Wollongong, Australia
Wollongong, Australia

The University of Wollongong , abbreviated as UOW, is a public research university located in the coastal city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, approximately 80 kilometres south of Sydney. As of 2014, the University has over 37,000 students enrolled, included over 11,600 international students from 134 countries, an alumni base of over 112,000, and over 2,000 academic related staff. The University has been ranked 9th in Excellence in Research for Australia Australian University Rankings in 2012, among the top 1% for research quality in the world, and among the top 2% of universities in the world. The University ranked 276th in the 2013 QS World University Rankings, 276-300th in the 2013-2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 301-400th in the 2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities.In 1951 a division of the New South Wales University of Technology was established at Wollongong for the conduct of diploma courses. In 1961 the Wollongong University College of the University of New South Wales was constituted and the College was officially opened in 1962. In 1975 the University of Wollongong was established as an independent institution. Since its establishment, the University has conferred more than 100,000 degrees, diplomas and certificates. Its students, originally predominantly from the local Illawarra region, are now from over 140 countries, with international students accounting for more than 30 percent of total.The University of Wollongong has fundamentally developed into a multi-campus institution, three of which are in Illawarra , one in Sydney and two overseas campus in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Sejong City, South Korea. The Wollongong Campus, the University's Main Campus, is on the original site five kilometres north-west of the city centre, and covers an area of 82.4 hectares with 94 permanent buildings including six student residences. In addition, there are University Education Centres in Bega, Batemans Bay, Moss Vale and Loftus as well as the Sydney Business School in the City of Sydney. The University also offers courses equally based on the Wollongong Campus in collaboration with partner institutions in a number of offshore locations including in Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong.The University of Wollongong marked the University's 60th Founding Anniversary in the Year of 2011. Wikipedia.


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SUNNY BANK, AUSTRALIA, May 10, 2017-- Walter Martin Benson has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Recognized for more than five and a half decades of invaluable contributions to his field, Dr. Benson parlays his knowledge into his roles as a part-time teacher and consultant. He prepared for his endeavors by earning a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering from the University of Sydney. After graduation, he started as a professional engineer for John Lysaght, where he stayed until 1978. That year, he transitioned to become a lecturer and head of the department at Lae Tech College, where he worked until 1984, and also earned a Master of Engineering from the University of Wollongong. One of his more recent positions was that of senior lecturer at Papua New Guinea University of Technology, where he remained from 1985 until 1999. Towards the end of his time in that role, he earned a Ph.D. in flammability limits and related phenomena from his employer. His thesis was examined by experts in the field from the Universities of Greenwich and Wisconsin.A shining example of skill in his field, Dr. Benson has been recognized many times for his work in the industry. Notably, he was honored with inclusion in six editions of Who's Who in Science and Engineering and 10 editions of Who's Who in the World. During his spare time, he enjoys participating in activities with his church, as well as gardening and playing chess, piano and violin. In the coming years, Dr. Benson intends to experience the continued growth and success of his career as a mechanical engineering educator and researcher.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com


The mesoporous rhodium nanoparticles, produced using a soft template and simple solution chemistry, were thermally stable up to 400°C and three to four time more effective than normal catalytic converters. Mesoporous nanoparticles are used as catalytic converters to reduce the pollution from vehicle exhaust by converting toxic gases and pollutants to less toxic pollutants. The research has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of pollution caused by cars and trucks. The study, led by Bo Jiang and Prof Yusuke Yamauchi of the National Institute of Materials Science and Waseda University in Tokyo and the University Wollongong, was published today in Nature Communications. Professor Yamauchi said the porous rhodium nanoparticles could make a dramatic improvement to air pollution in cities around the world. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was performed on the Quokka instrument at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering by Dr Katy Wood and Dr Md Shahriar Hossain, Senior Research Fellow from the University of Wollongong, to characterise the micelles in solution at two stages of the five step process. Researchers from Waseda University in Japan, Bilkent University in Turkey, and Bangabandhu Sheik Mujibur Rahaman Agricultural University in Bangladesh also contributed to the study. Growing metals inside hard templates, such as mesoporous silica, had previously been achieved but there have been few reports of the synthesis of mesoporous rhodium catalysts. The use of a soft template is considered a robust platform to prepare various types of metallic nanoparticles and nanostructured films with uniform mesoporous architecture, Because rhodium is characterised by stable, closely packed atoms, it is less reactive chemically under mild conditions. The investigators overcame this challenge by their selection of polymer precursor, reduction agent and mixing solvent. The polymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methylmethacrylate (PEO-b-PMMA) self- assembled into spherical micelles with the addition of water. The micelles act as a soft yet robust template for mesoporous nanostructures. When a solution of Na3RhCl6 was added, composite micelles were formed. After undergoing nucleation, they coalesced and grew into mesoporous rhodium nanostructures that could be extracted using a solvent. Because the micelles act a template for the formation of the nanoparticles, the investigators needed to fully characterise them in solution. "SANS was able to determine the size of the micelles, which was approximately 20 nanometres, and confirm that they were homogenous, well-shaped spheres," said Wood. "Because the polymer molecule is defining the pores, it opens up the possibility of changing pore size or other modification to tune the final product," said Wood. Quokka measurements also indicated that the micelles did not change shape after the addition of the metal precursor, which was an important consideration. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for a visual characterisation of the micelles. Low angle X-ray diffraction provided detailed information about the pores; confirmed the openings were uniform in size and closely packed and suggested the particles were purely metallic. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the electron state of the rhodium surface. The investigators also gained insight into the atomic mechanism that contributed to the formation of the mesoporous structure. Ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy suggested the dissolved metal ions coordinate to the micelle surface and drove the nucleation of the rhodium precursor. The study found the nanoparticles retained their shape and structure in temperatures up to 400°C and would perform well as catalyst for the removal of nitrogen oxide from lean burn exhaust containing high concentrations of O2.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

