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Wurzburg, Germany

The Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany.The University of Wurzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany having beenfounded in 1402. The University initially had a brief foundation and was closed in 1415, until it was permanently reopened in 1582 under the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the University is named for Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn and Maximilian Joseph.The University of Wurzburg is one of the leading universities in Germany being part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is also a member of the distinguished Coimbra Group. Wikipedia.

Kuhn M.,University of Wurzburg
Physiological reviews | Year: 2016

cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society. Source

Koepsell H.,University of Wurzburg
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2013

The SLC22 family contains 13 functionally characterized human plasma membrane proteins each with 12 predicted α-helical transmembrane domains. The family comprises organic cation transporters (OCTs), organic zwitterion/cation transporters (OCTNs), and organic anion transporters (OATs). The transporters operate as (1) uniporters which mediate facilitated diffusion (OCTs, OCTNs), (2) anion exchangers (OATs), and (3) Na+/zwitterion cotransporters (OCTNs). They participate in small intestinal absorption and hepatic and renal excretion of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous compounds and perform homeostatic functions in brain and heart. Important endogeneous substrates include monoamine neurotransmitters, l-carnitine, α-ketoglutarate, cAMP, cGMP, prostaglandins, and urate. It has been shown that mutations of the SLC22 genes encoding these transporters cause specific diseases like primary systemic carnitine deficiency and idiopathic renal hypouricemia and are correlated with diseases such as Crohn's disease and gout. Drug-drug interactions at individual transporters may change pharmacokinetics and toxicities of drugs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Herrmann S.,University of Wurzburg
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

This prospective cohort study in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) aimed to identify surrogates of myocardial fibrosis that are easy to derive in clinical practice, allow the differentiation of low-gradient severe AS from moderate AS, and have an impact on clinical outcome. In patients with symptomatic aortic AS, a characteristic subgroup (i.e., up to one-third) exhibits severe AS with a concomitant low mean valve gradient either with preserved or reduced ejection fraction (EF). It is hypothesized that these patients tend to have an advanced stage of myocardial fibrosis and poor clinical outcome. Eighty-six patients with moderate or severe AS were examined by echocardiography including conventional aortic valve assessment, mitral ring displacement, and strain-rate imaging. Replacement fibrosis was quantified by late-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy samples were taken from patients with severe AS (n = 69) at aortic valve replacement. All patients were followed for 9 months. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to aortic valve area (<1.0 cm(2)), mean valve gradient ≥40 mm Hg, and EF (<50%): group 1, moderate AS (n = 17); group 2, severe AS/high gradient (n = 49); group 3, severe AS/low gradient/preserved EF (n = 11); and group 4, severe AS/low gradient/decreased EF (n = 9). At baseline, a significant decrease in mitral ring displacement and systolic strain rate was detected in patients with low-gradient AS. In low-gradient groups, a higher degree of interstitial fibrosis in biopsy samples and more late-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging segments were observed. A close inverse correlation was found between interstitial fibrosis and mitral ring displacement (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). Clinical outcome was best for patients in group 1, whereas mortality risk increased substantially in groups 2 through 4. In severe AS, a low gradient is associated with a higher degree of fibrosis, decreased longitudinal function, and poorer clinical outcome despite preserved EF. Mitral ring displacement differentiates between moderate AS and low-gradient/severe AS with preserved EF. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Werner H.,University of Wurzburg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

"Elusion, Confusion" could well be the title of the story of the discovery and re-discovery of the sandwich complexes, best represented by the accidentally found prototype ferrocene. The two most important competitors in this fiercely contested field, E. O. Fischer und G. Wilkinson, were reconciled (even in terms of dancing) only after they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize. This keen competition in the 1950s contributed decisively to what R. S. Nyholm called the "Renaissance of Inorganic Chemistry". Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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