship. This knowledge would be useful for those developing mentorship programs. Objective: To complete a systematic review of the qualitative literature to explore and summarize the development, perceptions and experiences of the mentoring relationship in academic medicine. Date sources: Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, Scopus and Current Contents databases from the earliest available date to December 2008. REVIEW Methods: We included studies that used qualitative research methodology to explore the meaning and characteristics of mentoring in academic medicine. Two investigators independently assessed articles for relevance and study quality, and extracted data using standardized forms. No restrictions were placed on the language of articles. RESULTS: A total of 8,487 citations were identified, 114 full text articles were assessed, and 9 articles were selected for review. All studies were conducted in North America, and most focused on the initiation and cultivation phases of the mentoring relationship. Mentoring was described as a complex relationship based on mutual interests, both professional and personal. Mentees should take an active role in the formation and development of mentoring relationships. Good mentors should be sincere in their dealings with mentees, be able to listen actively and understand mentees' needs, and have a well-established position within the academic community. Some of the mentoring functions aim at the mentees' academic growth and others at personal growth. Barriers to mentoring and dysfunctional mentoring can be related to personal factors, relational difficulties and structural/institutional barriers. Conclusions: Successful mentoring requires commitment and interpersonal skills of the mentor and mentee, but also a facilitating environment at academic medicine's institutions. © 2009 Society of General Internal Medicine. Source


Turk Z.,University of Zagreb
Physiological Research | Year: 2010

A large body of evidence has implicated reactive carbonyl compounds as glycotoxic mediators of carbonyl stress. This review is focused on the pathophysiological effects of α-oxoaldehydes in diabetes and related complications, summarizing the state-of-the-art on the endogenously produced carbonyls methylglyoxal, glyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone, formed as glycolytic intermediates during metabolic conversion of glucose, via Maillard reaction by degradation of glycated proteins, and during lipid peroxidation process. Their role in the advanced glycation process and detrimental effects on vascular tissue are discussed. © 2010 Institute of Physiology v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic. Source


Kozmar H.,University of Zagreb | Kozmar H.,University of Notre Dame
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2010

Precise urban atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel simulations are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies in built-up environments including wind loading of structures and air pollutant dispersion. One of key issues in addressing these problems is a proper choice of simulation length scale. In this study, an urban ABL was reproduced in a boundary layer wind tunnel at different scales to study possible scale effects. Two full-depth simulations and one part-depth simulation were carried out using castellated barrier wall, vortex generators, and a fetch of roughness elements. Redesigned "Counihan" vortex generators were employed in the part-depth ABL simulation. A hot-wire anemometry system was used to measure mean velocity and velocity fluctuations. Experimental results are presented as mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress, integral length scale of turbulence, and power spectral density of velocity fluctuations. Results suggest that variations in length-scale factor do not influence the generated ABL models when using similarity criteria applied in this study. Part-depth ABL simulation compares well with two full-depth ABL simulations indicating the truncated vortex generators developed for this study can be successfully employed in urban ABL part-depth simulations. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source


Pavon-Marino P.,Technical University of Cartagena | Skorin-Kapov N.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking | Year: 2011

Advances in optical equipment permit network carriers to offer lightpath-on-demand services to Internet service providers (ISPs). These services are the key for constructing cost-efficient virtual topology capacity adjustment (VTCA) schemes, where ISPs dynamically adapt the number of lightpaths contracted between their IP routers, according to time-varying traffic volumes. An existing technique called lightpath bundling offers ISPs the possibility of grouping lightpaths between the same pair of routers into so-called bundles, perceived by the IP layer as single virtual links of aggregated capacity. Consequently, new lightpaths added or removed from bundles are not seen by the IP layer as new links necessary to advertise, but simply as capacity adjustments of already existing links. Adding lightpath bundling to the picture opens the door for developing VTCA schemes which maintain stability in the IP routing tables, a major requirement for ISPs. In this paper, we present and evaluate the merits of the proposed stable routing VTCA (SR-VTCA) paradigm and present algorithms for designing such a scheme. The results clearly show that SR-VTCA gives an advantageous trade-off between the fully static network with no capacity adjustment and the fully dynamic VTCA scheme where both the IP routing and the VT are reconfigured over time. © 2009 OSA. Source


Karsaj I.,University of Zagreb | Humphrey J.D.,Yale University
Mechanics of Materials | Year: 2012

Adaptations of large arteries to sustained alterations in hemodynamics that cause changes in both caliber and stiffness are increasingly recognized as important initiators or indicators of cardiovascular risk to high flow, low resistance organs such as the brain, heart, and kidney. There is, therefore, a pressing need to understand better the underlying causes of geometric and material adaptations by large arteries and the associated time courses. Although such information must ultimately come from well designed experiments, mathematical models will continue to play a vital role in the design of these experiments and their interpretation. In this paper, we present a new multilayered model of the time course of basilar artery growth and remodeling in response to sustained alterations in blood pressure and flow. We show, for example, that single- and multi-layered models consistently predict similar changes in caliber and wall thickness, but multilayered models provide additional insight into other important metrics such as the residual stress related opening angle and the axial prestress, both of which are fundamental to arterial homeostasis and responses to injury or insult. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kanno Y.,Tokyo University of Information Sciences | Ben-Haim Y.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2011

The redundancy of a structure refers to the extent of degradation the structure can suffer without losing some specified elements of its functionality. However, because future structural degradation is unknown during design and analysis, it is evident that structural redundancy is related to robustness against uncertainty. This paper proposes a quantitative and widely applicable concept of strong redundancy and shows its relation to the info-gap robustness of the structure. In particular, one of this paper's propositions establishes general conditions in which the strong redundancy is equivalent to the robustness. This paper also defines a concept of weak redundancy and presents propositions that relate it to the strong redundancy and the robustness. Results are illustrated with several heuristic and engineering examples. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Tesovic G.,University of Zagreb
Periodicum Biologorum | Year: 2012

The vaccination of children is an extremely important public health measure which significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality from various infectious diseases in the last sixty years in Croatia. The Childhood Vaccination Program in Croatia is based on mandatory vaccinations that are purchased by the state free of charge. Each year the program is announced by the Minister of Health based on the recommendations by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. Today all Croatian children are compulsory vaccinated against ten different infectious diseases. Although the program has experienced significant quality improvements in the recent years, including the introduction of modern, combination vaccines, room for further improvement and inclusion of new vaccines, despite the complex economic situation, certainly exists. Source


Margetic S.,University of Zagreb
Biochemia Medica | Year: 2012

Inflammation and haemostasis are interrelated pathophysiologic processes that considerably affect each other. In this bidirectional relationship, inflammation leads to activation of the haemostatic system that in turn also considerably influences inflammatory activity. Such, the haemostatic system acts in concert with the inflammatory cascade creating an inflammation-haemostasis cycle in which each activated process promotes the other and the two systems function in a positive feedback loop. The extensive crosstalk between immune and haemostatic systems occurs at level of all components of the haemostatic system including vascular endothelial cells, platelets, plasma coagulation cascade, physiologic anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. During inflammatory response, inflammatory mediators, in particular proinflammatory cytokines, play a central role in the effects on haemostatic system by triggering its disturbance in a number of mechanisms including endothelial cell dysfunction, increased platelet reactivity, activation of the plasma coagulation cascade, impaired function of physiologic anticoagulants and suppressed fibrinolytic activity. The two examples of pathophysiologic processes in which the tight interdependent relationship between inflammation and haemostasis considerably contribute to the pathogenesis and/or progression of disease are systemic inflammatory response to infection or sepsis and acute arterial thrombosis as a consequence of ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Close links between inflammation and haemostasis help explain the prothrombotic tendency in these two clinical conditions in which inflammation shifts the haemostatic activity towards procoagulant state by the ability of proinflammatory mediators to activate coagulation system and to inhibit anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities. Source


Kumericki K.,University of Zagreb | Muller D.,Ruhr University Bochum
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

We give a partonic interpretation for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) measurements of the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in the small-xB region in terms of generalized parton distributions. Thereby we have a closer look at the skewness effect, parameterization of the t-dependence, revealing the chromomagnetic pomeron, and at a model-dependent access to the anomalous gravitomagnetic moment of nucleon. We also quantify the reparameterization of generalized parton distributions resulting from the inclusion of radiative corrections up to next-to-next-to-leading order. Beyond the leading order approximation, our findings are compatible with a 'holographic' principle that would arise from a (broken) SO(2,1) symmetry. Utilizing our leading-order findings, we also perform a first model-dependent "dispersion relation" fit of HERMES and JLAB DVCS measurements. From that we extract the generalized parton distribution H on its cross-over line and predict the beam charge-spin asymmetry, measurable at COMPASS. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bracanovic T.,University of Zagreb
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2013

This article discusses the view that bioethics should become "culturally sensitive" and give more weight to various cultural traditions and their respective moral beliefs. It is argued that this view is implausible for the following three reasons: it renders the disciplinary boundaries of bioethics too flexible and inconsistent with metaphysical commitments of Western biomedical sciences, it is normatively useless because it approaches cultural phenomena in a predominantly descriptive and selective way, and it tends to justify certain types of discrimination. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Ebran J.-P.,University Paris - Sud | Khan E.,University Paris - Sud | Pena Arteaga D.,University Paris - Sud | Vretenar D.,University of Zagreb
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for axially deformed nuclei (RHFBz) is introduced. The model is based on an effective Lagrangian with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings in the particle-hole channel, and the central part of the Gogny force is used in the pairing channel. The RHFBz quasiparticle equations are solved by expansion in the basis of a deformed harmonic oscillator. Illustrative RHFBz calculations are performed for carbon, neon, and magnesium isotopes. The effect of explicitly including the pion field is investigated for binding energies, deformation parameters, and charge radii and has an impact on the nuclei's shape. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Cathodic protection modelling often involves making assumptions about geometric features and material characteristics that directly impact accuracy of solutions. In the present paper, predictive power of the model using approximate uniform current boundary condition on the cathode is validated against the model using nonlinear cathode polarization curves representative of low-carbon steel structure of common geometry, buried in soil or immersed in seawater. In order to explore the worst case scenario, the present example deals with a large diameter pipeline (0 1.2 m) and a wire anode (ø 0.05 m), separated by a distance d, both embedded in an infinite space of conductivity k. The calculation is performed for the two sets of parameters - k and limiting current density of oxygen reduction, il. For simulation of CP systems in seawater k = 4.79 S/m and il = - 86 μA/cm2 and for CP system in soil, k = 10-3 S/m and il = -1.1 μA/cm2.The other physical parameters were identical for both systems (Tafel slopes ba = 60mV/dec, bc = 120mV/dec and equilibrium potentials φea = -700 mV, φca = -800 mV).The results were visualized to best exemplify the general trends in potential and current distributions that appear upon switch between uniform and nonlinear cathodic boundary conditions. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Tesija Kuna A.,University of Zagreb
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease, primarily affecting the peripheral joints. The past decade has been marked with revolutionary changes both in the therapeutic and diagnostic perspectives of RA. The discovery of an RA-specific citrullination-driven immune reaction gave a substantial contribution in the diagnostic approach to RA. Efforts directed towards the identification of the antigenic target specifically recognized by these autoantibodies resulted in the identification of vimentin in citrullinated form as the potential native antigen, among other proteins. Furthermore, it was found that the mutation of vimentin represents an independent trigger of antigenic properties, in addition to citrullination. As a result of this discovery, a commercial ELISA using mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) was developed. Increasingly, data now support the use of anti-MCV in RA diagnosis and prognosis for errosion. This review summarizes the research to date on the use of anti-MCV in RA diagnosis and prognosis and its potential use as a therapeutic marker. The pathologic role of these antibodies in RA disease is also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Duic N.,University of Zagreb | Urbaniec K.,Warsaw University of Technology
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

The 6th Dubrovnik Conference was held on September 25-29, 2011 at the University of Dubrovnik, Croatia. It was dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development of energy, transport, water and environment systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zubrinic K.,University of Dubrovnik | Kalpic D.,University of Zagreb | Milicevic M.,University of Dubrovnik
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Concept map is a graphical tool for representing knowledge. They have been used in many different areas, including education, knowledge management, business and intelligence. Constructing of concept maps manually can be a complex task; an unskilled person may encounter difficulties in determining and positioning concepts relevant to the problem area. An application that recommends concept candidates and their position in a concept map can significantly help the user in that situation. This paper gives an overview of different approaches to automatic and semi-automatic creation of concept maps from textual and non-textual sources. The concept map mining process is defined, and one method suitable for the creation of concept maps from unstructured textual sources in highly inflected languages such as the Croatian language is described in detail. Proposed method uses statistical and data mining techniques enriched with linguistic tools. With minor adjustments, that method can also be used for concept map mining from textual sources in other morphologically rich languages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Koscec A.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health | Koscec A.,University of Zagreb | Radosevic-Vidacek B.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health | Bakotic M.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Chronobiology International | Year: 2014