WEST CHESTER, OH--(Marketwired - May 15, 2017) - AK Steel ( : AKS) said today that one of the company's employees and five co-authors in association with Purdue University Northwest's Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) received the Association for Iron & Steel Technology's (AIST) Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award - First Place. Stuart J. Street, AK Steel Technical Manager and co-authors received the award for their paper "Investigation of Co-Injection of Natural Gas and Pulverized Coal in a Blast Furnace." The paper investigated a new concept for blast furnace operations that has the potential to increase efficiency and productivity, while reducing operating costs. "I'm proud to congratulate Stuart for this honor from AIST," said Roger K. Newport, Chief Executive Officer of AK Steel. "This work reflects the company's continued focus on innovation, including steel manufacturing processes that enhance our operating efficiency to position us to serve the needs of our customers today and for the future." The Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award - First Place is the highest award given by AIST to a technical paper for excellence, originality, relevance to the technology of the iron and steel industry, and for the advancement of engineering and operating practice in the steel industry. The authors were nominated for this award as the recipients of the 2016 Josef S. Kapitan Award - Ironmaking from AIST, and also won recognition from AIST for a follow-up study. Dr. Street joined AK Steel in 2001 as a Senior Metallurgical Process Engineer in the Dearborn Works (Michigan) primary operations. He has held technical roles supporting the Dearborn Works Blast Furnace including the Blast Furnace Reline Project and as a Continuous Improvement Manager. Dr. Street holds a Bachelor of Engineering, Masters of Engineering and a PhD, each in Materials Engineering, from the University of Wollongong, Australia. CIVS AK Steel is a member of the Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium, which is operated by CIVS. Further information about CIVS is available at https://centers.pnw.edu/civs/. AK Steel AK Steel is a leading producer of flat-rolled carbon, stainless and electrical steel products, and carbon and stainless tubular products, primarily for automotive, infrastructure and manufacturing, electrical power generation and distribution markets. Headquartered in West Chester, Ohio (Greater Cincinnati), the company employs approximately 8,500 men and women at eight steel plants, two coke plants and two tube manufacturing plants across six states (Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia) and one tube plant in Mexico. Additional information about AK Steel is available at www.aksteel.com.


