McDougall D.,University of Worcester
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013
The Younger Dryas (. c. 12,900-11,700 years ago) in Britain witnessed renewed glaciation, with the readvance of ice masses that had survived the preceding Lateglacial Interstadial as well as the formation of new glaciers. The extents of these former glaciers have been mapped by many workers over the past fifty years, usually as a basis for palaeoclimatic investigations. It has frequently been asserted that the landform record is sufficiently clear to allow accurate ice mass reconstructions at or near maximum extents. Detailed geomorphological mapping in the eastern Lake District in NW England, however, demonstrates that this confidence may not always be warranted. Whereas previous workers have interpreted the well-developed moraines that exist in some locations as evidence for an alpine-style of glaciation, with ice restricted to a small number of valleys, this study shows that the most recent glaciation to affect the area was characterised by: (i) extensive summit icefields, which supplied ice to the surrounding valleys; and (ii) a much greater volume of ice in the valleys than previously thought. The discovery that summit icefields were relatively common at this time is consistent with recent studies elsewhere in the Lake District and beyond. More significant, however, is the recognition that changing glacier-topographic interactions over both space and time appears to have had a profound impact on valley-floor glacial landform development, with the absence of clear moraines not necessarily indicating ice-free conditions at this time. This complicates glacier reconstructions based solely on the geomorphological record. Similar geomorphological complexity may be present in other areas that previously supported summit icefields, and this needs to be taken into account in glacier reconstructions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Renfree A.,University of Worcester
International journal of sports physiology and performance | Year: 2013
To analyze pacing strategies displayed by athletes achieving differing levels of performance during an elite-level marathon race. Competitors in the 2009 IAAF Women's Marathon Championship were split into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 comprising the first, second, third, and fourth 25% of finishers, respectively. Final, intermediate, and personal-best (PB) times of finishers were converted to mean speeds, and relative speed (% of PB speed) was calculated for intermediate segments. Mean PB speed decreased from groups 1 to 4, and speeds maintained in the race were 98.5% ± 1.8%, 97.4% ± 3.2%, 95.0% ± 3.1%, and 92.4% ± 4.4% of PB speed for groups 1-4 respectively. Group 1 was fastest in all segments, and differences in speed between groups increased throughout the race. Group 1 ran at lower relative speeds than other groups for the first two 5-km segments but higher relative speeds after 35 km. Significant differences (P < .01) in the percentage of PB speed maintained were observed between groups 1 and 4 and groups 2 and 4 in all segments after 20 km and groups 3 and 4 from 20 to 25 km and 30 to 35 km. Group 1 athletes achieved better finishing times relative to their PB than athletes in other groups, who selected unsustainable initial speeds resulting in subsequent significant losses of speed. It is suggested that psychological factors specific to a major competitive event influenced decision making by athletes, and poor decisions resulted in final performances inferior to those expected based on PB times.
Escudero P.,University of Western Sydney |
Williams D.,University of Worcester
Cognition | Year: 2014
Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12. months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2015-EF | Award Amount: 195.45K | Year: 2016
The main goal of the proposed project is to provide an advanced mathematical model (WRF-BioChem) for modelling the emission, dispersion and concentration of bioaerosols at the regional scale. The model will with this development be able to handle feedback mechanisms between biology, chemistry and weather. The model is developed to go beyond state-of-the-art by developing the mathematical model for oak pollen and by doing it at the species level. The project supported by a three companion projects on grass pollen, fungal spores (Alternaria) and pathogens all at species level. These projects deliver the needed resources for detection. As such the mathematical model will be a validated model that will be generally applicable for bioaerosols including pollen, pathogens and fungal spores. Detection of pollen will be carried out by supporting staff and projects using both traditional methods based on optical detection at the genus level and next generation sequencing at the species level. This proposal requires multidisciplinary approach to the problem as pollen appearance and behaviour in the air is dependent on many factors, including meteorological conditions, chemical composition of the atmosphere or surface properties as well as feedbacks between these elements. WRF-Chem currently used in air quality modelling will therefore be adapted for studying transport of bioaerosols in a way consistent with the transport and transformation of other air pollutants. Until now, no atmospheric model is used for the simulation of pollen at the species level in either Europe or in USA. Also, it will be the first time simulations of oak pollen will be possible in Europe or in USA. Also, it will be the first time simulations of oak pollen will be possible in Europe. Finally, it will be the first mathematical model that allows for a full feedback between meteorology, chemistry, bioaerosols and the terrestrial biosphere. The model developments will be implemented in forecasting.
Mcloone-Richards C.,University of Worcester
Child Abuse Review | Year: 2012
The article will offer an historical perspective on the origins of institutionalised care for children in Ireland during 1914 to 2000; the relevant period of inquiry for the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (CICA) (2009a), commonly known in Ireland as the Ryan Report. This includes an account of the concerns and extent of the abuse of children and the responses to a number of these concerns. The article presents a socio-cultural analysis of how and why the Irish Roman Catholic Church (IRCC) during the 20th century perpetuated the abuse of children in the care of its institutions. The rise of Ireland's new state of independence, following release from British rule, saw the emergence of a new power for the IRCC, in addition to a reinforced sexual morality for the people. The culture of honour towards the Church and its agents, together with the collusion of state agents themselves, permeates testimonies of victims and survivors in the CICA (2009c) inquiry. The article considers the power and control of this ecclesiastical authority, its relation to state affairs, governance over family life and particularly its impact on children. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.