Boyer S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Boyer S.,Aix - Marseille University |
Eboko F.,University of Paris 13 |
Camara M.,Catholic University of Cameroon |
And 4 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: The independent evaluation of the Cameroonian antiretroviral therapy (ART) Programme, which reached one of the highest coverage in the eligible HIV-infected population (58%) in Sub-Saharan Africa, offered the opportunity to assess ART outcomes in the context of the decentralization of HIV care delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (EVAL, ANRS 12-116, 2007) was carried out in a random sample of 3151 HIV-positive patients (response rate 90%) attending 27 treatment centres at the different level of the healthcare delivery (central, provincial and district), as well as in the exhaustive sample of doctors in charge of HIV care in these centres (response rate 92%, n = 97). Multivariate two-level analyses were conducted to assess the impact of the level of healthcare delivery on CD4 cell gains since initiation of treatment and adherence to treatment in the subsample of patients who were ART-treated for 6 months or more (n = 1985). RESULTS: District treatment centres were characterized by more limited technical and human resources but a lower workload. ART-treated patients followed up in these centres had significantly lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment for other explanatory factors, immunological improvement was similar in patients followed up at the central and district level, whereas adherence to ART was better both at provincial and district levels. CONCLUSION: Success in scaling-up access to ART in Cameroon has been facilitated by decentralization of the healthcare system. Long-term sustainability urgently implies better integration of this HIV-targeted programme in the global healthcare reform of financing mechanisms, management of human resources and drug procurement systems. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Pariselle A.,University of Yaounde II |
Van Steenberge M.,Royal Museum for Central Africa |
Van Steenberge M.,Charles University |
Vanhove M.P.M.,Royal Museum for Central Africa |
And 3 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014
Lake Tanganyika’s biodiversity and endemicity sparked considerable scientific interest. Its monogeneans, minute parasitic flatworms, have received renewed attention. Their host-specificity and simple life cycle render them ideal for parasite speciation research. Because of the wide ecological and phylogenetic range of its cichlids, Lake Tanganyika is a “natural experiment” to contrast factors influencing monogenean speciation. Three representatives of Bathybatini (Bathybates minor, B. fasciatus, B. vittatus), endemic predatory non-littoral cichlids, host a single dactylogyridean monogenean species. It is new to science and described as Cichlidogyrus casuarinus sp. nov. This species and C. nshomboi and C. centesimus, from which it differs by the distal end of the accessory piece of the male apparatus and the length of its heel, are the only Cichlidogyrus species with spirally coiled thickening of the penis wall. In Cichlidogyrus, this feature was only found in parasites of endemic Tanganyika tribes. The seemingly species-poor Cichlidogyrus community of Bathybatini may be attributed to meagre host isolation in open water. The new species infects cichlids that substantially differ phylogenetically and ecologically. This may be an adaptation to low host availability. Cichlidogyrus species infecting African Great Lake cichlids are summarized and proposed as model for the influence of host ecology on disease transmission. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
PubMed | University of Aarhus, French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg and 13 more.
Type: | Journal: PhytoKeys | Year: 2017
The tropical vegetation of Africa is characterized by high levels of species diversity but is undergoing important shifts in response to ongoing climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures. Although our knowledge of plant species distribution patterns in the African tropics has been improving over the years, it remains limited. Here we present RAINBIO, a unique comprehensive mega-database of georeferenced records for vascular plants in continental tropical Africa. The geographic focus of the database is the region south of the Sahel and north of Southern Africa, and the majority of data originate from tropical forest regions. RAINBIO is a compilation of 13 datasets either publicly available or personal ones. Numerous in depth data quality checks, automatic and manual via several African flora experts, were undertaken for georeferencing, standardization of taxonomic names and identification and merging of duplicated records. The resulting RAINBIO data allows exploration and extraction of distribution data for 25,356 native tropical African vascular plant species, which represents ca. 89% of all known plant species in the area of interest. Habit information is also provided for 91% of these species.