School system in which classes are scheduled 1 week in the morning and the other in the afternoon, and in which students rotate schedule every week, fosters sleep irregularity. In this study, we examined morningness-eveningness of adolescents who were involved in such schedule of school time and explored relationship between their circadian preferences and sleep characteristics. A large sample of 2287 students between the ages 11 and 18 years (52% girls) from 24 schools in Croatia was studied. The School Sleep Habits Survey was modified to enable differentiation of sleep patterns between the two school schedules and weekends. Two measures of ME were used: the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and mid-sleep time on weekends (MSFsc). Both measures showed a shift to eveningness starting between the ages 12 and 13 (MESC), or 13 and 14 (MSFsc). However, MESC demonstrated a plateau in the shift in older adolescent whereas MSFsc indicated further progress of phase delay. Significant differences in sleep timing and duration were found between three chronotype groups (Morning, Intermediate, and Evening). Generally, Evening types went to bed and woke up the latest in all situations. Their sleep duration was the shortest on school week with morning schedule. On weekends Morning types slept shorter than other two chronotype groups. On school week with afternoon schedule all chronotype groups slept close to the recommended 9 h. All three chronotype groups delayed their bedtimes and wake-up times, and extended their sleep in situations with fewer constraints on sleep timing (i.e. afternoon school schedule, and weekends versus morning school schedule). Expectedly, the evening types showed the greatest sleep irregularity. The findings of this study suggest that the Croatian school system fosters sleep irregularity, but provides more opportunity for fulfilling sleep need of all chronotype groups of adolescents. Age effects on morningness-eveningness observed in Croatian adolescent do not seem to be different from those observed in adolescents from other countries involved in a regular morning school schedule. Further studies are necessary to explore differences in the trend of shift towards eveningness found between the two measures of morningness-eveningness in this, as well as in other studies. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Oreski S.,Bank of Karlovac | Oreski D.,University of Zagreb | Oreski G.,Bank of Karlovac
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

The databases of the banks around the world have accumulated large quantities of information about clients and their financial and payment history. These databases can be used for the credit risk assessment, but they are commonly high dimensional. Irrelevant features in a training dataset may produce less accurate results of classification analysis. Data preprocessing is required to prepare the data for classification to increase the predictive accuracy. Feature selection is a preprocessing technique commonly used on high dimensional data and its purposes include reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant and redundant features, facilitating data understanding, reducing the amount of data needed for learning, improving predictive accuracy of algorithms, and increasing interpretability of models. In this paper we investigate the extent to which the total data, owned by a bank, can be a good basis for predicting the borrower's ability to repay the loan on time. We propose a feature selection technique for finding an optimum feature subset that enhances the classification accuracy of neural network classifiers. Experiments were conducted on the credit dataset collected at a Croatian bank to assess the accuracy of our technique. We found that the hybrid system with genetic algorithm is competitive and can be used as feature selection technique to discover the most significant features in determining risk of default. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ternary mixtures of sugar solutions containing maple syrup were studied quantitatively using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique coupled with partial least squares regression (PLS) and selection of spectral variables. Two ternary mixtures were analyzed; first ternary mixture contained maple syrup, white sugar solution, and fully inverted sugar solution; second ternary mixture comprised maple syrup, white, and brown sugar solutions. In this paper, a procedure for selection of spectral variables with PLS, called first break forward interval PLS (FB-FiPLS), is tested on maple syrup adulteration. The method achieved almost exactly the same performance as synergy interval PLS (SiPLS) but with much shorter computational time. The upper limit of number of latent variables (LVs), which is the critical factor for both interval PLS methods, was determined using repeated double cross-validation on whole spectral region of calibration set for each analyzed component in each analyzed ternary mixture set. FB-FiPLS procedure for selection of spectral variables, using only root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) values for whole optimization of spectral variables, is fast and robust. After spectral variables and LVs for each particular model had been selected with minimum RMSECV of FB-FiPLS procedure, final results in terms of RMSECV and RMSEP for FB-FiPLS were in most cases statistically significantly better than PLS on whole spectral region and on selected spectral regions. Predictions of each component in analyzed ternary mixture set is promising (R2(training set) > 0.98, R2(test set) > 0.97), especially for fully inverted sugar solution (RMSEP = 0.142 % w/w). © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Hulina N.,University of Zagreb
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2010

The term "planta hortifuga" refers to all cultivated plant species that have escaped from cultivation and grow spontaneously in diff erent natural, semi-natural or manmade habitats. List of "planta hortifuga" (Tab.1) consists of 120 taxa. Traits are given for each species: Raunkiaer's life-form groups, taxonomic rank (family and species), geographical origin, use value, invaded habitat, invasive behavior and harm impact, where it is evident. Only a few species of "planta hortifuga" have reached a high degree of the naturalization and realize up to now in places dramatically increasing in distribution and density. Such invasive species are the americanophytes: Asclepias syriaca, Helianthus tuberosus, Solidago spp., Echinocystis lobata, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudacacia; then Asiatic species: Impatiens spp., Reynoutria japonica and Ailanthus altissima. Th ese are a threat to the survival of autochthonous plants and the stability of communities. From an agronomical point of view particularly dangerous species are: Echinocystis lobata, Panicum capillare, P. miliaceum ssp. agricolum, and Abutilon theophrasti. Th e species Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudacacia have caused the harm in forestry while the species Amorpha fruticosa has coused harm in drainage systems. Th e species of plants that are harmful to human health are: Rhus typhina, Asclepias syriaca, Solidago spp., Robinia pseudacacia, Wistaria sinensis, Ailanthus altissima and Artemisia absinthium. Plant species Asclepias syriaca, Robinia pseudacacia and Ailanthus altissima may be harmful to animals. Results of this investigation may be used for assesing the risk of spreading cultivated plants out of their places of cultivation. Th ese results illustrate why it is necessary to pay attention to appearance of cultivated species out of their place of the cultivation. Source


Belusic D.,University of Zagreb | Guttler I.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

The influence of meandering flow on dispersion of pollutants is frequently under-represented in dispersion models. In terms of measurements, meandering is primarily associated with time-scales between the turbulence and the applied averaging time, which is usually 1 h. The related spatial scales thus range roughly from 102 to 104 m (referred to here as submesoscales). As the state-of-the-art mesoscale models should be capable of reproducing flow features on scales larger than the turbulence, and as the meandering-generating mechanisms are not fully understood yet, it is useful to examine if the mesoscale models can reproduce meandering. For that purpose, the WRF/Chem model at 1/3 km horizontal resolution is used to simulate a weak-wind night during the CASES99 experiment. The measurements are used for detailed model verification. The model with its typical set-up fails to reproduce the variability at submesoscales and the locus of the under-representation is traced to too-strong horizontal diffusion. Reducing or removing the model diffusion allows the appearance of the submeso variability, whose spectral properties and the resulting plume behaviour agree well with the measurements. The linear correlation between the simulations with reproduced variability and themeasurements is low, as is the case between two simulations with only slightly different set-up. The conclusion is that mesoscale models are able to reproduce the strength of variability and the effects of meandering, but only with reduced or removed horizontal diffusion. The question arises whether it is possible to obtain a linear correlation, i.e. to correctly reproduce individual modes at these scales at all. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society. Source


Baric D.,University of Zagreb
Croatian Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have become standard therapy option for patients with advanced heart failure. They offer several advantages over previously used pulsatile-flow LVADs, including improved durability, less surgical trauma, higher energy efficiency, and lower thrombogenicity. These benefits translate into better survival, lower frequency of adverse events, improved quality of life, and higher functional capacity of patients. However, mounting evidence shows unanticipated consequences of continuous-flow support, such as acquired aortic valve insufficiency and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In this review article we discuss current evidence on differences between continuous and pulsatile mechanical circulatory support, with a focus on clinical implications and potential benefits of pulsatile flow. Source


Nejasmic I.,University of Zagreb
Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik | Year: 2011

The papers deals with applied research in population geography. Data source and development of a demographic information system (DIS) is of crucial importance for applied population geography studies. In past decades we have chosen to focus upon smaller geographic scales. Geographic perspectives on demographic analysis at the local level seem destined to flourish. That fact encourages demand for population geographers and opens the question of their university education and training. Source


Alebic M.S.,Podobnik Maternity and Gynecology Hospital | Stojanovic N.,University of Zagreb | Duhamel A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Dewailly D.,Service de Gynecologie Endocrinienne et Medecine de la Reproduction
Human Reproduction | Year: 2015

STUDY QUESTION: Is intrinsic dysregulation of granulosa cells (GC) and consequent increases in the per-follicle production of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), correlated with the phenotypic presentation of women with polycystic ovaries? SUMMARY ANSWER: Involvement of intrinsic GC dysregulation in oligo-anovulation associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is likely because among women with PCOS, those with oligo-amenorrhea have higher per-follicle AMH production than those who ovulate normally, irrespective of their androgen and/or metabolic status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women with PCOS have higher serum AMH level than non-PCOS women due to an increased follicle number and excessive AMH production per follicle, the latter reflecting a putative GC dysfunction that may vary between PCOS phenotypes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected from 1021 women undergoing infertility evaluation from March 2011 to October 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study included women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) who met the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS (n = 272), women with PCOM only (n = 168) and controls (n = 581). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We used serum AMH to antral follicle count (AFC) ratio (AMH/AFC) as a marker of per-follicle AMH production and checked whether this ratio was associated with the PCOS phenotype and to the menstrual, androgen and metabolic status in women with PCOS, women with PCOM only and in controls. AMH/AFC was significantly higher in oligo-amenorrheic women with PCOS than in eumenorrheic women with PCOS or PCOM (P < 0.001) but also in the latter group compared with controls (P < 0.001) regardless of androgen status. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a significant score for the menstrual status with a discriminant power of 26.5% (P < 0.001). This score included AFC, AMH/AFC, waist circumference and LH with partial R2 of 0.172, 0.042, 0.024 and 0.023, respectively. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The AMH to AFC ratio as a surrogate marker for average AMH may be subject to error because follicles below the sensitivity limit of the ultrasonography used may also contribute to serum AMH concentration and secondly, AFC can be subjective. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The higher AMH/AFC in women with PCOM only than in controls suggests that isolated PCOM may represent a PCOS-like phenotype in which an inherent dysfunction of GC exists but is too mild to affect the ovulatory process. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No funding was obtained for this study. There are no conflicts of interest to be declared. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Non-applicable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source


Mathiesen E.R.,Copenhagen University | Hod M.,Tel Aviv University | Ivanisevic M.,University of Zagreb | Garcia S.D.,Hospital Universitario Of Valme | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - This randomized, controlled noninferiority trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (both with prandial insulin aspart) in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Patients were randomized and exposed to IDet or NPH up to 12 months before pregnancy or at 8-12 weeks gestation. The primary analysis aimed to demonstrate noninferiority of IDet to NPH with respect to A1C at 36 gestational weeks (GWs) (margin of 0.4%). The data were analyzed using linear regression, taking several baseline factors and covariates into account. RESULTS - A total of 310 type 1 diabetic women were randomized and exposed to IDet (n = 152) or NPH (n = 158) up to 12 months before pregnancy (48%) or during pregnancy at 8-12 weeks (52%). The estimated A1C at 36 GWs was 6.27% for IDet and 6.33% for NPH in the full analysis set (FAS). IDet was declared noninferior to NPH (FAS, -0.06% [95% CI -0.21 to 0.08]; per protocol, -0.15%[-0.34 to 0.04]). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was significantly lower with IDet versus NPH at both 24 GWs (96.8 vs. 113.8 mg/dL, P = 0.012) and 36 GWs (85.7 vs. 97.4 mg/dL, P = 0.017). Major and minor hypoglycemia rates during pregnancy were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with IDet resulted in lower FPG and noninferior A1C in late pregnancy compared with NPH insulin. Rates of hypoglycemia were comparable. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Pavin N.,University of Zagreb | Tolic I.M.,Ruder Boskovic Institute
Annual Review of Biophysics | Year: 2016

At the onset of division, the cell forms a spindle, a precise self-constructed micromachine composed of microtubules and the associated proteins, which divides the chromosomes between the two nascent daughter cells. The spindle arises from self-organization of microtubules and chromosomes, whose different types of motion help them explore the space and eventually approach and interact with each other. Once the interactions between the chromosomes and the microtubules have been established, the chromosomes are moved to the equatorial plane of the spindle and ultimately toward the opposite spindle poles. These transport processes rely on directed forces that are precisely regulated in space and time. In this review, we discuss how microtubule dynamics and their rotational movement drive spindle self-organization, as well as how the forces acting in the spindle are generated, balanced, and regulated. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Orlic N.,RIZ Transmitters Co. | Loncaric S.,University of Zagreb
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2010

An important and challenging problem in seismic data processing is to discriminate between natural seismic events such as earthquakes and artificial seismic events such as explosions. Many automatic techniques for seismogram classification have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods have a similar approach to seismogram classification: a predefined set of features based on ad-hoc feature selection criteria is extracted from the seismogram waveform or spectral data and these features are used for signal classification. In this paper we propose a novel approach for seismogram classification. A specially formulated genetic algorithm has been employed to automatically search for a near-optimal seismogram feature set, instead of using ad-hoc feature selection criteria. A boosting method is added to the genetic algorithm when searching for multiple features in order to improve classification performance. A learning set of seismogram data is used by the genetic algorithm to discover a near-optimal feature set. The feature set identified by the genetic algorithm is then used for seismogram classification. The described method is developed to classify seismograms in two groups, whereas a brief overview of method extension for multiple group classification is given. For method verification, a learning set consisting of 40 local earthquake seismograms and 40 explosion seismograms was used. The method was validated on seismogram set consisting of 60 local earthquake seismograms and 60 explosion seismograms, with correct classification of 85%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Vujic E.,University of Zagreb
Acta Geophysica | Year: 2015

In this paper the results of short-term tests of a suspended Potassium dIdD vector magnetometer are presented. The instrument was installed on a stable pillar during May 2012 near Milton (Ontario, Canada). The aim was to investigate primarily the bias current stability and the noise level of the instrument (for measured components less than 10 pT in a root-mean-square sense). A brief description of the measurement principles and a review of formulae used for field component calculations are given. The errors of components, which arise from assumptions on dIdD orientation as well as from the total field time variations during a measurement cycle, are estimated and discussed, both for real and simulated data. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was estimated, and the maximal theoretical accuracies of components were better than 60 pT at mid-latitudes. © 2015 Vujić. Source


Roca-Maza X.,University of Milan | Paar N.,University of Zagreb | Colo G.,University of Milan
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2015