Next-generation rechargeable batteries are promising candidates for state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, owing to their high energy density and preferred cost efficiency. For instance, lithium-sulfur batteries theoretically offer 10 times higher capacity and five times higher energy density. Shu Lei Chou and colleagues from the University of Wollongong have published a review article in National Science Review proposing a new concept of 4S (stable, safe, smart, sustainable) batteries. They reviewed the development of functional membrane separators in liquid-electrolyte next-generation batteries, based on which they report four important criteria for guiding the advancement of novel battery systems. Compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries capable of thousands of cycles, next-generation batteries are plagued by the poor cycling behavior, which is normally caused by active material loss and electrode degradation. Functional membrane separators provide an effective approach to extend the cycling stability of several important battery systems. As can be seen in the figure, this work breaks the boundaries of five types of next-generation batteries: Li-S, room-temperature Na-, Li-organic, organic-based redox-flow and Li-air batteries. Ion-selective materials are applied as the separator to retard the unwanted shuttling of some specific species, e.g., polysulfide diffusion in Li-S batteries. The applied functional membrane materials are nafion (protonated, lithiated or sodiated), polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM), polyurethane (PU), metal organic frameworks (MOF), graphene oxide and lithium superionic conductors (LISICON). All these materials, whether polymers or inorganics, possess characteristic pore structures for the transport of the component ions but reject others, therefore preventing side reactions and greatly enhancing cycling stability. The performance of batteries closely relates to safety concerns, another key criterion for battery development. Separators with important properties of high thermal/dimensional stability, good wetting performance and excellent thermal conductivity can improve battery safety. With regard to the notorious lithium dendrite problem, separator approaches that create a homogeneous environment for lithium deposition enhance battery safety. Additionally, this article reviews the latest works of smart and sustainable separators. For instance, a voltage-responsive smart membrane system was constructed using a doped polypyrrole. When the applied electric field is zero, the membrane allows no ionic current. Otherwise, when a certain reducing electric field is applied, the transport of positive ions is facilitated because the polymer is negatively charged and provides hopping pathways for cations. The pore size is expanded and the polymer turns from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. In addition, renewable polymers like cellulose are studied as promising candidates for fossil-based polyolefin materials to enable sustainable separators. The paper concludes that functional separators need further investigation and are expected to play a key role in advancing next-generation batteries towards the goal of 4S batteries. Explore further: New battery coating could improve smart phones and electric vehicles More information: Yuede Pan et al, Functional membrane separators for next-generation high-energy rechargeable batteries, National Science Review (2017). DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwx037


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: phys.org

Everything we see with the unaided eye in a painting – from the Australian outback images of Albert Namatjira or Russell Drysdale, to the vibrant works of Pro Hart – is thanks to the mix of colours that form part of the visible spectrum. But if we look at the painting in a different way, at a part of the spectrum that is invisible to our eyes, then we can see something very different. As our recently published research shows, it could even help us detect art fraud. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from very high-frequency gamma rays down to the extremely low-frequency radiation of just a few hertz. Hertz is the unit of measurement for frequency. The frequency of colours in the visible spectrum range from blue, at about 800 terahertz (THz), through to red at about 400THz (1 THz = 1012 or 1,000,000,000,000 hertz). If we drop to frequencies below the visible spectrum we find the near-infrared at about 300THz and then the mid-infrared at about 30THz. Then comes the far-infrared and at last we meet the frequencies around 1THz. Continuing even further brings us to microwaves and radio waves where frequencies range from the gigahertz down to kilohertz. Thus the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between the radio and the visible parts – in other words, between electronics and photonics. Things can look very different when viewed with "eyes" that can see in the terahertz range. Some things that are transparent to visible light, such as water, are opaque to terahertz light. Conversely, some things that visible light won't penetrate, such as black plastic, readily transmit terahertz radiation. Intriguingly, two objects that have the same colour when viewed by the unassisted eye may transmit terahertz radiation differently. So their terahertz signal can be used to tell them apart. This points to the potential use of terahertz radiation in differentiating paints and pigments. Terahertz spectroscopy can distinguish different pigments with similar colours. We recently used terahertz spectroscopy to distinguish between three related pigments. All come from a family of chemical compounds called quinacridones. These are used widely in producing stable, reproducible pigments that range in colour from red to violet. Measurements at the University of Wollongong provided the experimental data in the range of 1THz to 10THz. Numerical modelling at Syracuse University (New York) reproduced the experimental data, and gave physical insight into the origin of the features observed. The combined experimental and theoretical work, published last month in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, unequivocally demonstrates that terahertz spectroscopy is able to distinguish three different quinacridones. This brings us to the subject of art authentication – or more importantly, detecting cases of art fraud. Museums, galleries and collectors are typically very protective of their art collections, but terahertz spectroscopy is well suited to examining their works. While terahertz spectrometers are often located in laboratories, there are also portable models. Unlike an analysis that requires removing and consuming some material (by reacting it with chemicals, or burning it), there is no contact made with the material, and thus no harm done to the artwork. The terahertz radiation simply shines on the painting, and the transmitted radiation is measured. The low energy and low density of terahertz radiation means that the painting is not damaged in any way. This all makes it suitable for examining art in a way that does not damage it and can be performed where it is located – in a gallery, or home, or almost anywhere. So how can terahertz spectroscopy assist in detecting art fraud in practice? Here's an example. Let's say terahertz spectroscopy picks up a quinacridone pigment in a painting. Quinacridone is an artificial material that was first synthesised in 1935, so the painting must date from 1935 or later. Any claim that the painting is a work by Leonardo da Vinci (who died in 1519), Vincent van Gogh (died 1890) or Claude Monet (died 1926) could therefore be dismissed. Any claim the the work was by an artist who worked after 1935 could not be so easily disproved on this basis. Of course, other physical methods than terahertz spectroscopy may be applied to analyse paintings. One direct way to analyse art work is by sophisticated, quantitative measurements of the visible spectrum. Artworks may also be interrogated by other species of light that lie above the blue end visible spectrum. Here the ultraviolet (uv) photons are higher in energy than visible photons. That means they can put energy into a material that is re-radiated as visible photons. This is the phenomenon of fluorescence, and uv-fluorescence is an established tool in art conservation. Moving further above the ultraviolet, X-rays may be used to examine works of art. For example, X-ray fluorescence at the Australian Synchrotron has been used to find hidden layers in works by Degas and Streeton. There are many aspects to authenticating an artwork, the physical examination being but one of them. Nonetheless, technical analysis of the materials used – the paints, the canvas, the frames – plays a fundamental role, and that is where terahertz spectroscopy contributes. But other approaches also play a role. For example, documentation such as records of sales may provide key evidence, as may the more subtle appraisal of style by art historians. The perceptions of people who assess and buy art is itself an important factor. The word of the artist might be thought to be definitive, but even this has been overruled by expert opinion, as in the case of Lucian Freud. Finally, the legal dimension is critical, as has been reported recently in the quashing of the art fraud convictions of Peter Gant and Mohamed Siddique. These related to the paintings Blue Lavender Bay, Orange Lavender Bay, and Through the Window. At issue was whether the paintings were the work of Brett Whiteley. Of course, art fraud is just one application of terahertz spectroscopy. There are many more. Able to penetrate paper and cardboard, terahertz radiation can be used to look inside envelopes for contraband, or inside packaged food for contamination. Terahertz methods have been used to assess burns and to monitor the hydration of plants. As better terahertz sources, detectors and components are developed, the range of applications will further expand. Explore further: Researchers nearly double the continuous output power of a type of terahertz laser


