The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university. The university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, and opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution. The university also offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online.The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources, arts and science, business, education, engineering and applied science, health science, and law. The university offers over 190 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. In the top 15 percent of the country's four-year colleges, the University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges.In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university’s Outreach School offers more than 41 degree, certificate and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond. These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers across the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie.The university is a hub of cultural events in Laramie. It offers a variety of performing arts events, ranging from rock concerts in the Arena Auditorium to classical concerts and performances by the university's theater and dance department at the Fine Arts Center. Wyoming also boasts a competitive athletic program, one which annually challenges for conference and national championships. University of Wyoming offers many extracurricular activities, including over 200 student clubs and organizations that include a wide range of social, professional and academic groups. The Wyoming Union is the hub of the campus, with the University Store and numerous student facilities. Wikipedia.
University of Wyoming | Date: 2016-01-19
Methods and constructs are provided for controlling processes in live animals, plants or microbes via genetically engineered near-infrared light-activated or light-inactivated proteins including chimeras including the photosensory modules of bacteriohytochromes and output modules that possess enzymatic activity and/or ability to bind to DNA, RNA, protein, or small molecules. DNA encoding these proteins are introduced as genes into live animals, plants or microbes, where their activities can be turned on by near-infrared light, controlled by the intensity of light, and turned off by near-infrared light of a different wavelength than the activating light. These proteins can regulate diverse cellular processes with high spatial and temporal precision, in a nontoxic manner, often using external light sources. For example, near-infrared light-activated proteins possessing nucleotidyl cyclase, protein kinase, protease, DNA-binding and RNA-binding activities are useful to control signal transduction, cell apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation and other cell processes.
University of Wyoming | Date: 2016-08-29
A photoelectrochemical system and method utilizing the photons having energies above the bandgaps of a p-type semiconductor photocathode and an n-type semiconductor photoanode with redox couples having fast electron transfer kinetics to keep overpotentials under 0.15 volts, and redox potentials energetically located within the band gaps, for storing energy in photodriven oxidation and reduction reactions separated by less than 1.6 volts using a redox flow battery configuration, are described. The photoelectrochemical system can also store heat in the flow battery generated from the inefficiencies of the photoredox reactions and from impinging photons having energies below the band gaps. Redox flow batteries contain fluid electrolyte and tanks for storing the redox equivalents, which can be used to store the solar energy not used to drive the photoredox chemistry for hot water and space heating applications. The present hybrid photoelectrochemical/thermal system may be used store excess grid electricity when electrical demand is low, or as a conventional redox flow battery in a distributed energy system, if the redox electrolyte volume was increased above that needed for solar load leveling on a daily or weekly time scale. Heat generated from the discharge of the redox battery would also be captured and stored.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-16-2014 | Award Amount: 2.68M | Year: 2015
The objective of SHEER is to develop best practices for assessing and mitigating the environmental footprint of shale gas exploration and exploitation. The consortium includes partners from Italy, United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, USA. It will develop a probabilistic procedure for assessing short and long-term risks associated with groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. The severity of each of these depends strongly on the unexpected enhanced permeability pattern, which may develop as an unwanted by-product of the fracking processes and may become pathway for gas and fluid migration towards underground water reservoirs or the surface. An important part of SHEER will be devoted to monitor and understand how far this enhanced permeability pattern will develop both in space and time. These hazard may be at least partially inter-related as they all depend on this enhanced permeability pattern. Therefore they will be approached from a multi-hazard, multi parameter perspective. SHEER will develop methodologies and procedures to track and model fracture evolution around shale gas exploitation sites and a robust statistically based, multi-parameter methodology to assess environmental impacts and risks across the operational lifecycle of shale gas. The developed methodologies will be applied and tested on a comprehensive database consisting of seismicity, changes of the quality of ground-waters and air, ground deformations, and operational data collected from past case studies. They will be improved by the high quality data SHEER will collect monitoring micro-seismicity, air and groundwater quality and ground deformation in a planned hydraulic fracturing to be carried out by the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Pomerania. Best practices to be applied in Europe to monitor and minimize any environmental impacts will be worked out with the involvement of an advisory group including governmental decisional bodies and private industries.