We present the covariance analysis of two successful nuclear energy density functionals (EDFs), (i) a non-relativistic Skyrme functional built from a zerorange effective interaction, and (ii) a relativistic nuclear EDF based on density dependent mesonnucleon couplings. The covariance analysis is a useful tool for understanding the limitations of a model, the correlations between observables and the statistical errors. We show, for our selected test nucleus 208Pb, that when the constraint on a property A included in the fit is relaxed, correlations with other observables B become larger; on the other hand, when a strong constraint is imposed on A, the correlations with other properties become very small. We also provide a brief review, partly connected with the covariance analysis, of some instabilities displayed by several EDFs currently used in nuclear physics. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK 1. Source


Vanic Z.,University of Zagreb | Planinsek O.,University of Ljubljana | Skalko-Basnet N.,University of Tromso | Tho I.,University of Tromso
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Guszak V.,University of Zagreb
Paediatria Croatica, Supplement | Year: 2014

Early nutrition is critically important for the optimal growth and development of very low and extremely low birth weight premature infants and influences their health outcomes in later life. Premature infants are born at a time of rapid growth, their intrauterine nutrient deposition is decreased, they are often growth retarded, and their postnatal medical conditions increase energy requirements and nutrient needs. In order to prevent catabolism and undernutrition, intravenous fluids that provide all the macronutrients must be started immediately after birth. Parenteral nutrition is adjusted and micronutrients are included to meet all the nutritional needs of premature infants. At the same time, from the first day of life, minimal enteral nutrition or trophic feeding is given to prevent intestinal atrophy and to stimulate gastrointestinal function, growth and motility. Early enteral feeding improves feeding tolerance and reduces duration of parenteral nutrition. Ideal milk for premature infants is mother's breast milk and if mother's own milk is not available then donated breast milk, or else premature specialty formula. Human milk should be fortified to improve growth velocity and avoid postnatal growth retardation. The anthropometric indices and body composition of premature infants should be ideally the same as of the normal fetuses of the same gestational age. Nutritional deficits at critical stages of development have long lasting consequences on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental and other health outcomes, but excessive growth leads to obesity and insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Therefore, it is important to monitor growth in the preterm infant and to manage growth impairment during hospital stay, and also after discharge. Growth charts for premature infants are used to ascertain the pattern of growth (small for age, appropriate for age or large for age) until 50th postmenstrual week. Infants who are under their growth targets may benefit from multinutrient fortification in this age. Source


Novotny L.,University of Zagreb
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

The stress intensity factor (SIF) and T-stress are important parameters when estimating the residual life in structures with cracks. In this study, the finite element method was used to calculate the SIF and T-stress. High order elements were employed at the crack tip to represent displacement behavior. Computation of crack characteristics (K factor and T-stress) in three dimensional specimens is presented. The stress intensity factor is determined by processing of the displacements around the crack tip. Different methods have been used for calculating the T-stress. Crack characteristics, as a function of distance from the crack tip across the specimen's thickness, is given here. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Boticki I.,University of Zagreb | Looi C.-K.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Wong L.-H.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2011

Within the field of Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL), we are interested in exploring the space of collaborative activities that enable students to practice communication, negotiation and decision-making skills. Collaboration is via learning activities that circumvent the constraints of fixed seating or locations of students. This paper presents one such collaborative learning activity that involves young students forming groups to achieve a specific goal (get the fractions on their handhelds to sum to one). Collaborative scaffolding is provided by the designed mobile collaborative application as well as by the students' social relationships and the teacher's facilitation. We report on our initial trials which show that the socio-technical design of the activity helps students in identifying their own strategies and stimulates collaboration. Beyond this specific application, we propose a generic model for mobile computer supported collaborative activities that can support a range of other tasks in learning languages, science or other disciplines. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS). Source


Stafa A.,Columbia University | Stafa A.,University of Zagreb | Donnianni R.A.,Columbia University | Timashev L.A.,Columbia University | And 2 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2014

Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) that have only one end with homology to a donor duplex undergo repair by strand invasion followed by replication to the chromosome terminus (break-induced replication, BIR). Using a transformation-based assay system, it was previously shown that BIR could occur by several rounds of strand invasion, DNA synthesis, and dissociation. Here we describe a modification of the transformation-based assay to facilitate detection of switching between donor templates during BIR by genetic selection in diploid yeast. In addition to the expected recovery of template switch products, we found a high frequency of recombination between chromosome homologs during BIR, suggesting transfer of the DSB from the transforming linear DNA to the donor chromosome, initiating secondary recombination events. The frequency of BIR increased in the mph1D mutant, but the percentage of template switch events was significantly decreased, revealing an important role for Mph1 in promoting BIR-associated template switching. In addition, we show that the Mus81, Rad1, and Yen1 structure-selective nucleases act redundantly to facilitate BIR. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America. Source


Cosyns B.,Universtair Ziekenhuis Brussel | Garbi M.,Kings College | Separovic J.,University of Zagreb | Pasquet A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lancellotti P.,University of Liege
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013

The update of the Echocardiography Core Syllabus of European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is now available online. The Echocardiography Core Syllabus enumerates the elements of knowledge to be taught, represents a framework for the development of local training curricula and provides expected learning outcomes to the echocardiography learner. © 2013 Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013. Source


Snakowska A.,University of Zagreb | Jurkiewicz J.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper consists in presentation of spatial distribution of energy radiated from the outlet of a cylindrical duct in case of multimodal excitation. As the mathematical model, the semi-infinite unflanged hard duct was applied, so the results account for the diffraction phenomena occurring at the duct opening. They are based on solution of the wave equation with Neumann boundary conditions obtained by means of the Wiener- Hopf method. The multimode excitation was considered assuming the incident wave composed of all propagating modes representing solutions of the wave equation at a given diffraction parameter (Helmholtz number) and equal energy per mode (EEpM) allowing to derive mode amplitudes. The paper presents mathematical formulae and numerical results for the power radiated outside, the power reflection coefficients and the power-gain function for different values of the diffraction parameter ka. The presented results can be applied for modeling of passive and/or active noise reducing systems. © S. Hirzel Verlag. Source


Smolic I.,University of Zagreb
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2014

We revise and generalize the properties of the electric and the magnetic scalar potentials in spacetimes admitting a Killing vector field: their constancy on the Killing horizons, uniqueness of solution for the electromagnetic test fields and the relation between the Bianchi identity and Maxwell?s equations. In each of these examples, collinearity of currents with the Killing vector field is shown to be the crucial property. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Ajdukovic D.,University of Zagreb
European Journal of Psychotraumatology | Year: 2013

Living amidst war and mass suffering while grasping the opportunity for professional growth, intertwined into my life perspective. Along the years, ESTSS provided a backdrop for my contacts with mental health colleagues from whom I learned, and among whom many became my friends. These rich experiences guided me towards promoting awareness within ESTSS of the importance of social context in which healing of traumatized populations is expected to progress. Each incident of organized violence leaves behind new scores of traumatized individuals and family members, among whom many will need support that may stretch their resources beyond reasonable limits. We need to acknowledge the hindering effects of living in such a social context and that many people that we meet as professionals may carry the burden of unresolved trauma, which should not go by unattended. © 2013 Dean Ajdukovic. Source


Contreras J.,University of Zagreb
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

This paper presents a new methodology for obtaining singleton fuzzy model from experimental data. Each input variable is partitioned into triangular membership functions so that consecutive fuzzy sets exhibit and specific overlapping of 0.5. The recursive least squares method is employed to adjust the singleton consequences and the gradient descent method is employed to update only the modal value of each triangular membership function to preserve the overlap and reducing the number of parameters to be estimated. Applications to a function approximation problem and to a pattern classification problem are illustrated. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Jelicic V.,University of Zagreb | Magno M.,University of Bologna | Brunelli D.,University of Trento | Paci G.,University of Bologna | Benini L.,University of Bologna
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

We present a wireless sensor network (WSN) for monitoring indoor air quality, which is crucial for people's comfort, health, and safety because they spend a large percentage of time in indoor environments. A major concern in such networks is energy efficiency because gas sensors are power-hungry, and the sensor node must operate unattended for several years on a battery power supply. A system with aggressive energy management at the sensor level, node level, and network level is presented. The node is designed with very low sleep current consumption (only 8 μ A), and it contains a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor and a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. Furthermore, the network is multimodal; it exploits information from auxiliary sensors, such as PIR sensors about the presence of people and from the neighbor nodes about gas concentration to modify the behavior of the node and the measuring frequency of the gas concentration. In this way, we reduce the nodes' activity and energy requirements, while simultaneously providing a reliable service. To evaluate our approach and the benefits of the context-aware adaptive sampling, we simulate an application scenario which demonstrates a significant lifetime extension (several years) compared to the continuously-driven gas sensor. In March 2012, we deployed the WSN with 36 nodes in a four-story building and by now the performance has confirmed models and expectations. © 2001-2012 IEEE. Source


Music S.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Filipovic-Vincekovic N.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Sekovanic L.,University of Zagreb
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

The experimental conditions were optimized for the synthesis of amorphous SiO 2 particles by the reaction of neutralization of sodium silicate solution with H 2SO 4 solution. Amorphous SiO 2 particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, EDS and microelectrophoresis. The amorphous peak was located at 2θ = 21.8° in the XRD pattern. Primary SiO 2 particles were ∼ 15 to ∼ 30 nm in size and they aggregated into bigger particles. Amorphous SiO 2 particles showed a specific surface area up to 130 m 2g -1, dependent on the parameters of the precipitation process. The EDS spectrum of amorphous SiO 2 particles did not show contamination with sulfate or other ions, which cannot be excluded in traces. pH zpc =1.7 was obtained by microelectrophoresis. Source


Radic D.,University of Zagreb
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2015

We consider a dc-electronic tunneling transport through a carbon nanotube suspended between normal-metal source and arbitrarily spin-polarized drain lead in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between electrical current through the nanotube and its mechanical vibrations may lead to an electromechanical instability and give an onset of self-excited mechanical vibrations depending on spin polarization of the drain lead and frequency of vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlation between the occupancy of quantized Zeeman-split electronic states in the nanotube and the direction of velocity of its mechanical motion. It is an effective gating effect by the presence of electron in the spin state which, through the Coulomb blockade, permits tunneling of electron to the drain predominantly only during a particular phase of mechanical vibration thus coherently changing mechanical momentum and leading into instability if mechanical damping is overcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Karst rivers in Croatia have been heavily dammed in the past. However, long-term impacts of dams, water diversion and climate change on karst rivers in Croatia have rarely been examined. This study analyzes long-term trends of hydrological and temperature conditions, prior to closure of new large dam, in five connected karst rivers of central Croatia: the sinking rivers Gornja Dobra and Zagorska Mrežnica that have underground connections with the Gojačka Dobra, Tounjčica and Mrežnica Rivers. It was established that hydrological conditions of these rivers have been greatly changed after the Gojak HPP, located at spring of Gojačka Dobra, became operational in 1959. Water diversion from the reservoirs on Zagorska Mrežnica and Gornja Dobra to the Gojak HPP has increased mean annual discharge (52- 106%), causing great subdaily fluctuations and overall modification of natural flow regime along the whole course of Gojačka Dobra. By cutting the connection between Zagorska Mrežnica and Tounjčica, water diversion has caused a reduction of mean annual discharges of the Tounjčica (-60%) and Mrežnica (-29%) Rivers. Analyses of long-term trends in water temperature over the last 50 years have revealed significant positive trends in average annual temperature at three gauging stations on three rivers with increase of 0.17, 0.44 and 0.48°C per decade and climate change as the primary cause. The highest significant increasing trend was established at the lower course of Mrežnica where discharge was reduced by water diversion. Mitigation measures for the improvement of hydrological conditions of affected rivers and underground systems are proposed and discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source


Bracanovic T.,University of Zagreb
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2011

In contemporary debates about the nature of bioethics there is a widespread view that bioethical decision making should involve certain knowledge of and respect for cultural diversity of persons to be affected. The aim of this article is to show that this view is untenable and misleading. It is argued that introducing the idea of respect for cultural diversity into bioethics encounters a series of conceptual and empirical constraints. While acknowledging that cultural diversity is something that decision makers in bioethical contexts should try to understand and, when possible, respect, it is argued that this cultural turn ignores the typically normative role of bioethics and thus threatens to undermine its very foundations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Baretic M.,University of Zagreb
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2012

Obesity has more than doubled since 1980 all over the world, and in the European perspective it does not seem to be better. Obesity-related diseases like diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and hyperlipidemia are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. These are the reasons for continuous search for efficient treatment of obesity. One of the options is medical therapy. Over history, many anti-obesity drugs were introduced and subsequently removed from the market due to various side effects. Unfortunately, there is still no ideal drug for the treatment of obesity, and the current ones are very strictly evaluated. The anti-obesity drug should target patients that have previously failed to lose weight with lifestyle interventions, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30, or those with BMI ≥27 plus concomitant obesity-related risk factors or diseases. The only drug currently approved in Europe is orlistat, a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. Sibutramine, an appetite suppressant (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), has been off the market since 2010 due to cardiovascular side effects. There is a large group of drugs used for other indications with weight loss effects, e.g. incretin mimetics or analogues used in the treatment of diabetes type 2, topiramate used as an anticonvulsant, and fluoxetine and sertraline used in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Vukovic V.,University of Zagreb
The journal of headache and pain | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns of migraine and tension-type headache in the Croatian population. Analysis included the proportion of patients who were taking specific antimigraine therapy and the number of tablets per attack per month, the proportion of patients who were taking prophylactic therapy or using alternative treatment methods and their satisfaction with the treatment. The design of the study was a cross-sectional survey. Self-completed questionnaires were randomly distributed to adults >18 years of age in the Croatian population. A total of 616 questionnaires were analyzed: 115 patients with migraine (M), 327 patients with tension-type headache (TTH), and 174 patients with probable migraine (PM) and TTH. Specific antimigraine therapy was taken by half of patients with migraine: 35.7% of patients used triptans and 21.7% ergotamines. Prophylactic treatment had been used by 13.9% of M, 1.2% of TTH, and 6.9% of PM patients. Alternative methods of treatment were tried by 27% of M and TTH patients. Only 16.8% of patients with M pay regular visits to physicians, while 36.3% never visited a physician. More than half of TTH patients have never visited a physician. The majority of patients are only partially satisfied with their current treatment, and almost one-third are not satisfied. Results of this study indicate that the treatment of primary headaches in Croatia should be improved. Source


