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Wollongong, Australia

The University of Wollongong , abbreviated as UOW, is a public research university located in the coastal city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, approximately 80 kilometres south of Sydney. As of 2014, the University has over 37,000 students enrolled, included over 11,600 international students from 134 countries, an alumni base of over 112,000, and over 2,000 academic related staff. The University has been ranked 9th in Excellence in Research for Australia Australian University Rankings in 2012, among the top 1% for research quality in the world, and among the top 2% of universities in the world. The University ranked 276th in the 2013 QS World University Rankings, 276-300th in the 2013-2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 301-400th in the 2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities.In 1951 a division of the New South Wales University of Technology was established at Wollongong for the conduct of diploma courses. In 1961 the Wollongong University College of the University of New South Wales was constituted and the College was officially opened in 1962. In 1975 the University of Wollongong was established as an independent institution. Since its establishment, the University has conferred more than 100,000 degrees, diplomas and certificates. Its students, originally predominantly from the local Illawarra region, are now from over 140 countries, with international students accounting for more than 30 percent of total.The University of Wollongong has fundamentally developed into a multi-campus institution, three of which are in Illawarra , one in Sydney and two overseas campus in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Sejong City, South Korea. The Wollongong Campus, the University's Main Campus, is on the original site five kilometres north-west of the city centre, and covers an area of 82.4 hectares with 94 permanent buildings including six student residences. In addition, there are University Education Centres in Bega, Batemans Bay, Moss Vale and Loftus as well as the Sydney Business School in the City of Sydney. The University also offers courses equally based on the Wollongong Campus in collaboration with partner institutions in a number of offshore locations including in Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong.The University of Wollongong marked the University's 60th Founding Anniversary in the Year of 2011. Wikipedia.


Taylor N.A.S.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

There is often a fine line between providing appropriate personal protection and compromising capability. In some situations, protection must come first. In other circumstances, capability becomes paramount. In the military, mission-specific objectives can force personal protection to be less than ideal. Indeed, levels of protection appropriate within the civilian context could jeopardise health and operational success, and for operations conducted in the heat involving load carriage and armored protection with almost total-body clothing coverage, it is the likely thermal impediment to performance that perhaps first comes to mind. Although this consideration is appropriate, it may direct attention away from the actual cause of, and therefore preventative solutions to, physiological collapse. For instance, although classical heat illness absolutely occurs at the age extremes, and it may affect all people when air temperatures are exceptionally hot, frank hyperthermia is not generally the primary cause of exhaustion when healthy clothed individuals are working in the heat. Instead, another homoeostatic process is implicated; blood pressure regulation. In addition to participating in temperature regulation, the cardiovascular system supports oxygen delivery, blood pressure regulatory, and waste removal requirements. Therefore, the elevated cardiac output accompanying work must be shared. Accordingly, the case will be developed that thermoregulatory failure is often not the primary causal mechanism for soldier collapse, although such individuals may be hyperthermic. Alternatively, moderately, but not excessively, hyperthermic soldiers working under these conditions are perhaps more likely to collapse from cardiovascular insufficiency that precipitates uncompensable hypotension. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Williams P.G.,University of Wollongong
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2012

This review evaluates the available evidence on the relationship between consumption of refined grains and health outcomes. A total of 135 relevant articles were identified from database searches of studies published between 2000 and 2010. The great majority found no associations between the intake of refined-grain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, weight gain, or overall mortality. A few studies found that very high intakes might be associated with some types of cancers, but at moderate levels of consumption the risks were not significant. The totality of evidence shows that consumption of up to 50% of all grain foods as refined-grain foods (without high levels of added fat, sugar, or sodium) is not associated with any increased disease risk. Nonetheless, eating more whole-grain foods remains an important health recommendation, and most consumers will need to reduce their current consumption of refined grains to no more than one-third to one-half of all grains in order to meet the targets for whole-grain foods. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.


Castree N.,University of Wollongong
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2016

Anxious about the failure of decisionmakers to significantly reduce ‘the human impact’ on Earth, many global change researchers are looking for ways and means to influence public policy, business strategy and civil society more strongly. As part of this, there is a greater emphasis on understanding and altering the ‘human dimensions’ of global environmental change. A number of physical and society-environment geographers are involved in this endeavour, building on some valuable past achievements. But what lies ahead? I address this question by examining the rich idea of a ‘social contract’ – one little used in disciplinary debates about Geography's past, present and future, but now relatively common in certain wider discussions of anthropogenic global change. I suggest that there are currents of thinking in contemporary Geography that can offer something both new and much needed in the world of global change research. That ‘something’ is not ever more integrated, accurate analysis of dynamic, coupled human–environment interactions – as if we live in just one world requiring ever more ‘joined-up’ and granular description, explanation and prediction. Instead, it is an approach to research that eschews ontological holism, epistemological monism and the fact–value dualism. This approach suggests that taking the human dimensions of environmental change seriously requires a new kind of global change research that is at once overtly political and intellectually plural. Far from being a charter for ‘bias’ or ‘relativism’, I show that this approach expresses the rich senses of responsibility, accountability and representation contained in the version of a new social contract I advocate here. A wider implication of my argument is that Geography needs new stories about the nature and merits of ‘intra-disciplinarity’, ones better attuned to the role of research in fostering democracy in our ‘post-normal’ times. Thinking afresh about how research should influence society promises to alter many geographers’ sense of self while usefully repurposing global change research across several disciplines. The information, practices and views in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG). © 2016 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)


Jalalian A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Jalalian A.,University of Wollongong | Grishin A.M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Dense homogeneous textile composed from continuous bead-free sodium potassium niobate (NKN) nanofibers 100 μm long and 50-200 nm in diameter was sintered by sol-gel calcination assisted electrospinning. High resolution electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction revealed preferential cube-on-cube growth of fibers in [001] direction. Raman spectrum of NKN fibers contains all the features characteristic to electrically poled orthorhombic phase. In contrast to polycrystalline ceramics, it shows relative enhancement of the Raman cross section of isotropic A 1g(v 1) mode compared with polar axis defined F 2g(v 5) and E g(v 2) vibrations. We interpret this as an evidence for superparaelectric state of NKN nanofibers. Spontaneous polarization inside highly crystalline nanofiber exists at room temperature though big distance between fibers prevents the settling of a net macroscopic polarization. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Puckett A.M.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Puckett A.M.,University of Wollongong | Mathis J.R.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Deyoe E.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

Recent studies have demonstrated significant regional variability in the hemodynamic response function (HRF), highlighting the difficulty of correctly interpreting functional MRI (fMRI) data without proper modeling of the HRF. The focus of this study was to investigate the HRF variability within visual cortex. The HRF was estimated for a number of cortical visual areas by deconvolution of fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses to brief, large-field visual stimulation. Significant HRF variation was found across visual areas V1, V2, V3, V4, VO-1,2, V3AB, IPS-0,1,2,3, LO-1,2, and TO-1,2. Additionally, a subpopulation of voxels was identified that exhibited an impulse response waveform that was similar, but not identical, to an inverted version of the commonly described and modeled positive HRF. These voxels were found within the retinotopic confines of the stimulus and were intermixed with those showing positive responses. The spatial distribution and variability of these HRFs suggest a vascular origin for the inverted waveforms. We suggest that the polarity of the HRF is a separate factor that is independent of the suppressive or activating nature of the underlying neuronal activity. Correctly modeling the polarity of the HRF allows one to recover an estimate of the underlying neuronal activity rather than discard the responses from these voxels on the assumption that they are artifactual. We demonstrate this approach on phase-encoded retinotopic mapping data as an example of the benefits of accurately modeling the HRF during the analysis of fMRI data. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5550-5564, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Rodrigo M.R.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2016

The problem of time of death (TOD) estimation by body cooling is revisited by proposing a nonlinear least squares approach that takes as input a series of temperature readings only. Using a reformulation of the Marshall-Hoare double exponential formula and a technique for reducing the dimension of the state space, an error function that depends on the two cooling rates is constructed, with the aim of minimizing this function. Standard nonlinear optimization methods that are used to minimize the bivariate error function require an initial guess for these unknown rates. Hence, a systematic procedure based on the given temperature data is also proposed to determine an initial estimate for the rates. Then, an explicit formula for the TOD is given. Results of numerical simulations using both theoretical and experimental data are presented, both yielding reasonable estimates. The proposed procedure does not require knowledge of the temperature at death nor the body mass. In fact, the method allows the estimation of the temperature at death once the cooling rates and the TOD have been calculated. The procedure requires at least three temperature readings, although more measured readings could improve the estimates. With the aid of computerized recording and thermocouple detectors, temperature readings spaced 10-15 min apart, for example, can be taken. The formulas can be straightforwardly programmed and installed on a hand-held device for field use. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Guo W.D.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2013

The response of a laterally loaded pile is normally dominated by the limiting force per unit length profile (LFP, pu) mobilized along the pile to the depth of the plastic zone (e.g., maximum slip depth, max xp) and depends on pile-soil relative rigidity (via the subgrade modulus of elasticity k). The values of pu and the shear modulus (G, thus k) were deduced extensively against the measured response of 32 and 20 piles tested in situ in clay and sand, respectively. In this paper, simplified closed-form solutions are presented for the design of laterally loaded piles. The parameters of the pu and the G obtained previously are utilized to examine the impact of loading eccentricity on piles and to assess the validity of existing pu-profiles. Expressions are also explored and provided regarding determinations of the pu-profiles, the modulus of the subgrade reaction k (via G), the ranges of the plastic zone (max xp), and the depth of elastic influence (via the critical pile length Lcr), along with the correlations between the shear modulus of soil G and undrained shear strength (su) and/or the standard penetration test blow count (N). It is noted that the popularly adopted LFPs (such as Matlock's LFP, Reese's LFP, and American Petroleum Institute code methods) are not sufficiently accurate for 60-85% of the 52 piles investigated herein, especially for those with a diameter > 1.5 m. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Lawal A.T.,Al-Hikmah University | Wallace G.G.,University of Wollongong
Talanta | Year: 2014

Vapour phase polymerisation (VPP) is a well established technique in which the monomer is introduced to an oxidant-coated substrate in vapour form. Polymerisation then takes place at the oxidant vapour interface. VPP is a technique that could be used to immobilise materials to the modified electrode surface. This review article concentrates on the VPP of conducting polymers such as Polypyrrole (PPy) polythiophen (PT) and polyaniline (PANi). VPP of conducting polymers and other non-conducting polymers have extensively been investigated. This review article is divided into three main parts as given in Table of contents related to the VPP process of some important conducting polymers such as PPy, PT, PANi and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). A total of 181 references are cited in this review article and it attempts to look into VPP from inception of the method till present day. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Murray-Wallace C.V.,University of Wollongong
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

The continental shelves of SE Australia from the eastern Great Australian Bight to southern New South Wales are situated within a tectonically stable, passive continental margin. The shelves began to develop during Late Cretaceous time and preserve a rich but punctuated record of shallow-marine sedimentation from the Late Paleocene to the present day. The southern margin is the world's largest modern, cool-water temperate carbonate sediment province, a function of the limited terrigenous-clastic sediment being delivered to the coast in response to continental-scale aridity, endorheic drainage and low topographical relief. With the exception of the South Australian gulfs and the protected portions of Bass Strait, the entire shelf sector of SE Australia is a high-energy, storm- and swelldominated, microtidal province. Along the southern margin, the dominant sedimentary constituents in the modern shelf sediments are skeletal carbonate bioclasts derived from marine invertebrates that include molluscs, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae and echinoids, variably intermixed with quartz sand and heavy minerals (Heterozoan Association). Sediments of Pleistocene and Holocene age are compositionally similar to their modern equivalents, and all show varying degrees of reworking and incorporation of older bioclasts to form the palimpsest sedimentary successions that characterize the entire region. The southern New South Wales sector of the Eastern Australian Shelf is dominated by siliciclastic sediments but preserves relict molluscan-rich carbonate sediments of glacial-age lowstand origin in the outer-shelf region in present water depths exceeding 100 m. The Quaternary stratigraphical record of the SE Australian continental shelves is dominated by successions that formed in the last glacial cycle, but older, inner-shelf successions have been documented from geographically restricted regions such as the South Australian gulfs, Roe and Coorong coastal plains, and the Bass Strait Islands. The outer-shelf successions are not in hydrodynamic equilibrium with modern shelf processes, as reflected in the paucity of mud, and are either largely relict (New South Wales) or dominated by complex modern bryozoan associations. © The Geological Society of London 2014.


Yu T.,University of Wollongong | Teng J.G.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

Hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) concrete steel, double skin tubular columns (DSTCs) are a new form of hybrid columns. The most common sectional form of hybrid DSTCs consists of a layer of concrete sandwiched between a circular inner steel tube and a circular outer FRP tube whose fiber directions are close to the hoop detection to provide effective confinement to the concrete. Much recent research has been conducted on circular hybrid DSTCs, which has demonstrated that the combination of the three constituent materials leads to several advantages not available with existing forms of columns. In practical applications, for aesthetic and other reasons, square hybrid DSTCs may be needed. This paper thus extends the existing work on circular hybrid DSTCs to square hybrid DSTCs in which the outer FRP tube is square while the inner steel tube is still circular. Results from a series of axial compression tests are presented and interpreted to examine the compressive behavior of square hybrid DSTCs. In these tests, FRP tubes formed through a wet-layup process were used instead of filament-wound FRP tubes because the latter were not readily available to the authors at the time of the study. The test results show that the concrete in these square hybrid DSTCs is effectively confined by the two tubes, and the behavior of the confined concrete is similar to that of concrete in FRP-confined solid columns. A stress-strain model for concrete in square hybrid DSTCs is also proposed and is shown to provide reasonably accurate predictions of the test results. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Teh L.H.,University of Wollongong | Gilbert B.P.,Griffith University
Journal of Structural Engineering (United States) | Year: 2013

This paper examines the accuracy of equations specified by the North American and Australasian steel structures codes for determining the net section tension capacity of a cold-formed steel angle brace bolted at one leg. The configurations tested in the laboratory include single equal angle, single unequal angle bolted at the wider leg, single unequal angle bolted at the narrow leg, double angles, and alternate angles. The steel materials used in the experiment are among those with the lowest ductility for which nominal tensile strength is permitted by cold-formed steel design codes to be fully utilized in structural design calculations. Based on a modification to the equation derived for channel braces bolted at the web, a design equation is proposed for determining the net section tension capacity of a cold-formed steel angle brace bolted at one leg. The proposed equation is demonstrated, through laboratory tests on 61 specimens composed of G450 sheet steel, to be more accurate than the code equations and those existing in the literature. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Keeley J.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Keeley J.E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Rundel P.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bond W.J.,University of Cape Town | Bradstock R.A.,University of Wollongong
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011

Traits, such as resprouting, serotiny and germination by heat and smoke, are adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, plants are not adapted to fire per se but to fire regimes. Species can be threatened when humans alter the regime, often by increasing or decreasing fire frequency. Fire-adaptive traits are potentially the result of different evolutionary pathways. Distinguishing between traits that are adaptations originating in response to fire or exaptations originating in response to other factors might not always be possible. However, fire has been a factor throughout the history of land-plant evolution and is not strictly a Neogene phenomenon. Mesozoic fossils show evidence of fire-adaptive traits and, in some lineages, these might have persisted to the present as fire adaptations. © 2011.


Zhang S.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Teng J.G.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Yu T.,University of Wollongong
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013

A relatively recent method for the strengthening of concrete structures involves the embedding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars/strips into pre-cut, adhesive-filled grooves in the cover concrete. This paper presents a finite element (FE) study into the bond behavior of NSM CFRP strip-to-concrete bonded joints using a three-dimensional (3-D) meso-scale FE model developed by the authors. The effects of various parameters on the bond behavior of NSM CFRP strips are first clarified with the assistance of FE results, leading to the identification of the groove height-to-width ratio and the concrete strength as the two important parameters for the bond behavior. Based on the results of a FE parametric study on the effects of these two parameters, an analytical bond-slip model is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Moscrop J.W.,University of Wollongong
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2013

A fault current limiter (FCL) is a device that is designed to reduce the impact of fault currents on electricity networks and increase the availability of such networks to consumers. One particular FCL technology that is currently attracting worldwide attention, from both researchers and commercial engineering companies, is the saturated core FCL. This device utilizes the change in permeability between the saturated and unsaturated states of a magnetic core to provide both low steady state losses and effective fault current limiting. Typically the core is saturated using an electromagnetic coil, which can be either superconducting or non-superconducting. Although there have been several studies on the electrical characteristics of this device, the transient magnetic behavior has been largely overlooked. In this paper the magnetic flux characteristics of saturated core FCLs are experimentally analyzed. The study includes the magnetic behavior during both the initial biasing of the cores and during transient fault conditions. The influence of FCL topology and alternative low-cost core materials, on the flux characteristics and overall device performance, is also discussed. © 1965-2012 IEEE.


Howard S.K.,University of Wollongong
Technology, Pedagogy and Education | Year: 2013

Teachers who do not integrate technology are often labelled as 'resistant' to change. Yet, considerable uncertainties remain about appropriate uses and actual value of technology in teaching and learning, which can make integration and change seem risky. The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of teachers' analytical and affective risk perceptions, and how these influence decisions to integrate technology in their teaching practice. These ideas are explored through an in-depth qualitative analysis of teacher interviews focusing on experiences with, and beliefs about, technology and teaching. Results suggest decisions to integrate technology in teaching are influenced by negative affective responses to technology, general risk-aversion in teaching, and the perceived value of technology in teaching. The risk analysis framework and findings presented in this paper can be used to support communication with teachers to minimise perceived risks and, where appropriate, help support future technology use. © 2013 Copyright Association for Information Technology in Teacher Education.


Palmisano S.A.,University of Wollongong | Kim J.,University of Sydney | Freeman T.C.A.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Vision | Year: 2012

Previous research has shown that vection can be enhanced by adding horizontal simulated viewpoint oscillation to radial flow. Adding a horizontally oscillating fixation target to purely radial flow induces a superficially similar illusion of self-motion, where the observer's perceived heading oscillates left and right as their eyes pursue the moving target. This study directly compared the vection induced by these two conditions for the first time. Adding fixation point oscillation and simulated viewpoint oscillation to radial flow were both found to improve vection (relative to no oscillation control displays). Neither vection advantage could be explained in terms of differences in perceived scene rigidity or motion adaptation. Our findings also provided little support for the notion that pursuit eye-movements were essential for the simulated viewpoint oscillation advantage for vection (since observers successfully fixated a stationary, centrally- placed target during these conditions in the current experiments). The strongest support was found for the proposal that fixation point oscillation and simulated viewpoint oscillation both improve vection by increasing the observer's global retinal motion. © 2012 ARVO.


Hayes A.,University of Wollongong
IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine | Year: 2016

I came into the consumer electronics industry as a wearable-technology reseller and educator with a background in e-learning and flexible delivery. My interests in location-enabled, wearable video technologies began in 2003, culminating over the ensuing years in national and international projects with industry, policing, national security, and social research, including the impact on the Australian vocational education and training sector [1]. © 2012 IEEE.


Toyoda T.,Tokai University | Zhang C.,University of Wollongong
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

A Hall resistivity formula for the 2DES in graphene is derived from the zero-mass Dirac field model adopting the electron reservoir hypothesis. The formula reproduces perfectly the experimental resistivity data [K.S. Novoselov, et al., Nature 438 (2005) 201]. This perfect agreement cannot be achieved by any other existing models. The electron reservoir is shown to be the 2DES itself. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sheikh M.N.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2016

Seismic bridge design codes require that bridge piers designed according to prescribed design rules should attain specified multiple seismic performance objectives. However, design codes do not explicitly require checking the attainment of specified performance objectives for designed bridge piers. In this article, seismic performance levels have been correlated with engineering damage parameters. A checking method for multiple seismic performance objectives of bridge piers has been outlined and validated with experimental results. The application of the method has been demonstrated by checking the performance of a bridge pier designed according to a code provision for a wide range earthquake ground motions. © 2016, Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.


Warner R.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law | Year: 2012

The obligation to conduct environmental impact assessment (EIA) of activities with the potential for significant impact on the marine environment within and beyond national jurisdiction has attained customary international law status. The related but broader process of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is also applied to plans, policies and programmes with the potential for significant impact on the marine environment in many national jurisdictions and in a transboundary context. The application of EIA and SEA for activities with the potential for significant impact on marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been much more ad hoc. This commentary reviews the initiatives being taken by the international community to develop a more comprehensive legal and institutional framework for EIA and SEA of activities affecting ABNJ. It examines the role of sectoral environmental assessment in ABNJ, as well as the potential role of global guidelines for EIA and SEA of activities affecting ABNJ. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Zhao Z.,SAS Institute | Wang L.,University of Wollongong | Liu H.,Arizona State University | Ye J.,Arizona State University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2013

In the literature of feature selection, different criteria have been proposed to evaluate the goodness of features. In our investigation, we notice that a number of existing selection criteria implicitly select features that preserve sample similarity, and can be unified under a common framework. We further point out that any feature selection criteria covered by this framework cannot handle redundant features, a common drawback of these criteria. Motivated by these observations, we propose a new 'Similarity Preserving Feature Selection framework in an explicit and rigorous way. We show, through theoretical analysis, that the proposed framework not only encompasses many widely used feature selection criteria, but also naturally overcomes their common weakness in handling feature redundancy. In developing this new framework, we begin with a conventional combinatorial optimization formulation for similarity preserving feature selection, then extend it with a sparse multiple-output regression formulation to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. A set of three algorithms are devised to efficiently solve the proposed formulations, each of which has its own advantages in terms of computational complexity and selection performance. As exhibited by our extensive experimental study, the proposed framework achieves superior feature selection performance and attractive properties. © 1989-2012 IEEE.