Barbier E.B.,University of Wyoming
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Year: 2012
Coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) generate some of the most important services to humankind, but they are endangered from overexploitation and loss. The widespread decline in CME services suggests that it is important to understand what is at stake in terms of the critical benefits and values of these services. This article examines how environmental and resource economics has contributed to our knowledge of CME services and discusses progress as well as challenges in valuing these services. The article highlights case studies in which the economic valuation of key CME services has influenced policy decisions concerning the management of CMEs. Two key features of CME benefits are also examined. First, the natural spatial variability in these systems can influence the economic value of CME services. Second, because they occur at the interface between watersheds, the coast, and open water, CMEs can produce cumulative and synergistic benefits across the entire seascape that are much more significant and unique than the services provided by any single ecosystem. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. All rights reserved.
Barbier E.B.,University of Wyoming
Science | Year: 2012
Sustainable development, a focus at the June United Nations meeting, requires critical endorsement and action by the G20.
Benkman C.W.,University of Wyoming
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013
Although the ecological and evolutionary impacts of species interactions have been the foci of much research, the relationship between the strength of species interactions and the intensity of selection has been investigated only rarely. I develop a simple model demonstrating how the opportunity for selection varies with interaction strength, and then use the relationship between the maximum value of the selection differential and the opportunity for selection (Arnold & Wade 1984) to evaluate how selection differentials vary in relation to species interaction strength. This model predicts an initial deceleration and then an accelerating increase in the intensity of selection with increasing strength of antagonistic interactions and with decreasing strength of mutualistic interactions. Empirical data from several studies provide support for this model. These results further support an evolutionary mechanism for some striking patterns of evolutionary diversification including the latitudinal species gradient, and should be relevant to studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Measurement & Imaging | Award Amount: 350.00K | Year: 2016
With support from the Chemical Measurement and Imaging Program in the Division of Chemistry, Prof. Franco Basile and his group at the University of Wyoming are working to develop new means of determining the composition and distribution of proteins in biological samples, employing the powerful analytical tools of mass spectrometry (MS). Specifically, the Basile group is developing new means of using MS to form an image of the location of specific (bio)chemicals on biological samples, including animal or plant tissue. These tools can be used widely in investigations of fundamental biology, biomedical research, renewable energy (biofuels) and bio-inspired materials, all areas that benefit society. Students involved receive broad, interdisciplinary training, preparing them for careers in a range of disciplines in industry and academia. The project is also fostering collaborative research within the University of Wyoming, and involving faculty and students from neighboring institutions (including community colleges) and others in the broader MS-imaging scientific community.
The Basile team is developing a rapid (seconds) and solvent-free method to thermally digest and decompose proteins in biological samples. This represents a significant improvement over current methodologies, which require time-consuming (4h to overnight) digestion of proteins with expensive and difficult-to-use enzymes in solution. The non-enzymatic and solvent-free approach for on-tissue protein digestion is not only ~500 times faster than traditional enzymatic digestion, but also provides more control over the area of the tissue that is analyzed. The new method utilizes well-characterized thermal protein decomposition reactions that were discovered and developed in the Basile laboratory over the last 10 years. Potential applications span a wide range of disciplines, broadening the training received by participating students.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Catalysis | Award Amount: 465.00K | Year: 2016
In this project funded by the Chemical Catalysis program of the Chemistry Division, Professor Dean M. Roddick of the University of Wyoming is developing new hydrogen transfer catalysts for the conversion of plentiful, but less useful hydrocarbon feedstocks to more useful olefin products. An extension of this research to the synthesis of highly valuable hydrofluorocarbons is pursued. Polymers with high fluorine content possess high thermal and chemical inertness. They are used in high-tech applications such as fuel cell membranes, synthetic lubricants, and microelectronics. In this project, catalysts for the production of these materials are being designed and optimized for several important processes. Dr. Roddick and coworkers introduce community college students to chemical research on the campus of Wyomings only 4-year university through annual Structural Chemistry workshops. Extensive participation and leadership in the new state-mandated Science Initiative brings tangible benefits to scientific research and education across the state of Wyoming.