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Next-generation rechargeable batteries are promising candidates for state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries owing to their high energy density and preferred cost efficiency. For instance, Lithium-sulfur batteries, which are featured by their theoretically 10 times higher capacity and 5 times higher energy density, are reviving in both the academic and the industry. Shu Lei Chou and colleagues from the Institute for Superconducting and electronic materials, University of Wollongong, presented a review article and proposed a new concept of 4S (stable, safe, smart, sustainable) batteries. They reviewed the latest development of functional membrane separators in liquid-electrolyte next-generation batteries and based on which they reported the four important criteria for guiding the advancement of novel battery systems. This work, entitled "Functional membrane separators for next-generation high-energy rechargeable batteries", was recently published in National Science Review. Compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries capable of thousands of cycles, next-generation batteries are plagued by the poor cycling behavior, which is normally caused by the active material loss and the electrode degradation. Functional membrane separators provide an effective approach to extend the cycling stability of several important battery systems. As can be seen from Figure 2, this work breaks the boundaries of five types of next-generation batteries, i.e., Li-S, room-temperature Na-, Li-organic, organic-based redox-flow and Li-air batteries. Ion-selective materials are applied as the separator to retard the unwanted shuttling of some specific species, e.g., polysulfide diffusion in Li-S batteries. The applied functional membrane materials are Nafion (protonated, lithiated or sodiated), polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM), polyurethane (PU), metal organic frameworks (MOF), graphene oxide and lithium superionic conductor (LISICON). All these materials, whether polymers or inorganics, possess characteristic pore structures for the transport of the component ions but reject others, therefore prevent the side reactions and greatly enhance the cycling stability. The safety performance of batteries closely relates to the life and property security of customers, hence is also a key criterion for battery development. Separators with important properties of high thermal/dimensional stability, good wetting performance and excellent thermal conductivity help improve the battery safety. With regard to the notorious lithium dendrite problem, separator approaches that create homogeneous environment for lithium deposition enhance the battery safety. Besides, this article reviews the latest works of smart and sustainable separators. For instance, a voltage-responsive smart membrane system was constructed using a doped polypyrrole. When the applied electric field is zero, the membrane allows no ionic current. Otherwise, when a certain reducing electric field is applied, the transport of positive ions is facilitated because the polymer is negatively charged and provides hopping pathways for cations, the pore size expanded and the polymer turns from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. In addition, renewable polymers like cellulose are studied as promising candidates for fossil-based polyolefin materials to enable sustainable separators. The paper concludes that functional separators need further investigation and are expected to play a key role in advancing next-generation batteries towards the goal of 4S: stable, safe, smart, and sustainable. The ISEM was established in 1994 and is a world-class collaborative team conducting research in superconducting and electronic materials science and technology. This flagship research institute has grown to more than 160 researchers and postgraduate students led by Professor Shi Xue Dou, a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Science and Engineering. ISEM researchers are recognized as world leaders in superconductors, electronic and energy materials. The ISEM has developed a dynamic, innovative research environment in its research programs including batteries for electric vehicles and energy storage; applied superconductivity for electrical and medical devices; energy conversion and transmission; spintronic and electronic materials for applications; terahertz science; and nano structured materials. ISEM seeks to stimulate the technological and commercial development to advance technologies. The Institute is located at the Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), at the University of Wollongong's Innovation Campus, Australia's first multifunctional materials facility that has the capacity to develop the processes and devices needed to scale-up lab-based breakthroughs in preparation for commercialization. Visit isem.uow.edu.au to learn more. The National Science Review is the first comprehensive scholarly journal released in English in China that is aimed at linking the country's rapidly advancing community of scientists with the global frontiers of science and technology. The journal also aims to shine a worldwide spotlight on scientific research advances across China.