Dam H.K.,University of Wollongong | Winikoff M.,University of Otago
Science of Computer Programming | Year: 2013

Numerous methodologies for developing agent-based systems have been proposed in the literature. This proliferation creates a challenge to practitioners who need to select a methodology to adopt. This situation is analogous to that of object-oriented methodologies and notations pre-UML, and we argue that the time is ripe to begin the development of a next generation agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) methodology, leading ultimately towards a unified AOSE methodology. This paper proposes process and models for a next generation AOSE methodology. Our proposal is based on a comparative analysis of seven prominent AOSE methodologies, which identified strengths, weaknesses, commonalities and differences. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Le L.-S.,University of Wollongong | Wegmann A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Computer Standards and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Modeling Enterprise Architecture (EA) requires the representation of multiple views for an enterprise. This could be done by a team of stakeholders that essentially have different backgrounds. One way to do this is to structure the model into hierarchical levels each of which can be of interest to just some, not all, stakeholders. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of EA, stakeholders simply cannot choose a single modeling approach, even a widely-recognized one, to build their enterprise model and make it viewable and understandable to the whole team. Developing a modeling framework that can be applied uniformly throughout the entire enterprise model and that can be used by all stakeholders is thus challenging. We based our work on the RM-ODP (Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing) - a standardization effort that defines essential concepts for modeling distributed systems, as well as ODP-related international standards/recommendations, to develop such a modeling framework that we call SeamCAD. This framework consists of a computer-aided tool and a language behind the tool for modeling EA in a hierarchical manner. SeamCAD makes RM-ODP applicable in the context of multi-level EA and consolidates the SEAM - a family of methods for seamless integration between disciplines. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ogie R.,University of Wollongong
IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine | Year: 2016

As organizations constantly strive to improve strategies for ICT management, one of the major challenges they must tackle is bring your own device (BYOD). BYOD is a term that collectively refers to the related technologies, concepts, and policies in which employees are allowed to access internal corporate IT resources, such as databases and applications, using their personal mobile devices like smartphones, laptop computers, and tablet PCs [1]. It is a side effect of the consumerization of IT, a term used to describe the growing tendency of the new information technologies to emerge first in the consumer market and then spread into business and government organizations [2]. Basically, employees want to act in an "any-devices, anywhere" work style, performing personal activities during work and working activities during personal time [2]. There are several risks associated with BYOD [3, p. 63], and the big gaps in BYOD policies adopted by today's organizations [4, p. 194] show that the solution to BYOD is not well understood. This article establishes a background to understand BYOD risks by considering conditions that increase the occurrence of these risks and the consequences of the risks occurring. It then aims to present the most commonly adopted BYOD solutions, their limitations, and remedies, as well as important policy considerations for successfully implementing them. © 2012 IEEE.


Sheppard Brennand H.,University of Sydney | Soars N.,University of Sydney | Dworjanyn S.A.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Davis A.R.,University of Wollongong | Byrne M.,University of Sydney
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: As the oceans simultaneously warm, acidify and increase in PCO2, prospects for marine biota are of concern. Calcifying species may find it difficult to produce their skeleton because ocean acidification decreases calcium carbonate saturation and accompanying hypercapnia suppresses metabolism. However, this may be buffered by enhanced growth and metabolism due to warming.Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined the interactive effects of near-future ocean warming and increased acidification/PCO2 on larval development in the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Larvae were reared in multifactorial experiments in flow-through conditions in all combinations of three temperature and three pH/PCO2 treatments.Experiments were placed in the setting of projected near future conditions for SE Australia, a global change hot spot. Increased acidity/PCO2 and decreased carbonate mineral saturation significantly reduced larval growth resulting in decreased skeletal length. Increased temperature (+3°C) stimulated growth, producing significantly bigger larvae across all pH/PCO2 treatments up to a thermal threshold (+6°C). Increased acidity (-0.3-0.5 pH units) and hypercapnia significantly reduced larval calcification. A +3°C warming diminished the negative effects of acidification and hypercapnia on larval growth.Conclusions and Significance: This study of the effects of ocean warming and CO2 driven acidification on development and calcification of marine invertebrate larvae reared in experimental conditions from the outset of development (fertilization) shows the positive and negative effects of these stressors. In simultaneous exposure to stressors the dwarfing effects of acidification were dominant. Reduction in size of sea urchin larvae in a high PCO2 ocean would likely impair their performance with negative consequent effects for benthic adult populations. © 2010 Sheppard Brennand et al.


Ball C.G.,University of Wollongong | Fellouah H.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Pollard A.,Queens University
Progress in Aerospace Sciences | Year: 2012

A critical review of both experimental and computational studies of round turbulent jets is provided, beginning with the work of Tollmien (1926). This review traces the history, the major advances, and the various stages that the research community went through over the past 85-odd years - from statistical analyses through to the use of conditional sampling, proper orthogonal decomposition and structural eduction methods. It includes the introduction of novel experimental techniques as well as insights gained from recent large eddy and direct numerical simulations. Some direction where future research may prove beneficial is also provided. The review does not include the effects of passive or active control, scalar contaminant transport whether by heat or mass. It includes effects of Reynolds number, inlet conditions (excluding swirl) and considers both near- and far-field investigations. We have minimised reference to papers that utilise models of turbulence unless such works provide something of particular importance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hamylton S.,University of Wollongong
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

The organisation of benthic communities across coral reefs is underpinned by spatially structured ecological processes and neighbourhood interactions such as larval dispersal, migration, competition and the spread of disease. These give rise to spatial autocorrelation in reef communities. This paper demonstrates how the measurement of spatial autocorrelation can profitably be incorporated into studies of coral reef ecology through a series of 5 simple statistical exercises: for the generation of maps depicting the strength of spatial relationships between ecological communities, as an indicator of optimal dimensions for sampling ecological communities on coral reefs, as a diagnostic tool for model misspecification, as an indicator of a spatial process underpinning the distribution of an observed community pattern and as a surrogate for missing variables in a model. The benefits of incorporating spatial autocorrelation include (1) quantifying the extent and pattern of autocorrelation across reefs, (2) signifying the presence of redundant information in field datasets, (3) indexing the nature and degree to which fundamental assumptions of classic (i.e. non-spatial) statistical techniques are violated, (4) indicating the nature (spatial versus nonspatial) of an observable pattern to be modelled, and (5) offering an opportunity to partition out and utilise the spatially structured component of model error as a surrogate for a missing variable. Collectively, the statistical exercises presented here provide a persuasive case for the measurement and interrogation of spatial autocorrelation in studies of coral reef ecology. © Inter-Research 2013.


Li B.,University of Wollongong | Li B.,University of Hong Kong | Li S.-H.,University of Hong Kong
Tectonophysics | Year: 2012

Luminescence technique has been shown to have great potential in low-temperature (<. 100. °C) themochronology. This study investigates the kinetic process of luminescence in a cooling system. We present a new formula that can be used for determining the cooling age based on luminescence-thermochronology. The cooling rate can be obtained directly from a plot of luminescence age versus the present temperature. We show that the application and capacity of luminescence-thermochronology are significantly controlled by the saturation of luminescence and environmental dose rate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Li B.,University of Hong Kong | Li B.,University of Wollongong | Li S.-H.,University of Hong Kong
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2012

A multi-elevated-temperature post-IR IRSL (MET-pIRIR) protocol, which utilizes the IRSL signals measured by progressively increasing the stimulation temperature from 50 to 300 °C in a step of 50 °C, was applied to date the potassium-rich feldspar (K-feldspar) extracts from loess samples at the Luochuan section of the Chinese Loess Plateau. It was observed that the MET-pIRIR ages obtained at elevated-temperatures (250 and 300 °C) are consistent with independent chronological control for the samples from the first loess layer (L1) to the third paleosol layer (S3), which correspond to the marine isotope stages (MIS) 2-9. Our results indicate that the MET-pIRIR protocol can provide reliable ages for the Chinese loess up to ∼300 ka. The results suggest that the MET-pIRIR signal measured at 250 and 300 °C gives the most reliable ages for older samples (>130 ka). For samples below L3, the natural MET-pIRIR signals measured at high temperatures reach the saturation level in dose response curves, suggesting a dating limit of ∼300 ka for the Luochuan loess section. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Gill N.,University of Wollongong
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2014

Rural stewardship has been a focus of much natural resource management policy in Australia and elsewhere. Despite landowners professing stewardship, some researchers have cast doubt on the utility of the concept due to its vagueness and difficulties of associating attitudes with behaviour. In contrast I argue that stewardship should remain an important concept for understanding rural cultures, landholder practices and the politics of land. Stewardship, however, needs to be understood as emergent, as a 'dwelt achievement', as having temporal depth and as being part of the production of socio-natures. Moreover, as a key vernacular practice, its capacities and vulnerabilities require critical interpretation. I pursue these issues through an analysis of 20th-century pastoral stewardship in central Australian rangelands where land-use ideals have long been tested by aridity and low productivity. Arid zone pastoralism has also been subject to on-going critique and re-evaluation as ecological and other values challenge pastoral practice and the very presence of pastoralism. Pastoralists have responded with varying articulations of stewardship. These share consistent foundations even as their form changes. I use Anderson's idea (1997) of 'critical domestication' to underpin this analysis and show that pastoral stewardship has been, and continues to be, characterised by interpolations of order and chaos in nature and of continuity and discontinuity. With its focus on humanist ontologies of human distinction from the natural world rather than specific land-use ideals, critical domestication provides a framework for critically interpreting these interpolations in landscapes where ideals such as cultivation and closer settlement have not been achieved. Allying this framework with recent perspectives on the agency and materiality of nature, I also show that stewardship is not solely a human achievement, but is co-produced by environmental variability, plants and domestic and feral animals such as cattle and rabbits. © 2013 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).


Fergusson C.L.,University of Wollongong
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The Late Ordovician to early Silurian Benambran Orogeny had widespread effects in the Lachlan Orogen of southeastern Australia, including the Bendigo, Tabberabbera and Narooma zones. Much of the deformation in these zones has been attributed to formation of subduction complexes from accretion of Ordovician turbidites and has been a subject of ongoing controversy. The Narooma Zone subduction complex is more widely accepted because of the abundance of disrupted units, evidence for imbricated units and its metamorphic character. Imbricated and disrupted units consistent with a subduction accretion model also characterise the Tabberabbera Zone. A subduction complex model for the Bendigo Zone has been contested. Deep seismic profiles show a largely transparent upper crust down to ~18 km of inferred Ordovician turbidites with a layered middle to lower crust of mafic volcanic rocks as shown by the Heathcote Greenstone Belt being traced from the surface to the middle crust. During the Benambran Orogeny, the Bendigo Zone is interpreted as a rapidly formed mega-subduction complex with ~50 km crustal thickness. This is an exceptional thickness and much thicker than subduction complexes in Japan and the Barbados Accretionary Complex but more comparable with southeastern Alaska where the Chugach terrane (subduction complex) and underplated mafic igneous rocks have a present-day crustal thickness up to 30 km. Anomalous thick crust of the Bendigo Zone subduction complex is related to the huge volume of subduction inputs, with Cambrian fore-arc-backarc crust and the overlying thick Ordovician turbidite fan, resulting in a double décollement associated with the megathrust now represented by the Mount William Fault. The Benambran Orogeny is an example of widespread shortening reflecting rapidly initiated subduction zones with a short-lived history rather than long-lived subduction typical of the modern eastern Pacific Ocean. © 2014 © 2014 Geological Society of Australia.


Meyer B.J.,University of Wollongong
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2011

The health benefits attributed to the consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are enormous but are we consuming enough for optimal health? Cardiovascular disease rates are much lower in countries like Japan compared with the Western world. Western countries' LC n-3 PUFA intakes are up to 5 fold lower than Japanese intakes. Various professional bodies and government organisations recommend 500. mg LC n-3 PUFA per day. The actual reported intake of LC n-3 PUFA from Australia and various other countries are compared to these recommended intakes. Not surprisingly, the actual intakes of LC n-3 PUFA in Western countries fall short of the recommended intakes. Consumption of fish and seafood is the easiest way to achieve the recommended intakes but increased consumption of foods enriched with LC n-3 PUFA will also contribute to achieving the recommended intakes. Most people are not consuming enough LC n-3 PUFA for optimal health. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Woodroffe C.D.,University of Wollongong
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2014

Oceanic plates are geologically young, forming at mid-ocean ridges and becoming deeper and older with distance away from these spreading centres, to be subducted into ocean trenches. Most of the islands that occur on these oceanic plates are basaltic, formed at hot spots, and carried into deeper water as the plate migrates. In tropical reef-forming seas, volcanic islands are usually protected by coral reefs, and undergo transition from fringing reefs, to barrier reefs, to atolls, as envisaged by Darwin. Linear island chains comprise volcanic islands at successive stages in the progression from volcano through coral reefs to seamounts and guyots. Erosion occurs rapidly in the early stages once eruption has ceased, and older islands are conspicuously dissected by fluvial action, as observed by Dana. Many are subject to submarine slumping. In the absence of coral reefs, marine abrasion truncates islands, producing near-vertical cliffs, and islands may be entirely bevelled; Balls Pyramid in the southern Pacific appears to be at the penultimate stage of this planation with a broad shelf around it. Coral reefs protect the shoreline, which is usually deeply embayed, with progressive subsidence until volcanic residuals are all that remain on 'almost-atolls'. Reef limestones indicate earlier phases of reef formation, and there are limestone cliffs around many tropical islands composed of Last Interglacial limestone often veneering older reef terraces. In some cases, the morphology of these limestone coasts contains prominent notches or surf benches reflecting different degrees of exposure to wave energy, or subtle flexure and vertical displacement. Islands provide discrete examples of rocky coasts, with contrasts between adjacent islands, or islands of different ages, providing many insights into the evolutionary stages and the morphodynamics of bold coasts. © The Geological Society of London 2014.


Guo W.D.,University of Wollongong
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2013

Elastic-plastic, closed-form solutions were developed recently by the author, to capture the nonlinear response of laterally loaded rigid piles. Presented in compact form, the solutions are convenient to use, and sufficiently accurate despite using only two input parameters of the net limiting force per unit length pu along the pile, and a subgrade modulus k. Nevertheless, piles may be subjected to limited cap-restraints or loading below ground surface, which alter the response remarkably.This paper provides explicit expressions for estimating loading capacity of anchored piles and develops new solutions for lateral piles with cap-rotation by stipulating a constant pu or a linear increasing pu (Gibson pu) with depth. Lateral loading capacity Ho (at the tip-yield state and yield at rotation point state) and maximum bending moment Mm (at the tip-yield state) are presented against loading locations, and in form of the lateral capacity Ho-. Mo (applied moment) locus. The capacity is consistent with available solutions for anchored piles, and caissons with either pu profile, allowing a united approach from lateral piles to anchored piles. The new solutions are also presented in charts to highlight the impact of rotational stiffness of pile-cap on nonlinear response, offering a united approach for free-head piles through fixed-head piles.Several advantages of the solutions are identified against the prevalent p-. y curve based approach. To estimate the key parameter pu, values of the resistance factor Np (=ratio of pile-soil limiting resistance over the undrained shear strength su) are deduced using the current expressions against available normalised pile capacity involving the impact of gapping (between pile and soil), pile movement mode, pile slenderness ratio, inclined loading angle (anchored piles) and batter angles (lateral piles). The Np is characterised by: (i) An increase from 5.6-8.6 to 10.14-11.6, as gapping is eliminated around lateral piles and caissons, and from 1.0-6.1 to 2.8-9.8, as translation is converted into rotation mode of footings. (ii) Similar variations with slenderness ratio between anchors and caissons (without gapping), and among anchors, caissons and pipelines (with gapping). And (iii) A reduction with loading angles (anchors) resembling that with batter angles (piles). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bradstock R.A.,University of Wollongong
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2010

Aim: Patterns of fire regimes across Australia exhibit biogeographic variation in response to four processes. Variations in area burned and fire frequency result from differences in the rates of 'switching' of biomass growth, availability to burn, fire weather and ignition. Therefore differing processes limit fire (i.e. the lowest rate of switching) in differing ecosystems. Current and future trends in fire frequency were explored on this basis. Location: Case studies of forests (cool temperate to tropical) and woodlands (temperate to arid) were examined. These represent a broad range of Australian biomes and current fire regimes. Methods: Information on the four processes was applied to each case study and the potential minimum length of interfire interval was predicted and compared to current trends. The potential effects of global change on the processes were then assessed and future trends in fire regimes were predicted. Results: Variations in fire regimes are primarily related to fluctuations in available moisture and dominance by either woody or herbaceous plant cover. Fire in woodland communities (dry climates) is limited by growth of herbaceous fuels (biomass), whereas in forests (wet climates) limitation is by fuel moisture (availability to burn) and fire weather. Increasing dryness in woodland communities will decrease potential fire frequency, while the opposite applies in forests. In the tropics, both forms of limitation are weak due to the annual wet/dry climate. Future change may therefore be constrained. Main conclusions: Increasing dryness may diminish fire activity over much of Australia (dominance of dry woodlands), though increases may occur in temperate forests. Elevated CO2 effects may confound or reinforce these trends. The prognosis for the future fire regime in Australia is therefore uncertain. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Building on an identified need for gender-sensitive approaches to bushfire risk engagement, this paper examines outreach initiatives specifically targeting women's bushfire awareness and preparedness in southeast Australia. The results of an online survey, together with two workshops with community engagement staff and volunteers from rural fire services, convey perceived aids and obstacles for engaging women. Efforts at engaging women with bushfire risk management are shown to align squarely with efforts to create a more gender-balanced and gender-sensitive environment for bushfire brigade volunteers. The paper demonstrates how gender roles and gendered norms are reinforced by the patriarchal structures that shape everyday life and the on-the-ground application of official outreach policy and practice. This, in turn, results in heightened dimensions of gendered vulnerability to bushfire. Three key pointers to more successful engagement emerge from the analysis: the benefits of hands-on experience and practice, the strength of networks and the imperative of supportive learning environments. © 2013 Institute of Australian Geographers.


Guo W.D.,University of Wollongong
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a new, integrated two-layer model to capture nonlinear response of rotationally restrained laterally loaded rigid piles subjected to soil movement (sliding soil, or lateral spreading). First, typical pile response from model tests (using an inverse triangular loading profile) is presented, which includes profiles of ultimate on-pile force per unit length at typical sliding depths, and the evolution of pile deflection, rotation, and bending moment with soil movement. Second, a new model and closed-form expressions are developed for rotationally restrained passive piles in two-layer soil, subjected to various movement profiles. Third, the solutions are used to examine the impact of the rotational restraint on nonlinear response of bending moment, shear force, on-pile force per unit length, and pile deflection. Finally, they are compared with measured response of model piles in sliding soil, or subjected to lateral spreading, and that of an in situ test pile in moving soil. The study indicates the following: (i) nonlinear response of rigid passive piles is owing to elastic pile–soil interaction with a progressive increase in sliding depth, whether in sliding soil or subjected to lateral spreading; (ii) theoretical solutions for a uniform movement can be used to model other soil movement profiles upon using a modification factor in the movement and its depth; and (iii) a triangular and a uniform pressure profile on piles are theoretically deduced along lightly head-restrained, floating-base piles, and restrained-base piles, respectively, once subjected to lateral spreading. Nonlinear response of an in situ test pile in sliding soil and a model pile subjected to lateral spreading is elaborated to highlight the use and the advantages of the proposed solutions, along with the ranges of four design parameters deduced from 10 test piles. © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved.


Kautz K.,University of Wollongong | Jensen T.B.,Copenhagen Business School
Information and Organization | Year: 2013

The notion of 'sociomateriality' has recently gained in popularity among information systems (IS) scholars in their search for providing new ways of investigating and theorizing about IS in organizations and society at large. While some scholars put forward arguments and research accounts that lead to new insights concerning the concept, others expose a cursory treatment and partial appreciation of the idea. In addition, sociomateriality as a new worldview has been criticized for introducing yet more academic jargon monoxide. Although existing research and debates show some potential for progressing the theorizing of 'man-machine' reconfigurations, we point to the necessity of a deeper exploration of the term. Inspired by the Alternative Genres Track at the European Conference on Information Systems 2012, the purpose here is to take a fresh look, to evoke new insights and to gain deeper understanding of the notion of sociomateriality and its use in the IS discipline. We invite the reader to attend a prolonged monologue - characterized by honesty, frank observations and wit - at the royal court of IS. The monologue is delivered by the court jester and directed to the two sovereigns who, based on their conceptual contributions, have played a decisive role in the spreading of the idea of sociomateriality in IS. The intention is to contribute with a stimulating debate about sociomateriality that builds on open-minded questions in the pursuit of key reflections to inform our research discipline. Throughout the monologue, the jester uncovers some contradictions and limitations in and between the sovereigns' writings and points to some possible resolutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mansfield K.J.,University of Wollongong
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics | Year: 2010

The overactive bladder (OAB) is a debilitating condition in which patients suffer from urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia with or without urge urinary incontinence. The mainstay of pharmacotherapy for OAB is muscarinic receptor antagonists, which have been shown to be effective treatments for the symptoms of OAB. The mechanism underlying the efficacy of antimuscarinic agents against the symptoms of OAB is not completely understood. This review explores the role of bladder mucosal muscarinic receptors in the signaling pathways that are activated in response to bladder filling. The cholinergic system is seen to be involved in bladder afferent signaling at many levels and as such muscarinic receptor antagonists may affect bladder signaling via numerous pathways including release of mediators from the bladder urothelium and activation of suburothelial myofibroblasts and afferent nerves. Therefore the mucosal cholinergic system may represent another target for the antimuscarinic agents used to treat OAB. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.