Diphosphine platinum systems are generally more active than well-established diimine catalysts. This work extends the use of platinum catalysis to palladium and nickel systems containing perfluorinated phosphine ligands. These species are being developed as as fluoroalkene oligomerization catalysts. DFT calculations on model palladium compounds predict energetically accessible fluoroethylene insertion barriers for M-R and M-Rf bonds. The calculations also support a general fluoroalkene oligomerization mechanism.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS | Award Amount: 388.50K | Year: 2016
Serpentinization, the reaction of olivine and pyroxene, the two most prevalent minerals in the mantle in the oceanic lithosphere, with aqueous fluids is the primary alteration reaction in the ocean crust. Through this reaction, H2O is taken up into the rock and bound in the structure of minerals that replace olivine and pyroxene as they react with magmatic fluids and/or seawater. Vast volumes of ocean crust have undergone serpentinization; and this reaction results in a myriad of interesting and poorly known processes, such as the development of ultra-mafic hosted hydrothermal vents that are home to unusual microbes living both on and below the seafloor in the deep sea. In subduction zones, serpentinized oceanic lithosphere dives down into Earths mantle where increasing temperature causes serpentine to react and release its bound H2O, which then lowers the melting point of overlying rocks and causes magmatism and island arc volcanism, such as that which occurs in Japan and the Alaskan Aleutian Islands, and cycles H2O from surface reservoirs back into the mantle. Thus, understanding serpentinization processes is essential for our knowledge of how the Earth works, how ore deposits associated with convergent tectonic margins are formed, and how life can exist deep in the ocean crust far from light and the input from organic matter settling down from the sea surface. This research provides a new means to understand the early part of the serpentinization process, using the isotopes of Iron (Fe) in minerals that form and form from serpentine. Samples from cores from holes drilled into the ocean crust will be analyzed as will samples from the Josephine Ophiolite in California and from the Oman and New Caledonian ophiolites, all of which represent seafloor that has been thrust onto the continentals. Analyses of mineral phases will be performed by electron microprobe. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy will be used to determine the ferric iron content of the serpentines; and Fe isotopes will be measured on a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Analysis of the resulting data will be assisted by thermodynamic modeling and determinations of the various oxidation states of Fe. The main goals of this research are to investigate the processes by which Fe in serpentinizing crust moves, determine how magnetite, a major Fe bearing mineral, forms during serpentinization, and explore how non-traditional stable isotopes of Fe can be used to track the oxidation and mobility of Fe irrespective of the formation of magnetite. Specific hypotheses are that the Fe isotopic signature of chlorite and temolite rims around olivine will be close to zero per mil because little to no magnetite is produced in the reactions. If the signature is found to be light, then it is likely to indicate Fe fractionated as it moved through the solution phase to create magnetite. It is further predicted that the Fe isotopic signature of magnetite in serpentine veins is heavy compared to that in the bulk rock. Additional mineral specific fractionation questions will be examined and addressed. Broader impacts of the work include support of faculty at the University of Wyoming, which is an institution in an EPSCoR state (i.e., state that does not receive significant federal funding). It also involves graduate student training in cutting-edge technology and international collaboration with Australian scientists. To increase public awareness of the research and the science of marine geology, the awardees will work closely with the University of Wyoming Geology Museum to create a new series of exhibits on the seafloor and ocean science. The project has additional broader impact in that it informs the economic geology and formation of ore deposits fields.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: PHYSICAL & DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY | Award Amount: 327.96K | Year: 2016
This award is for an observational and modeling campaign that will address the impact of cloud seeding on orographic winter precipitation. There is a lack of concrete evidence that cloud seeding has the intended impact of increasing precipitation, yet several states in the western US have conducted seeding operations over many years. With advanced observational tools and computer modeling the researchers involved in this project believe that they can build the scientific foundation for weather modification as a tool for precipitation enhancement. The researchers will heavily instrument the area around the Idaho Power Companys seeding operations in the Payette Mountains to collect data on the effectiveness of these activities. This award represents a public/private partnership that has the potential to improve the viability of the cloud seeding operations and has implications for the water-hungry populations in the western US. Multiple graduate and undergraduate students would be involved in the field work and data analysis, ensuring the development of the next generation of atmospheric scientists.
The Seeded and Natural Orographic Wintertime clouds: the Idaho Experiment (SNOWIE) field campaign will take place in early 2017 in the Payette Mountains of Idaho. The main observational assets that will be used are the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft with in-situ and remote sensing instruments, the CSWR Doppler on Wheels mobile radars, and a host of ground-based remote sensing and in-situ precipitation sensors. The overall goals of the project are to understanding the natural dynamical and microphysical processes by which precipitation forms and evolves within orographic winter storms and to determine the physical processes by which cloud seeding with silver iodide (AgI), either from ground generators or aircraft, impacts the amount and spatial distribution of snow falling across a river basin. The core scientific objective of the proposal are to: 1) Evaluate the role of mesoscale and microscale dynamics and of the underlying terrain in the formation, growth, and fallout of natural ice crystals in winter storms through observations, 2) Investigate how the natural snow growth process is altered as a result of airborne AgI seeding through both observations and model simulations, and 3) Evaluate the effects of ground seeding on snowfall amount and distribution.