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The University of Worcester is a British university, based in Worcester, England. With a history dating back to 1946, the institution was granted university status in September 2005. Wikipedia.

Snelling P.C.,University of Worcester
Public Health Ethics

Using tombstoning (jumping from a height into water) as an example, this article claims that public health policies and health promotion tend to assess the moral status of activities following a version of health maximizing rule utilitarianism, but this does not represent common moral experience, not least because it fails to take into account the enjoyment that various health effecting habits brings and the contribution that this makes to a good life, variously defined. It is proposed that the moral status of health threatening activities should instead be defined by a version of act utilitarianism where both maximizing value and method of calculation are decided by individuals. In this account personal responsibility for health is reduced to the obligation to undertake calculations effectively, comprising of two duties; epistemic and reflective. If there is an individual epistemic duty, it is plausible to suggest that health promotion should present information in a way which facilitates it, but despite the prevalent language of autonomous choice, discussion of health promotion messages, for example, related to drinking and smoking demonstrates that this currently does not happen. Health promotion strategies should seek to encourage reflection about the harm our health effecting behaviour causes others. © 2014 The Author. Source

The Younger Dryas (. c. 12,900-11,700 years ago) in Britain witnessed renewed glaciation, with the readvance of ice masses that had survived the preceding Lateglacial Interstadial as well as the formation of new glaciers. The extents of these former glaciers have been mapped by many workers over the past fifty years, usually as a basis for palaeoclimatic investigations. It has frequently been asserted that the landform record is sufficiently clear to allow accurate ice mass reconstructions at or near maximum extents. Detailed geomorphological mapping in the eastern Lake District in NW England, however, demonstrates that this confidence may not always be warranted. Whereas previous workers have interpreted the well-developed moraines that exist in some locations as evidence for an alpine-style of glaciation, with ice restricted to a small number of valleys, this study shows that the most recent glaciation to affect the area was characterised by: (i) extensive summit icefields, which supplied ice to the surrounding valleys; and (ii) a much greater volume of ice in the valleys than previously thought. The discovery that summit icefields were relatively common at this time is consistent with recent studies elsewhere in the Lake District and beyond. More significant, however, is the recognition that changing glacier-topographic interactions over both space and time appears to have had a profound impact on valley-floor glacial landform development, with the absence of clear moraines not necessarily indicating ice-free conditions at this time. This complicates glacier reconstructions based solely on the geomorphological record. Similar geomorphological complexity may be present in other areas that previously supported summit icefields, and this needs to be taken into account in glacier reconstructions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Although an increasing number of people are becoming aware of the importance of geological conservation there is still a long way to go before it achieves the conservation profile and participation levels enjoyed by wildlife conservation. Local and county based geoconservation groups have achieved a great deal in the UK in recent years. One of the main challenges they still face is to conserve and monitor their Local Geological Sites when funding to do so is scare or absent. This lack of resources has meant that there is little or no capital funding to carry out specific conservation activities or core funding to enable conservation groups to pay suitably qualified staff/consultants to monitor the condition of their sites. The Community Earth Heritage Champions Project was primarily developed by the Herefordshire and Worcestershire Earth Heritage Trust as a solution to these problems; recruiting local volunteers to take on the monitoring and conservation role at a local level across the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire, England. By taking a number of different approaches towards community involvement, there are now 19 geological sites, all in excellent condition, that are being monitored by groups of keen individuals who are willing to promote geological conservation to other members of their community. One of the main achievements of this project has been the success in convincing those with no prior interest, that geology is a fascinating and important field of scientific study and that geological sites are worthy of conservation. © 2012 The Geologists' Association. Source

This paper explores the potential dilemmas and opportunities for setting up online discussion forums when undertaking research on health-related behaviour. It draws on the setting up of a website called 'girlsdrinkdiaries.com' which sought to understand young women's relationship(s) with alcohol and their feelings about drinking and drunkenness. I reflect on how the use of virtual space may allow for more liberated and 'free' talk about sensitive topics in health, yet at the same time may create a voyeuristic and potentially abusive environment. In doing so, I explore the ultimate demise of the website and therefore the potential problems of utilising online methods. I suggest that researchers need to carefully mitigate and negotiate harm when considering such methods, whilst also acknowledging how participants themselves resist and negotiate risk in virtual places. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Renfree A.,University of Worcester
International journal of sports physiology and performance

To analyze pacing strategies displayed by athletes achieving differing levels of performance during an elite-level marathon race. Competitors in the 2009 IAAF Women's Marathon Championship were split into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 comprising the first, second, third, and fourth 25% of finishers, respectively. Final, intermediate, and personal-best (PB) times of finishers were converted to mean speeds, and relative speed (% of PB speed) was calculated for intermediate segments. Mean PB speed decreased from groups 1 to 4, and speeds maintained in the race were 98.5% ± 1.8%, 97.4% ± 3.2%, 95.0% ± 3.1%, and 92.4% ± 4.4% of PB speed for groups 1-4 respectively. Group 1 was fastest in all segments, and differences in speed between groups increased throughout the race. Group 1 ran at lower relative speeds than other groups for the first two 5-km segments but higher relative speeds after 35 km. Significant differences (P < .01) in the percentage of PB speed maintained were observed between groups 1 and 4 and groups 2 and 4 in all segments after 20 km and groups 3 and 4 from 20 to 25 km and 30 to 35 km. Group 1 athletes achieved better finishing times relative to their PB than athletes in other groups, who selected unsustainable initial speeds resulting in subsequent significant losses of speed. It is suggested that psychological factors specific to a major competitive event influenced decision making by athletes, and poor decisions resulted in final performances inferior to those expected based on PB times. Source

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