Margetic S.,University of Zagreb
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2010

Thrombophilia screening is aimed at detecting the most frequent and well-defined causes of venous thrombosis, such as activated protein C resistance/factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A gene mutation, deficiencies of natural anticoagulants, such as antithrombin, protein C and protein S, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, hyperhomocysteinemia and increased factor VIII activity. At this time, thrombophilia screening is not recommended for those possible congenital or acquired risk factors, whose association with increased risk of thrombosis has not been proven sufficiently. Laboratory investigations should include a step-wise approach to the diagnosis of thrombotic disorders with respect to the assays and methods of analysis that are used. The assays recommended for the first diagnostic step of screening should establish, whether the subject has one of the common causes of thrombophilia. If one or more abnormal results are obtained, the second diagnostic step includes the assays recommended for confirmation and/or characterization of the defect. When performing the investigation of thrombophilia, it is important to consider all pre-analytical and other variables that may affect the results of thrombophilia testing, including time of testing, age, gender, liver function, hormonal status, pregnancy or the acute phase response to inflammatory diseases. This is necessary, in order to avoid, any misinterpretation of the results. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning thrombophilia investigations, with special focus on the diagnostic algorithm regarding patient selection, the assays and methods of analysis used and all the variables that should be considered when employing tests for the diagnosis of thrombophilia. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48:S27-39. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. Source


Molcanov K.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Stilinovic V.,University of Zagreb
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

2012/2013 mark the 100th anniversary of von Laue's diffraction of X-rays from single crystals of copper sulfate, the postulation of Bragg's law, and the solution of the first X-ray structure. However, even before 1912, the study of crystals was an integral part of chemistry and it played a major role in development of modern chemical science, including key concepts such as atoms, molecules, isomerism, and chirality. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Simundic A.-M.,University of Zagreb
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2010

Genetic association studies explore the association between genetic polymorphisms and a certain trait, disease or predisposition to disease. It has long been acknowledged that many genetic association studies fail to replicate their initial positive findings. This raises concern about the methodological quality of these reports. Case-control genetic association studies often suffer from various methodological flaws in study design and data analysis, and are often reported poorly. Flawed methodology and poor reporting leads to distorted results and incorrect conclusions. Many journals have adopted guidelines for reporting genetic association studies. In this review, some major methodological determinants of genetic association studies will be discussed. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48:S115-8. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. Source


Zegarac Z.,University of Zagreb
Medicinski arhiv | Year: 2012

The kidney transplantation is considered to be the best therapy for terminal kidney disease, nowadays. Numerous studies have shown that pregnancy may be successful and may result in a delivery of a healthy baby after the kidney transplantation. Pregnant women who are the recipients of a kidney transplant have increased chances of developing hypertension, preeclampsia, as well as going into premature labour and frequently giving birth to newborns of low birth weight. We present a case of a successful pregnancy and delivery in a 32-year-old kidney transplant recipient who conceived spontaneously four years posttransplantation. The kidney transplantation has been done due to the chronic hypertension and the consequential kidney atrophy. During the pregnancy, the patient underwent antihypertension and immunosupressive drugs therapy. She was also being monitored by the gynaecologist and the nephrologist. The pregnancy was terminated in the 40th week by an urgent Caesarean section due to the fetal bradycardia. The patient gave birth to the healthy baby girl. Source


Kostovic K.,University of Zagreb
Inflammation & allergy drug targets | Year: 2014

Multidrug antituberculosis regimen is associated with diverse clinical patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), ranging from mild and moderate such as pruritus, maculopapular exanthems, lichenoid eruptions, fixed drug eruptions and urticaria to severe and even life threatening ones like acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). These adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs are commonly observed adverse events. This is of particular importance for high HIV prevalence settings and developing countries where tuberculosis is common infection resulting in higher occurrence rate of these reactions. There is still significant heterogenity in definition and classification of CADR, as well as diversity in treatment modalities following adverse reactions and rechallenge management. The aim of this review is to discuss clinical presentation, occurrence of CADR caused by antituberculosis drugs, to identify risk factors for intolerance of the standard therapy as well as to draw attention to importance of multi-disciplinary approach, early detection, prompt diagnosis and in time management of antituberculosis drugs associated CADR. CADR can cause significant treatment interruption and alteration, resulting in increased risk of treatment failure, drug resistance, relapses and increased risk of complications including even lethal outcome. Finally, it can be concluded that it is of great importance to identify the best possible treatment and preventive regimens in order to enable continuity of the antituberculosis therapy to the full extent. Source


Milanovic Z.,University of Nis | Sporis G.,University of Zagreb | Weston M.,University of Teesside
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Objective: Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included ‘high intensity’, ‘HIT’, ‘sprint interval training’, ‘endurance training’, ‘peak oxygen uptake’, and ‘VO2max’. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18–45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. Results: The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg−1·min−1; 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg−1·min−1), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±2.1 mL·kg−1·min−1) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±2.0 mL·kg−1·min−1). When compared with no-exercise controls, there was likely a large beneficial effect of HIT (5.5 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.2 mL·kg−1·min−1), with a likely moderate greater additional increase for subjects with lower baseline fitness (3.2 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.9 mL·kg−1·min−1) and interventions of longer duration (3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.9 mL·kg−1·min−1), and a small lesser effect for typically longer HIT repetitions (−1.8 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±2.7 mL·kg−1·min−1). The modifying effects of age (0.8 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±2.1 mL·kg−1·min−1) and work/rest ratio (0.5 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) were unclear. When compared with endurance training, there was a possibly small beneficial effect for HIT (1.2 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1) with small additional improvements for typically longer HIT repetitions (2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±2.1 mL·kg−1·min−1), older subjects (1.8 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.7 mL·kg−1·min−1), interventions of longer duration (1.7 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.7 mL·kg−1·min−1), greater work/rest ratio (1.6 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) and lower baseline fitness (0.8 mL·kg−1·min−1; ±1.3 mL·kg−1·min−1). Conclusion: Endurance training and HIT both elicit large improvements in the VO2max of healthy, young to middle-aged adults, with the gains in VO2max being greater following HIT when compared with endurance training. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Lazic D.V.,University of Zagreb
Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2010

According to the fundamental importance of the tracking theory on technical systems, the main goal of this paper is further development of the theory and the application of tracking, especially on the practical tracking concept. The plant under consideration is a pneumatic cylinder supplied with pressurized air by an electropneumatic servovalve. This system is often applied as the final control element of the controller in automatic control systems.The correction device for the mentioned plant will be a digital computer. The pure inertial load of the pneumatic cylinder will be time variable. Therefore this plant belongs to the unstationary class of systems. For time varying desired output value the control algorithm will be synthesized. The control algorithm is based on the self-adjustment principle. Structural characteristic of such a control system is existence of two feedbacks: global negative of the output value and local positive of the control value. Such a structure ensures synthesis of the control without the internal dynamics knowledge and without the measurement of disturbance values. The mentioned control forces the observed plant output to track the desired output value with the prespecified accuracy. In this paper simulation results produced by the practical tracking control algorithm on an electropneumatic piston drive will be presented. © 2010 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved. Source


Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare and lethal disease. The most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, the development of novel forms of therapy is urgently required. Specific immunotherapy generating immune responses directed against antigen predominantly expressed by cancer cells such as cancer-testis antigens (CTA) may provide a valid alternative treatment for patients bearing PTL, alone or in combination with current therapies. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 77B recognizing MAGE-A1, 57B recognizing an epitope shared by multiple MAGE-A CTA (multi-MAGE-A specific) and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 were used for immunohistochemical staining of 27 PTL, including 24 DLBCL. Expression of MAGE-A1 was infrequently detectable in DLBCL specimens (12.50%), whereas multi-MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific reagents stained the cytoplasms of tumor cells in DLBCL specimens with higher frequencies (54.17% and 37.50%, respectively) with different expression levels. These results suggest that MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1, possibly in combination with other CTA, might be used as targets for specific immunotherapy in DLBCL. Source


Huang X.,Catholic University of Leuven | Matijas M.,University of Zagreb | Suykens J.A.K.,Catholic University of Leuven
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

Division of a time series into segments is a common technique for time-series processing, and is known as segmentation. Segmentation is traditionally done by linear interpolation in order to guarantee the continuity of the reconstructed time series. The interpolation-based segmentation methods may perform poorly for data with a level of noise because interpolation is noise sensitive. To handle the problem, this paper establishes an explicit expression for segmentation from a compact representation for piecewise linear functions using hinging hyperplanes. This expression enables the use of regression to obtain a continuous reconstructed signal and, as a consequence, application of advanced techniques in segmentation. In this paper, a least squares support vector machine with lasso using a hinging feature map is given and analyzed, based on which a segmentation algorithm and its online version are established. Numerical experiments conducted on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the advantages of our methods compared to existing segmentation algorithms. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Bulic I.H.,University of Zagreb | Kucharski F.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012

The delayed impact of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies in tropical Pacific on spring precipitation over the North Atlantic/European (NAE) region is examined using both measured and modeled data for the period 1901-2002. In an AMIP-type Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) ensemble, the observed delayed spring precipitation response in Europe to winter ENSO-related SST anomalies is well reproduced. A series of targeted AGCM/coupled GCM experiments are performed to further investigate the mechanisms for this delayed influence. It is found that late winter ENSO SST anomalies lead to the well-documented Rossby wave train arching from the Pacific into the Atlantic region. A positive (negative) ENSO event leads to a quasi-barotropic trough (ridge) in the North Atlantic region. The resulting wind and cloud changes cause anomalies in the surface heat fluxes that result in negative (positive) SST anomalies in the central North Atlantic and anomalies of the opposite sign further to the south. The SST anomalies persist into spring and the atmospheric response to these anomalies is an extension of the ENSO-induced trough (ridge) into the European region, leading to enhanced (reduced) moisture flux and low-level convergence (divergence) and thus positive (negative) precipitation anomalies. Although the signal is overall relatively weak (correlation coefficients of European spring rainfall with winter ENSO SSTs of about 0.3), a proper representation of the outlined mechanism in seasonal forecasting systems may lead to improved seasonal predictions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Nigovic B.,University of Zagreb | Hocevar S.B.,Slovenian National Institute of Chemistry
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

tThe antimony film electrode (SbFE) was used for expedient measurement of pantoprazole, i.e. an impor-tant pharmaceutical substance. The SbFE was prepared ex situ on a supporting glassy carbon electrode andemployed in direct square-wave voltammetric mode. After studying and optimizing several experimen-tal parameters, the electrode exhibited an auspicious electroanalytical performance in Britton-Robinsonbuffer solution with the calculated LOD of 9.1 × 10-7mol L-1 and an excellent reproducibility with theRSD of ±0.8%. Actual applicability of the SbFE in organic electroanalysis was demonstrated via measuringlow concentration levels of pantoprazole in a real pharmaceutical dosage form.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ashrafi A.R.,University of Kashan | Doslic T.,University of Zagreb | Saheli M.,University of Kashan
Match | Year: 2011

The eccentric connectivity index ξ(G) of a graph G is defined as ξ(G) = Σ uεV(G) deg(u)ε(u), where deg(u) denotes the degree of the vertex u and ε(u) is the largest distance between u and any other vertex v of G. In this paper we present exact formulas for the eccentric connectivity index of TUC 4C 8(R) nanotubes. Source


Composite surgical materials are being developed as a replacement for stiff metals, flexible and weak polymers and brittle bioceramics. This article gives an informative overview of polymer matrix surgical composites. Source


Qin T.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Tukovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Grigoriev R.O.,Georgia Institute of Technology
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2014

Convection in a layer of fluid with a free surface due to a combination of thermocapillary stresses and buoyancy is one of the classic problems of fluid mechanics. Although extensively studied, it is still not fully understood. In particular, neither the effect of phase change nor the thermal boundary conditions at the liquid-vapor interface have been properly described. These two intimately related issues have a significant impact on the stability of the flow and transitions between different convective patterns. The objective of this paper is to develop and validate a comprehensive numerical model which properly describes both heat transfer and phase change at the liquid-vapor interface, as well as the transport of heat and vapor in the gas layer, which is ignored by the vast majority of theoretical studies with minimal justification. We present a numerical investigation of convection in a long cell filled with a volatile fluid and air, and investigate the changes in convective patterns due to with changes in the applied horizontal temperature gradient. We also explore how variations in the wetting properties of the fluid and lateral confinement (three-dimensionality) affect the flow. While the numerical results have been found to be in general agreement with existing experimental observations, we have also discovered an unexpected phenomenon: a region of evaporation near the cold wall and a region of condensation near the hot wall. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Jurina A.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: The literature on the osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) in skeletally immature children is scarce and little is known about the clinical outcomes and the radiologic appearance of these lesions after surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to assess mid-term clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes after arthroscopic microfracture (AM) of OLT in skeletally immature children. METHODS:: Thirteen patients with OLT treated by AM before skeletal maturity were included in the study. The Berndt and Harty outcome question, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation question, and the Martin questionnaire were used to obtain patients’ subjective satisfaction with their operated ankle. Functional outcomes preoperatively and postoperatively were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. MRI scans were performed postoperatively using a magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system for 11 ankles. RESULTS:: The median age was 15 years (range, 13 to 16 y) and the median follow-up period was 5.6 years (range, 3.8 to 13.6 y). According to the Berndt and Harty outcome question, good clinical results were reported in 10 (76.9%) and fair in 3 (23.1%) patients. The postoperative AOFAS score was significantly improved when compared with the preoperative AOFAS score, with a mean increase of 35 points (P<0.001). The overall MOCART score was 65 (range, 10 to 75). MRI variables of the MOCART scoring system showed no association with clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:: AM seems to be an effective surgical method for the treatment of OLT in skeletally immature children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level IV—therapeutic studies, case series. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Medimorec D.,HEP Group | Tomsic T.,University of Zagreb
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

