The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university. The university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, and opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution. The university also offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online.The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources, arts and science, business, education, engineering and applied science, health science, and law. The university offers over 190 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. In the top 15 percent of the country's four-year colleges, the University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges.In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university’s Outreach School offers more than 41 degree, certificate and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond. These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers across the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie.The university is a hub of cultural events in Laramie. It offers a variety of performing arts events, ranging from rock concerts in the Arena Auditorium to classical concerts and performances by the university's theater and dance department at the Fine Arts Center. Wyoming also boasts a competitive athletic program, one which annually challenges for conference and national championships. University of Wyoming offers many extracurricular activities, including over 200 student clubs and organizations that include a wide range of social, professional and academic groups. The Wyoming Union is the hub of the campus, with the University Store and numerous student facilities. Wikipedia.
Barbier E.B.,University of Wyoming
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Year: 2012
Coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) generate some of the most important services to humankind, but they are endangered from overexploitation and loss. The widespread decline in CME services suggests that it is important to understand what is at stake in terms of the critical benefits and values of these services. This article examines how environmental and resource economics has contributed to our knowledge of CME services and discusses progress as well as challenges in valuing these services. The article highlights case studies in which the economic valuation of key CME services has influenced policy decisions concerning the management of CMEs. Two key features of CME benefits are also examined. First, the natural spatial variability in these systems can influence the economic value of CME services. Second, because they occur at the interface between watersheds, the coast, and open water, CMEs can produce cumulative and synergistic benefits across the entire seascape that are much more significant and unique than the services provided by any single ecosystem. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. All rights reserved.
Levy D.L.,University of Wyoming |
Heald R.,University of California at Berkeley
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012
Cell size varies widely among different organisms as well as within the same organism in different tissue types and during development, which places variable metabolic and functional demands on organelles and internal structures. A fundamental question is how essential subcellular components scale to accommodate cell size differences. Nuclear transport has emerged as a conserved means of scaling nuclear size. A meiotic spindle scaling factor has been identified as the microtubule-severing protein katanin, which is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in two different-sized frog species. Anaphase mechanisms and levels of chromatin compaction both act to coordinate cell size with spindle and chromosome dimensions to ensure accurate genome distribution during cell division. Scaling relationships and mechanisms for many membrane-bound compartments remain largely unknown and are complicated by their heterogeneity and dynamic nature. This review summarizes cell and organelle size relationships and the experimental approaches that have elucidated mechanisms of intracellular scaling. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Jackson S.T.,University of Wyoming
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012
Paleoecological inference rests on a foundation of processes and relationships that lie between the target variables of interest and the proxy data extracted from the fossil record. Inattention to these processes can lead to overconfidence, reification of proxies, and " ignorance creep" , a process by which assumptions become taken for granted and ultimately hidden or forgotten. Paleoecological inference can be strengthened, and its uncertainties identified and quantified, by developing forward conceptual models that incorporate the processes and relationships known to lie between target variables and proxy data. These may fall into four general categories: source, vector, diagenesis, and analysis. The uncertainties within each of these categories are somewhat unique, although interactions often arise among processes in different categories. I use inference of regional species occurrence from macrofossil assemblages in woodrat (Neotoma) middens to illustrate the effects of various processes and interactions on strength of inference and origin of uncertainties, and to identify how uncertainties can be characterized, reduced, or quantified. The kinds of issues discussed in the woodrat-midden example are pervasive in paleoenvironmental and paleoecological inference, and should be examined thoroughly for all proxies and archives on a regular basis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Shuman B.,University of Wyoming
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2012
Abrupt environmental changes punctuated the warm Holocene epoch (the past ~11,700 years), and studies of these episodes can provide insight into the dynamics that produce rapid climate changes, as well as their ecologic, hydrologic, and geomorphic impacts. This review considers the processes that generated warm world abrupt changes and their landscape and resource effects, including nonlinear climate system interactions, as well as the possibility that large climate variability can linearly produce apparent 'state shifts.' Representative examples of Holocene changes illustrate processes that could produce future changes, including (1) rapid changes in ice sheets, such as by ca 8200 years before AD 1950, (2) shifts in the behavior of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (e.g., at ca 5600 years before AD 1950) and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (e.g., at ca 2700 years before AD 1950), and (3) land-atmosphere feedbacks, such as were possible in North Africa in the mid-Holocene. These case examples, drawn primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, also reveal the dynamics that generate the types of climate change impacts that would be particularly evident to individuals and societies, such as rapid tree species declines (observed to have taken place within as little time as 6-40 years) and persistent shifts in the regional availability of water. Holocene changes also demonstrate that even progressive climate change can produce important abrupt impacts; that increased rates of background climate forcing may increase the frequency of abrupt responses; and that impacts may well depend upon the particular sequence of changes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Romling U.,Karolinska Institutet |
Galperin M.Y.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information |
Gomelsky M.,University of Wyoming
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2013
Twenty-five years have passed since the discovery of cyclic dimeric (3'→15') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP). From the relative obscurity of an allosteric activator of a bacterial cellulose synthase, c-di-GMP has emerged as one of the most common and important bacterial second messengers. Cyclic di- GMP has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, motility, virulence, the cell cycle, differentiation, and other processes. Most c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways control the ability of bacteria to interact with abiotic surfaces or with other bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Cyclic di-GMP plays key roles in lifestyle changes of many bacteria, including transition from the motile to the sessile state, which aids in the establishment of multicellular biofilm communities, and from the virulent state in acute infections to the less virulent but more resilient state characteristic of chronic infectious diseases. From a practical standpoint, modulating c-di-GMP signaling pathways in bacteria could represent a new way of controlling formation and dispersal of biofilms in medical and industrial settings. Cyclic di-GMP participates in interkingdom signaling. It is recognized by mammalian immune systems as a uniquely bacterial molecule and therefore is considered a promising vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this review is not to overview the whole body of data in the burgeoning field of c-di-GMP-dependent signaling. Instead, we provide a historic perspective on the development of the field, emphasize common trends, and illustrate them with the best available examples. We also identify unresolved questions and highlight new directions in c-di- GMP research that will give us a deeper understanding of this truly universal bacterial second messenger. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.