Bradstock R.A.,University of Wollongong
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2010

Aim: Patterns of fire regimes across Australia exhibit biogeographic variation in response to four processes. Variations in area burned and fire frequency result from differences in the rates of 'switching' of biomass growth, availability to burn, fire weather and ignition. Therefore differing processes limit fire (i.e. the lowest rate of switching) in differing ecosystems. Current and future trends in fire frequency were explored on this basis. Location: Case studies of forests (cool temperate to tropical) and woodlands (temperate to arid) were examined. These represent a broad range of Australian biomes and current fire regimes. Methods: Information on the four processes was applied to each case study and the potential minimum length of interfire interval was predicted and compared to current trends. The potential effects of global change on the processes were then assessed and future trends in fire regimes were predicted. Results: Variations in fire regimes are primarily related to fluctuations in available moisture and dominance by either woody or herbaceous plant cover. Fire in woodland communities (dry climates) is limited by growth of herbaceous fuels (biomass), whereas in forests (wet climates) limitation is by fuel moisture (availability to burn) and fire weather. Increasing dryness in woodland communities will decrease potential fire frequency, while the opposite applies in forests. In the tropics, both forms of limitation are weak due to the annual wet/dry climate. Future change may therefore be constrained. Main conclusions: Increasing dryness may diminish fire activity over much of Australia (dominance of dry woodlands), though increases may occur in temperate forests. Elevated CO2 effects may confound or reinforce these trends. The prognosis for the future fire regime in Australia is therefore uncertain. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Spinks G.M.,University of Wollongong
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Pump it: Materials that show intriguing shape changes induced by simple light exposure are emerging as candidates for artificial muscles. Recent examples are highlighted to illustrate the various molecular conformational changes induced by irradiation. Assemblies of these photoresponsive molecules are now being prepared that show functions that resemble real muscle. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


The concentration of Cryptosporidium and of Giardia in surface water is a subject of importance to public health and public water supply. The term concentration is a fundamental property of any water quality parameter having a classical definition as used in chemistry and biology. Analytical methods for measuring the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water find only a fraction of the organisms actually present. This paper collects recently available data to examine the role and importance of recovery efficiency measurement to description of the concentrations of these organisms. Data from Australian sources graphically illustrate the variability of recovery efficiency at individual sites over relatively short time scales. Additional data on replicated recovery measurements establish their reproducibility. The recently released USEPA LT2 data along with those from Australia illustrate the independent variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence and recovery efficiency at individual sampling locations. Calculation of concentration from paired raw numbers and recovery efficiency measurements clearly shows the magnitude and importance of taking recovery into account in expressing the concentration of these organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen J.,University of Wollongong
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2011

Summary: Obesity is increasing worldwide and reaches to a large proportion of the population in developed countries. Thus, obesity-associated cancer has become a major health problem. Multiple cancer risk factors in obesity have been identified including insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis, adipokines and cytokines; and multiple intracellular signal pathways have been studied. However, the role of each signal pathway in obesity-associated cancer is controversial. In this review, the recent studies on signal pathways in obesity-associated cancer are summarized and a unified explanation is provided. Multiple risk factors could initially activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways. With increased severity of obesity, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is down-stream of both PI3K/Akt and MAPK, is highly activated. Activated mTOR in turn inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway and further activates the STAT3 pathway. This may explain the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway at the early stage of obesity and its inhibition at the later stage. mTOR inhibition may be used for cancer therapy, but it may be necessary to be combined with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor as decreased mTOR activity will release its feedback inhibition on the PI3K/Akt pathway, which is under the influence of multiple cancer risk factors in obesity. Thus, dual inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR may provide a novel approach. © 2011 The Author. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

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