Castree N.,University of Wollongong | Castree N.,University of Manchester
Geography Compass | Year: 2014

This is the last of three papers that explore the relevance of 'the Anthropocene' (and the related idea of 'planetary boundaries') to present and future research in Geography. The first paper (The Anthropocene and Geography I: The back story) summarised the origins and evolution of the proposition that the Holocene has ended. The second paper (The Anthropocene and Geography II: Current contributions) then mapped-out the relatively few, but varied, contributions that geographers have so far made to assessing or advancing this proposition. This final instalment looks ahead. It offers readers informed speculation on how future discussions of the Anthropocene might take shape in Geography. These discussions may matter for a great many others besides geographers in the years ahead. Given their epochal meanings and enormous implications for humans, the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries ideas stand to become societal keywords that, along with some other collateral terms, might organise debate and action about one of the greatest human questions, namely: 'how should we live?'© 2014 The Author(s). Geography Compass © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Castree N.,University of Wollongong | Castree N.,University of Manchester
Geography Compass | Year: 2014

This and two companion papers (The Anthropocene and Geography I: The back story and The Anthropocene and Geography III: Future Directions) consider the relevance of 'the Anthropocene' to present and future research in Geography. Along with the concept of 'planetary boundaries', the idea that humanity has entered a new geological epoch of its own making is currently attracting considerable attention - both within and beyond the world of Earth surface science from whence both notions originate. This paper's predecessor detailed the invention and evolution of the two scientific neologisms, ending with a general discussion of their potential relevance to Geography. The present essay examines how that relevance is being actualised in practice. Though the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries concepts are the progeny of certain biophysical scientists, some human geographers are already going beyond the science to explore their socio-ecological implications. Accordingly, the paper describes how various physical, environmental and human geographers have thus far examined the (supposed) end of the Holocene. By detailing the full range of geographers' discussions of the two ideas, it comprehensively maps intellectual territory that a (so-far select) group of geographers have been exploring independently of each other, albeit layered on previous research into global environmental change. Its successor (The Anthropocene and geography III: Future directions) speculates about the future directions geographers' discussions of the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries might take. © 2014 The Author(s). Geography Compass © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Baowan D.,Mahidol University | Thamwattana N.,University of Wollongong
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2013

The selective separation of biomolecules is a critical process in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Due to its size and properties, mesoporous silica offers many advantages as a separation media for biomolecules such as proteins and enzymes. In this paper, we investigate mathematically the separation of proteins trypsin and lysozyme using mesoporous silica materials. These proteins are modelled as densely packed spheres, while the silica pore is assumed to have a cylindrical structure. The Lennard-Jones potential together with a continuum approximation is employed to determine the interaction among the proteins and the interaction between a protein and a silica pore. For these systems, the total interaction energies are obtained analytically as functions of the protein size and the pore dimensions. We find that the pore radii which give rise to the maximum adsorption energies for trypsin and lysozyme are 21.74 Å and 17.74 Å, respectively. Since the binding energy between any two protein molecules is found to be three orders of magnitude lower than the adsorption energy of the protein into the silica pore, proteins prefer to be separated and stay inside the pore. Further, we find that using silica pores with radii in the range between 17.23 Å and 21.24 Å allows the entrance of only lysozyme, as such separating lysozyme from trypsin. These results agree with previous experimental study, confirming that mesoporous silica pores may be used to separate trypsin-lysozyme mixture. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Jones M.P.,Macquarie University | Jones M.P.,Monash University | Bushnell J.A.,University of Wollongong | Humphreys J.S.,Monash University
Medical Education | Year: 2014

Context: Medical school curricula remain one of the key levers in increasing the future supply of rural doctors. Data from Australia and overseas have suggested exposure to rural practice via rural placements during basic medical training is positively associated with graduates becoming rural doctors. However, previous studies have suffered from serious methodological limitations. Objectives: This study sought to determine whether rural clinical placements are associated with a higher proportion of graduating students planning rural careers and to explore associations with timing, duration and location of placements. Methods: Data were obtained from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database and Longitudinal Tracking Project, which is a longitudinal study with a high response rate that prospectively collects data, including practice location intention, from all Australian medical schools. Using logistic regression analysis, the association between placements and rural career intention was assessed, controlling for a number of demographic and contextual variables. Results: The association between rural/remote placements later in the programme and rural practice intention was strongly positive whether viewed as simple occurrence or as duration, in contrast to later urban placements, which were strongly negative. A longer duration of placement enhanced the associations reported. Non-metropolitan medical schools were also associated with higher odds of intention to take up rural practice. However, the association with rural placements was overshadowed by the strong positive associations with rural background of students and their stated intention to become a rural doctor at the start of their studies. Conclusions: Exposure to rural practice during basic medical training, and the location and curriculum focus of a medical school are confirmed as factors that are positively associated with students' intention to become rural doctors after graduation. However, rural origin and the early intentions at the start of their medical training are better predictors of expressed intention to take up rural practice than rural clinical placements. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Hemmerich A.,University of Cape Town | Van Der Merwe W.,Sports Science Orthopaedic Clinic | Batterham M.,University of Wollongong | Vaughan C.L.,University of Cape Town
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: While single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction reduces anterior-posterior laxity, studies have demonstrated residual rotational instability. Improved pivot-shift results have been shown with the double-bundle graft; however, no study has compared rotational laxity outcome of these surgical techniques in vivo under quantified, isolated torsional loading. Hypothesis: The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee exhibits greater rotational laxity than the contralateral uninjured knee. The double-bundle reconstruction restores rotational joint stability to a greater extent than single-bundle surgery. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Rotational laxity of 32 patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury was assessed in both knees at full extension and 30° of flexion using a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible torsional loading device. Patients were randomly allocated either a single- or double-bundle reconstruction and reassessed 5 months after surgery. Results: The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees demonstrated greater laxity to internal rotational torque in the extended position, but not in the 30° flexed position. No significant differences in rotational laxity were found between single- and double-bundle reconstructions. In extension, excessive internal rotational laxity of injured compared with contralateral knees was reduced by anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The single-bundle reconstruction did not affect internal rotation compared with contralateral or preoperative groups. In response to internal rotational torque in the flexed knee position, the double-bundle reconstruction reduced laxity to 10.8° from the pre-operative value of 15.3° (P =.058); postoperative rotation was also significantly less than the contralateral laxity of 16.4° (P =.022). Conclusion: The ruptured anterior cruciate ligament resulted in increased internal rotational laxity only in the extended position. The single-bundle reconstruction did not affect rotational restraint compared with contralateral or preoperative groups. The double-bundle procedure significantly reduced internal laxity in the flexed position when compared with normal. Clinical Relevance: As the anterior cruciate ligament is not the primary restraint to rotation, its contribution to joint stability is limited under isolated torsional load. While the double-bundle graft demonstrates superior rotational constraint, this may be excessive for isolated anterior cruciate ligament rupture. © 2011 The Author(s).


At a time when climate change is being defined and grappled with around the world as a looming large-scale environmental crisis, low-lying Pacific islands are being publicized in a range of practices as 'disappearing islands', and their inhabitants as future 'climate refugees'. This paper is concerned with the disappearing island as a space in which new intersections between environmentalism and tourism can be explored. It analyzes specifically western representational practices associated with climate change imperatives on Tuvalu, an atoll state in the central Pacific. New phenomena are emerging there such as climate change tourism and the transformation of the islands into showcases of renewable energy. These phenomena are analyzed in order to understand how climate change meanings are being shaped by various participants in the debate. I argue that Pacific islanders are heroized as climate change saviours when environmentalists attempt to locate ethnocentric notions of environmentally harmonious, 'traditional' culture on disappearing islands. Further, islanders are objectified in the rhetoric of climate change tourism. Imagined destinies for atoll dwellers as climate saviours are sited uncomfortably alongside voyeuristic gazes turned towards inundated islands. Competing forces of compassion and voyeurism produced in the name of the Tuvaluan indigene are entrenching an iconic role for the Tuvaluan atoll dweller as climate change hero/victim. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Guo W.D.,University of Wollongong
International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics | Year: 2016

This paper develops a three-layer model and elastic solutions to capture nonlinear response of rigid, passive piles in sliding soil. Elastic solutions are obtained for an equivalent force per unit length ps of the soil movement. They are repeated for a series of linearly increasing ps (with depth) to yield the nonlinear response. The parameters underpinning the model are determined against pertinent numerical solutions and model tests on passive free-head and capped piles. The solutions are presented in non-dimensional charts and elaborated through three examples. The study reveals the following: On-pile pressure in rotationally restrained, sliding layer reduces by a factor α, which resembles the p-multiplier for a laterally loaded, capped pile, but for its increase with vertical loading (embankment surcharge), and stiffness of underlying stiff layer: α=0.25 and 0.6 for a shallow, translating and rotating piles, respectively; α=0.33-0.5 and 0.8-1.3 for a slide overlying a stiff layer concerning a uniform and a linearly increasing pressure, respectively; and α=0.5-0.72 for moving clay under embankment loading. Ultimate state is well defined using the ratio of passive earth pressure coefficient over that of active earth pressure. The subgrade modulus for a large soil movement may be scaled from model tests. The normalised rotational stiffness is equal to 0.1-0.15 for the capped piles, which increases the pile displacement with depth. The three-layer model solutions well predict nonlinear response of capped piles subjected to passive loading, which may be used for pertinent design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


The Lachlan Fold Belt of southeastern Australia developed along the Panthalassan margin of East Gondwana. Major silicic igneous activity and active tectonics with extensional, strike-slip and contractional deformation have been related to a continental backarc setting with a convergent margin to the east. In the Early Silurian (Benambran Orogeny), tectonic development was controlled by one or more subduction zones involved in collision and accretion of the Ordovician Macquarie Arc. Thermal instability in the Late Silurian to Middle Devonian interval was promoted by the presence of one or more shallow subducted slabs in the upper mantle and resulted in widespread silicic igneous activity. Extension dominated the Late Silurian in New South Wales and parts of eastern Victoria and led to formation of several sedimentary basins. Alternating episodes of contraction and extension, along with dispersed strike-slip faulting particularly in eastern Victoria, occurred in the Early Devonian culminating in the Middle Devonian contractional Tabberabberan Orogeny. Contractional deformation in modern systems, such as the central Andes, is driven by advance of the overriding plate, with highest strain developed at locations distant from plate edges. In the Ordovician to Early Devonian, it is inferred that East Gondwana was advancing towards Panthalassa. Extensional activity in the Lachlan backarc, although minor in comparison with backarc basins in the western Pacific Ocean, was driven by limited but continuous rollback of the subduction hinge. Alternation of contraction and extension reflects the delicate balance between plate motions with rollback being overtaken by advance of the upper plate intermittently in the Early to Middle Devonian resulting in contractional deformation in an otherwise dominantly extensional regime. A modern system that shows comparable behaviour is East Asia where rollback is considered responsible for widespread sedimentary basin development and basin inversion reflects advance of blocks driven by compression related to the Indian collision. © 2010 Geological Society of Australia.


Waitt G.,University of Wollongong
Social and Cultural Geography | Year: 2014

A growing body of work in social and cultural geography is concerned with examining food to explore ethical, civic and social concerns. I build on the critiques by engaging with the visceral. Drawing on the theoretical work of Elspeth Probyn, I argue that eating reveals the fundamental ambiguity of embodiment, allowing us to attend to visceralities of difference as understood within the context of power geometries that shape and reshape food politics. This analysis is promoted by the Australian Commonwealth Government's endorsement of suggestions by environmental scientists that households' meals should substitute kangaroo for farmed livestock to lower greenhouse gas emissions. I investigate appetites for kangaroo as discussed while plating-up, and sometimes digested, by white bodies in kitchens and dining rooms within thirty households in Wollongong, New South Wales. To explain where kangaroo is rendered inedible, or edible, I use the recognition that the visceral realm-narrated through the aromas, tastes and touch-offers insights to place, subjectivity, embodied skills and food politics. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Perlman D.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of an intervention grounded in Self-Determination Theory on preservice teachers' instructional behaviors and the motivational responses of their students. A total of 62 preservice physical education teachers enrolled in a secondary physical education content and methods course were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 31) or a control group (n = 31). The study employed a pretest/posttest design and data were collected through: (a) observation of preservice teachers' instruction, (b) a survey measuring preservice teachers' perceptions of their autonomy support, and (c) a survey measuring secondary students' motivation. Data analysis used repeated-measures ANOVAs to examine differences between the groups. Results indicated significant changes in autonomy-support for both teachers and students exposed to the intervention. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Jones S.C.,Australian Catholic University | Magee C.,University of Wollongong | Andrews K.,Australian Catholic University
Drug and Alcohol Review | Year: 2015

Introduction and Aims: A growing body of research indicates parental supply of alcohol to children and adolescents is common. The present study aimed to examine parents' reasons for supplying alcohol to adolescents that they may find hard to articulate or not be consciously aware of. Design and Methods: A projective methodology was used, whereby respondents were asked to explain the thoughts and motivations of a gender-matched parent in a scenario in which the parent did or did not provide alcohol to their teenage child. Respondents were 97 mothers and 83 fathers of teenagers who completed an anonymous online survey. Open-ended responses were coded thematically; t-tests were used to compare quantitative responses between the scenarios. Results: The quantitative analysis found the parent who provided alcohol was less likely to be seen as making sure their child was safe and educating them about boundaries, but more likely to be seen as being a friend as well as a parent and (for females only) making sure their child fits in with others. The open-ended responses showed explanations for not providing alcohol most commonly focused on ensuring the child's safety, obeying the law, and setting rules and boundaries, and for providing alcohol focused on ensuring the child fit in with peers and beliefs about harm minimisation. Discussion and Conclusions: The findings suggest that these respondents (parents) harboured a number of misperceptions about underage drinking and experienced conflicts in weighing up the perceived benefits of providing alcohol to their children against the risks of adolescent drinking. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.


Dippenaar R.,University of Wollongong
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010

The automotive industry is increasingly utilizing advanced high-strength steels, primarily to reduce the mass of motor vehicles. However, many of these steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast by continuous casting techniques. Against this background, a brief review is given of our current understanding of the peritectic reaction as such and the subsequent peritectic phase transformations. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.


Jalalifar H.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Aziz N.,University of Wollongong
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering | Year: 2010

The load transfer capacity and failure mechanism of a fully grouted bolt installed across a joint in shear is investigated, both experimentally and numerically, in five types of bolt. The double-shearing testing of bolts were studied in concrete blocks of 20, 40 and 100 MPa strengths, subjected to different pretension loads of 0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 KN, respectively. The parameters examined include: shear resistance, shear displacement, induced strains and stresses during the bolt-bending process, and its ultimate failure across the sheared joint planes. The conclusions drawn from the study were that the strength of the concrete, bolt profile configuration and bolt pretension load played a significant influence on the shear resistance, shear displacement and failure mechanism of the reinforced medium. Experimental and numerical simulations showed that the failure occurs as a result of the induced axial and shear stresses acting between the hinge point distances in the vicinity of the shear joint plane. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Horpibulsuk S.,Suranaree University of Technology | Liu M.D.,University of Wollongong | Liyanapathirana D.S.,University of Western Sydney | Suebsuk J.,Suranaree University of Technology
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2010

In this paper, the mechanical properties of cemented clay are studied. The theoretical framework of the Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model is extended to describe the behaviour of cemented clay. The SCC model is modified to take into account special features of the behaviour of cemented clay. The widely used mean effective stress parameter is modified to include the influence of cementation on the strength and the plastic deformation of cemented clay. A new destructuring function is also suggested to represent the removal of the cementation structure, especially in the formation of the final failure state for artificially strongly cemented clay. The revised model is then employed to simulate and predict the behaviour of cemented clay with various degrees of cementation and confining stresses. The main features of the complicated behaviour of cemented clay can be reasonably represented well by the theoretical framework of the SCC model. Finally, the influence of cementation on the model parameters is discussed, and empirical equations are proposed to determine some of the key model parameters for engineering practice. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Kenchington R.,University of Wollongong
Bulletin of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Responses by management to an increasing range of human uses and impacts on marine ecosystems are a recent phenomenon. They are developing alongside traditional sectoral management of fisheries, shipping, and coastal land uses. Many regimes have been developed for approaching the tasks of integrating management of coastal and marine ecosystems. The role of marine protected areas and conservation agencies in such regimes is often a matter of contention. The application of International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected-area categories to marine ecosystems can cover the broadest range of management regimes, from strict nature reserves with no fishing or collecting to multiple, verifiably environmentally sustainable, levels of use and impact. Here, I address the roles that protected areas and other management categories can play in relation to the multiple scales and strategic objectives for management of marine ecosystems. I draw on experiences of planning, management, and community response to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to discuss the opportunities and challenges of using protected-area categories and other strategies in management for conservation and reasonable multiple use at the ecosystem scale. © 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.


Flood M.,University of Wollongong
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2015

This paper provides a critical assessment of efforts to involve men in the prevention of men's violence against women. Although there is a substantial evidence base attesting to the effectiveness of at least some strategies and interventions, this field is also limited in important ways. Violence prevention efforts often have focused on changing men's attitudes, rather than also seeking to transform structural and institutional inequalities. While feminist and queer scholarship has explored diversities and pluralities in the organisation of sexuality, much violence prevention work often assumes a homogenously heterosexual male constituency. Too often this work is conceptually simplistic with regard to gender. Against this background, this paper contests and complicates several assumptions that are part of an emerging consensus in men's violence prevention: first, that it is in men's interests to support progress towards non-violence and gender equality; second, that the best people to engage and work with men are other men; and finally, the strengths and limitations of inviting and drawing on ‘real men’. A critical assessment of the field's working assumptions is vital if it is to contribute to the future prevention of men's violence against women. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Kaplan R.M.,University of Wollongong
Australasian Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore the life and contributions of Reginald Spencer Ellery (1897-1955), one of the most eminent psychiatrists in Australia between the wars.Conclusions: Ellery pioneered malariotherapy and psychoanalysis, mixed with leading intellectuals, including Max Harris, John and Sunday Reed, was a member of the Communist Party, wrote poetry and published widely on a wide range of topics. Ellery was talented, innovative, driven and highly energetic, managing a range of activities aside from his work without difficulty. While his writing talent was questioned by some, there is no doubting his influence on painters such as Albert Tucker and Sidney Nolan and his standing in the intellectual life of Melbourne. Ellery was uncompromising in his public stand on issues such as communism and psychoanalysis, but by the end of his life he was deeply disillusioned. Ellery's autobiography, The Cow Jumped Over the Moon, confirms the impression of a restless and creative mind reluctant to be constrained by conventional orthodoxy, the most eminent Australian psychiatrist of his time. His diverse achievements and talent, now largely forgotten, deserve recognition from a profession that is rapidly losing its links with the historical past. © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists.


Cheng Z.,University of Wollongong | Wang H.,Macquarie University
Habitat International | Year: 2013

Rural-to-urban migrant workers have contributed enormously to the Chinese economy and society in the past three decades. Many of them have concentrated in disadvantaged neighbourhoods and physically and socially suffered from poor residential environment. However it is unclear how the neighbourhoods-as the provision of shelter, social and public service, and community organizing-influence migrant workers' labour market outcomes. To fill this gap, this paper researches the way in which urban neighbourhoods have affected migrant workers' wages. Factors such as housing quality, social interaction and trust, and neighbourhood organization and participation were examined. Results show that five of eight neighbourhood characteristics had statistically significant effects on wages. Robustness tests were conducted to address endogeneity problems of self-selection and unobserved individual ability. Test results demonstrated that our main findings were generally robust, and thus the causality was solid. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Trani L.D.O.,Coffey Geotechnics | Indraratna B.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper presents an investigation into the seepage hydraulics of a layer of subballast filter subjected to cyclic loading in a fully saturated environment. A multilayer mathematical approach was used to predict the time-dependent permeability of this filter, with a reduction in porosity as a function of compression under cyclic loading, and the amount of base soil (<150 μm) trapped within the filter voids being the two main aspects of this proposed model. Laboratory test results conducted on a novel cyclic loading permeameter apparatus were used to validate the proposed model. The family of equations that are an integral part of the proposed model are then presented in the form of compact visual guidelines anticipated to provide a more practical tool for railway design practitioners. © 2010 ASCE.


Perlman D.J.,University of Wollongong
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy | Year: 2015

Background: A major goal within physical education is to develop a student who will engage in a lifetime of physical activity. A concept deemed critical and strongly associated with engagement in physical activity is motivation. As such, a number of research studies have been focused on elements that facilitate student motivation in physical education. An area of limited inquiry has been focused on those students with extremely low levels of motivation, also termed amotivated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of teacher instruction, based within self-determination theory (SDT), on the motivational responses of amotivated students.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how different forms of teacher instruction, based within SDT, can influence amotivated students' motivational responses within secondary physical education. Participants and settings: Forty-eight (Male = 18; Female = 30) amotivated students engaged in a compulsory Year-9 sport-based physical education class. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (autonomy-supportive or control).Data collection: Participants' motivational responses were collected using a pretest/posttest design. Teacher data were collected through the observation and coding of specific behaviors.Data analysis: Data were analyzed through a set of (2 × 2) (Group × Time) Repeated Measures analysis of variances (ANOVAs). Significant ANOVA calculations were placed on a chart to illustrate where the significance was located.Results: Analysis of data indicated that amotivated students engaged in the autonomy-supportive classes reported significantly higher levels of self-determined motivation and support for relatedness compared with the control group.Conclusions: Findings from this study provide empirical support for the infusion of autonomy-supportive teaching within physical education. Previous SDT-based instructional studies have reported that teachers who are more supportive have students who report positive experiences and are more physically active. This study extends the SDT body of knowledge by demonstrating the positive motivational change for students with extremely low forms of motivation. Specifically, amotivated students engaged in the autonomy-supportive classes reported significantly higher levels of self-determined motivation and support for relatedness. © 2013, © 2013 Association for Physical Education.


Szabo K.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2012

Hermit crabs are ever alert for more suitable shells to inhabit, but what this may mean for coastal shell middens has rarely been considered. Here, the impact of the most landward-based of hermit crab families, the tropical Coenobitidae, upon archaeological shell-bearing deposits is assessed using a case study: the Neolithic Ugaga site from Fiji. At Ugaga, hermit crabs were found to have removed the majority of shells from the midden and had deposited their old, worn shells in return. The behavioural ecology of genus Coenobita suggests a mutualistic interaction whereby humans make available shell and food resources to hermit crabs, which in turn provide a site cleaning service by consuming human and domestic waste. Diagnostic indicators of terrestrial hermit crab wear patterns on gastropod shells are outlined and the conditions under which extensive 'hermitting' of shell midden deposits may occur are investigated. The ability to recognise hermit crab modification of shells is considered not only important for archaeomalacologists analysing tropical shell deposits, but also for field archaeologists wishing to select suitable shell samples for radiocarbon dating. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


O'Gorman E.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Australian Studies | Year: 2013

Within the context of contemporary concerns about ecological degradation and debates about water use for irrigation, this article examines how and why commercial rice growing began in the Murrumbidgee River region, New South Wales. It focuses on the crop's establishment and rapid expansion from approximately 1900 to 1960 and concentrates on three events, which each significantly shaped commercial rice growing: the problems faced by the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area during its first years of operation, the introduction of Californian varieties of rice, and World War II. This history of rice growing reveals some of the changing connections between regional, state, national, and global concerns about food and water. The analysis builds on Marnie Haig-Muir's 1996 examination of the economic forces that influenced rice growing in Wakool, located in the Murray River valley, during World War II, taking a different geographical perspective, a broader temporal view, and emphasising the importance of considering the cultural dimensions of the establishment of rice growing. It expands previous histories of water management and irrigation in Australia by examining historical agricultural publications related to rice. This history is relevant to contemporary issues around rice farming and the Murray-Darling Basin, and this article explores the ways in which the history of rice has shaped the contemporary political and physical landscape. © 2013 International Australian Studies Association.