Nlom J.H.,University of Yaounde II |
Karimov A.A.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015
The present study aims to explore economic and socio-demographic factors that influence a household's probability to switch from firewood to cleaner fuels (kerosene and LPG) in northern Cameroon. The paper employs an ordered probit model to construct cooking patterns and fuel choices. Three main cooking sources are considered: firewood, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Utilized data are derived from a national survey conducted in 2004 by the Cameroonian National Institute of Statistics. The study analyzes the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and decertification. While results indicate that there is a potential for a transition from traditional to cleaner fuels in the studied region, this transition is still in its earlier stage. The research demonstrates that firewood and kerosene prices, age of household heads, educational level of household heads and willingness to have a gas cylinder, as well as type of dwelling have a statistically significant impact on fuel-switching decisions. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Carmignani F.,University of Yaounde II |
Avom D.,University of Queensland
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010
On the question of whether natural resources are a curse for growth, the jury is still out. While waiting for a decision, we study whether resource intensity has any effect on social development over and above the effect it might have on income or growth. We measure social development by a combination of health and education outcomes and resource intensity by the share of primary commodities in total merchandise exports. We find that, after controlling for per-capita income and other macroeconomic and institutional factors, a higher dependence on primary commodity exports is negative for social development. The transmission mechanism seems to operate via income inequality and macroeconomic volatility. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Njikam O.,University of Yaounde II
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2014
This paper investigates the impact of trade (tariffs and import penetration) and foreign direct investment (FDI) on labor adjustment and labor-demand elasticities in Cameroonian manufacturing sector. Unlike previous studies, I distinguish the effect on different skill groups of employees. Using firm-level data pooled across sectors, I find that trade openness leads to faster adjustment of different labor inputs with a higher speed for unskilled workers. Tariff liberalization does not have any statistically significant effects on labor-demand elasticities. I find strong evidence for the impact of imports on skilled-labor-demand elasticity when I replace tariffs with import-penetration ratios. I also find strong evidence that FDI inflows strongly increase unskilled-labor-demand elasticity. The sector-level results do not alter the previous findings. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Sotamenou J.,University of Yaounde II |
Parrot L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2013
The increased importance of urban agriculture in developing countries suggests reconsidering some innovation adoption opportunities and challenges, particularly soil fertility inputs. In sub-Saharan Africa, urban horticulture uses a high level of soil inputs like inorganic fertilizers, while local composts are far less common. Yet, municipal solid wastes provide high quantity of organic matter, a major component of compost. Our study aimed to determine if urban horticulture in sub-Saharan towns can provide incentives for compost adoption among farmers. To this end, we surveyed 242 farmers in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon in the Central Province, and in Bafoussam, a city in the West Province. We used an Ordered Logit Model to test four soil input modalities adopted by farmers and ranging from no soil inputs, composts only, composts and inorganic fertilizers, and inorganic fertilizers only. Our results revealed that 36% of farmers adopt an exclusive or mixed use of compost. Inorganic fertilizer expenditures, vegetable production, land ownership, and land distance simultaneously and significantly influence the four soil input alternatives. Urban horticulture provides the prerequisites for compost adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. We suggest several recommendations for implementation of a waste recycling commodity chain dedicated to agriculture. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Etoa J.B.E.,University of Yaounde II |
Etoa J.B.E.,Cameroon High Commission
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2010
In this paper, we present an original method to solve convex bilevel programming problems in an optimistic approach. Both upper and lower level objective functions are convex and the feasible region is a polyhedron. The enumeration sequential linear programming algorithm uses primal and dual monotonicity properties of the primal and dual lower level objective functions and constraints within an enumeration frame work. New optimality conditions are given, expressed in terms of tightness of the constraints of lower level problem. These optimality conditions are used at each step of our algorithm to compute an improving rational solution within some indexes of lower level primal-dual variables and monotonicity networks as well. Some preliminary computational results are reported. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009.
Sotamenou J.,University of Yaounde II |
Parrot L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Urban poverty, increases in food demand, land pressures, pollution resulting from solid waste generation and from mineral fertilizers use in urban and periurban agriculture, are becoming real issues in agriculture in Cameroon, and there is a growing need for organic fertilizers that result from solid waste recycling. Urban and peri-urban agriculture are potential regular users of large quantities of household wastes and compost; but these organic fertilizers are indeed scarcely used. This study proposes using a binomial Logit model on the one hand, to identify factors to encourage using compost in the urban and peri-urban lowlands in Cameroon, and on the other hand, to highlight the effects of these factors on different levels of fertilization using an ordered Logit model. Using a representative sample of 288 farmers, it was found that 41% of farmers use mixed compost and mineral fertilizer, 22% of them use mineral fertilizers exclusively, and 15% use compost exclusively. However, 23% of the farmers in Cameroon do not use any fertilizers. The binomial Logit model estimations show that variables like membership in farmers' cooperatives, land property rights, food cultivation, low levels of farm income and the distance between farmers' dwellings and their farms have an effect on whether compost is used in urban and peri-urban areas in Cameroon. In addition, the ordered Logit model estimation shows that the variables like land-property rights, food cultivation, the available chemical input budget and the distance between dwellings and farms explains fertilization at all levels. In light of these results, a participative solid waste management plan that encourages local composting in the lowlands would help to reduce pollution resulting from solid wastes while promoting the development of the urban and peri-urban urban agriculture.
Combes J.-L.,Clermont University |
Ebeke C.H.,International Monetary Fund |
Etoundi S.M.N.,Clermont University |
Yogo T.U.,University of Yaounde II
World Development | Year: 2014
This paper explores the role of remittances and foreign aid inflows during food price shocks. The results yield four findings. First, low income countries and the Sub-Saharan African region are the most vulnerable to food price shocks. Second, remittance and aid inflows dampen the effect of positive food price shock and food price instability on household consumption in vulnerable countries. Third, negative food price shock episodes are associated with a significant increase in household consumption in vulnerable countries. Fourth, a lower remittance-to-GDP ratio is required in order to fully absorb the effects of food price shocks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.