Development of a wind farm project includes a lot of interconnected steps and one of the most important ones is the proper energy yield assessment. Wind energy yield assessment is typically based on wind measurements on a measurement mast that are later used in one of the wind flow software models. In cases where there are multiple wind measurements on the potential wind farm site, a question arises on how to optimally use all the available data. This paper shows a method of using such data through the application of the portfolio theory, a well-established theory in economics and frequently used in other scientific disciplines. The method shown is very flexible in terms of input data and software models, and the results of its application show that it is possible to increase accuracy and reduce uncertainty of energy yield assessment. The key result of the method is the possibility to achieve better quality of input data for the energy yield assessment without spending additional resources. The method opens up a wide space for further research and improvements, all with the objective of achieving better results of energy yield assessment and finally, better prepared wind project. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bein B.M.,University of Graz | Berkebile-Stoiser S.,University of Graz | Veronig A.M.,University of Graz | Temmer M.,University of Graz | Vrsnak B.,University of Zagreb
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In 60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than ±5minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Madjidian D.,Lund University | Mirkin L.,University of Zagreb
IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems | Year: 2014

A common approach to distributed control design is to impose sparsity constraints on the controller structure. Such constraints, however, may greatly complicate the control design procedure. This paper puts forward an alternative structure, which is not sparse yet might nevertheless be well suited for distributed control purposes. The structure appears as the optimal solution to a class of coordination problems arising in multiagent applications. The controller comprises a diagonal (decentralized) part, complemented by a rank-one coordination term. Although this term relies on information about all subsystems, its implementation only requires a simple averaging operation. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Katavic V.,University of Zagreb
Biochemia Medica | Year: 2010

In this evidence-based opinion piece on responsible conduct of research a short overview of the most prominent recent cases of sanctioned scientific misconduct, developments in the field of responsible conduct of research, definitions of types of scientific misconduct, and questionable research practices is given. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of scientists to publish and perform research is discussed, as well as the perception of fraud, its acceptability and influence on science and the scientific (public) record, with a special emphasis on the frequency of sanctioned and discovered fraudulent research. Data on (self)reported willingness to perform misconduct and questionable research practices are analyzed and discussed. An extensive overview on recent publications concerning topics of responsible conduct of research is presented. Finally, some suggestions to what the stakeholders could do are given, as well as easy (self)checks against scientific misconduct. Source


Warfarin is the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant. It shows great (up to 20-fold) interindividual variability in dose requirement because of both, genetic and environmental factors. Information from pharmacogenomics, a study of the interaction of the individual's genotype and drug response, can help optimize drug efficacy and minimize adverse drug reactions. Genotyping data on two genes, the warfarin metabolic enzyme CYP2C9 and warfarin target enzyme, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1), confirmed their influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Genome-wide association study also found a weak effect of CYP4F2. The presence of CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 variant alleles, which results in decreased enzyme activity, is associated with a signi cant decrease in the mean warfarin dose. VKORC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)explain a large fraction of the interindividual variation in warfarin dose, and VKORC1 has an approximately three-fold CYP2C9 effect. Carrier state of a combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms, rather than of one of these polymorphisms is associated with severe overanticoagulation. The time to achieve stability is mainly associated with the CYP2C9 genotype. Warfarin resistance has been related to several missense mutations in the VKORC1. Algorithms incorporating genetic (CYP2C9 and VKORC1), demographic, and clinical factors to estimate warfarin dosage could potentially minimize the risk of overdose during warfarin induction. Source


Grubisic L.,University of Zagreb | Kressner D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the eigenvalue decay of the solution to operator Lyapunov equations with right-hand sides of finite rank. We show that the kth (generalized) eigenvalue decays exponentially in k, provided that the involved operator A generates an exponentially stable analytic semigroup, and A is either self-adjoint or diagonalizable with its eigenvalues contained in a strip around the real axis. Numerical experiments with discretizations of 1D and 2D PDE control problems confirm this decay. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jakupcevic K.K.,University of Split | Ajdukovic M.,University of Zagreb
Croatian Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Aim: To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method: The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Results: Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Conclusion: Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse. Source


Benic S.,University of Zagreb
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We investigate the rapid rise of the dressed Polyakov loop in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model as a function of temperature. In QCD such a behavior is interpreted as a confinement-deconfinement phase transition. However, we demonstrate that in the NJL model this is simply a remnant of the chiral transition. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Filipovic V.,University of Zagreb
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2013

Water movement in soils is a key process that affects water quantity and quality in the environment. Movement of contaminants in soils is closely linked with the soil water flux and it is very important to properly evaluate these processes that occur in vadose zone. With development of new technologies more attention is dedicated to the use of numerical models to assess water flow behavior and groundwater pollution caused by agricultural production. This paper presents a review of many articles that are focused on vadose zone modeling and on the application of these models in agricultural/environmental sciences. With increasing development of computer technologies there is also increasing amount of programs that solve water flow and solute transport. Water flow is solved with Richard's equation, and for space discretization Galerkin finite element method is mostly used. The equation used in solute transport dominantly depends on solute whose transport is simulated. Modeling for sure represents the future of environmental protection and can be used for better understanding of vadose zone processes. Source


Pavicic M.,University of Zagreb | Pavicic M.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

For a reliable implementation of quantum teleportation, a near-deterministic (close to 100%) discrimination of all four Bell states of entangled qubits is required. One can carry it out with linear optical elements only if conditional dynamics are allowed. Here we present a setup in which we repeatedly disentangle and reentangle photons in three of four states, so as to separate photons in one of them, conditioned on keeping the other two at bay. The efficiency of a realistic implementation of our setup with current technology is over 90% for an ideal source of photons on demand. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Orehovacki T.,University of Zagreb
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI | Year: 2010

Quality and usability of Web applications are considered to be key aspects of their success. If these aspects are not adequately represented in a Web application, or if they are not appropriately combined, there will be little to prevent the users from browsing further in search of an application that will more effectively satisfy their needs. However, the main challenge is to identify key attributes that will retain users on a Web application longer or influence their decision to visit it again. There are many frameworks and methodologies that deal with this issue but very few of them have an emphasis on assessing the quality and usability of Web 2.0 applications. This paper contains a critical review of previous research in the field of Web quality assessment. It provides the theoretical basis for the development of a set of attributes that should be considered when measuring the quality of Web 2.0 applications. Source


Rados J.,University of Zagreb
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2011

The histologic picture of intraepidermal and subepidermal autoimmune bullous dermatoses is presented. Histologic changes are described according to the temporal evolution of lesions, with special reference to crucial elements of the histologic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of autoimmune bullous dermatoses is complex, mostly requiring additional immunofluorescence assays along with histoclinical correlation to detect the antibodies or target antigen by the methods of molecular biology or immunohistochemistry. Additional tests to reach an accurate diagnosis in various autoimmune bullous dermatoses are briefly described, emphasizing the need of proper integration of all clinical and laboratory data. Although frequently inadequately specific, the histologic finding provides a link between clinical findings and target molecular studies in autoimmune bullous dermatoses. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Cabrijan L.,University of Rijeka | Lipozencic J.,University of Zagreb
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2011

Adhesion molecules are proteins on the cell surface that are involved in the interactions between lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, especially in inflammatory skin diseases and autoimmune bullous disorders. Adhesion molecules include cadherins (subgroups E, N, P, M), integrins, selectins, and the immunoglobulin gene family. Cadherins E in the epidermis including desmocollin 1 and 2 and desmoglein 1 and 3 are essential transmembrane components of desmosome glycoproteins, which play a major role in bullous diseases, pemphigus in particular. Also important are integrin beta 1 alpha 1 and other integrins, which connect ligands of the collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Selectins (E, P) are important for leukocyte migration on endothelial cells. Adhesion molecules from the immunoglobulin superfamily (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, 3 [ICAM-1,3]; vascular adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1]) have significant roles in the immune and inflammatory mechanisms. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Mannini C.,University of Florence | Soda A.,University of Zagreb | Schewe G.,German Aerospace Center
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2010

The unsteady flow field around a two-dimensional rectangular prism with a fineness ratio (chord-to-thickness) of 5.0, is studied using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. A noncommercial unstructured flow solver is used in the simulations at various Reynolds numbers (from 26,000 to 1,850,000 based on the chord length), two different angles of attack (0° and 4°) and low Mach number (0.1). A grid-convergence study is presented in order to investigate the dependence of the flow solution on the spatial and temporal discretization. Results obtained with one- and two-equation turbulence models are compared, including models based on the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress (EARSM) approach. The aim of this work is to assess the capability of the computationally efficient two-dimensional URANS calculations to predict the features of complex massively separated flow around this type of geometry. A further goal is to use numerical simulations to investigate the strong Reynolds number effects observed in wind-tunnel experiments. Satisfactory agreement with the wind-tunnel data is obtained for several test cases, but only the turbulence model based on the EARSM approach captured the significant lift increase at non-zero angles of attack due to variation of Reynolds number. This phenomenon is shown to be related to the progressive upstream migration of the time-averaged shear-layer reattachment location on one side of the rectangular cylinder. The effects of the Reynolds number on the mechanism of vortex shedding are also explored in the simulations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gajger I.T.,University of Zagreb
American Bee Journal | Year: 2011

Recently, results of experimental Nosema ceranae and apis disease treatment with Nozevit were published. These results showed that a large number of nosema spores were significantly reduced using a common feeder for preventive treatment schedule (70.91%), and curative treatment schedule (78.37%) of honeybee colonies; and also after different methods of Nozevit application (drenching with sugar solution - 81.92% reduction; feeding with pollen patties - 96.70% reduction). The aim of this new research was to assess the effectiveness in the treatment of honeybee colonies affected with Nosema ceranae disease with an aerosol applicator of Nozevit phyto-pharmacological preparation, at manufacturer's recommended amount of product, but in a reduced sugar solution base (10 mL) as opposed to the industry standard drenching method (250 mL), thereby reducing cost per hive by saving beekeepers time and sugar solution. Source


Cincic D.,University of Zagreb | Friscic T.,University of Cambridge | Jones W.,University of Cambridge
CrystEngComm | Year: 2011

We present a database and experimental study of three-centered halogen bonds involving bifurcated halogen bond acceptors. Our study encompasses three cocrystals with nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms as acceptors and iodine atoms as donors, as well as an overview of three-centered halogen-bonded systems contained within the Cambridge Structural Database based on organic iodine as the donor atom and nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, sulfur, chlorine, bromine or iodine atoms as acceptors. The results demonstrate that three-centered halogen bonding arrangements are a possible outcome of cocrystallisation experiments and that they exhibit well-defined geometries. The occurrence of such three-centered interactions is considerably rarer for halogen bonds than for hydrogen bonds and, at the current level of understanding, their formation cannot be readily predicted. The strong preference for binary two-center interactions makes a clear difference between halogen and hydrogen bonds. However, as potential guidelines towards developing halogen-bonded architectures based on bifurcated acceptors, the database search indicates particular preference for bifurcation of neutral sulfur or anionic chloride and bromide acceptors. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Stipic-Markovic A.,University of Zagreb
Acta Medica Croatica | Year: 2012

Many pathophysiological process components are known to be implicated in lower limb ulcerations, among which vascular lesions have a major role. Vasculitis denotes a heterogeneous group of clinical entities which all are characterized by the inflammatory process of arterial and venous walls of any size and in any organ, quite frequently in the skin. Vasculopathy, on the other hand, refers to vascular and capillary lesions caused by, for example, some medications. The classification of vasculitides according to the size of the blood vessels involved serves for proper understanding the issue among clinicians and researchers, and not as a diagnostic tool. According to histologic finding obtained by examination of blood vessel biopsy specimen, vasculitides are divided into three groups: lymphocytic, leukocytoclastic and granulomatous. Livedoid vasculitis (livedo reticularis) most commonly affects women and is generally localized on lower extremities. The etiology of livedoid vasculitis may imply autoimmune diseases, capillary obstruction with cryoglobulins, or antiphospholipid syndrome. Livedoid vasculopathy is a hyalinization disease of the vasculature, with thromboses and ulcerations on lower extremities, and of unknown etiology. Livedoid vasculopathy has been singled out as a separate disease that usually does not occur consequentially to other primary diseases. Livedoid vasculopathy typically affects women (71%) at a mean age of 45 (range 10-85) years; bilateral involvement of both lower limbs is present in 80.8%, disease manifested with ulcerations in 68.9%, ulcerations followed by development of atrophie blanche in 71.1%, transcutaneous oximetry reduction is found in 74.1%, factor V mutation (Leiden heterozygotes) in 22.2%, reduced protein C activity in 13.3%, prothrombin gene mutation (G20210A) in 8.3%, positive lupus anticoagulant in 17.9%, positive anticardiolipin antibodies in 28.6%, and elevated homocysteine level in 14.3% cases; blood vessel histology shows intraluminal thrombosis in 97.8% of patients, while direct immunofluorescence of blood vessel specimen shows immunoglobulins and complement components in blood vessels on the surface, in the mid-dermis as well as deep in the dermis. The immunofluorescence pattern differs from that found in immune complex diseases. Some of the agents tried in the treatment of livedoid vasculopathy include pentoxifylline, low-molecular heparin, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, methylprednisolone i.v. with pentoxifylline, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, intravenous immunoglobulins, phenformin (biguanide) and ethylestrenol (anabolic steroid) combination, warfarin, heparin, systemic photochemotherapy (PUVA with oral psoralen), and low-molecular dextran. Infected ulcerations are treated with antibiotics. Combined therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 can also be used. Source