Cordner L.,University of Wollongong
Journal of the Indian Ocean Region | Year: 2010

The Indian Ocean Region is moving to the centre of the global geostrategic agenda. Resource competition and energy security, environmental and economic issues exacerbated by climate change; the involvement of external powers like China, and the emergence of regional powers like India underscore a heightened need for attention to this region. Concomitantly, Indian Ocean sea lines of communication are becoming increasingly important to global and regional commerce. Related security issues largely converge in the maritime domain. There is little history of region-wide security cooperation and a lack of regional institutions in the Indian Ocean Region. Non-conventional threats posing collective security risks to common interests present the most realisable prospects, at least initially, for the development of collective security dialogue and mechanisms. Such arrangements need to involve both regional and extra-regional powers that have interests to protect and capacities to assist. Given geography and the diverse nature of the region, maritime security offers the most compelling area for cooperation in the Indian Ocean Region. Efforts to facilitate collective security dialogue and establish maritime security cooperative mechanisms and habits need to be urgently progressed at official, non-official and operational levels. © 2010 Indian Ocean Research Group.


Brennan-Horley C.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Maps | Year: 2010

Cultural researchers are increasingly turning to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies for visualising spatially-oriented qualitative data. This paper discusses one example, where mental maps have been employed in interviews with creative industry workers and the results accumulated in a GIS for visualisation and analysis. This technique extends on participatory and qualitative methods that counteract overtly economic and empiricist techniques regularly employed in creative industry mapping studies. Collating together creative workers' mental maps within a GIS provides a means for exposing 'high traffic' areas - hot spots of creative activity - and other hidden geographies that comprise the 'creative city'. Key spaces, known within creative communities but understood by researchers only anecdotally, can be visualised with a GIS. The methodology was carried out in Darwin, the capital city of Australia's Northern Territory, which has sought to re-imagine itself as a creative city. Results from two mental mapping questions form the focus of this paper: on where 'creative epicentres' and 'spaces of inspiration' exist in Darwin. The former tend to centre on popular suburban sites and inner city spaces while the latter privileges open space and iconic harbourside settings. The differences and similarities between responses to interview questions are best revealed through 3D visualisation. Outputs from this method incorporate vernacular voices into policy-making, and can henceforth inform spatial planning, allowing for the development of more spatially literate creative city policies that reflect creative workers' actual spatial proclivities.


Suebsuk J.,Suranaree University of Technology | Horpibulsuk S.,Suranaree University of Technology | Liu M.D.,University of Wollongong
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2010

This paper presents a generalised constitutive model for destructured, naturally structured and artificially structured clays that extends the Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model. This model is designated as " Modified Structured Cam Clay (MSCC) model" The influence of structure and destructuring on the mechanical behaviour of clay can be explained by the change in the modified effective stress, which is the sum of the current mean effective stress and the additional mean effective stress due to structure (structure strength). The presence of structure increases the modified mean effective stress and yield surface, enhancing the cohesion, peak strength and stiffness. The destructuring begins when the stress state is on the virgin yield surface. After the failure (peak strength) state, the abrupt destructuring occurs as the soil-cementation structure is crushed; hence the strain softening. The soil structure is completely removed at the critical state when the yield surface becomes identical to the destructured surface. The destructuring law is proposed based on this premise. In the MSCC model, the yield function is the same shape as that of the Modified Cam Clay (MCC) model. A plastic potential is introduced so as to account for the influence of structure on the plastic strain direction for both hardening and softening behaviours. The required model parameters are divided into those describing destructured properties and those describing structured properties. All the parameters have physical meaning and can be simply determined from the conventional triaxial tests. Thus, the MSCC model is a useful tool for geotechnical practitioners. The capability of the model is verified by the test results of destructured, natural structured and artificially structured clays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ghayesh M.H.,University of Wollongong | Farokhi H.,McGill University
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2015

In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of a microplate is investigated based on the modified couple stress theory. The von Kármán plate theory is employed to model the system by retaining in-plane displacements and inertia. The equations of motion are derived via an energy method based on the Lagrange equations, yielding a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms. These equations are recast into a set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations and the resulting equations are solved by means of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. The nonlinear dynamics is examined through plotting the frequency-response and force-response curves of the system. The influence of system parameters on the resonant responses is highlighted. The differences in the response amplitude of the system modelled based on the modified couple stress theory and the classical one are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lyons B.,University of Sydney | Kwan A.H.,University of Sydney | Truscott R.,University of Wollongong
FEBS Journal | Year: 2014

A cyclic product that forms spontaneously from peptides that contain a penultimate Asp, Asn or isoAsp residue at the N-terminus has been characterized. This 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative forms under physiological conditions and is stable, showing little degradation even following heating at 60 °C. A mechanism for its formation from Asn and Asp peptides is proposed that involves a succinimide or isoaspartate intermediate. A diketopiperazine-modified peptide was also detected in human lens extracts. Since peptides that contain the diketopiperazine moiety are not readily hydrolysed by leucine aminopeptidase, it is hypothesized that proteins and peptides modified in this way in the body may not readily be digested by the normal proteolytic machinery of cells. Long-lived proteins are widespread in humans; however, our knowledge of their reactions and breakdown is limited. Proteins with a free α-amino group and penultimate aspartate or asparagine residues spontaneously form a stable ring. This diketopiperazine resists aminopeptidase cleavage as such could lead to intractable aggregates in cells. © 2014 FEBS.


Chandra H.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chambers R.,University of Wollongong
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2016

Survey data often contain measurements for variables that are semicontinuous in nature, i.e. they either take a single fixed value (we assume this is zero) or they have a continuous, often skewed, distribution on the positive real line. Standard methods for small area estimation (SAE) based on the use of linear mixed models can be inefficient for such variables. We discuss SAE techniques for semicontinuous variables under a two part random effects model that allows for the presence of excess zeros as well as the skewed nature of the nonzero values of the response variable. In particular, we first model the excess zeros via a generalized linear mixed model fitted to the probability of a nonzero, i.e. strictly positive, value being observed, and then model the response, given that it is strictly positive, using a linear mixed model fitted on the logarithmic scale. Empirical results suggest that the proposed method leads to efficient small area estimates for semicontinuous data of this type. We also propose a parametric bootstrap method to estimate the MSE of the proposed small area estimator. These bootstrap estimates of the MSE are compared to the true MSE in a simulation study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sun B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Chen Z.,University of Wollongong | Kim H.-S.,Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute | Ahn H.,Gyeongsang National University | Wang G.,University of Technology, Sydney
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

MnO/C core-shell nanorods were synthesized by an in situ reduction method using MnO2 nanowires as precursor and block copolymer F127 as carbon source. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that a thin carbon layer was coated on the surfaces of the individual MnO nanorods. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The as-prepared MnO/C core-shell nanorods exhibit a higher specific capacity than MnO microparticles as anode material for lithium ion batteries. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hinwood J.B.,Monash University | Mclean E.J.,University of Wollongong
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

On 11 March 2011 a subsea earthquake off the north-eastern coast of Honshu Island, Japan generated a huge tsunami which was felt throughout the Pacific. At the opposite end of the Pacific Ocean, on the south-east coast of Australia, multiple reflections, scatterings and alternate pathways lead to a prolonged and complicated response. This response was largely unaltered in crossing the continental shelf but was then transformed by bay resonances and admittances. These effects are described using data from tide recorders sparsely spread over 1,000 km of the coast. Some new adaptations and applications of time-series analysis are applied to separate tsunami waves that have followed different pathways but contain the same spectral components. The possible types of harbour response are classified and illustrated. Despite its small height in this region, the tsunami put several swimmers at serious risk and generated strong harbour oscillations, which should be considered when generating future warnings. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.


Varese F.,Bangor University | Varese F.,University of Liverpool | Barkus E.,University of Wollongong | Bentall R.P.,Bangor University | Bentall R.P.,University of Liverpool
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Background It has been proposed that the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations can be explained by dissociative processes. The present study examined whether the effect of childhood trauma on hallucination-proneness is mediated by dissociative tendencies. In addition, the influence of dissociative symptoms on a cognitive process believed to underlie hallucinatory experiences (i.e. reality discrimination; the capacity to discriminate between internal and external cognitive events) was also investigated.Method Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n=45) and healthy controls (with no history of hallucinations; n=20) completed questionnaire measures of hallucination-proneness, dissociative tendencies and childhood trauma, as well as performing an auditory signal detection task.Results Compared to both healthy and non-hallucinating clinical controls, hallucinating patients reported both significantly higher dissociative tendencies and childhood sexual abuse. Dissociation positively mediated the effect of childhood trauma on hallucination-proneness. This mediational role was particularly robust for sexual abuse over other types of trauma. Signal detection abnormalities were evident in hallucinating patients and patients with a history of hallucinations, but were not associated with pathological dissociative symptoms.Conclusions These results are consistent with dissociative accounts of the trauma-hallucinations link. Dissociation, however, does not affect reality discrimination. Future research should examine whether other cognitive processes associated with both dissociative states and hallucinations (e.g. deficits in cognitive inhibition) may explain the relationship between dissociation and hallucinatory experiences. © Cambridge University Press 2011.


Kelly G.,University of Wollongong
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Many years before greenhouse gas emission reduction became a major driver for renewable energy development, New Zealand was an early adopter of several alternative energy technologies, particularly hydroelectricity and geothermal energy. It has achieved a level of 60% of total electricity generation from such sources, and is now pursuing a target of 95% of electricity generation from renewable energy, to be achieved in fifteen years. In recent years, however, the development of renewables has lagged that of other countries, particularly in fields such as wind power. The paper reviews the history, current status and potential of the major renewable energy technologies in New Zealand, and suggests what may be current barriers to development. It is seen that the likely major contributors to replacing fossil fuel based energy are likely to be wind power and expanded geothermal energy use, with biomass, marine and solar energy sources likely to play a lesser role. The barriers to development include environmental issues, the opportunity cost of biomass feedstocks, and a policy environment offering less incentive to RE development than is the case in many other countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu L.,Australian National University | Wang L.,Australian National University | Wang L.,University of Wollongong | Liu X.,Australian National University | Liu X.,National University of Defense Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision | Year: 2011

In object recognition, soft-assignment coding enjoys computational efficiency and conceptual simplicity. However, its classification performance is inferior to the newly developed sparse or local coding schemes. It would be highly desirable if its classification performance could become comparable to the state-of-the-art, leading to a coding scheme which perfectly combines computational efficiency and classification performance. To achieve this, we revisit soft-assignment coding from two key aspects: classification performance and probabilistic interpretation. For the first aspect, we argue that the inferiority of soft-assignment coding is due to its neglect of the underlying manifold structure of local features. To remedy this, we propose a simple modification to localize the soft-assignment coding, which surprisingly achieves comparable or even better performance than existing sparse or local coding schemes while maintaining its computational advantage. For the second aspect, based on our probabilistic interpretation of the soft-assignment coding, we give a probabilistic explanation to the magic max-pooling operation, which has successfully been used by sparse or local coding schemes but still poorly understood. This probability explanation motivates us to develop a new mix-order max-pooling operation which further improves the classification performance of the proposed coding scheme. As experimentally demonstrated, the localized soft-assignment coding achieves the state-of-the-art classification performance with the highest computational efficiency among the existing coding schemes. © 2011 IEEE.


Fosso Wamba S.,University of Wollongong | Fosso Wamba S.,France Business School
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2012

In this paper, a comprehensive review of articles published between 1997 and 2011 in the Journal of Medical Systems (JMS) on RFID technology is presented. A total of 22 papers are analyzed using a classification framework that has three dimensions: RFID-enabled healthcare applications, RFID-enabled healthcare issues, and RFID-enabled healthcare benefits. In addition, an invitation sent to all authors of the papers accepted for the special issue on RFID for the JMS allows them to position their various papers within the classification framework. Finally, a list of future research directions is presented. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Su D.,University of Technology, Sydney | Dou S.,University of Wollongong | Wang G.,University of Technology, Sydney | Wang G.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

Amorphous TiO2@C nanospheres were synthesized via a template approach. After being sintered under different conditions, two types of polyphase TiO2 hollow nanospheres were obtained. The electrochemical properties of the amorphous TiO2 nanospheres and the TiO2 hollow nanospheres with different phases were characterized as anodes for the Na-ion batteries. It was found that all the samples demonstrated excellent cyclability, which was sustainable for hundreds of cycles with little capacity fading, although the anatase TiO2 presented a capability that was better than that of the mixed anatase/rutile TiO2 or the amorphous TiO2@C. Through crystallographic analysis, it was revealed that the anatase TiO2 crystal structure supplies two-dimensional diffusion paths for Na-ion intercalation and more accommodation sites. Density functional theory calculations indicated lower energy barriers for the insertion of Na+ into anatase TiO2. Therefore, anatase TiO2 hollow nanospheres show excellent high-rate performance. Through ex situ field emission scanning electron microscopy, it was revealed that the TiO2 hollow nanosphere architecture can be maintained for hundreds of cycles, which is the main reason for its superior cyclability. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Cao M.,Beihang University | Ju J.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li K.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Dou S.,University of Wollongong | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Although clean drinking water is a basic human need, freshwater scarcity has been identified as a major global problem of the 21st century. Nature has long served as a source of inspiration for human beings to develop new technology. The cactus in the desert possesses a multifunctional integrated fog collection system originating from the cooperation of a Laplace pressure gradient and the wettability difference. In this contribution, inspired by the cactus, an artificial fog collector on a large scale is first fabricated through integrating cactus spine-like hydrophobic conical micro-tip arrays with the hydrophilic cotton matrix. The novel cactus-inspired fog collector can spontaneously and continuously collect, transport, and preserve fog water, demonstrating high fog collection efficiency and promising applications in the regions with drinking water scarcity. Furthermore, the present approach is simple, time-saving and cost-effective, which provides a potential device and new idea to solve the global water crisis. Inspired by the fog-harvesting behavior of the cactus, a novel fog collector in large scale is first fabricated through integrating cactus spine-like hydrophobic conical micro-tip arrays with a hydrophilic cotton matrix, which can spontaneously and continuously collect, transport, and preserve fog water. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hanich Q.,University of Wollongong
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

The Western and Central Pacific Ocean is home to the world's most productive tuna fisheries, with the majority of tuna catches occurring inside the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the region's developing coastal States. It is important that these fisheries are managed effectively throughout their range, both within and between EEZs and on the high seas. Unrestrained exploitation in a particular EEZ or on the high seas has the potential to significantly impact on catches elsewhere with potentially devastating consequences for developing coastal States, some of which have few alternate resources. The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) was established in 2004 to manage the region's highly migratory tuna fisheries. However, the WCPFC has since repeatedly failed to adopt conservation and management measures that are sufficient to meet the WCPFC's conservation and sustainable use objectives. This paper analyses catch data from the WCPFC and suggests that the weak position of bigeye (in a strategic political context), the unwillingness of members to compromise their interests and the lack of a transparent framework for distributing the burden of conservation are key factors in the WCPFC's failure to adopt sufficiently strong conservation and management measures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Przeslawski R.,University of Wollongong
Molluscan Research | Year: 2011

The black nerite Nerita melanotragus (previously known as N. atramentosa) occurs along the rocky intertidal shores of New Zealand and southeastern Australia. Although commonly used in ecological studies, recent observations suggest that the species may not be strictly planktonic as previously recorded. The current study investigates whether only planktonic larvae emerge from N. melanotragus egg capsules in the field by analyzing encapsulation period, developmental stage, temperature and salinity through the digital monitoring of 386 individual egg capsules over 65 days. The persistence of egg capsules in rock pools was highly variable (1-54 days). Encapsulation period was strongly related to developmental stage (Adjusted R 2 = 0.8293, p < 0.0001), and competent larvae and post-metamorphic juveniles were recorded from some capsules after an encapsulation period of 35 or more days. Encapsulation period was significantly and parabolically related to both temperature and salinity, with encapsulation period decreasing during extreme conditions. Results indicate that egg capsules can persist for much longer than would be expected with a strict planktonic developmental mode, thereby challenging the status of N. melanotragus as a consistent planktonic developer. The potential of this species for poecilogony or hatching plasticity is discussed in light of recent studies examining the role of larval dispersal and biogeographic barriers in structuring rocky intertidal communities. © 2011 Malacological Society of Australasia & Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity.


Narayan P.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Cambridge | Orte A.,University of Granada | Clarke R.W.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a newly-discovered risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined the interactions between human clusterin and the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-β 1-40 peptide (Aβ 1-40), which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of oligomeric intermediates implicated in both the proliferation of amyloid fibrils and in neuronal toxicity. Using highly sensitive single-molecule fluorescence methods, we have found that Aβ 1-40 forms a heterogeneous distribution of small oligomers (from dimers to 50-mers), all of which interact with clusterin to form long-lived, stable complexes. Consequently, clusterin is able to influence both the aggregation and disaggregation of Aβ 1-40 by sequestration of the Aβ oligomers. These results not only elucidate the protective role of clusterin but also provide a molecular basis for the genetic link between clusterin and Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Jacobs D.R.,University of Minnesota | Tapsell L.C.,University of Wollongong
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2013

Food synergy is the concept that the non-random mixture of food constituents operates in concert for the life of the organism eaten and presumably for the life of the eater. Isolated nutrients have been extensively studied in well-designed, long-term, large randomised clinical trials, typically with null and sometimes with harmful effects. Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect. It appears that the focus on nutrients rather than foods is in many ways counterproductive. This observation is the basis for the argument that nutrition research should focus more strongly on foods and on dietary patterns. Unlike many dietary phenomena in nutritional epidemiology, diet pattern appears to be highly correlated over time within person. A consistent and robust conclusion is that certain types of beneficial diet patterns, notably described with words such as 'Mediterranean' and 'prudent', or adverse patterns, often described by the word 'Western', predict chronic disease. Food is much more complex than drugs, but essentially uninvestigated as food or pattern. The concept of food synergy leads to new thinking in nutrition science and can help to forge rational nutrition policy-making and to determine future nutrition research strategies. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Sarmugam R.,Deakin University | Worsley A.,Deakin University | Flood V.,University of Wollongong
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective Initiatives promoting the reduction of high-salt food consumption by consumers need to be partly based on current levels of salt knowledge in the population. However, to date there is no validated salt knowledge questionnaire that could be used to assess population knowledge about dietary salt (i.e. salt knowledge). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and validate a salt knowledge questionnaire. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted on an online web survey platform using convenience, snowball sampling. The survey questionnaire was evaluated for content and face validity before being administered to the respondents. Setting Online survey. Subjects A total of forty-one nutrition experts, thirty-two nutrition students and thirty-six lay people participated in the study. Results Item analyses were performed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the test items. Twenty-five items were retained to form the final set of questions. The total scores of the experts were higher than those of the students and lay people (P < 0·05). The total salt knowledge score showed significant correlations with use of salt at the table (ρ = -0·197, P < 0·05) and inspection of the salt content in food products when shopping (ρ = 0·400; P < 0·01). Conclusions The questionnaire demonstrated sufficient evidence of construct validity and internal consistencies between the items. It is likely to be a useful tool for the evaluation and measurement of levels of salt knowledge in the general population. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Saltzman K.,Gothenburg University | Head L.,University of Wollongong | Stenseke M.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2011

Within the now extensive recent literature on cultures of nature, agriculture has received less attention than might have been expected given its threshold role in transforming human relations with the earth and with plants and animals. The concept and practice of agriculture can be understood as central to the emergence and maintenance of the culture/nature dichotomy within Western thought and practice. In this paper we use the comparative cases of Sweden and Australia to examine the differential and contingent positioning of agriculture with respect to that which is understood as nature. Broadly speaking, some parts of agriculture are understood to belong to nature in Sweden through a long history. This is not the case in Australia, where the short agricultural history is positioned in contrast to nature. This affects the way in which biodiversity and environmental protection takes place - in Sweden as part of farming, - in Australia in spite of it. We argue that these cultural differences have been more important than generally recognised in debates over multifunctional agriculture. We discuss the environmental management implications of the two different models in a context made more dynamic by climate change. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ghayesh M.H.,University of Wollongong | Farokhi H.,McGill University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2015

The thermo-mechanical nonlinear dynamics of a three-dimensional axially moving beam is examined numerically in this paper. Hamilton’s principle is employed to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations governing the motion of the system in the longitudinal, transverse, and lateral directions. The discretized equations of motion, which are in the form of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations, are obtained by applying the Galerkin technique to the nonlinear partial differential equations of motion. A change of variables is introduced to this set of equations, yielding a set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to solve this set of equations numerically so as to construct the frequency–response curves; this method allows continuation of both stable and unstable solution branches. The effect of modal interactions on the resonant dynamic behaviour of a fully symmetrical system (about the centreline) is also examined. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Clarke S.,University of Wollongong
Psychiatric rehabilitation journal | Year: 2012

This paper examines the types of goals being set by individuals in the context of Australian mental health services and whether goal type differs across the stages of recovery. Goal records of 144 individuals accessing services were reviewed to examine goal content, ratio of approach and avoidance oriented goals and changes across stages of psychological recovery. Individuals further along in their recovery set significantly more approach goals and types of goals set appeared to reflect broader life roles. Setting approach goals and goals that reflect broader life roles tends to support the definition of psychological recovery as being "the movement towards" greater meaning and enhanced sense of self.


Gibson C. Negotiating regional creative economies: academics as expert intermediaries advocating progressive alternatives, Regional Studies. Academics who research the creative economy document and analyse the creative economy while participating in and promoting the creative economy itself. With this in mind, what role is there for academics as expert intermediaries in advocating for progressive alternatives? What kind of creative economy is being implicitly or explicitly promoted? This concluding article draws together threads of research towards a reflection about the role of academics as expert intermediaries. What matters less is that academics are expert intermediaries, and more that this position of privilege is acknowledged and productively negotiated. In the more intimate moments of narrative intermediation, researchers are active agents in making the creative economy 'known', drawing boundaries around the regional context, and translating discourses for and with policy-makers. This is a crucial point of intervention. © 2014 © 2014 Regional Studies Association.


Liney G.P.,Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research | Liney G.P.,University of Wollongong | Moerland M.A.,University Utrecht
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2014

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a number of benefits for the planning of radiotherapy (RT), but its uptake into clinical practice has often been restricted to specialist research sites. There is often a lack of detailed MRI knowledge within the RT community and an apprehension of geometric distortions, both of which prevent its best utilization and merit the introduction of a standardized approach and common guidelines. This review sets out to address some of the issues involved in acquiring MRI scans for RT planning in the context of a number of clinical sites of interest and concludes with recommendations for its best practice in terms of imaging protocol and quality assurance. The article is of particular interest to the growing number of cancer therapy centers that are embarking on MRI simulation on either existing systems or their own dedicated scanners. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Sense A.J.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2013

Drawing on a longitudinal action research case study analysis of project-based learning, this paper seeks to advance a deeper understanding of a project sponsor's impact on practice-based learning activity within a project. It represents a first case examination of the interface between a sponsor and practice-based learning phenomenon within projects. The reported findings argue for the project sponsor role to be acknowledged as dynamic and interactive and a dramatic influence on project practice-based learning. It also implies that a sponsor confronts some significant dilemmas in successfully stewarding such learning. Moreover, through such endeavour, the sponsor may also become an agent for organizational learning. The findings generated also encourage further investigations into the nexus between the sponsor and other social phenomenon within projects. © 2012 Association for Project Management and the International Project Management Association and Elsevier Ltd.


