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Yaounde, Cameroon

Nlom J.H.,University of Yaounde II | Karimov A.A.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The present study aims to explore economic and socio-demographic factors that influence a household's probability to switch from firewood to cleaner fuels (kerosene and LPG) in northern Cameroon. The paper employs an ordered probit model to construct cooking patterns and fuel choices. Three main cooking sources are considered: firewood, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Utilized data are derived from a national survey conducted in 2004 by the Cameroonian National Institute of Statistics. The study analyzes the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and decertification. While results indicate that there is a potential for a transition from traditional to cleaner fuels in the studied region, this transition is still in its earlier stage. The research demonstrates that firewood and kerosene prices, age of household heads, educational level of household heads and willingness to have a gas cylinder, as well as type of dwelling have a statistically significant impact on fuel-switching decisions. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Njikam O.,University of Yaounde II
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the impact of trade (tariffs and import penetration) and foreign direct investment (FDI) on labor adjustment and labor-demand elasticities in Cameroonian manufacturing sector. Unlike previous studies, I distinguish the effect on different skill groups of employees. Using firm-level data pooled across sectors, I find that trade openness leads to faster adjustment of different labor inputs with a higher speed for unskilled workers. Tariff liberalization does not have any statistically significant effects on labor-demand elasticities. I find strong evidence for the impact of imports on skilled-labor-demand elasticity when I replace tariffs with import-penetration ratios. I also find strong evidence that FDI inflows strongly increase unskilled-labor-demand elasticity. The sector-level results do not alter the previous findings. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Etoa J.B.E.,University of Yaounde II
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

Filter methods, introduced by Fletcher and Leyffer for nonlinear programming are characterized by the use of the dominance concept of multiobjective optimization, instead of a penalty parameter whose adjustment can be problematic. This paper presents a way to implement a filter based approach to solve a nonlinear bilevel programming problem in a linear approximations framework. The approach presented is based on the trust region idea from nonlinear programming, combined with filter-SQP algorithm, smooth and active sets techniques. The restoration procedure introduced in our algorithm consists in computing a rational solution. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Pariselle A.,University of Yaounde II | Van Steenberge M.,Royal Museum for Central Africa | Van Steenberge M.,Charles University | Vanhove M.P.M.,Royal Museum for Central Africa | And 3 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

Lake Tanganyika’s biodiversity and endemicity sparked considerable scientific interest. Its monogeneans, minute parasitic flatworms, have received renewed attention. Their host-specificity and simple life cycle render them ideal for parasite speciation research. Because of the wide ecological and phylogenetic range of its cichlids, Lake Tanganyika is a “natural experiment” to contrast factors influencing monogenean speciation. Three representatives of Bathybatini (Bathybates minor, B. fasciatus, B. vittatus), endemic predatory non-littoral cichlids, host a single dactylogyridean monogenean species. It is new to science and described as Cichlidogyrus casuarinus sp. nov. This species and C. nshomboi and C. centesimus, from which it differs by the distal end of the accessory piece of the male apparatus and the length of its heel, are the only Cichlidogyrus species with spirally coiled thickening of the penis wall. In Cichlidogyrus, this feature was only found in parasites of endemic Tanganyika tribes. The seemingly species-poor Cichlidogyrus community of Bathybatini may be attributed to meagre host isolation in open water. The new species infects cichlids that substantially differ phylogenetically and ecologically. This may be an adaptation to low host availability. Cichlidogyrus species infecting African Great Lake cichlids are summarized and proposed as model for the influence of host ecology on disease transmission. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Sotamenou J.,University of Yaounde II | Parrot L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2013

The increased importance of urban agriculture in developing countries suggests reconsidering some innovation adoption opportunities and challenges, particularly soil fertility inputs. In sub-Saharan Africa, urban horticulture uses a high level of soil inputs like inorganic fertilizers, while local composts are far less common. Yet, municipal solid wastes provide high quantity of organic matter, a major component of compost. Our study aimed to determine if urban horticulture in sub-Saharan towns can provide incentives for compost adoption among farmers. To this end, we surveyed 242 farmers in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon in the Central Province, and in Bafoussam, a city in the West Province. We used an Ordered Logit Model to test four soil input modalities adopted by farmers and ranging from no soil inputs, composts only, composts and inorganic fertilizers, and inorganic fertilizers only. Our results revealed that 36% of farmers adopt an exclusive or mixed use of compost. Inorganic fertilizer expenditures, vegetable production, land ownership, and land distance simultaneously and significantly influence the four soil input alternatives. Urban horticulture provides the prerequisites for compost adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. We suggest several recommendations for implementation of a waste recycling commodity chain dedicated to agriculture. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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