Zic M.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The addition of the ortho-phenylenediamine (OPDA) to aniline solution resulted in a slower polymer synthesis rate and in the modified PANI structural change. The interaction of both monomers produced the change in PANI morphology, which was confirmed by atomic force microscope (AFM). The stainless steel (SS) corrosion protective properties of PANI and modified PANI coatings were examined in chloride (Cl-) media by open circuit potential (E o.c. vs. t) monitoring. The presence of Cl- in supporting electrolyte resulted in two different Eo.c. vs. t potential regions. The different Eo.c. "drop" in two specific potential regions was attributed to the facilitated and hindered Cl- flux through PANI towards the SS surface. The Cl- flux was found to be governed by the potentially dependant "pump" and "barrier" effects, which were explained to be governed by the PANI anion exchange property. It has been found that the polymer structure has a significant influence on the electroactive behavior of the modified PANI. The influence of the polymer structure on the "barrier" and "pump" effects was additionally investigated by adding OPDA. The denser polymer structure obtained by addition of OPDA resulted in "weakened pump" and "enhanced barrier" effects, which produced hindered Cl- flux. The anion exchange process detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the low frequency region and the PANI anion exchange property were found to be under the influence of the OPDA additions. An increase in OPDA addition resulted in a lower polymer ability to replace the anions, which consequently hindered the process detected in the low frequency region. The method proposed in this paper offers the possibility to predict the modified PANI corrosive protective properties of SS in Cl- media using EIS measurement, which is less time consuming than the long-lasting E o.c. vs. t measurements. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ranilovic J.,Podravka d.d. food industry | Baric I.C.,University of Zagreb
British Food Journal | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-demographic and health variables of a representative sample of Croatian subjects over 15 years of age associated with reading nutrition labels and, in particular, to examine the association of age characteristics of "label users" with nutrition reading habits. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,011 randomly selected subjects over 15 years of age were interviewed by telephone. Moreover, 638 "label users" were recruited for assessing nutrition label habits. Findings: Of the subjects, 36 per cent claimed that they had never, 25 per cent rarely, 19 per cent always and 15 per cent sometimes read nutrition labels. Females, participants with the highest levels of education, still undergoing education, physically active and on special diets claimed that they were more likely to read nutrition labels. Among "label users", younger participants mentioned "curiosity" as the most important reason for reading nutrition labels, while older participants more often pointed out "wish for healthy eating habits". "Interpretational aids" were often mentioned among younger participants for easier understanding of nutritional information, while older participants requested "bigger letter size". Research limitations/implications: The present study provides a starting point for establishing nutrition education targeted at specific groups of consumers. Research is limited to the subject's self-reported nutrition label reading. Future research is needed to explore the differences between "label users" and "'non-users". Originality/value: As the study showed, a notable difference exists between younger and older subjects regarding nutrition habits that could help experts toward effective communication. Nevertheless, the study could fill the research gaps in nutrition reading habits of specific groups of consumers in European countries, other than northern Europe. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Duic N.,University of Zagreb
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2015

We are witnessing a huge growth of clean energy technologies during the last 15 years, spearheaded by government policies. Can this growth be sustained through challenges of economic crisis, the complications of achieving higher penetration of variable renewables, and high socioeconomic costs of slowly winding down fossil fuel sector? This paper will argue that the clean technologies are now technically and economically viable with much lower level of support and that new financial mechanisms built on grid parity and hourly markets will enable the continuation of the transition process. Policies should now be directed towards decreasing fossil fuel subsidies and other barriers to renewables. Also, the technologies needed to enable the increase of penetration of variable renewables, such as flexible combined and Rankine cycle power plants, and smart energy systems based on demand side management, including through the integration of power, heat, water, and transport systems, are now at various levels of readiness. The integration will slowly enable the transition from a power system in which supply is following demand to a power system in which demand is following variable supply. The main issue will be the growing opposition from fossil fuels sectors, which are starting to be hurt by the new technologies. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Oreskovic D.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Klarica M.,University of Zagreb
Brain Research Reviews | Year: 2010

The first scientific and experimental approaches to the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) formation began almost a hundred years ago. Despite researchers being interested for so long, some aspects of CSF formation are still insufficiently understood. Today it is generally believed that CSF formation is an active energy consuming metabolic process which occurs mainly in brain ventricles, in choroid plexuses. CSF formation, together with CSF absorption and circulation, represents the so-called classic hypothesis of CSF hydrodynamics. In spite of the general acceptance of this hypothesis, there is a considerable series of experimental results that do not support the idea of the active nature of CSF formation and the idea that choroid plexuses inside the brain ventricles are the main places of formation. The main goal of this review is to summarize the present understanding of CSF formation and compare this understanding to contradictory experimental results that have been obtained so far. And finally, to try to offer a physiological explanation by which these contradictions could be avoided. We therefore analyzed the main methods that study CSF formation, which enabled such an understanding, and presented their shortcomings, which could also be a reason for the erroneous interpretation of the obtained results. A recent method of direct aqueductal determination of CSF formation is shown in more detail. On the one hand, it provides the possibility of direct insight into CSF formation, and on the other, it clearly indicates that there is no net CSF formation inside the brain ventricles. These results are contradictory to the classic hypothesis and, together with other mentioned contradictory results, strongly support a recently proposed new working hypothesis on the hydrodynamics of CSF. According to this new working hypothesis, CSF is permanently produced and absorbed in the whole CSF system as a consequence of filtration and reabsorption of water volume through the capillary walls into the surrounding brain tissue. The CSF exchange between the entire CSF system and the surrounding tissue depends on (patho)physiological conditions that predominate within those compartments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Stulhofer A.,University of Zagreb | Traeen B.,University of Tromso | Carvalheira A.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction. Epidemiological evidence for the association between job-related stress and sexual difficulties in men is largely lacking. Little is known about the factors that may mediate or moderate this relationship. Aim. This study analyzes the association between job-related difficulties and men's sexual difficulties. Main Outcome Measures. Job-related difficulties were measured by 10 yes/no questions that addressed a range of adverse workplace situations. The experience of sexual difficulties in the past 12 months was assessed by using seven dichotomous indicators developed in the National Study of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) 2000. Method. Analyses were carried out using data from a 2011 online study of Portuguese, Croatian, and Norwegian men (N=2,112). Multivariate logistic regression and mediation analysis were used to test the hypothesized association. Results. Men with job-related concerns reported lower sexual satisfaction than men without such concerns did (F=7.53, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between job-related and sexual health concerns. The odds of experiencing one or more sexual health difficulties in the past 12 months were about 1.8 times higher among men who reported the highest levels of workplace difficulties than among men who experienced no such difficulties. The odds of reporting sexual health difficulties were significantly reduced by a higher income (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.87, P<0.01), emotional intimacy with one's partner (AOR=0.93, P<0.001), having children (AOR=0.62-0.66, P<0.01), and country-specific effects (AOR=1.98-2.22, P<0.001). In all three countries, the relationship between job-related and sexual health difficulties was mediated by anxiety and depression. Conclusions. The findings suggest that negative mood is the mechanism behind the association between workplace strain and sexual difficulties. Emotional support, such as couple intimacy and fatherhood, can reduce-independently from sociocultural and socioeconomic factors-the risk of sexual health concerns. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Source


A general mathematical tool for expanding vector systems on a sphere into basis functions, spherical elementary current system (SECS) method, was applied for separation of the geomagnetic field variations into external and internal parts, over a limited region of central and southeastern Europe. The registered variations at three Croatian repeat stations were compared to the variations estimated by the SECS method using the variations from the different sets of observatories. The results of the SECS method were also compared to a simple assumption that the variations at repeat station are equal to those at particular observatory. The relevance of this comparison was to get an insight about the possibility of using the SECS method for estimating the geomagnetic field variations over Croatia. The guidelines for the application of the SECS method for the purpose of reducing repeat station data were also given. © 2016 Vujić. Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences 2016. Source


Dadic M.,University of Zagreb
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2013

Modern fluxmeter operation is based on electronic integration. A system consisting of an induction coil and an integrator can be used to measure incremental changes in the flux linkages associated with the induction coil. A rigorous proof is presented that the inductance and self-capacitance of the induction coil, as well as the parasitics of the load resistor, do not influence the integrator output in measurement of incremental flux linkages using DC operation of the fluxmeter. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by experimental results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kosec T.,Slovenian National Building And Civil Engineering Institute | Curkovic H.O.,University of Zagreb | Legat A.,Slovenian National Building And Civil Engineering Institute
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010

In humid atmospheres, copper and bronze passivate, with the formation of an oxidized layer (patina). Patinas may also be created by chemical patination procedures, which are frequently used to achieve special visual effects. However, unless these patinas are effectively protected, corrosion may be initiated when they are exposed to a polluted atmosphere. In the present study the stability of the green nitrate and the green chloride type of patinas, and of electrochemically formed patina, was investigated, as well as suitable protection methods. Two inhibitors, dissolved in different solutions, were used: benzotriazole and the less hazardous imidazole type of inhibitor, and waxes. The dissolving of untreated and pre-treated surfaces, in test solutions representing urban rain (pH 5.0), was investigated by means of potentiodynamic techniques. The microstructure of the patinas and the corrosion products was investigated by SEM/EDX. It was found that both investigated inhibitors inhibited the corrosion of electrochemically formed patina, and of the green chloride type of patina, but were ineffective in the case of the green nitrate type of patina. The difference between the performance of the investigated inhibitors when brushed onto patinated bronze, and when the bronze is immersed in a solution containing the dissolved inhibitor, was determined. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Pooh R.K.,Clinical Research Institute of Fetal Medicine | Shiota K.,Kyoto University | Kurjak A.,University of Zagreb
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: This article illustrates early human development, demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy and computer graphics on human embryo specimens, and advanced 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in clinical obstetrics. STUDY DESIGN: Fixed human embryo specimens were imaged by MR microscopy coupled with computer graphics technology. Transvaginal 3D sonography was used to examine embryos in ongoing gestations and compare embryological findings. RESULTS: Advances in MR microscopy allowed detailed visualization of embryo specimens. Computational techniques allowed reconstruction of tomographic images to render them as 3D structures. High-resolution transvaginal 3D sonography produced images that demonstrated the neural tube from week 6; brain anatomy and vasculature from week 8; and craniofacial morphology and other structures from week 11. CONCLUSION: MR microscopy is a novel technique that enables nondestructive, high-resolution imaging of embryo specimens. On the other hand, 3D sonoembryology allows detailed anatomical visualization in vivo and is the basis for the assessment of anomalies as well as human development. © 2011 Mosby, Inc. Source


Damjanovic Desic S.,University of Zagreb | Birlouez-Aragon I.,Spectralys Innovation
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Infant formulas are highly sensitive to the Maillard reaction during manufacturing, while this reaction induces significant loss in protein nutritional value and safety. The indicators mostly used to monitor the reaction during heat treatment are furosine, carboxymethyllysine and hydroxymethylfurfural, but analysis of these molecules is time-consuming and expensive. The FAST method, based on simple fluorescence measurements on clear milk supernatant, is a good alternative for Maillard reaction monitoring in milk products. The aim of this study was to determine the respective sensitivity of the various indicators of heat damage to infant formula, including the FAST index. A realistic infant formula model was developed, to compare the reaction kinetics at different temperatures (80-110 °C) for lactulosyllysine, measured as furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural and carboxymethyllysine. By comparing the Arrhenius plots of the three Maillard products to that of the FAST index, the latter was identified as the most sensitive indicator for infant formula quality monitoring during heat treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ranjan K.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Ranjan K.R.,University of Zagreb | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2014

Active solar distillation system integrated with solar pond is the green energy system for desalination without negative environmental impact. This clean technology has potential to contribute a lot to water security, sustainable development, and world stability. In this article, results of the energy as well as exergy analysis performed on this novel system integrated with solar pond are presented. This theoretical analysis is carried out in the climatic conditions of New Delhi (India) during a typical summer day. The model and procedures can be helpful in the design, and performance investigation of the actual system anywhere in the world. The daily productivity, energy, and exergy efficiency of the passive solar still are found to be 5 L/m2, 38.63 %, and 2.71 %, respectively, corresponding to a sum total of 24.436 MJ/m 2 day solar energy input in passive mode. With the integration of solar pond in the active solar still, the daily productivity, energy, and exergy efficiency rises to about 9.5 L/m2, 46 %, and 14.81 % respectively, for thermal energy input from 100 to 500 W/m2 during off-sunshine hours. The further improvement in the performance of the same system is observed if the thermal energy is supplied continuously (24 h) to the solar still in addition to incident solar radiation. The proposed system will meet the demand of freshwater in both rural and urban areas and help in reducing the load of CO2 emission on the environment saving high grade energy consumed for desalination through conventional devices and technologies. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. Source


Segvicklaric M.,University of Zagreb
Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju | Year: 2012

This article brings an overview of mycotoxin co-occurrence in foods in Croatia and neighbouring countries and experimental data from mycotoxin interaction studies involving Fusarium toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Only a few studies of combined mycotoxin toxicity have employed a mathematical/statistical design, while others have used common statistics in order to compare the effects of mycotoxin mixtures with effects of single toxins. So far, most studies have observed additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Source