Maps exert power. In this paper I explore the power of maps in relation to the technical methods employed and the political context of their production. The internal power of maps is realised in the actions taken by cartographers themselves when making maps, while the external power of maps is both realised by the patrons of cartography and wielded through the use of cartographic products as agents for natural resource management, in particular for defining conservation strategies. An Australian case study of coastal mapping is used to examine the methods employed and motivation behind map production through a series of recent remote sensing initiatives to map Lord Howe Island, New South Wales. Through this case study I explore the subjectivities associated with the placement of boundaries in the scientific practice of cartography. I argue that a new epistemological reading of maps is necessary, as sources of information on socio-politically constructed worlds as much as the phenomenological world of objects. Such a reading is particularly important given recent advances in technologies, such as remote sensing, that are increasingly used to inform coastal management, and which propagate in profound new ways the power of maps. © 2013 Institute of Australian Geographers.


Slater L.,University of Wollongong
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2013

In 2005 the Australian Queensland state government passed the Wild Rivers Act to preserve the natural heritage of rivers. My interest is not with all Wild Rivers but rather with those in Cape York where the public debate has been fierce and divisive. Prominent Cape York Aboriginal leaders and organisations condemned the bill. A coalition of north Queensland Traditional Owners support the policy and call for the 'proper Indigenous management of country' and the right people to speak for country. The conflict is an example of the argument put forward by some scholars that Cape York politics is being reconfigured: there is a schism between regionally focused visions of Indigenous futures and locally focused traditionalist visions held by community leaders 'living on country'. Analysing the Wild Rivers debate in conjunction with Holmes's and Smith's findings, one is struck by the emerging political ecology: rivers are becoming political actors. By bringing the postcolonial into relation with more-than-human praxis, I want to prise open this debate to consider what the public controversy conceals, what political practices are emerging, and what this demands of scholarship. When rivers become political actors the concept and practice of social justice are potentially reconfigured. What happens when we take seriously rivers as actors in a multirealist world? We know that rivers sustain and reproduce life, but which life worlds are being considered? © 2013 Pion and its Licencors.


Brennan-Horley C.,University of Wollongong
Australian Geographer | Year: 2010

This paper attempts to further spatial understandings of creative work by focusing on the inherent topology linking workplaces together. Topographical approaches to creative employment are advanced by reflecting on how creative activity is linked and enacted across space. Everyday realities of creative work mean that multiple locations are used (for rehearsal, exhibition, for networking or for performance). It is difficult to ascertain relationships between these places using conventional methods such as mapping census data. Instead, I draw on workplace data taken from a creative industry research project conducted in Darwin, a remote city in Australia's Northern Territory, where qualitative interviews and mental maps were combined. The analysis proffers two key advances. First, mental map interviews conducted with creative workers can yield, on average, a fivefold increase over census data in the number of important, everyday work sites reported by creative practitioners. This means more detail and subtlety can be woven into analysis. Second, a hierarchy of important intra and inter-suburban linkages can be mapped, revealing the city's creative topology and furthering breakdown of the 'creative inner/uncreative outer' urban binary. A topological approach reveals that rather than being CBD (central business district)-centric (which static readings of raw workplace counts per neighbourhood show) creativity is highly interconnected across the city. Such findings bolster the case for reimagining suburbs as vital and functional parts of the creative city. Rather than being typified as secondary to internal-CBD milieus, outer suburbs are highly connected, performing specialised roles in Darwin's creative topology. © 2010 Geographical Society of New South Wales Inc.


Jansen J.D.,University of Glasgow | Jansen J.D.,University of Stockholm | Nanson G.C.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface | Year: 2010

Water and sediment flux interactions are examined in Magela Creek, an alluvial (anabranching) sand bed river in the northern Australian tropics. Dense riparian vegetation stabilizes the channels and floodplains thereby preventing erosional instability at flow depths up to 6.2 times bankfull and discharges up to 15 times bankfull. Narrow anabranching channels characterize >92% of the alluvial reach and transport bed load more efficiently than short reaches of wide single-channels, yet overall 29 ± 12% of the bed load is sequestered and the average vertical accretion rate is 0.41 ± 0.17 mm yr -1 along the 12 km study reach. The most effective discharge for transporting sediment (40-45 m3 s-1) is consistent at all 5 stations (10 channels) examined and is equivalent to the channel-forming discharge. It has an average recurrence interval of 1.01 years, occurs for an exceptionally long portion (13-15%) of the annual flow duration, and averages a remarkable 2.1 times bankfull. The high flow efficiency (i.e., bed load transport rate to stream power ratio) of the anabranches is facilitated by low width/depth channels with banks reinforced by vegetation. Colonnades of bank top trees confine high-velocity flows overbed (i.e., over the channel bed) at stages well above bankfull. At even larger overbank flows, momentum exchange between the channels and forested floodplains restrains overbed velocities, in some cases causing them to decline, thereby limiting erosion. Magela Creek exhibits a complicated set of planform, cross-sectional and vegetative adjustments that boost overbed velocities and enhance bed load yield in multiple channels while restraining velocities and erosion at the largest discharges. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Phillips C.,University of Wollongong
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2013

In this paper, informed by more-than-human and biosecurity literatures, I attend a neglected nonhuman considered a serious agricultural pest: the fruit fly. In addressing what it takes to live without fruit flies, biosecurity is theorised as ongoing, enacted achievement sustained (or not) by everyday and eventful interactions of heterogeneous spaces, strategies, and participants-human and nonhuman. Relations of fruits, flies, and people are explored through one vital attempt to biosecure life: Australia's Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone (FFEZ), a tristate pest-free area established to protect commercial horticulture from the fruit fly. Fruit flies become problematised as their appetites and mobilities confound fruit production and marketing, and affiliated biosecurity controls. Making fruit safe enrolls policy and agricultural sectors, but also more dispersed agents (travellers, residents, trees) and management sites (primarily off-farm). Since its introduction, the FFEZ's ongoing biosecuring normalised, with only occasional outbreak events. However, recent unprecedented outbreaks evoke questions about the FFEZ's future status. In such eventful times, it is worth reflecting on what kinds of living are possible in biosecurity zones-for flies, for resident human communities, and for agrifood networks.


Beck J.L.,University of Wollongong
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Many anti-cancer drugs function by binding non-covalently to double-stranded (ds) DNA. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has emerged over the past decade as a sensitive technique for the determination of stoichiometries and relative binding affinities of DNAligand interactions. The chromosome contains nucleotide sequences, for example, guanosine-rich regions, that predispose them to the formation of higher order structures such as quadruplex DNA (qDNA). Sequences that form qDNA are found in the telomeres. The proposal that ligands that stabilize qDNA might interfere with the activity of telomerase in cancer cells has stimulated the search for ligands that are selective for qDNA over dsDNA. The insights gained from the development of ESI-MS methods for analysis of non-covalent dsDNAligand complexes are now being applied in the search for qDNA-selective ligands. ESI-MS is a useful first-pass screening technique for qDNA-binding ligands. This short review describes some experimental considerations for ESI-MS analysis of DNAligand complexes, briefly addresses the question of whether non-covalent DNAligand complexes are faithfully transferred from solution to the gas phase, discusses ion mobility mass spectrometry as a technique for probing this issue, and highlights some recent ESI-MS studies of qDNA-selective ligands. © 2011 CSIRO.


Spronk I.,Wageningen University | Kullen C.,HQ Forces Command | Burdon C.,University of Sydney | Burdon C.,University of Wollongong | O'Connor H.,University of Sydney
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1 193 393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5 %: community 63·6 %; athletic 71·4 %) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. © 2014 The Authors.


Apthorp D.,University of Wollongong
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Temporal integration in the visual system causes fast-moving objects to generate static, oriented traces ('motion streaks'), which could be used to help judge direction of motion. While human psychophysics and single-unit studies in non-human primates are consistent with this hypothesis, direct neural evidence from the human cortex is still lacking. First, we provide psychophysical evidence that faster and slower motions are processed by distinct neural mechanisms: faster motion raised human perceptual thresholds for static orientations parallel to the direction of motion, whereas slower motion raised thresholds for orthogonal orientations. We then used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity while human observers viewed either fast ('streaky') or slow random dot stimuli moving in different directions, or corresponding static-oriented stimuli. We found that local spatial patterns of brain activity in early retinotopic visual cortex reliably distinguished between static orientations. Critically, a multivariate pattern classifier trained on brain activity evoked by these static stimuli could then successfully distinguish the direction of fast ('streaky') but not slow motion. Thus, signals encoding static-oriented streak information are present in human early visual cortex when viewing fast motion. These experiments show that motion streaks are present in the human visual system for faster motion.


Gallagher S.,University of Memphis | Gallagher S.,University of Wollongong
Consciousness and Cognition | Year: 2015

I evaluate several attempts to integrate standard theories of social cognition, either theory theory or simulation theory, with aspects of interaction theory, and especially with the concept of direct social perception. I refer to these as new hybrid theories of social cognition. One of the new hybrids accomplishes the integration only by weakening the concept of mindreading or by understanding mindreading as targeting the shared situation rather than the other's mental states. Hybrids that attempt to accommodate the idea of direct perception of mental states grant a phenomenological directness only by maintaining tacit (theory-based) inferences on the subpersonal level. If such inferential processes are thought to be extra-perceptual, then perception is neither sufficient nor direct for an understanding of intentions and emotions. Moreover, insistence on top-down inferential processes trades off against the possibility of plasticity in the perceptual system itself. I suggest that a better model than a hybrid theory would be a pluralist one. A pluralist approach to social cognition would treat theoretical inference, simulation, direct perception, interactive skills, etc. as different strategies. The real challenge is to work out a pluralist account of subpersonal processes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Fordyce-Voorham S.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were obtained by interviewing these food experts over 3 months. Results: The identification of food skills forms the preliminary data for the first study of 3 in the design of programs in secondary schools. The data were reviewed for emerging themes and were coded by applying content analysis procedures. Conclusions and Implications: Food skills required for young people were described under 4 themes as the areas of expertise required for young people to live independently. Understanding these skills would support teachers in designing programs that would address behavioral capabilities to improve young people's food preparation and eating behaviors. © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education.


McNamee P.,University of Aberdeen | Mendolia S.,University of Wollongong
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2014

Chronic pain is associated with significant costs to individuals directly affected by this condition, their families, the healthcare system, and the society as a whole. This paper investigates the relationship between chronic pain and life satisfaction using a sample of around 90,000 observations from the first ten waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (HILDA), which is a representative survey of the Australian population that started in 2000. We estimate the negative impact on life satisfaction and examine the persistence of the effect over multiple years. Chronic pain is associated with poor health conditions, disability, decreased participation in the labour market and lower quality of life. We calculate the compensating income variation of chronic pain, based on the measurement of chronic pain, the life satisfaction of individuals and the income of households. Panel data models with random and fixed effects are used to control for characteristics of individuals that do not vary over time. Further, we investigate whether individuals who experience chronic pain exhibit adaptation and recovery in life satisfaction after 3 years. Overall, we find that chronic pain has a large negative association with life satisfaction, and that the compensating income variation is substantial (around 640 US$ per day). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Haque M.E.,University of Tasmania | Negnevitsky M.,University of Tasmania | Muttaqi K.M.,University of Wollongong
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

This paper presents a novel control strategy for the operation of a direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous-generator-based stand-alone variable-speed wind turbine. The control strategy for the generator-side converter with maximum power extraction is presented. The stand-alone control is featured with output voltage and frequency controller that is capable of handling variable load. The potential excess of power is dissipated in the dump-load resistor with the chopper control, and the dc-link voltage is maintained. Dynamic representation of dc bus and small-signal analysis are presented. Simulation results show that the controllers can extract maximum power and regulate the voltage and frequency under varying wind and load conditions. The controller shows very good dynamic and steady-state performance. © 2010 IEEE.


Yu P.,University of Wollongong
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2010

Systematic evaluation of the introduction and impact of health information systems (HIS) is a challenging task. As the implementation is a dynamic process, with diverse issues emerge at various stages of system introduction, it is challenge to weigh the contribution of various factors and differentiate the critical ones. A conceptual framework will be helpful in guiding the evaluation effort; otherwise data collection may not be comprehensive and accurate. This may again lead to inadequate interpretation of the phenomena under study. Based on comprehensive literature research and own practice of evaluating health information systems, the author proposes a multimethod approach that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative measurement and centered around DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model. This approach aims to quantify the performance of HIS and its impact, and provide comprehensive and accurate explanations about the casual relationships of the different factors. This approach will provide decision makers with accurate and actionable information for improving the performance of the introduced HIS. © 2010 IMIA and SAHIA. All rights reserved.


Wang J.Z.,University of Wollongong
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) | Year: 2011

Fe(3)O(4)-graphene composites with three-dimensional laminated structures have been synthesised by a simple in situ hydrothermal method. From field-emission and transmission electron microscopy results, the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, around 3-15nm in size, are highly encapsulated in a graphene nanosheet matrix. The reversible Li-cycling properties of Fe(3)O(4)-graphene have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Results show that the Fe(3)O(4)-graphene nanocomposite with a graphene content of 38.0wt% exhibits a stable capacity of about 650mAh g(-1) with no noticeable fading for up to 100cycles in the voltage range of 0.0-3.0V. The superior performance of Fe(3)O(4)-graphene is clearly established by comparison of the results with those from bare Fe(3)O(4). The graphene nanosheets in the composite materials could act not only as lithium storage active materials, but also as an electronically conductive matrix to improve the electrochemical performance of Fe(3)O(4). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Langendyk V.,University of Western Sydney | Hegazi I.,University of Western Sydney | Cowin L.,University of Western Sydney | Johnson M.,Australian Catholic University | Wilson I.,University of Wollongong
Academic Medicine | Year: 2015

The transition of a medical student or a nursing student into a health care practitioner requires many changes. Among these is the development of an appropriate professional identity, which assists in the establishment of a sound base for professional practice and therefore should be a focus for health professions educators. There is evidence, however, that medical education and nursing education face challenges in guiding students' development of appropriate professional identities. In medicine, there is concern that medical education may contribute to the development of professional identities that alienate patients rather than identities that are patient centered. The nursing profession struggles with poor retention rates in the workforce, which have been attributed in part to discrepancies between the professional identities that students develop during nursing school and the realities of professional practice. In this Perspective, the authors explore the importance of and the pedagogical strategies used to facilitate professional identity formation for medical and nursing students. They argue that medical and nursing educators aim to instill in their students strong occupational identities which may perpetuate hierarchical disciplinary boundaries. They suggest that health professions educators should move beyond current disciplinary silos and create interprofessional education opportunities for medical students and nursing students to learn together to facilitate the development of the collaborative interprofessional identities necessary for the delivery of high-quality, patient-centered health care. © 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges.


Parletta N.,University of South Australia | Milte C.M.,Deakin University | Meyer B.J.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The important role of diet in cardiometabolic health is generally well recognised; for mental health, it is not so well understood. However, lifestyle risk factors for poor physical health are the same risk factors for mental illness, including poor diet. This is reflected by the high level of poor physical health in people with mental illness. Mediterranean, whole food diets have been associated with reduced risk for chronic disease, but very little research has investigated their mental health benefits. We provide a model for the pathways by which food components provided by a Mediterranean-style diet can facilitate healthy brain function. We then review evidence for the role of selected nutrients/food components - antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins - in the brain and, hence, modulation of cognitive function and mental health. Converging evidence indicates multiple pathways by which these nutrients can assist in brain function, drawing from studies investigating them in isolation. There is very little work done on synergistic actions of nutrients and whole diets, highlighting a need for human intervention studies investigating benefits of Mediterranean-style diets for mental, as well as cardiometabolic health. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Prior T.,ETH Zurich | Eriksen C.,University of Wollongong
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

The consequences of wildfires are felt in susceptible communities around the globe on an annual basis. Climate change predictions in places like the south-east of Australia and western United States suggest that wildfires may become more frequent and more intense with global climate change. Compounding this issue is progressive urban development at the peri-urban fringe (wildland-urban interface), where continued infrastructure development and demographic changes are likely to expose more people and property to this potentially disastrous natural hazard. Preparing well in advance of the wildfire season is seen as a fundamental behaviour that can both reduce community wildfire vulnerability and increase hazard resilience - it is an important element of adaptive capacity that allows people to coexist with the hazardous environment in which they live. We use household interviews and surveys to build and test a substantive model that illustrates how social cohesion influences the decision to prepare for wildfire. We demonstrate that social cohesion, particularly community characteristics like 'sense of community' and 'collective problem solving', are community-based resources that support both the adoption of mechanical preparations, and the development of cognitive abilities and capacities that reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience to wildfire. We use the results of this work to highlight opportunities to transfer techniques and approaches from natural hazards research to climate change adaptation research to explore how the impacts attributed to the social components of social-ecological systems can be mitigated more effectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hastie D.B.,University of Wollongong
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2013

The coefficient of restitution (COR) is one of the fundamental particle properties needed in the setup of discrete element modelling (DEM) simulations. The more accurate the input parameters for DEM are, the more accurate the resulting simulation outputs will be. The determination of the COR for spherical particles is a relatively straightforward process, however, when considering irregular shaped particles, the unpredictable behaviour of particles after impact makes the analysis of the COR more involved. This paper presents an experimental method to determine the COR using high-speed video in a three-dimensional environment to capture the random behaviour of irregular shaped polyethylene pellets. The angular displacement and angular velocity of particles are experimentally determined and the process used to determine the coefficient of restitution using various equations is presented. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Stappenbelt B.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the proposed utility of splitter-plate wake stabilisation as a passive control mechanism for vortex-induced vibration (VIV) mitigation for low aspect ratio cylinders. Stationary cylinder experiments have repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of splitter plates in reducing lift and drag coefficients for a cylinder in uniform flow. Rigid attached splitter plates have been shown to be capable of completely eliminating vortex shedding in fixed cylinder investigations. In the limited number of studies that have examined the use of splitter plates in a system which is free to vibrate in the direction transverse to the flow, a galloping-type response has been reported. A range of splitter-plate ratios (l/D =0 to 4) was examined in this study over a reduced velocity interval of Ur = 3 to 60. A galloping-type response was observed with the addition of even small splitter plates to the cylinder. At small splitter-plate ratio (l/D), the response of the low aspect ratio cylinders appeared to be strongly influenced by vortex shedding, and key features such as the abrupt decrease in the galloping response at higher reduced velocity aligned well with the bare cylinder VIV response. With increasing splitter-plate ratio, there appears to be a smooth transition from pure VIV (i.e., at l/D = 0) to a galloping-type response heavily influenced by the vortex shedding at low reduced velocity and a predominantly galloping response at high reduced velocity. At higher splitter-plate lengths (l/D ≥ 2.8), no significant VIV or galloping-type response was observed. © The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers.


Cross J.,University of Wollongong
Learning, Media and Technology | Year: 2010

This article argues that while a semiotic analysis of composition in the screen, page and image has significant heuristic value, this would be further enhanced were it also to take into account surface and depth. It is argued that these two aspects of composition are critical for successful reading/viewing of images, and especially for digital images and their navigation. Semantic primitives, or primes, for space (where/place; here; above; below; far; near; side; inside) are employed in this argument for the development of a more comprehensive analysis of spatial integration for the screen, page and image. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Whitehead A.,Lancaster University | Beck E.J.,University of Wollongong | Tosh S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wolever T.M.S.,University of Toronto
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Health claims regarding the cholesterol-lowering effect of soluble fiber from oat products, approved by food standards agencies worldwide, are based on a diet containing ≥3 g/d of oat b-glucan (OBG). Given the number of recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is important to update the findings of previous meta-analyses.Objective: The objective was to quantify the effect of >3 g OBG/d on serum cholesterol concentrations in humans and investigate potential effect modifiers.Design: A meta-analysis was performed on 28 RCTs comparing ≥3 g OBG/d with an appropriate control. Systematic searches were undertaken in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and Scopus between 1 January 1966 and 6 June 2013, plus in-house study reports at CreaNutrition AG. Studies were assessed with regard to inclusion/exclusion criteria, and data were extracted from included studies by reviewers working independently in pairs, reconciling differences by consensus. Estimates of the mean reduction in serum cholesterol from baseline between the OBG and control diets were analyzed by using random-effects meta-analysis models and meta-regression.Results: OBG in doses of >3 g/d reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol relative to control by 0.25 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.20, 0.30; P , 0.0001) and 0.30 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35; P , 0.0001), respectively, with some indication of heterogeneity (P = 0.13 and P = 0.067). There was no significant effect of OBG on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or triglycerides and no evidence that dose (range across trials: 3.0-12.4 g/d) or duration of treatment (range: 2-12 wk) influenced the results. LDL cholesterol lowering was significantly greater with higher baseline LDL cholesterol. There was a significantly greater effect for both LDL and total cholesterol in subjects with diabetes compared with those without (although based on few studies).Conclusions: Adding >3 g OBG/d to the diet reduces LDL and total cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/L and 0.30 mmol/L, respectively, without changing HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Anurans exhibit a greater reproductive diversity than any other vertebrate order. However, studies investigating the effects of the external fertilisation environment on fertilisation success are limited to aquatic-breeding species. This study investigated the effects of fertilisation medium osmolality, sperm concentration and short-term oocyte storage on fertilisation success in a terrestrial-breeding anuran, Pseudophryne guentheri. Split-clutch experimental designs were used to determine optimal fertilisation conditions. To determine the effect of short-term sperm storage, sperm viability was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and percentage sperm motility and velocity quantified with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Fertilisation success was highest in media ranging in osmolality from 25mOsmkg-1 to 100mOsmkg-1, representing a broader range and higher optimal osmolality than previously reported for aquatic breeders. High rates of fertilisation (>75%) were achieved in relatively low sperm concentrations (2.5×104mL-1). Oocytes stored in isotonic solutions (200mOsmkg-1) retained fertilisation capacity (32%) after 8h of storage, while sperm suspensions maintained motility (≥26%) for 13 days. Additional studies on terrestrial-breeding anurans will be required to ascertain whether the optimal fertilisation conditions reported reflect adaptations to achieve fertilisation in a terrestrial environment. © 2013 CSIRO.