Geric S.,University of Zagreb
MIPRO 2010 - 33rd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, Proceedings | Year: 2010

Service-oriented architectures (SOA) as a new form of information system (IS) architectures is more and more important in todays IS development. Some researchers are pointing out that the number of SOA implementations in the next few years will significantly outnumber the number of traditional IS architectures implementations. One of the reasons for this are the possibilities that SOA and technologies used for SOA development are offering. Today's SOA are mostly based and developed using Web services technology. Because of that SOA inherits multiple advantages and disadvantages of Web services technology as well. This is especially important in the context of SOA security issues that somehow differ from "traditional" information system security principles. On the implementation level SOA security issues are mostly based on Web services security solutions, like Trusted communication principles via SOAP, WS-Security, WS-SecureConversation; Trusted service via WS-Policy, WS-PolicyAssertions, WS-PolicyAttachment, WS-SecurityPolicy; WS-Authorization, WS-Privacy, and Trusted Web via WS-Trust, WS-Federation. This article addresses the question of security mechanisms that are usually used and that can be used in Web services based SOA implementation from standardized as well as technical and implementation point of view. An overview of SOA security solutions is given, their positive and negative sides as well as compatibility problems in service-oriented architectures that are developed of components based on Web services technology and legacy software components. Source


Smoljanovic T.,University of Zagreb
Croatian medical journal | Year: 2011

Adaptive rowing is rowing or sculling for rowers with a physical disability. It debuted at the Paralympic Games in 2008. In order to ensure an equitable playing field, rowers with similar levels of physical function and disability are classified into different sport classes for competition. Rowers with an inability to use a sliding seat and impaired trunk function resulting in an inability to perform trunk forward and backward lean via hip flexion/extension are assigned to the Arms and Shoulders (AS) class. AS rowers have to use a chest strap set immediately below the chest in order to localize any trunk movement in AS class. Conditions created by adaptations of rowing equipment and technique within the AS class create unique stresses on the upper thoracic region. The following case report demonstrates how etiology and management of a rib stress fracture in an AS rower differs in comparison to able-body rowers. Of significant importance were the limitations imposed on the rower's ability to maintain rowing-specific fitness, due to the nature of the rib stress fracture and requirement to decrease force transmission through the ribs for several weeks. The rower's gradual return to full training was further impacted by obligatory use of the chest strap, which directly applied pressure over the injured area. Protective orthosis for the chest was designed and applied in order to dissipate pressure of the chest strap over the thorax during rowing (most importantly at the catch position) both on the ergometer and in the boat. Source


Canjevac I.,University of Zagreb
Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik | Year: 2013

This article first gives the modern typology of discharge regimes of rivers in Croatia. In the first part, an overview of the methodology and results of previous classifications and typologies of rivers in Croatia and in the world is given. In the second part, results of the classification of 76 discharge regimes of 51 rivers in Croatia for the period 1990-2009 are presented. Discharge regimes were determined using module (Parde ́) coefficients and after that discharge curves where classified using the cluster method. In the clustering, the hierarchical Ward Method was used in combination with Manhattan distance and checked with the non-hierarchical K-means method. The analysis resulted in 7 types of discharge regimes in Croatia: 1) Alpine nival-pluvial regime, 2) Dinaric pluvial-nival regime, 3) Peripannonian pluvial-nival regime, 4) Pannonian pluvial-nival regime, 5) Pannonian pluvial regime, 6) Mediterranean pluvial-nival, and 7) Mediterranean pluvial regime. Each type was described. The number and distribution of types shows the great variety in the discharge regimes of rivers in Croatia. This is a result of distribution and interaction of natural-geographic elements and, in some cases, a consequence of human interventions. Results should be the ground point for quality presentations, analyses and sustainable management of rivers in Croatia. Source


Doslic T.,University of Zagreb | Litz M.S.,Free University of Berlin
Match | Year: 2012

We investigate enumerative properties of unbranched polyphenylene chains. In particular, we find exact formulas for the numbers of matchings and independent sets of given cardinalities in three types of uniform chains. Further, we show that two of those three types are extremal with respect to the number of considered structures among all chains of a given length. The paper also presents some results on polyphenylene dendrimers. Source


Kozaric-Kovacic D.,University of Zagreb
Studies in health technology and informatics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study is to prospectively examine electromyographic (EMG) responses in patients diagnosed with acute stress disorder (ASD) after experiencing a traffic accident or violent attack, within one month after the traumatic event and six months later. Half of the participants met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after six months. Psychophysiological parameters can provide a better clarification between ASD and PTSD patients. Heightened startle magnitude in the immediate aftermath of trauma may be a good predictor of PTSD; moreover, a lack of startle habituation appears to be a more stable marker of PTSD, which persists for six months after trauma exposure. Source


Petkovic G.,Childrens Hospital Srebrnjak | Barisic I.,University of Zagreb
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. Source


The discovery of adipocytokines, products of adipose tissue, has been a turning point in the understanding of metabolic disorders. Historically considered as a passive depot of energy, adipose tissue has become an important active participant and adipocytokines crucial mediators of its metabolic role. Among a number of adipose tissue products, leptin and adiponectin are exclusively secreted by adipocytes. Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and interferes with several neuroendocrine and immune functions. Adiponectin is an intriguing adipocytokine with its serum level inversely correlated with fatness. It has been related to enhanced insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic actions. Recent investigations have also emphasized the important role of resistin, visfatin, retinol binding protein 4, and of a whole list of cytokines like interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, or a chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The fact that secretory balance of adipose tissue in obesity is shifted towards the proinflammatory spectrum has supported the hypothesis on the development of dysfunctional adipose tissue in these circumstances. It contributes to the state of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and it seems to be a fundamental link between obesity and atherosclerosis. Source


Andros L.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Matkovic-Calogovic D.,University of Zagreb | Planinic P.,Ruder Boskovic Institute
CrystEngComm | Year: 2013

Four new ionic, oxalate containing complexes, [Hphen][Ni(phen) 3][Ta(C2O4)4]·6.5H 2O (1), [Ni(phen)3][Ta(OH)(C2O 4)3]·8H2O (2), [Ni(phen) 3][Ta(OC2H5)(C2O4) 3]·H2O (3) and [Ni(phen)3][Ta(OCH 3)(C2O4)3]·H2O (4) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were obtained by using an (oxalato)tantalate(v) solution as a source of complex anions. Crystal structures of all four compounds were solved. The complexes contain the same [Ni(phen)3]2+ cation but different (oxalato)tantalate(v) complex anions. The nickel(ii) atom in the cation is coordinated with six nitrogen atoms in a trigonally distorted octahedral environment. The coordination sphere around the tantalum atom is subject to change due to the solvent change. In the complex anion of 1 the tantalum(v) atom is octacoordinated by eight oxygen atoms from the four oxalate groups, whereas in the anions of 2, 3 and 4 the coordination polyhedron around tantalum is a distorted pentagonal bipyramid comprising six oxygen atoms from the three oxalate groups and another oxygen atom from the additional oxygen ligand. Different complex anions in 1-4 give rise to the variability of the structural architectures. Crystallization water molecules and the (oxalato)tantalate(v) anions direct diverse hydrogen bonding patterns: from one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chains in 3 and 4, to an extended three-dimensional framework in 2. Compound 1 contains two different cations, [Hphen]+ and [Ni(phen)3]2+, that are involved in a two-dimensional stacking arrangement. The compounds were studied also by TG/DTA analysis, and the composition of the oxides, as the final decomposition product, was checked by the powder X-ray diffraction method. The results indicate that the new compounds are prospective and applicable Ni-Ta precursors for the synthesis of nickel tantalate, NiTa2O6. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


The paper presents Herman Bollé's approach to restoration of Baroque build- ings which he adopted in the restoration of the pilgrim complex in Marija Bis- trica in 1878-85 and with which he set the pattern for the restoration of the parish churches in Križevci, Remete, Zagreb (in Dolac), Jastrebarsko, Dubranec and Bjelovar, and the Franciscan churches in Kostajnica and Virovitica. Bollé's designs for the restoration of the Franciscan church and monastery in Trsat and the parish churches in Moravèe and Vrbovec remained unexecuted. The style most frequently used in these projects was German Neo-Renaissance. Source


Alimovic S.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2013

Background Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on 'Child Behavior Check List/4-18' (CBCL/4-18), Parent Report. Results Children with ID and visual impairment had more emotional and behavioural problems than other groups of children: with single impairment and with typical development (F=23.81; d.f.1/d.f.2=3/156; P<0.001). All children with special needs had more emotional and behavioural problems than children with typical development. The highest difference was found in attention problems syndrome (F=30.45; d.f.1/d.f.2=3/156; P<0.001) where all groups of children with impairments had more problems. Children with visual impairment, with and without ID, had more somatic complaints than children with normal vision. Conclusion Intellectual disability had greater influence on prevalence and kind of emotional and behavioural problems in children than visual impairment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Howard J.A.L.,University of Nottingham | Delmas S.,University of Nottingham | Ivancic-Bace I.,University of Zagreb | Bolt E.L.,University of Nottingham
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) is a nucleic acid processing system in bacteria and archaea that interacts with mobile genetic elements. CRISPR DNA and RNA sequences are processed by Cas proteins: in Escherichia coli K-12, one CRISPR locus links to eight cas genes (cas1, 2, 3 and casABCDE), whose protein products promote protection against phage. In the present paper, we report that purified E. coli Cas3 catalyses ATP-independent annealing of RNA with DNA forming R-loops, hybrids of RNA base-paired into duplex DNA. ATP abolishes Cas3 R-loop formation and instead powers Cas3 helicase unwinding of the invading RNA strand of a model R-loop substrate. R-loop formation by Cas3 requires magnesium as a co-factor and is inactivated by mutagenesis of a conserved amino acid motif. Cells expressing the mutant Cas3 protein are more sensitive to plaque formation by the phage λvir. A complex of CasABCDE ('Cascade') also promotes R-loop formation and we discuss possible overlapping roles of Cas3 and Cascade in E. coli, and the apparently antagonistic roles of Cas3 catalysing RNA-DNA annealing and ATP-dependent helicase unwinding. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society. Source


Rogosic M.,University of Zagreb
Kemija u industriji/Journal of Chemists and Chemical Engineers | Year: 2012

This recommendation defines just three terms, viz., (1) molar-mass dispersity, relative-molecular-mass dispersity, or molecular-weight dispersity; (2) degree-of-polymerization dispersity; and (3) dispersity. "Dispersity" is a new word, coined to replace the misleading, but widely used term "polydispersity index" for M̄ w / M̄ n and X̄ w / X̄ n . The document, although brief, also has a broader significance in that it seeks to put the terminology describing dispersions of distributions of properties of polymeric (and non-polymeric) materials on an unambiguous and justifiable footing. Source


Hrabak-Paar M.,University of Zagreb
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology | Year: 2016

In this report, images of intense adrenal enhancement in a 79-year-old female patient with right-sided heart failure and severe tricuspid insufficiency are presented. Only two cases of intense adrenal enhancement as a sign of cardiogenic shock were previously reported in the literature. Intense adrenal enhancement could be one of the earliest CT signs of cardiogenic shock. Its presence should be immediately reported to the referring physician as a sign of significant hemodynamic instability warranting early critical-care management. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE). Source


Doslic T.,University of Zagreb
Match | Year: 2011

We present explicit formulas for the total number of conjugated circuits of a given length in polyacene and fibonacene chains and analyze asymptotic behavior of the expected number of conjugated circuits in long chains of the considered types. Source


Iljazovic Z.,University of Zagreb
Logical Methods in Computer Science | Year: 2011

We investigate conditions under which a co-computably enumerable set in a computable metric space is computable. Using higher-dimensional chains and spherical chains we prove that in each computable metric space which is locally computable each co-computably enumerable sphere is computable and each co-c.e. cell with co-c.e. boundary sphere is computable. ©Z. Iljazović. Source


Bietenholz W.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hip I.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2012

In gauge theories the field configurations often occur in distinct topological sectors. In a lattice regularised system with chiral fermions, these sectors can be defined by referring to the Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem. However, if such a model is simulated with local updates of the lattice gauge configuration, the Monte Carlo history tends to get stuck in one sector for many steps, in particular on fine lattices. Then expectation values can be measured only within specific sectors. Here we present a pilot study in the 2-flavour Schwinger model which explores methods of approximating the complete result for an observable - corresponding to a suitable sum over all sectors - based on numerical measurements in a few specific topological sectors. We also probe various procedures for an indirect evaluation of the topological susceptibility, starting from such topologically restricted measurements. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


This article reviews the experience of implementing a community approach to drug use and youth delinquency prevention based on the Communities that Care (CTC) system implemented in one Croatian county consisting of 12 communities, 2002 to 2013 (Hawkins, 1999; Hawkins & Catalano, 2004). This overview explores selected critical issues which are often not considered in substance use(r) community intervention planning, implementation as well as in associated process and outcome assessments. These issues include, among others, the mobilization process of adequate representation of people; the involvement of relevant key individual and organizational stakeholders and being aware of the stakeholders willingness to participate in the prevention process. In addition, it is important to be aware of the stakeholders knowledge and perceptions about the problems of drug use and youth delinquency in their communities as well as the characteristics of the targeted population(s). Sometimes there are community members and stakeholders who block needed change and therefore prevention process enablers and bridges should be involved in moving prevention programming forward. Another barrier that is often overlooked in prevention planning is community readiness to change and a realistic assessment of available and accessible resources for initiating the planned change(s) and sustaining them. All of these issues have been found to be potentially related to intervention success. At the end of this article, I summarize perspectives from prevention scientists and practitioners and lessons learned from communities readiness research and practice in Croatian that has international relevance. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Stankovic R.,University of Zagreb
Promet - Traffic - Traffico | Year: 2012