Hurlimann A.,University of Melbourne | Dolnicar S.,University of Wollongong
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011

Throughout history settlements have been abandoned due to lack of water. Such a fate is of concern to public officials in settlements facing water scarcity - a condition which is anticipated to increase due to the impacts of climate change, and other factors including increasing per capita water use, and population growth. Key questions surround how to best adapt to these circumstances. A strategy little explored is relocation. This paper presents results from a qualitative study conducted in eight geographically diverse Australian locations. The willingness of individuals to relocate under three hypothetical water scenarios was investigated: (1) if the water in their community ran out, (2) if recycled wastewater was put in their community's drinking water supply, and (3) if desalinated water was put in their community's drinking water supply. Results indicate that most people would not relocate if recycled or desalinated water was used to augment their community's drinking water supply, but they would if their water supply ran out. Our results highlight that while there is initial public opposition to the augmentation of existing potable water supplies with recycled or desalinated water, people would prefer these solutions, over being forced to move location. Respondents were highly aware of the social, economic and public infrastructure costs associated with relocation decisions. Relocation would therefore, for most, only be the very last option if their water demands could not be met. However, it was difficult for most to imagine the situation becoming so dire. Our results highlight the importance of a comprehensive and consultative approach to managing supply in water scarce locations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Balbi S.,University of Venice | Giupponi C.,University of Venice | Perez P.,University of Wollongong | Alberti M.,New University of Lisbon
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

A vast body of literature suggests that the European Alpine Region is amongst the most sensitive socio-ecosystems to climate change impacts. Our model represents the winter tourism socio-ecosystem of Auronzo di Cadore, located in the Dolomites (Italy), which economic and environmental conditions are highly vulnerable to climate variations. This agent-based model includes eight types of agents corresponding to different winter tourist profiles based on their socio-economic background and activity targets. The model is calibrated with empirical data while results are authenticated through direct interaction of local stakeholders with the model. The model is then used for assessing three hypothetical and contrasted infrastructure-oriented adaptation strategies for the winter tourism industry, that have been previously discussed with local stakeholders, as possible alternatives to the " business-as-usual" situation. These strategies are tested against multiple future scenarios that include: (a) future weather conditions in terms of snow cover and temperature, (b) the future composition and total number of tourists and (c) the type of market competition. A set of socio-economic indicators, which are strongly coupled with relevant environmental consequences, are considered in order to draw conclusions on the robustness of the selected strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Meegahapola L.,University of Wollongong
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2014

Gas turbines inherently depict unique frequency response characteristics compared with other conventional synchronous generation technologies as their active power output is not entirely determined by the governor response during frequency deviations of the power network. Thus, gas turbine dynamics significantly influence on system stability during frequency events in power networks. Power system and power plant operators require improved understanding of the gas turbine characteristics during various frequency events in order to mitigate adverse impact on power system. Therefore a comparative analysis has been performed between combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and open-cycle gas turbines (OCGTs) in order to characterise the dynamic behaviour considering different types of frequency events in power networks. Study has shown that CCGTs result in significant frequency variations in power networks in comparison with OCGTs because of the temperature control action performed by the fast acting inlet guide vanes at the combustor. In particular, they are susceptible to lean blowout during large frequency increase events such as short-circuit faults in power networks. Furthermore, a case study was developed based on the New England-39 bus system in order to illustrate the impact of gas turbine dynamics on network frequency during short-circuit events in power networks. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014.


Else P.L.,University of Wollongong | Kraffe E.,Institut Universitaire de France
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2015

Peroxidation is a well-known natural phenomenon associated with both health and disease. We compared the peroxidation kinetics of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with different fatty acid compositions (i.e. 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 and 16:0 at sn-1 position) either as molecules free in solution or formed into liposomes. Fatty acid levels, oxygen consumption plus lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde production were measured from the same incubations, at the same time during maximal elicitable peroxidation. PCs with highly peroxidizable fatty acids (i.e. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3) in the same incubation were found to be either fully peroxidized or intact. Rates of peroxidation of PCs with multiple bisallylic groups (i.e. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3) peroxidized at 2-3 times the rate per bisallylic bond than the same phospholipid with 18:2n-6. The results suggest that propagation of peroxidation (H-atom transfer) is firstly an intramolecular process that is several-fold faster than intermolecular peroxidation. PCs in solution peroxidized twice as fast as those in liposomes suggesting that only half of the phospholipids in liposomes were available to peroxidize i.e. the outer leaflet. Experiments on liposomes suggest that even after heavy peroxidation of the outer leaflet the inner leaflet is unaffected, indicating how cells may protect themselves from external peroxidation and maintain control over internal peroxidation. Intramolecular peroxidation may produce highly concentrated, localized sites of peroxidation product that together with internal control of peroxidation of the inner leaflet of membranes provide new insights into how cells control peroxidation at the membrane level. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Cheng Z.,University of Wollongong | Nielsen I.,Monash University | Smyth R.,Monash University
Habitat International | Year: 2014

Since 1958 the hukou (household registration) system has assigned Chinese citizens either a rural or urban status. Some studies argue that the rural-to-urban migrants in China who do not have urban hukou are not entitled to urban social insurance schemes, due to institutional discrimination, which applies differing treatment to urban and rural hukou (chengxiang fenge). Although rural-urban migrants participate less in the social insurance system than their counterparts with urban hukou, a closer examination of recent policy developments shows that migrants actually do have the legal right to access the system. This implies that discrimination between rural and urban workers has been declining, and distinctions based on household registration status are less able to explain China's current urban transition. This paper provides a new way of examining Chinese migrants' social insurance participation, by adopting a framework that includes both rural-to-urban migrants and urban-to-urban migrants, which are an important, but less studied, migrant group. Among our key findings are that urban migrants are more likely to sign a labour contract than rural migrants; urban migrants have higher participation rates in social insurance than rural migrants; having a labour contract has a greater impact than hukou status in determining whether Beijing's floating population accesses social insurance; and urban migrants who have signed a labour contract have higher participation rates in social insurance than either rural migrants or urban migrants without a labour contract. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lepers R.,University of Burgundy | Rust C.A.,University of Zurich | Stapley P.J.,University of Wollongong | Knechtle B.,University of Zurich
Age | Year: 2013

Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age. © 2012 American Aging Association.


Sense A.J.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2011

This paper conceptually examines how and why projects and project teams may be conceived as highly generative episodic individual and team learning places that can serve as vehicles or agents to promote organizational learning. It draws on and dissects a broad and relevant literature concerning situated learning, organizational learning, learning spaces and project management. The arguments presented signal a movement towards a project workplace becoming more organizationally acknowledged and supported as a learning intense entity wherein, learning is a more conspicuous, deliberate and systematic social activity by project participants. This paper challenges conventional and limited organizational perceptions about project teams and their practices and discloses their extended value contributions to organizational learning development. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and IPMA.


This paper reviews developments in both environmental economics and ecological economics with respect to their progress towards environmental interdisciplinarity and towards providing solutions to environmental problems. The concepts, methods, theories and assumptions of each field of knowledge are reviewed and the extent to which they depart from the dominant neoclassical paradigm of economics is assessed. The contribution that interdisciplinarity has made to the success of each field is analysed in terms of understanding, influence and effectiveness and the constraints that it has imposed upon that success. Environmental economics has adopted the dominant economic neoclassical paradigm, including the power of the market to allocate environmental resources efficiently and in a socially optimal way. The solution to environmental problems is thus seen as a matter of ensuring that the environment is properly priced to reflect the relative scarcity of natural resources and assets and to ensure that environmental values are incorporated into the market. This specialized view of environmental problems is now reflected in government policy around the world including the use of extended cost benefit analyses, contingent valuations, environmental charges and emissions trading. Nevertheless, environmental problems continue to grow in severity and the solutions provided by environmental economists have proven ineffective. Thus lack of interdisciplinarity does not prevent a field of knowledge from gaining influence and dominance, however its effectiveness in terms of understanding environmental problems and solving them is impeded. Ecological economics seeks to incorporate the research of economists, ecologists, philosophers and social scientists, however its influence seems to be have been limited to areas in which it retains the standard economics framework, and this limits its effectiveness in terms of environmental solutions. Thus interdisciplinarity may increase understanding of the real world but it cannot overcome political and social barriers to translating that understanding into the widespread implementation of effective environmental measures. © Copyright Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2011.


Fergusson C.L.,University of Wollongong | Henderson R.A.,James Cook University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2015

Gondwana formed in the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian mainly from collision along the East African and Kuunga orogens at about the same time that the Gondwana palaeo-Pacific facing margin became a long-lived active margin and formed the Terra Australis Orogen. This orogen, and in particular the Tasman Orogenic Belt (the Tasmanides) sector of eastern Australia, is distinguished by widespread shortening of quartz turbidite successions and underlying oceanic basement, with less abundant island arc assemblages. Early Palaeozoic accretionary development of the Tasmanides followed Rodinia breakup at 800-750 Ma to form the palaeo-Pacific Ocean. In eastern Australia, a second rifting episode at 600-580 Ma is more widely developed with siliciclastic sedimentation and rift-related igneous activity. In parts of the Delamerian Orogen of South Australia and northwestern New South Wales and in the exposed northern Thomson Orogen of north and central Queensland, the rift-related sedimentary successions have a dominant 1.3 to 1 Ga detrital zircon age signature implying local sources. They are considered to be derived from an eastward continuation of the 1.3-1 Ga Musgrave Province in central Australia, which marks a major Late Mesoproterozoic suture between the North Australian and South Australian/West Australian cratons and now buried within continental crust of the Thomson Orogen. Palaeomagnetic data suggest that an intraplate 40° anticlockwise rotation occurred between the North Australian Craton and an amalgam of the West and South Australian cratons during the transpressional Petermann Orogeny in central Australia at 650 to 550 Ma and overlapped the 600-580 Ma rifting event. The zone of rotational intraplate shearing is considered to have remobilised the preceding Late Mesoproterozoic suture and provides a marker in Rodinia that supports the AUSMEX reconstruction. Detrital zircon of 650-500 Ma, known as the Pacific-Gondwana association, is very widely represented in Phanerozoic sediment of eastern Australia. It may be that an upper crustal igneous assemblage, now removed by erosion, developed in the Petermann Orogeny contributed to part of this age association. However, a primary Antarctic far-field source is favoured. Given that prior to 650 Ma, the unravelled intraplate rotation shows substantial overlap of the Thomson Orogen and the South Australian Craton, much of the former must have developed by continental growth largely after 550 Ma. The Diamantina Structure, which truncates the Mount Isa Province and forms the northwestern margin of the Thomson Orogen, marks the eastern line of intraplate rotation. This zone of crustal weakness continues into the northern Thomson Orogen where it was remobilised in the mid-Palaeozoic to offset the Mossman Orogen and to later facilitate the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic Townsville Trough and basin, a major feature of the continental margin. Basement cores and bedrock geology of the Thomson Orogen indicate deposition of widespread quartzose turbidites dominated by Pacific-Gondwana detrital zircon ages (650-500 Ma) that were affected by inferred Middle to Late Cambrian deformation and metamorphism (Delamerian Orogeny). The widespread Delamerian event was succeeded by Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician backarc extension and dominantly silicic igneous activity with granites, volcanic and volcaniclastic successions in the northern Thomson Orogen. Ordovician quartz turbidite deposition followed by compressional deformation in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Benambran Orogeny and scattered syn- and post-orogenic granitic plutonism is characteristic of northeast Gondwana and dominates rock assemblages of the Lachlan Orogen. © 2015 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Marks N.J.,University of Wollongong
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2011

Science is a central part of late modern society, but does not automatically command public trust. 'Reflexivity'- both in the sense of addressing the unintended consequences of one's work, and in the sense of examining one's normative assumptions - has been put forward as a way of improving science-public trust relations. Here, the reflexive potential of stem cell researchers' discourses is examined. These professionals express feelings of dependence and trust/ambivalence towards their work. They raise important concerns with regards to the internationalisation of science, clinical trials, informed consent and commercialisation. The analysis of these discourses uncovers examples of reflexivity. These should be encouraged and built upon to offer a chance of improving relations between science and members of the public. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.


Lu Y.,University of International Business and Economics | Abeysekera I.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the influences of stakeholders' power and corporate characteristics on social and environmental disclosure practices of socially responsible Chinese listed firms identified by a social responsibility ranking list. A stakeholder-driven, three-dimensional social and environmental disclosure index including disclosure quantity, disclosure type quality and disclosure item quality, is constructed to assess sample firms' social and environmental disclosures in their two public reports: annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings indicate that corporate social and environmental disclosures have significant and positive associations with firm size, profitability, and industry classification. The roles of various powerful stakeholders in influencing corporate social and environmental disclosures are found to be generally weak in China, except that shareholders have influenced corporate social and environmental disclosures and creditors have influenced corporate disclosures related to firms' environmental performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Eriksen C.,University of Wollongong | Hankins D.L.,California State University, Chico
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2014

This article explores the potential impact of training and employment with wildfire management agencies on the retention of Indigenous fire knowledge. It focuses on the comparative knowledge and experiences of Indigenous Elders, cultural practitioners, and land stewards in connection with “modern” political constructs of fire in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, and California in the United States of America. This article emphasises the close link between cross-cultural acceptance, integration of Indigenous and agency fire cultures, and the ways in which knowledge types are shared or withheld. While agency fire fighting provides an opportunity for Indigenous people to connect and care for country, it simultaneously allows for the breaking of traditional rules surrounding what knowledge is shared with whom in the context of Indigenous cultural burning. By highlighting how privilege intersects with ethnicity, class, gender and age, this article demonstrates how greater cross-cultural acceptance could aid ongoing debates on how to coexist with wildfire today. © 2014, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Perlman D.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the social context, based within self-determination theory, on student's in-class physical activity. A total of 84 Year 11/12 physical education students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups; Autonomy-supportive, Controlling and Balanced. Data were collected using a pretest/posttest design measuring in-class physical activity. Analysis of data used Repeated Measures ANOVAs to examine group differences. Results indicated significant differences for students engaged in the autonomy-supportive context in terms of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These results indicate that instructional behaviors that align with an autonomy-supportive context can facilitate higher levels of in-class physical activity. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Count data over spatial lattices are the building blocks of spatial econometric data (e.g. unemployment rates in small areas). We consider a hierarchical statistical model made up of a Poisson model for the counts and an underlying Spatial Random Effects process for the logarithm of the mean of the Poisson distribution. The resulting dimension reduction leads to substantial computational speed-ups. These models make no assumptions of homogeneity, stationarity, or isotropy. We develop maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) for the parameters of the underlying process using an EM algorithm, and we predict unknown mean counts over the entire spatial lattice. © 2013 Copyright Regional Studies Association.


Louie J.C.Y.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong | Hector D.J.,University of Sydney | Rangan A.M.,University of Sydney | Gill T.P.,University of Sydney
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2011

A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to examine the relationship between dairy consumption and overweight/obesity in prospective cohort studies. A literature search from 1980 through to April 2010 was conducted. Nineteen cohort studies met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of the 19 cohort studies, 10 were among children and adolescents (aged 2 to 14 years, n=53 to 12829, follow-up 8 months to 10 years) and nine among adults (aged 18 to 75 years, n=248 to 42696, follow-up 2 years to 12 years). A range of dairy food exposure measures were used. Eight studies (three out of 10 studies involving children and five out of nine studies involving adults) showed a protective association against increasing weight gain (measured in various ways); one reported a significant protective association only among men who were initially overweight; seven reported no effect; one reported an increased risk (among children), and two reported both a decreased and increased risk, depending on the dairy food type. The evidence from prospective cohort studies for a protective effect of dairy consumption on risk of overweight and obesity is suggestive but not consistent, making firm conclusions difficult. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Tomlinson S.,University of Western Australia | Arnall S.G.,University of Western Australia | Munn A.,University of Wollongong | Bradshaw S.D.,University of Western Australia | And 5 more authors.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

The ecological processes that are crucial to an animal's growth, survival, and reproductive fitness have energetic costs. The imperative for an animal to meet these costs within the energetic constraints of the environment drives many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, yet has largely been overlooked in traditional ecological paradigms. The field of 'ecological energetics' is bringing comparative physiology out of the laboratory and, for the first time, is becoming broadly accessible to field ecologists addressing real-world questions at many spatial and temporal scales. In an era of unprecedented global environmental challenges, ecological energetics opens up the tantalising prospect of a more predictive, mechanistic understanding of the drivers of threatened species decline, delivering process-based modelling approaches to natural resource management. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Martin B.,University of Wollongong
Social Medicine | Year: 2013

Ideally, public health debates are conducted civilly and focus on the evidence and the public good. In practice, many debates deviate markedly from this approach, for example with personal denigration of opponents. To help assess methods used in public health debates, a classificatory system of ideal types is introduced, with the categories of deliberative democracy, marketplace of ideas, marketplace of abusive comment, dominant orthodoxy, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. To illustrate how methods can be fitted into these ideal types, instances of opposition to the Australian Vaccination Network are examined. Being able to identify the types of methods used in particular debates provides public health advocates with opportunities to reflect on the impact of different methods deployed and how they relate to public participation and free speech.


Martin B.,University of Wollongong
First Monday | Year: 2012

As the online profiles of organisations become more important, so do their vulnerabilities to online attack. A wide range of online methods can be used to attack the credibility of an organisation, deter participation by its members and undermine its operations. A case study from the Australian vaccination debate is used to illustrate the operation and impact of some of these possible methods. The main modes of attack are disrupting discussions, dominating descriptions and ridiculing and intimidating opponents. The main modes of defence are excluding disrupters, providing counter-descriptions, making formal complaints, and ignoring or exposing abuse. New forms of social media in the future will offer additional options for both offence and defence.


Chen L.,Hewlett - Packard | Ng S.-L.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Wang G.,University of Wollongong
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2011

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) allow wireless communications between vehicles without the aid of a central server. Reliable exchanges of information about road and traffic conditions allow a safer and more comfortable travelling environment. However, such profusion of information may allow unscrupulous parties to violate user privacy. On the other hand, a degree of auditability is desired for law enforcement and maintenance purposes. In this paper we propose a Threshold Anonymous Announcement service using direct anonymous attestation and one-time anonymous authentication to simultaneously achieve the seemingly contradictory goals of reliability, privacy and auditability. © 2011 IEEE.


Jacob R.H.,University of New England of Australia | D'Antuono M.F.,Baron Hay Court | Gilmour A.R.,University of Wollongong | Warner R.D.,CSIRO
Meat Science | Year: 2014

A study was undertaken, using 2701 overwrapped loin samples aged for 5. days and subjected to a simulated retail display (SRD) for 3. days; sourced from lambs in the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation information nucleus flock, born 2007-2009. The ratio of reflectance of light in the wavelengths of 630. nm and 580. nm (oxy/met) was measured daily during the SRD, using a Hunterlab spectrophotometer. A series of linear mixed models was fitted to the oxy/met and time data to compare 4 breed types and identify relevant covariates, of 19, using a forward selection process. Breed type, pH at 24. h post slaughter and Linoleic acid concentration (LA) were the most important factors and covariates, in that order. Merino breed type, high pH and high LA reduced colour stability. Fitting a spline model to predict the time for oxy/met to reach a set value, represents an alternative to comparing oxy/met at a set time, for describing colour stability. © 2012 The Authors.


Wang X.,Beijing Normal University | Wang H.,Beijing Normal University | Brown H.R.,University of Wollongong
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

The fabrication of hydrogels with well-defined structure and high mechanical strength has become a challenging and fascinating topic. The aim of this study is to develop a new method for fabricating hydrogels with high mechanical strength by utilizing the well-developed structure of biological gels. We firstly studied the mechanical properties and microstructure of a biological gel - the mesogloea of edible jellyfish Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye (JF gel). JF gel has much higher mechanical strength than normal synthetic hydrogels due to its layered porous structure with pore walls consisting of nano-structured layers and fibers. We have also synthesized hydrogels by radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking and found that they are distinctly stronger than those produced by the classical thermal polymerization using a crosslinking agent. When a synthetic gel is incorporated into JF gel by the radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of a hydrophilic monomer, a novel type of hybrid hydrogel with very high mechanical strength results. The compressive and tensile strengths of the hybrid hydrogels are generally several times to more than ten times higher than those of JF gel and the corresponding component synthetic gels. The hybrid gels combine the well-developed structure of biological jellyfish gel and the unique microstructure of the synthetic gel produced by the radiation method, and strong interactions between the two networks are formed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


In light of increased development pressure in rural landscapes, understanding how amenity migrants understand and experience nature is a vital project for rural studies. This paper investigates how residents living in a rural residential estate (RRE) negotiate more-than-human encounters in domestic settings. RREs are emergent forms of master-planned residential development on the rural-urban fringe, marketed and designed to meet an idyllic rural lifestyle. In the RRE, domestic nonhuman transgressions are both presumed as a part of the amenity migrant experience, and pre-empted by estate design and regulation. Border encounters in gardens were explored via semi-structured walking interviews with 27 residents of an RRE, located on the rural-urban fringe of Sydney, Australia. Nonhuman transgressions were found to both contribute towards, and challenge, homemaking practices. Some residents expressed a vernacular ecology at home entangled with more-than-human company, where nonhumans are 'neighbours'. Gardens were shared, and maintenance practices altered. When domestic expectations of cleanliness and order were challenged, native nonhumans were negotiated in gardens with a 'hoped-for absence' ( Ginn, 2014). These stories illustrate that a native politics of belonging foreshadows the homemaking practices of amenity migrants. The paper suggests settlements similar to RRE can be a positive intervention on the rural-urban fringe, encouraging different registers of interaction with nonhuman nature. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Basack S.,University of Wollongong | Sen S.,Bengal Engineering and Science University
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2014

Torsional loads on pile foundations are induced by the action of eccentric horizontal forces on the supporting structures. Such loading not only initiates twisting at the pile head but also reduces its axial capacity significantly with increased settlement of the foundation. Several theoretical and experimental investigations have already been carried out on piles under torsional load, as evidenced by the available literature on the subject, although contributions on the influence of combined torsional and axial loads on pile foundations are rather limited. This paper presents a novel numerical model (boundary-element method) to analyze the response of a single vertical floating pile subjected to simultaneous torsional and axial loads. The nonlinear stress-strain response of soil has been incorporated in the model by means of the hyperbolic model, whereas the pile material has been idealized as elastic-perfectly plastic. The effect of progressive pile-soil slippage at the interface is considered. Apart from predicting the load-displacement response and incremental angle of twist of piles under combined torsional and axial loading, the shear-stress profiles and the effect of vertical loads on the torsional capacity of the piles are some of the salient features captured by the proposed model. Validation of the proposed model by means of a comparison with existing models and experimental data indicates the suitability and accuracy of the solutions developed. The proposed model is also applied successfully to selected case studies on piles in clay, sand, and layered soil, and important conclusions are drawn. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Tozer M.G.,New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage | Ooi M.K.J.,University of Wollongong
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The modelwas field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The modelwas applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972-2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33-55%fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies. Forecast changes in climate have the potential to alter the seed bank dynamics of species with physical dormancy regulated by this mechanism, with implications for their capacity to delay germination and exploit windows for recruitment. © 2014 The Author.