In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities. Source


Kranjcec D.,Zabok General Hospital | Altabas V.,University of Zagreb
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2012

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the occurrence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria in the same patient (definition by WHO). Presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with larger myocardial infarction size and complications following acute myocardial infarction. Two hundred and thirty patients with acute coronary syndromes were analyzed. Those with MetS (n=141) included patients with diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and at least two of the following criteria: hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia/low HDL cholesterol, android obesity/body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, or microalbuminuria. Control group did not meet criteria for MetS. Presence of heart failure was assigned according to Killip classification. The MetS group had larger myocardial infarction size determined by peak creatine-kinase (CK) (1484±1354 vs. 981±890, p = 0.003) and CK MB (141±117 vs. 95±78, p = 0.002). While in non-MetS group males had larger myocardial infarction than females, in MetS group females had larger myocardial infarction than males. Cardiac failure occurred more in MetS group of patients, again was more prominent in females. Occurrence of metabolic syndrome in acute coronary syndrome patients predisposes to larger myocardial infarction size, more on the account of female patients having MetS. MetS, again particularly in females, predisposes to higher chance of having heart failure during acute coronary syndrome. Recognizing the female group with MetS as of higher risk for large myocardial infarction and heart failure leads us to pay special attention on this patient population. © The Japan Endocrine Society. Source


Spremic M.,University of Zagreb
International Journal of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation | Year: 2012

After explaining the Information Technology (IT) governance concept and external and national regulation, in this paper we investigate if the prescribed regulatory requirements and regular information system (IS) audits affect the IT Governance initiatives and foster strategic business/IT alignment. External and especially national IT Governance regulation framework in the Republic of Croatia was explained in further details. We constructed the research model around IT Governance components and conducted the research by the series of long-lasting comprehensive in-depth interviews with responsible employees. On the sample of selected Croatian small banks, the organizational position and the role of IT in the business has been investigated, while specific research interest was to get the clear view of the maturity level of IT usage. We hoped that such approach could be useful when trying to answer the posed research question: can national IT Governance regulatory framework help to start to measure IT Governance maturity and are such initiatives helpful in aligning IT and business? Source


Kraljevic Pavelic S.,University of Rijeka | Sedic M.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Bosnjak H.,University of Zagreb | Spaventi S.,Croatian Academy of science and Arts | Pavelic K.,University of Rijeka
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011

Many hypotheses have been postulated to explain the intricate nature of the metastatic process, but none of them completely accounted for the actual biological and clinical observations. Consequently, metastasis still remains an open issue with only few metastasis-inducing proteins experimentally validated so far. Recently proposed novel metastatic model, where serial and parallel metastatic processes are adequately integrated, might help to bridge the current gap between experimental results and clinical observations. In addition, the identification, isolation and molecular characterization of cancer stem cells, a population of the cells within the tumour mass able to proliferate, self-renew and induce tumorigenesis, will shed new light on the complex molecular events mediating metastasis, invasion and resistance to therapy. Understanding the molecular basis of these tumour characteristics will usher in a new age of individualized cancer therapy. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of molecular mechanisms underpinning metastasis, and discuss recent findings in this field obtained by global molecular profiling strategies such as proteomics. © 2011 Kraljevic Pavelic et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Segvic Klaric M.,University of Zagreb | Rasic D.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health | Peraica M.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Toxins | Year: 2013

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Jakovljevic M.,University of Zagreb
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Placebo and nocebo responses fascinate, confuse, mystify and challenge. They are genuine social, cultural and psychobiological phenomena which can significantly modify the overall treatment outcome. The placebo-nocebo phenomenon represents a very good model for our better understanding the role of treatment context and how the words, indices, symbols and icons act on our brains. Placebo response is associated with reward expectancy and relief of anticipatory anxiety, while nocebo response is related to lack of reward/positive expectancy and to increase of anticipatory anxiety. Placebo-nocebo responses are mediated through changes in various cortico-subcortical networks and psychophysiological systems. In spite of many existing complementary theories and still growing research on placebo and nocebo response, the implementation of our current knowledge to benefit basic research, clinical trials and routine clinical practice is still so scarce. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. Source


Tukovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Ivankovic A.,University College Dublin | Karac A.,University of Zenica
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2013

Correct calculation of stresses at the interface of bonded or otherwise joined materials plays a significant role in many applications. It is therefore important that traction at the material interface is calculated as accurately as possible. This paper describes procedures that can be employed to achieve this goal by using centre-based finite-volume method. Total traction at the interface is calculated by decomposing it into normal and tangential components, both being calculated at each side of the interface, and applying the continuity assumption. The way in which the traction approximation is achieved depends on calculation of tangential gradient of displacement at the interface. To this end, three different methods are proposed and validated against problems with known solutions. It was shown that all methods can be successfully used to simulate problems with multi-material domains, with the procedure based on finite area method being most accurate. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


PandZic H.,University of Washington | Morales J.M.,Technical University of Denmark | Conejo A.J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Kuzle I.,University of Zagreb
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

A virtual power plant aggregates various local production/consumption units that act in the market as a single entity. This paper considers a virtual power plant consisting of an intermittent source, a storage facility, and a dispatchable power plant. The virtual power plant sells and purchases electricity in both the day-ahead and the balancing markets seeking to maximize its expected profit. Such model is mathematically rigorous, yet computationally efficient.The offering problem is cast as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming model which maximizes the virtual power plant expected profit. The uncertain parameters, including the power output of the intermittent source and the market prices, are modeled via scenarios based upon historical data. The proposed model is applied to a realistic case study and conclusions are drawn. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Perez-Garcia V.,University of Guanajuato | Belman-Flores J.M.,University of Guanajuato | Navarro-Esbri J.,Jaume I University | Rubio-Maya C.,University of Zagreb
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

Despite of the excellent efficiency of the CO2 transcritical cycle in heat pump mode, there is a loss of efficiency in refrigeration mode compared with the subcritical vapor compression cycle with HFC refrigerants. This reason has lead several researches to propose ways to improve the transcritical cycle performance using CO2 as refrigerant in refrigeration mode, mainly associated to cycle configurations changes. In this paper, a comparative study and energetic simulation of most common configurations for transcritical single stage cycle using CO2 as refrigerant has been carried out. In order to make the comparison, a cycle components modelization has been proposed and the simulation results are used to find the optimum configuration for a single stage vapor compression transcritical system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bruin H.,University of Vienna | Stimac S.,University of Zagreb
Nonlinearity | Year: 2013

We prove that every self-homeomorphism h : Ks → K s on the inverse limit space Ks of the tent map T s with slope s ∈(√2,2 ] has topological entropy h top (h) = |R| log s, where R ∈ ℤ is such that h and σR are isotopic. Conclusions on all possible values of the entropy of homeomorphisms of the inverse limit space of a (renormalizable) quadratic map are also drawn. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society. Source


Strobridge F.C.,University of Cambridge | Juda N.,University of Zagreb | Friscic T.,University of Cambridge
CrystEngComm | Year: 2010

The mechanism of the room-temperature synthesis of coordination polymers from ZnO by liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) was investigated, and using catalytic amounts of water allowed us to extend the scope of this synthetic method to copper compounds. The mechanochemical synthesis of model compounds zinc fumarate and copper(ii) acetate proceeds through a stepwise mechanism which involves the intermediate formation of solvates with water (in the case of zinc fumarate) or acetic acid (in the case of copper(ii) acetate) as kinetic products. The course of zinc fumarate LAG synthesis was explored using three different types of grinding liquids: water, aqueous organic solvents and pure organic solvents. With liquid water, the formation of the kinetic product switches the reaction mechanism from LAG to a neat grinding process. As a result, the reaction scope is limited to either the tetrahydrate or the pentahydrate as the major products. In contrast, the use of aqueous organic solvents as grinding liquids allows the selective synthesis as well as screening for different hydrated and anhydrous forms of zinc fumarate. Different polymorphs of the zinc fumarate coordination polymer can be obtained by changing the organic liquid. As a first step towards the quantitative understanding of how the liquid phase directs LAG mechanosynthesis, we demonstrate that product formation is regulated by the mole fraction and activity of water in the grinding liquid. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Suric M.,University of Zadar | Juracic M.,University of Zagreb
Geologia Croatica | Year: 2010

U-Th and14C dating, and X-ray diffraction of parts of 16 submerged speleothems taken from depths of 1.5-41.5 m from 7 submarine caves and pits along the Eastern Adriatic coast, provided insight into the sea-level fluctuations during the last 220 ka, and to the palaeogeographic changes caused by sea-level changes. Due to climate changes, palaeoenvironmental settings also varied, but not so abruptly and intensely as in the rest of Europe. As the Alps and Dinarides acted as orographic barriers, the Eastern Adriatic coast was the border region between periglacial Europe and the temperate Mediterranean region. It was also a refuge area for plant species from the north. This study showed that appropriate temperature, humidity and vegetation cover ensured favourable conditions for karstification and speleothem formation even during the Last Glacial Maximum. Source


Aglic Aljinovic A.,University of Zagreb
Annals of the University of Craiova, Mathematics and Computer Science Series | Year: 2012

In this paper the Mellin transform in complex domain is considered for functions f which vanish beyond a finite domain [a, b] ⊂ [0,∞〉 and such that f1 ∈ Lp [a, b]. New inequalities involving the Mellin transform of f, integral mean of f, exponential mean and logarithmic mean of the endpoints of the domain of f are presented. Source


Cizmesija A.,University of Zagreb
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

For a real number p, let Mp(a,b) denote the usual power mean of order p of positive real numbers a and b. Further, let H=M- 1 and H eα=α M0+(1-α) M1 for α∈[0,1]. We prove that the double mixed-means inequality M- α2(a,b)≤12[H(a,b)+H eα(a,b)]≤Mln 2ln4-ln(1-α)(a,b) holds for all α∈[0,1] and positive real numbers a and b, with equality only for a=b, and that the orders of power means involved in its left-hand and right-hand sides are optimal. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kudelic R.,University of Zagreb
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2016

When we are developing information system we must, in some way, determine the development order of its subsystems. Currently, this problem is not formally solved. Therefore, to rectify this we are proposing a solution which takes the sum of weights of feedback arcs as a criteria for determining the development order, rather than some other criteria that has not come directly from information system description. For the purpose of solving this problem we have developed, analyzed, and tested, Branch and Bound algorithm and Monte-Carlo randomized algorithm which solves the problem of Information System Subsystems Development Order in polynomial time with arbitrary probability. Also, we have determined an approximation error for developed Monte-Carlo randomized algorithm. Lastly, we have proven that the problem of Information System Subsystems Development Order is NP-hard, NP-complete, and APX-hard. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Over the past century, average global temperature increased by an approximately of 0.6°C and it has been show that global warming has been affecting many biological systems. Recent climate change has influenced birds in many ways. The aim of this work is to present trends in the first arrival date and potential impact of mean monthly temperature on the spring migration of the Pied Wagtail (Motacilla alba) in long-term study in northwestern Croatia (Mokrice rural area). The study was conducted during 1980-2011. The Pied Wagtail is a small, semi-hole nesting, migratory, insectivorous passerine breeding in Europe and Asia (also breeds in Morocco and western Alaska). This study didn't show that over the research period the Pied Wagtail returned to their breeding sites significantly earlier. This can be explained with the fact that local temperatures for February/ March, did not increase significantly (P> 0.05). The change in Pied Wagtail arrivals was very little and advanced 1.47 days (non-significant) over the study period (1980-2011). Source


Vukovic J.,University of Zagreb | Avidad M.A.,University of Granada | Capitan-Vallvey L.F.,University of Granada
Talanta | Year: 2012

This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2- naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in various matrices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Thomas A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Jakopovic M.,University of Zagreb
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2014

Activation of the host immune system represents an attractive treatment approach for cancers. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a variety of immunotherapies, including nonspecific immune stimulants, vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors, have been evaluated in clinical trials. Several randomized Phase III trials have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit from nonspecific immune stimulants and vaccines in the overall trial populations. Activity of vaccines in subsets of patients in these trials needs further evaluation. Unlike vaccines aimed at stimulating a cellular immune response to antigens differentially expressed in cancers, checkpoint inhibitors aim at overcoming immune inhibitory signals in the tumor microenvironment via pharmacological inhibition of immune checkpoints-a crucial tumoral immune escape mechanism. Early clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors showed promising results with some durable responses. Better understanding of the mechanisms of immunosuppression specific to NSCLC will be crucial for successful patient selection for immunotherapy. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


A new Temperature Gradient System has been designed for practical use when quenching real workpieces in any kind of liquid quenchants. The main hardware component of the system is a cylindrical probe of 50 mm Dia. x 200 mm assembled with three thermocouples, and the temperature data acquisition unit for automatic drawing of cooling curves. The accompanying software-package consists of three modules: The first one for calculation of the heat transfer coefficient, the second one for quenching process analysis by graphical presentation of different thermodynamic functions, and the third one for hardness distribution prediction on the axial section of axially-symmetrical workpieces of any complex shape. The hardness prediction 2-D program is based on a Finite Volume Method, by which cooling curves in every particular point of the axial workpiece section are calculated, and cooling times from 800 °C to 500 °C (t8/5) determined. Using the known relation between the cooling time (t8/5) and the distance from the quenched end of the Jominy specimen, for the relevant steel, the hardness can be predicted, at once, in every particular point of the axial workpiece section, which is the unique feature of this system. The system itself is designed to: record, evaluate and compare real quenching intensities during the whole quenching process, when different liquid quenchants with different conditions are used, and different quenching techniques have been applied. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications. Source


Baretic M.,University of Zagreb