Bennett S.,University of Wollongong | Maton K.,University of Sydney
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2010

The idea of the 'digital natives', a generation of tech-savvy young people immersed in digital technologies for which current education systems cannot cater, has gained widespread popularity on the basis of claims rather than evidence. Recent research has shown flaws in the argument that there is an identifiable generation or even a single type of highly adept technology user. For educators, the diversity revealed by these studies provides valuable insights into students' experiences of technology inside and outside formal education. While this body of work provides a preliminary understanding, it also highlights subtleties and complexities that require further investigation. It suggests, for example, that we must go beyond simple dichotomies evident in the digital natives debate to develop a more sophisticated understanding of our students' experiences of technology. Using a review of recent research findings as a starting point, this paper identifies some key issues for educational researchers, offers new ways of conceptualizing key ideas using theoretical constructs from Castells, Bourdieu and Bernstein, and makes a case for how we need to develop the debate in order to advance our understanding. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Spinks G.M.,University of Wollongong
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Pump it: Materials that show intriguing shape changes induced by simple light exposure are emerging as candidates for artificial muscles. Recent examples are highlighted to illustrate the various molecular conformational changes induced by irradiation. Assemblies of these photoresponsive molecules are now being prepared that show functions that resemble real muscle. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chappell B.W.,University of Wollongong | Wyborn D.,Geodynamics Ltd
Lithos | Year: 2012

The more mafic S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt contain a distinctive assemblage of lithic inclusions of deep crustal origin. Two types predominate, the schistose enclaves and the microgranular enclaves. There is also a small proportion of fragments of local country rock. All the features of the schistose enclaves are consistent with an origin as lithic restite fragments from the source. Their ubiquity in the mafic S-type granites and absence from both felsic S-type granites and I-type granites, conform with such an origin. The argument that these enclaves are not in chemical equilibrium with the host granite because they do not complement its composition is not valid, since they represent less fertile parts of the source that had different compositions that, as a result, melted to a lesser extent. Models that derived these enclaves from regions of the crust above the zones of partial melting, so that they are not restites, are complex, unnecessary, do not conform with their ubiquity in the more mafic S-type granites, and are not consistent with their chemical compositions.The origin of the microgranular enclaves is controversial. In most S-type granites these enclaves have been recrystallized to a similar mineral assemblage to the host granite with a higher proportion of biotite. In a few places, such material is seen to be forming by recrystallization of material in the core of the enclave, which has the assemblage quartz+calcic plagioclase+orthopyroxene±cordierite±biotite with accessory ilmenite, sulfide and apatite. All of the microgranular enclave cores show pseudo-doleritic texture in which calcic plagioclase crystals (>An 60) and orthopyroxene crystals project into or are enclosed by quartz. Large plagioclase crystals are zoned, with some core compositions as calcic as An 94. The low Na contents of the microgranular enclaves are not consistent with an igneous origin. We consider that these enclaves were derived by metamorphism of calcareous mudstones or argillaceous limestones. The pseudo-igneous textures result from the presence of a partial melt during metamorphism. An analysis of a calc-silicate lens of upper amphibolite grade from the Wilsons Group of Victoria Land, Antarctica is remarkably similar in composition to the microgranular enclaves from Lachlan Fold Belt S-type granites. We suggest that rocks equivalent to that Group, which is of appropriate age and general composition, were the source rocks for the S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Aitchison J.C.,University of Sydney | Buckman S.,University of Wollongong
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The Early Paleozoic Lachlan Fold Belt of eastern Australia is widely regarded as an ancient convergent plate margin beneath which paleo-Pacific (Panthalassic) oceanic lithosphere was continuously subducted. It is cited as the type example of a retreating accretionary orogeny. However, sandstone compositions, the sedimentological nature and timing of chert accumulation and overall stratigraphic architecture are not necessarily consistent with this model. We suggest an alternative explanation for growth of Gondwanan continental margin. Oceanic lithosphere outboard of the passive Gondwana continental margin was subducted beneath an extensive intra-oceanic island arc that now crops out as an allochthonous element (Macquarie arc) within the fold belt. Once intervening oceanic lithosphere was eliminated this arc collided with, and was emplaced upon the Gondwana margin. Recognition of four such events along this margin through the Phanerozoic suggests it is a significant mechanism for continental growth. © 2012 .


Lubans D.R.,University of Newcastle | Cliff D.P.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2011

The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between muscular strength, body composition, and physical self-perception in adolescents. Participants (n=106, age 15.0 ± 0.7 years, 51% boys) completed the following assessments: height and weight, bio-electrical impedance analysis (body fat %), muscular strength (1RM bench press and leg press), and the Childrens Physical Self-Perception Profile. Bivariate correlations were examined and mediation analysis was used to explore if physical self-perception sub-domains mediated the relationship between muscular strength/adiposity and overall physical self-worth. Among boys, physical self-worth was associated with absolute total strength (r=0.36, p<0.01), but not with body fat % (r=-0.11, p=0.44), or relative total strength (r=0.21, p=0.13). In adolescent girls, physical self-worth was associated with body fat % (r=-0.42, p<0.01), relative total strength (r=0.40, p<0.01) but not absolute total strength (r=0.07, p=0.62). In boys, perceived physical strength mediated the relationship between absolute muscular strength and physical self-worth. Relative muscular strength was not associated with perceived strength (p>0.05) in girls and the test of the mediated effect was non-significant (p>0.05). Perceived body attractiveness was found to mediate the relationship between body fat % and physical self-worth among boys and girls. Physical self-worth is associated with different components of health-related fitness in adolescent girls and boys. Mediation analysis can be used to provide insights into the complex interrelationships between variables. © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia.


Arts-science collaboration is gaining increasing attention in geography and other disciplines, in part due to its ability to 'do' social, cultural and political work. This paper considers the work of SiteWorks, a series of projects initiated by Bundanon Trust - an Australian public company. SiteWorks involves arts practitioners, scientists, other scholars and local people creating works in response to the Bundanon site, on the Shoalhaven River, southeastern Australia. The paper draws on my experience as a SiteWorks participant, and poses two questions. What does this artsscience collaboration contribute to an understanding of the more-than-human world of this site? What are the methodological implications of the collaborative, embodied research methodology? The study finds that SiteWorks informs a politics of belonging. Understanding belonging has implications for thinking and action towards plant and animal life, and for the highly contested realms of human identity, indigeneity and migration. Unsettling fixed notions of belonging is essential for learning to live with the contingency presented by contemporary environmental change. Here I propose a 'passing-through place'; a place not permanently dwelt in but vital nonetheless. Secondly, the study finds that collaborative, embodied research methodology reveals and challenges our practices, invites new modes of investigation, and presents new questions and insights into place and practice. Embodied methods heighten awareness of the more-thanhuman world, presenting opportunity for more ethical co-existence. The academy is presently witnessing increasing attention to impact and non-traditional output. Despite ongoing challenges, collaborative, embodied research practice presents one avenue for attending to these imperatives. © The Author(s) 2013.


Roggeveen K.,University of Wollongong
Local Environment | Year: 2014

Popular calls to buy products with fewer embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions belie the complexity involved in providing accurate information necessary for such consumer decisions to be effective. This study follows greenhouse-grown tomatoes from Australian farms to fruit shops in Sydney, Australia and investigates practicalities of accounting for GHG emissions in this fresh food chain. Data came from semi-structured interviews with farmers, wholesalers who operate at the (wholesale) Sydney Markets and retailers. GHG emissions were estimated using quantitative methodologies including Australian National Greenhouse Account Factors. A qualitative analysis of stakeholder views and knowledge was also conducted. Conclusions include that, per unit of tomatoes, on-farm GHG emissions appear far greater than those from fuel used for transport to Sydney Markets, and from wholesale or retail activities. Food mile or more comprehensive carbon labelling would probably not be practical for this supply chain. Factors likely to affect potential change among higher emitting participants are costs and availability of lower GHG-emitting practices. Mixed-method studies help identify parts of a chain to target emission reduction efforts. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Kenchington R.,University of Wollongong | Hutchings P.,College Street
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2012

The United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (United Nations 1982) came into effect in 1994. Signatory nations have substantial management obligations for conservation of marine natural resource and ecosystems. In this paper we discuss the challenges of defining and monitoring biodiversity at scales required for management of marine ecosystems. Australia's area of immediate responsibility under UNCLOS covers an area of 11 million sq km with further linked responsibilities for an estimated area of 5.1 million sq km of continental shelf. This presents substantial data challenges for development and implementation of management. Acoustic seabed mapping is providing substantial information on seabed surface geology and topography and provides a surrogate basis for describing benthic habitat and seabed communities that have critical roles in marine food chains. The development of the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation of Australia (IMCRA 4.0, 2006) has provided a basis for planning marine biodiversity and resource management but the biological habitat interpretation of geological data is based very largely on demersal fish data. It is recognised in IMCRA 4.0 (2006) that revision and refinement of regionalisation requires further work in the areas of data coverage, ecosystem understanding and ecosystem surrogates and conceptual classification models. In this paper we discuss Australian experience highlighting problems and issues of relevance for scientifically based management of marine natural resource and ecosystems elsewhere in the world. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ikutegbe V.,University of Wollongong | Sikoki F.,University of Port Harcourt
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Proximate composition and microbiological characteristics of pre-dried Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Pseudotolithus typus were studied over a period of 4 weeks to determine the health risks associated with delayed consumption. All analyses were conducted using standard microbiological and chemical methods. Results showed a general decline in microbiological safety and nutritive characteristics of both fish species over time, with an observed increase in microbial loads over time. Aspergillus flavus was also present on both species which makes consumption of the fishes hazardous to the health of consumers due to its ability to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. In order to minimise the health risks to consumers, it is recommended that smoke-dried fishes be consumed with minimal delay and cooked properly before consumption. The findings of this study will prove important in the development of more stringent regulations regarding food safety in Nigeria. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Bennett S.,University of Wollongong | Bishop A.,Charles Sturt University | Dalgarno B.,Charles Sturt University | Waycott J.,University of Melbourne | Kennedy G.,University of Melbourne
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

Web 2.0 technologies are becoming more popular in the everyday lives of students. As a result, teachers and designers have begun to explore their use in formal education. This paper presents evaluation findings from a collective case study of six Web 2.0 implementations in Australian higher education. The research was undertaken as part of a larger study that sought to understand how today's students use information and communication technologies to support their learning. Conducted across three universities, the research included a range of disciplines, class sizes and year levels. A common evaluation strategy was used in order to collect comparable data from which commonalities and differences could be identified. This paper provides an overview of the study, describes the methodology used, summarises the implementation experiences of staff and students involved and presents the key findings. The results suggest that most students had little prior experience with relevant technologies and that many struggled to see the value of using Web 2.0 technologies for learning and teaching, both of which have important implications for the design of appropriate learning tasks. While the argument can be made for improving the design through better task-technology alignment, this study also highlights inherent tensions between Web 2.0 and educational practices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gopinath B.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong | Rochtchina E.,University of Sydney | Wang J.J.,University of Melbourne | Mitchell P.,University of Sydney
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Epidemiologic evidence of a relation between serum total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B-12, and folate and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: In this cohort study, we aimed to investigate associations between intakes and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12 or serum tHcy and 10-y AMD incidence. Design: Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged ≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, current smoking, white blood cell count, and fish consumption, each 1-SD increase in serum tHcy was associated with increased risk of incident early and any AMD [ORs (95% CIs): 1.33 (1.09, 1.63) and 1.33 (1.11, 1.60), respectively]. Participants with a serum vitamin B-12 deficiency (<185 pmol/L) had higher risk of incident early and late AMD [ORs (95% CIs): 1.58 (1.06, 2.36) and 2.56 (1.38, 4.73), respectively]. Folate deficiency (<11 nmol/L) was associated with 75% and 89% increased risk of incident early and any AMD, respectively, 10 y later. Participants who reported supplementary vitamin B-12 intake had 47% reduced risk of incident any AMD (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.85). Conclusion: Elevated serum tHcy and folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing AMD risk. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Veldhorst M.,MESA Institute for Nanotechnology | Snelder M.,MESA Institute for Nanotechnology | Hoek M.,MESA Institute for Nanotechnology | Gang T.,MESA Institute for Nanotechnology | And 8 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2012

The long-sought yet elusive Majorana fermion is predicted to arise from a combination of a superconductor and a topological insulator. An essential step in the hunt for this emergent particle is the unequivocal observation of supercurrent in a topological phase. Here, direct evidence for Josephson supercurrents in superconductor (Nb)-topological insulator (Bi 2 Te 3)-superconductor electron-beam fabricated junctions is provided by the observation of clear Shapiro steps under microwave irradiation, and a Fraunhofer-type dependence of the critical current on magnetic field. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in magnetic fields up to 30 T reveal a topologically non-trivial two-dimensional surface state. This surface state is attributed to mediate the ballistic Josephson current despite the fact that the normal state transport is dominated by diffusive bulk conductivity. The lateral Nb-Bi 2 Te 3-Nb junctions hence provide prospects for the realization of devices supporting Majorana fermions. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Farrell N.R.,Anxiety Treatment and Research Center | Deacon B.J.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d =.27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d =.74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Warren A.,University of Wollongong
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2014

This paper examines the agency of nonunionized workers employed in the surfboard industry. Informing a labor geography approach with cultural economy theory, the paper contributes to the progression of labor geographies beyond the confines of unionized labor–management relations. Using ethnographic methods with 135 workers across thirty-five workshops and three hubs of production (O’ahu, Hawai’i, southern California, and east coast Australia) I reveal how cultural values and logics powerfully shape labor relations in the surfboard industry. Under labor-intensive systems of craft-based, customized production, workers handle most aspects of business themselves: taking orders, designing, making, and exchanging finished products. Workers use deliberate, targeted actions to create agency and achieve stable, well-paid jobs anchored in vibrant surfing locations. Over the last decade, however, standardization, international competition, and managerial ambitions to upscale for export have instigated pervasive shifts to automated, capital-intensive production. Computer automation is transforming the scope, scale, and conditions of work. Human skills have been replicated, work hours have declined, and wages have stagnated. Against an increasingly precarious employment backdrop, workers’ strategies to achieve positive change remain perceptible. But workers’ agency is now being hampered by the laid-back, subcultural values pertaining to commercial production and workplace relations. © 2014 Pion Limited.


Jacobs Z.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2010

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements are reported for single aliquots and single grains of quartz from sedimentary deposits within Cave 13B at Pinnacle Point, South Africa (PP13B). Ages have been obtained for 30 samples from the Middle Stone Age and from sterile geological deposits at the base and top of the sediment sequence. The ages for all the archaeological units have been obtained from single-grain measurements that enable unrepresentative grains to be rejected after they have been scrutinized for their OSL behavior. The shape of the equivalent dose distribution and the degree of spread in equivalent dose for each sample have also been scrutinized for evidence of depositional and post-depositional effects that can influence the accuracy of the age estimates. This study also used the same systematic approach as that used for the dating of the Howieson's Poort and Still Bay in South Africa. This single-grain approach results in more accurate and precise age estimates that place all ages measured and analyzed in this way on a common timescale. Four periods of human occupation have been dated to ∼162. ka, ∼125. ka, ∼110. ka, and ∼99-91. ka during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, 5e, 5d, and 5c, respectively. Occupation of the site appears to have occurred at periods of higher sea level and increased aeolian activity, and the cave was ultimately sealed by the accumulation of a large dune ∼90. ka ago that infilled the cave, but also blanketed the cliff face above the cave, thus preventing further habitation of the site until ∼39. ka. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Else P.L.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Taylor N.A.S.,University of Wollongong | Tipton M.J.,University of Portsmouth | Kenny G.P.,University of Ottawa
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2014

Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Osmond B.,University of Wollongong | Osmond B.,Australian National University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

This is a tale of a career in plant physiological ecology that enjoyed the freedom to address photosynthetic physiology and biochemistry in leaves of plants from diverse environments. It was supported by block funding (now sadly a thing of the past) for research at the Australian National University, by grants during appointments in the United States and in Germany, and by Columbia University. It became a "career experiment" in which long-term, high-trust support for curiosity-driven plant biology in Australia, and at times in the United States, led to surprisingly innovative results. Although the rich diversity of short-term competitive grant opportunities in the United States sustained ongoing research, it proved difficult to mobilize support for more risky long-term projects. A decade after the closure of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory, this article highlights the achievements of colleagues in experimental climate change research from 1998 to 2003. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.


Au M.H.,University of Wollongong | Kapadia A.,Indiana University Bloomington
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security | Year: 2012

Some users may misbehave under the cover of anonymity by, e.g., defacing webpages on Wikipedia or posting vulgar comments on YouTube. To prevent such abuse, a few anonymous credential schemes have been proposed that revoke access for misbehaving users while maintaining their anonymity such that no trusted third party (TTP) is involved in the revocation process. Recently we proposed BLACR, a TTP-free scheme that supports 'reputation-based blacklisting' - the service provider can score users' anonymous sessions (e.g., good vs. inappropriate comments) and users with insufficient reputation are denied access. The major drawback of BLACR is the linear computational overhead in the size of the reputation list, which allows it to support reputation for only a few thousand user sessions in practical settings. We propose PERM, a revocation-window-based scheme (misbehaviors must be caught within a window of time), which makes computation independent of the size of the reputation list. PERM thus supports millions of user sessions and makes reputation-based blacklisting practical for large-scale deployments. Copyright © 2012 ACM.


Chen L.,Peking University | Ma Z.,Peking University | Zhang C.,University of Wollongong
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

We show that for graphene with any finite asymmetry in the on-site energy between the two sublattices (Δ), the optical absorption edge is determined by the Δ. The universal conductance will be broken and the conductance near the band edge varies with frequency as 1/ ω2. The onset conductance is σc =2 σ0 =π e2 /2h, independent of the size of the band gap. The total integrated optical response is nearly conserved despite of the opening of the band gap. Moreover, near the band edge, there is a change over of the electrical resistivity from temperature independent to a linear temperature dependence. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Huang Q.,South China Agricultural University | Wong D.S.,City University of Hong Kong | Susilo W.,University of Wollongong
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Optimistic Fair Exchange (OFE) of digital signatures allows two parties to exchange their signatures in a fair manner so that a third party, called the arbitrator, gets involved only when there is a dispute. Previous work on OFE considers the two parties as individuals and there is no formal study on the scenario where the two parties are two groups of users. In this paper, we formalize this new variant and call it a Group-oriented Optimistic Fair Exchange (GOFE). GOFE allows two users from two different groups to exchange signatures on behalf of their groups in a fair and anonymous manner. We formalize the notion by providing the first set of security models for GOFE, and show that it is closely related to Ambiguous OFE (AOFE) proposed by Huang et al. in Asiacrypt 2008. In particular, we propose a generic transformation which converts a GOFE to an AOFE. We also give an efficient and concrete GOFE construction and prove its security under the security models we defined. The security of the scheme relies on the decision linear assumption and strong Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lau H.C.W.,University of Western Sydney | Dwight R.A.,University of Wollongong
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Engineering asset management (EAM) is a multi-disciplinary activity that aims to tackle the issues of asset capability, life, safety, maintenance and reliability, taking into account economical and managerial factors. Condition monitoring is an important aspect of EAM as it is able to identify potential failure symptoms and suggest remedial actions prior to any operational interruptions. In general, conditions of assets can be investigated through various tests and then decision has to be made if the asset should be repaired or replaced or further in-depth test is needed. In the current practice, the decision to be made is normally based on human judgement and field experience which are subject to personal view and bias. As such, a more scientific and reliable decision support model is needed to help companies make the right decision which may be vital to ensure that daily operations will not be disrupted. In this paper, a decision support model characterized by its inclusion of fuzzy logic technology to achieve rule inference is proposed. This fuzzy-based decision support (FDS) model adopts the fuzzy reasoning approach to suggest the optimal action that needs to be taken to deal with the problem of asset conditions. This approach provides a relatively independent result based on available numerical (crisp) data. One of the main benefits of using FDS model is that its knowledge base accumulates experience through a learning process and becomes "smarter" over time. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a case study related to the condition monitoring of water pipelines in an electro-plating plant based in China has been conducted. Results indicate that this model provides expertise advice and pre-warning signals, if any, of engineering asset conditions based on input crisp data of examined asset status, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of EAM. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Abbas R.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Location Based Services | Year: 2011

Location-based services (LBS) are applications capable of utilising the position of a device, and its user, in the provision of a value-added service. With such applications comes the ability for an individual's location to be monitored either willingly or covertly by others, thus introducing a set of challenges from a social perspective. This article reports on the results of an observational study that required participants to maintain a digital location chronicle - global positioning system data log, daily diary entry and personal reflection - over a 2-week period. The primary aim of this exercise was for participants to observe, reflect and record their experiences during and at the completion of the participant observation, in order to reveal the ensuing collective implications. This study is a further research based on previous work concerning LBS user attitudes (Abbas 2010), and as such concentrates on the Gen-Y or young adult consumer group. This investigation considers additionally the importance of LBS within a social context, whereby participants are prompted to reflect on their willingness to be monitored or tracked by a partner, parent, friend, employer and/or stranger. The results are presented in terms of the social implications. The dominant themes in the respective relationship categories are presented in each context. It was noted that participants' readiness to grant access to their location information is heavily dependent on the amount of trust existing within a specific relationship, whether there is a perceived privacy threat, the amount of control a participant wishes to maintain, and if there is concern in relation to personal security and safety being compromised. Additional technological and device-related issues were also observed. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ghayesh M.H.,University of Wollongong | Farokhi H.,McGill University
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2015

In this paper, for the first time, the nonlinear motion characteristics of a hinged-hinged third-order shear deformable microbeam are examined, based on the modified couple stress theory and the third-order shear deformation theory. The extensibility of the microbeam is modelled by taking into account the longitudinal displacement. The nonlinear equations governing the longitudinal, transverse, and rotational motions are derived by means of Hamilton's principle in conjunction with the modified couple stress theory (to take into account small-scale effects). The three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are discretized via the Galerkin method and the resulting set of ordinary differential equations is solved by means of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and via direct time-integration. The effects of the system parameters on the behaviour of the microbeam are studied. Results are presented in the form of frequency-responses and force-responses. Points of interest in the parameter space are also highlighted in the form of time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). Moreover, the similarities and differences in the response of the system obtained via the modified couple stress and classical continuum mechanics theories are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Au M.H.,University of Wollongong | Tsang P.P.,Dartmouth College | Kapadia A.,Indiana University Bloomington
ACM Transactions on Information and System Security | Year: 2011

Several anonymous authentication schemes allow servers to revoke a misbehaving user's future accesses. Traditionally, these schemes have relied on powerful Trusted Third Parties (TTPs) capable of deanonymizing (or linking) users' connections. Such TTPs are undesirable because users' anonymity is not guaranteed, and users must trust them to judge 'misbehavior' fairly. Recent schemes such as Blacklistable Anonymous Credentials (BLAC) and Enhanced Privacy ID (EPID) support "privacy-enhanced revocation" - servers can revoke misbehaving users without a TTP's involvement, and without learning the revoked users' identities. In BLAC and EPID, however, the computation required for authentication at the server is linear in the size (L) of the revocation list, which is impractical as the size approaches thousands of entries. We propose PEREA, a new anonymous authentication scheme for which this bottleneck of computation is independent of the size of the revocation list. Instead, the time complexity of authentication is linear in the size of a revocation window K 蠐 L, the number of subsequent authentications before which a user's misbehavior must be recognized if the user is to be revoked. We extend PEREA to support more complex revocation policies that take the severity of misbehaviors into account. Users can authenticate anonymously if their naughtiness, i.e., the sum of the severities of their blacklisted misbehaviors, is below a certain naughtiness threshold. We call our extension PEREA-Naughtiness. We prove the security of our constructions, and validate their efficiency as compared to BLAC both analytically and quantitatively. © ACM 2011.


Georgiou C.,University of Wollongong | Georgiou C.,Wollongong Hospital
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2010

Objective To investigate the proposed mechanism by which intrauterine balloons achieve their tamponade effect of creating an 'intrauterine pressure that is greater than the systemic arterial pressure'. Design To determine the intraluminal pressures within a Bakri balloon during the establishment of a positive 'tamponade test' in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. To correlate these intraluminal pressures with contemporaneous readings of blood pressure recordings as documented from the operating theatre anaesthetic charts. Setting An obstetric unit (approximately 2400 births) in Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Sample Two women in whom first-line uterotonics were unsuccessful and who required a Bakri balloon to control postpartum haemorrhage secondary to an atonic uterus. Methods A DigiMano (Netech Corporation, Farmingdale, NY, USA) pressure recorder was attached via a three-way tap to a Bakri balloon. Anaesthetic charts of the two cases were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures Intraluminal pressure readings were recorded after each 50-ml aliquot of normal saline had been insufflated into the balloon whilst the next aliquot was being prepared. Results There is a curvilinear relationship between the intraluminal pressure and the balloon volume. The pressure does not exceed the systolic blood pressure of the patient at the time of establishment of a positive tamponade test. Conclusions The intraluminal pressure within the tamponade balloon does not exceed the systolic blood pressure of the patient when a positive tamponade test is established. © 2009 RCOG BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.


Hutton B.F.,University College London | Hutton B.F.,University of Wollongong
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2014

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has a long history of development since its initial demonstration by Kuhl and Edwards in 1963. Although clinical utility has been dominated by the rotating gamma camera, there have been many technological innovations with the recent popularity of organ-specific dedicated SPECT systems. The combination of SPECT and CT evolved from early transmission techniques used for attenuation correction with the initial commercial systems predating the release of PET/CT. The development and acceptance of SPECT/CT has been relatively slow with continuing debate as to what cost/performance ratio is justified. Increasingly, fully diagnostic CT is combined with SPECT so as to facilitate optimal clinical utility. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Fullagar R.,University of Wollongong
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Archaeological excavation over 30 years ago in a small granite cave on Great Glennie Island, 7km off the southernmost tip of mainland Australia, revealed five stratigraphically distinct midden units with intermittent occupation over the last 2000 years. Fluctuations in tool stone (quartz and flint) abundance and the nature of tool use track a shift in economic focus from one dominant taxon (seabird) during initial visits to four (seal, seabird, fish and shellfish) in the last 500 years. An analysis of flint cortex distributions indicates that during the second visit people carried core tools and retouched flint flakes, and during later visits they transported unworked flint nodules for knapping flakes as needed on the island. These data have been integrated with a functional analysis of all the stone artefacts to evaluate a model of human settlement based on island biogeography formulated by Jones (1976). I explore whether island toolkits can be linked with shifts in food procurement and argue that the island was visited infrequently because there was no compelling need to regularly harvest its rich food resources. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Atahar Ali A.N.M.,University of Wollongong
European Food and Feed Law Review | Year: 2013

In Bangladesh, most of the foodstuffs, be they manufactured or processed, are unsafe for consumption or adulterated to varying degrees. This problem persists at every level of the food chain from preparation to consumption. Food manufacturers, processors, restaurants, fast food outlets and so forth are all involved in one way or another in this corrupt practice of adulteration. Foods are adulterated by using various harmful chemicals and toxic artificial colours, on the one hand, and rotten perishables turned to poisonous foods are stored, sold and served to consumers in an unhygienic atmosphere, on the other. The unhygienic and unsafe treatment of food is seriously impacting public health by causing numerous chronic and non-chronic diseases. Despite different reasons for the unsafe treatment and adulteration of foodstuffs in Bangladesh, this study will concentrate on the regulatory failures to combat the current food safety problems persisting in Bangladesh.


Wilson C.J.,University of Wollongong
Advances in Mental Health | Year: 2010

Epidemiological studies suggest that young people might have a tendency to avoid help when they experience symptoms of psychological distress. There is growing evidence that many young people prefer no help from anyone for their mental health problems. The current study examined the association between symptoms of general psychological distress and intentions to seek help from friends, family and professional mental health sources in a sample of 109 trade (TAFE) students from regional and rural Australia. Participants were 67% male and aged from 15-25 years. Higher levels of general psychological distress symptoms were associated with stronger intentions to not seek help from anyone and weaker intentions to seek help from friends and family for mental health problems. The variable 'negative beliefs about treatment' was also associated with a stronger intentions to not seek help and weaker intentions to seek help from mental health professionals. Help-avoidance in relation to symptoms of general psychological distress and beliefs about mental health treatment is discussed, together with suggestions for encouraging appropriate and effective help-seeking in young people. © eContent Management Pty Ltd.


Emamjomeh M.M.,Qazvin University of Medical Sciences | Sivakumar M.,University of Wollongong | Varyani A.S.,Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
Desalination | Year: 2011

Electrocoagulation is a method of applying direct current to sacrificial electrodes that are submerged in an aqueous solution. Dissolving aluminum (Al 3+) is predominant in the acidic condition and aluminum hydroxide has tendency soluble. The defluoridation process was found to be efficient for a pH ranging from 6 to 8. The fluoride removal mechanisms are investigated based on the solution speciation (Al and Al-F complexes) and dried sludge characteristics in the electrocoagulator. The XRD analysis of the composition of the dried sludge shows the formation of Al(OH) 3-xF x and provides confirmation for the main mechanism for fluoride removal. The mechanism of the fluoride removal was confirmed to be not only the competitive adsorption between OH - and F - but also the formation of solid cryolite in pH range of 5-8. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bommer U.-A.,University of Wollongong
Open Allergy Journal | Year: 2012

The 'translationally controlled tumour protein' TCTP was originally discovered 30 years ago by researchers interested in proteins regulated at the translational level. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the conservation of this protein among all eukaryotic kingdoms, but did not reveal any functional clue, and TCTP was listed in the databases as a 'family' of its own. The functional characterisation of this protein extended over more than a decade, leading to a plethora of individual functions and interactions that have been ascribed to this protein. A major addition to the functional characterisation of TCTP was the identification in 1995 of its histamine releasing factor (HRF) activity in allergic conditions, which for the first time described an extracellular activity for TCTP in human disease. This triggered a host of additional publications aimed at characterising this HRF activity, which are discussed in other articles of this issue. Another milestone in the elucidation of TCTP's function was the demonstration of its anti-apoptotic activity in 2001. Evidence is also accumulating for a role of TCTP in the cell cycle and in early development. This article provides an overview of the main cellular activities of TCTP. The second part will summarise our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in regulating intracellular TCTP levels. © Ulrich-Axel Bommer.


Zylstra P.,University of Wollongong
Victorian Naturalist | Year: 2013

It is widely assumed that regardless of the community in question, recently burnt forests are less flammable than long-unburnt areas, so that the fire-flammability feedback is negative. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed for Snowgum forest/woodland based on deterministic fire behaviour modelling, describing a positive feedback where mature forests are significantly less flammable than more recently burnt areas. To test this, the relative area burnt by wildfire was examined for 53 years of mapped fire history in 190 000 ha of subalpine Snowgum across the Australian Alps National Parks in south-eastern Australia. Results supported the deterministic modelling, demonstrating that where forest has been burnt in the previous 14 years, subsequent fires have burnt 2.3 times as much area as they did in older forests (p = 0.05). These findings provide validation for the modelling and suggest far reaching consequences for subalpine and alpine areas in the context of a warming climate.


Hulbert A.J.,University of Wollongong
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2010

Synopsis More than 100 years ago, Max Rubner combined the fact that both metabolic rate and longevity of mammals varies with body size to calculate that "life energy potential" (lifetime energy turnover per kilogram) was relatively constant. This calculation linked longevity to aerobic metabolism which in turn led to the "rate-of-living" and ultimately the "oxidative stress" theories of aging. However, the link between metabolic rate and longevity is imperfect. Although unknown in Rubner's time, one aspect of body composition of mammals also varies with body size, namely the fatty acid composition of membranes. Fatty acids vary dramatically in their susceptibility to peroxidation and the products of lipid peroxidation are very powerful reactive molecules that damage other cellular molecules. The "membrane pacemaker" modification of the "oxidative stress" theory of aging proposes that fatty acid composition of membranes, via its influence on peroxidation of lipids, is an important determinant of lifespan (and a link between metabolism and longevity). The relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and longevity is discussed for (1) mammals of different body size, (2) birds of different body size, (3) mammals and birds that are exceptionally long-living for their size, (4) strains of mice that vary in longevity, (5) calorie-restriction extension of longevity in rodents, (6) differences in longevity between queen and worker honeybees, and (7) variation in longevity among humans. Most of these comparisons support an important role for membrane fatty acid composition in the determination of longevity. It is apparent that membrane composition is regulated for each species. Provided the diet is not deficient in polyunsaturated fat, it has minimal influence on a species' membrane fatty acid composition and likely also on it's maximum longevity. The exceptional longevity of Homo sapiens combined with the limited knowledge of the fatty acid composition of human tissues support the potential importance of mitochondrial membranes in determination of longevity. © The Author 2010.


Lee J.,University of Wollongong | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University
Pramana - Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The two-dimensional nonlinear physical models and coupled nonlinear systems such as Maccari equations, Higgs equations and Schrödinger-KdV equations have been widely applied in many branches of physics. So, finding exact travelling wave solutions of such equations are very helpful in the theories and numerical studies. In this paper, the Kudryashov method is used to seek exact travelling wave solutions of such physical models. Further, three-dimensional plots of some of the solutions are also given to visualize the dynamics of the equations. The results reveal that the method is a very effective and powerful tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations arising in mathematical physics. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Guo W.D.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2013

This paper proposes an equivalent load transfer approach for simulating the response of passive piles owing to soil movement. The approach is elaborated for two commonly seen (normal and deep) sliding modes. In terms of compatibility conditions across sliding and stable layers, new coupled elastic (sliding layer)-elastic (stable layer) (E-E) solutions, and plastic (sliding layer)- elastic-plastic (stable layer) (P-EP) solutions are developed. The solutions are implemented into a program called GASMove operating in the mathematical software Mathcad. They are compared with available numerical analyses, and employed to the predict response of eight instrumented piles. The study reveals the proposed equivalent load-soil movement relationship works well along with the solutions; the E-E solution generally offers good prediction for piles with infinite lengths in both sliding and stable layers (deep sliding mode); the P-EP solution is good for piles rotating rigidly in a sliding layer (normal sliding mode); and similar predictions may be gained from different sets of pu and k profiles, as with laterally loaded piles, but a linear pu should be used for the stable layer to gain the smallest pile resistance. Design charts are generated to facilitate the prediction of a nonlinear response of passive piles, for which example predictions are elaborated. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Wang Z.,Vanderbilt University | Lyons B.,University of Sydney | Truscott R.J.W.,University of Wollongong | Schey K.L.,Vanderbilt University
Aging Cell | Year: 2014

Summary: Nonenzymatic post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is a fundamental molecular process of aging. The combination of various modifications and their accumulation with age not only affects function, but leads to crosslinking and protein aggregation. In this study, aged human lens proteins were examined using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and a blind PTM search strategy. Multiple thioether modifications of Ser and Thr residues by glutathione (GSH) and its metabolites were unambiguously identified. Thirty-four of 36 sites identified on 15 proteins were found on known phosphorylation sites, supporting a mechanism involving dehydroalanine (DHA) and dehydrobutyrine (DHB) formation through β-elimination of phosphoric acid from phosphoserine and phosphothreonine with subsequent nucleophilic attack by GSH. In vitro incubations of phosphopeptides demonstrated that this process can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions. Evidence that this mechanism can also lead to protein-protein crosslinks within cells is provided where five crosslinked peptides were detected in a human cataractous lens. Nondisulfide crosslinks were identified for the first time in lens tissue between βB2- & βB2-, βA4- & βA3-, γS- & βB1-, and βA4- & βA4-crystallins and provide detailed structural information on in vivo crystallin complexes. These data suggest that phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues represent susceptible sites for spontaneous breakdown in long-lived proteins and that DHA- and DHB-mediated protein crosslinking may be the source of the long-sought after nondisulfide protein aggregates believed to scatter light in cataractous lenses. Furthermore, this mechanism may be a common aging process that occurs in long-lived proteins of other tissues leading to protein aggregation diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Montgomery M.K.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Hulbert A.J.,University of Wollongong | Buttemer W.A.,Deakin University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The most studied comparison of aging and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) among endotherms involves the 7-fold longevity difference between rats (MLSP 5y) and pigeons (MLSP 35y). A widely accepted theory explaining MLSP differences between species is the oxidative stress theory, which purports that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during mitochondrial respiration damage bio-molecules and eventually lead to the breakdown of regulatory systems and consequent death. Previous rat-pigeon studies compared only aspects of the oxidative stress theory and most concluded that the lower mitochondrial superoxide production of pigeons compared to rats was responsible for their much greater longevity. This conclusion is based mainly on data from one tissue (the heart) using one mitochondrial substrate (succinate). Studies on heart mitochondria using pyruvate as a mitochondrial substrate gave contradictory results. We believe the conclusion that birds produce less mitochondrial superoxide than mammals is unwarranted. We have revisited the rat-pigeon comparison in the most comprehensive manner to date. We have measured superoxide production (by heart, skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria), five different antioxidants in plasma, three tissues and mitochondria, membrane fatty acid composition (in seven tissues and three mitochondria), and biomarkers of oxidative damage. The only substantial and consistent difference that we have observed between rats and pigeons is their membrane fatty acid composition, with rats having membranes that are more susceptible to damage. This suggests that, although there was no difference in superoxide production, there is likely a much greater production of lipid-based ROS in the rat. We conclude that the differences in superoxide production reported previously were due to the arbitrary selection of heart muscle to source mitochondria and the provision of succinate. Had mitochondria been harvested from other tissues or other relevant mitochondrial metabolic substrates been used, then very different conclusions regarding differences in oxidative stress would have been reached. © 2011 Montgomery et al.


Teng J.G.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Yu T.,University of Wollongong | Fernando D.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2012

Over the past two decades, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have gradually gained wide acceptance in civil engineering applications due to their unique advantages including their high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. In particular, many possibilities of using FRP in the strengthening and construction of concrete structures have been explored. More recently, the use of FRP to strengthen existing steel structures has received much attention. This paper starts with a critical discussion of the use of FRP in the strengthening of steel structures where the advantages of FRP are appropriately exploited. The paper then provides a critical review and interpretation of existing research on FRP-strengthened steel structures. Topics covered by the review include steel surface preparation for adhesive bonding, selection of a suitable adhesive, bond behavior between FRP and steel and its appropriate modeling, flexural strengthening of steel beams, fatigue strengthening of steel structures, strengthening of thin-walled steel structures against local buckling, and strengthening of hollow or concrete-filled steel tubes through external FRP confinement. The paper concludes with comments on future research needs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang Z.,University of Wollongong | Autrey T.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

The strong efforts devoted to the exploration of BNH compounds for hydrogen storage have led to impressive advances in the field of boron chemistry. This review summarizes progress in this field from three aspects. It starts with the most recent developments in using BNH compounds for hydrogen storage, covering NH 3BH 3, B 3H 8 - containing compounds, and CBN compounds. The following section then highlights interesting applications of BNH compounds in hydrogenation and catalysis. The last part is focused on breakthroughs in the syntheses and discovery of new BNH organic analogues. The role of N-H δ+⋯H δ--B dihydrogen interactions in molecule packing, thermal hydrogen evolution, and syntheses is also discussed within the review. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lin Y.-X.,University of Wollongong
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Using noise multiplied data to protect confidential data has recently drawn some attention. Understanding the probability property of the underlying confidential data based on their masked data is of interest in confidential data analysis. This paper proposes the approach of sample-moment-based density approximant based on noise multiplied data and provides a new manner for approximating the density function of the underlying confidential data without accessing the original data. The approach of sample-moment-based density approximant is an extension of the approach of moment-based density approximant, which is mathematically equivalent to traditional orthogonal polynomials approaches to the probability density function (Provost, 2005). This paper shows that, regardless of a negligible probability, a moment-based density approximant can be well approximated by its sample-moment-based approximant if the size of the sample used in the evaluation is reasonable large. Consequently, a density function can be reasonably approximated by its sample-moment-based density approximant. This paper focuses on the properties and the performance of the approach of the sample-moment-based density approximant based on noise multiplied data. Due to the restriction on the number of pages, some technical issues on implementing the approach proposed in practice will be discussed in another paper. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


Zamani R.,University of Wollongong
RAIRO - Operations Research | Year: 2012

This paper presents a hybrid schedule generation scheme for solving the resource-constrained project scheduling problem. The scheme, which is called the Polarized Adaptive Scheduling Scheme (PASS), can operate in a spectrum between two poles, namely the parallel and serial schedule generation schemes. A polarizer parameter in the range between zero and one indicates how similarly the PASS behaves like each of its two poles. The presented hybrid is incorporated into a novel genetic algorithm that never degenerates, resulting in an effective self-adaptive procedure. The key point of this genetic algorithm is the embedding of the polarizer parameter as a gene in the genomes used. Through this embedding, the procedure learns via monitoring its own performance and incorporates this knowledge in conducting the search process. The computational experiments indicate that the procedure can produce optimal solutions for a large percentage of benchmark instances. © 2012 EDP Sciences, ROADEF, SMAI.


Farokhi H.,McGill University | Ghayesh M.H.,University of Wollongong
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the three-dimensional motion characteristics of perfect and imperfect Timoshenko microbeams under mechanical and thermal forces; the mechanical properties of the microbeam are considered temperature-dependent. The centerline of the microbeam is considered to be extensible and the equations of motion for the longitudinal, transverse, and rotational motions are derived by means of the extended Hamilton's principle and the modified couple stress theory. These three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are discretized by means of Galerkin's technique, yielding a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved by means of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and via an eigenvalue analysis, for the nonlinear and linear analyses, respectively. The geometrically perfect microbeam remains stable at its original static equilibrium position up to the temperature when it loses stability by divergence via a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation; the post-buckling state is obtained and resonant response over it is analysed. For the initially imperfect microbeam, as the temperature is increased, the initial curvature amplitude increases and no instabilities occur; the resonant response of the system over the new deflected configuration is examined numerically. The effect of different parameters on the nonlinear behaviour of the system is studied. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Muston M.H.,University of Wollongong
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2012

The development of water recycling schemes in Australia has, in recent years, undergone a maturity characterised by some emerging trends in the paradigm of water reuse and its integration into the overall water supply strategies for large urban and peri-urban areas. This paper looks at case studies within the context of these observed trends and discusses the institutional frameworks as well as some technical aspects of the case studies to illustrate the trends. Comparison is made with some selected international examples to develop a better understanding of these recent Australian developments within the international context. While not a complete inventory of the many recent recycling schemes in Australia, the paper examines these emerging trends within the context of the growing number of larger-scale industrial, agricultural and dual reticulation urban recycled water systems in Australia and the trend to decentralised recycling schemes. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Simms A.,University of Wollongong
e-Review of Tourism Research | Year: 2012

Travellers are increasingly turning to online user-generated content for vacation planning. Previous studies have looked at a variety of factors to explain differing levels of social media consumption between travellers. Previous research, however, has not examined the role of the role of trip characteristics (such as familiarity with a destination, location of a destination, trip length, travel planning lead time, and travel party composition) in this context. This study found that trip characteristics seem to play a key role when it comes to travellers' engagement with user-generated content for travel planning - a higher percentage of travellers turned to user-generated content when visiting a destination for the first time, as well as visiting an international destination; a lower percentage of those who travel on their own engaged with social media. This study did not find differences regarding trip length or travel planning lead times.


Farokhi H.,McGill University | Ghayesh M.H.,University of Wollongong
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study is to investigate the geometrically nonlinear size-dependent bending as well as resonant behaviour over the bent state of a microarch under an axial load. In particular, an axial load is applied on the system causing the initial curvature to increase by giving rise to a new bent configuration. A distributed harmonic transverse force is then exerted on the microarch and the nonlinear resonant response of the system over the new deflected configuration is investigated. The nonlinear partial differential equation of motion is obtained via Hamilton's principle based on the modified couple stress theory. The equation is discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations through use of the Galerkin scheme. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is then applied to the resultant set of ordinary differential equations. First, for the unforced system in the transverse direction, the axial load is increased and the new deflected configuration of the system is plotted versus the axial compression load; the nonlinear resonant response over the deflected configuration is then investigated through constructing frequency-response and force-response curves. © 2014 Politechnika Wrocławska.


Rogers K.,University of Wollongong | Saintilan N.,Rivers and Wetlands Unit | Copeland C.,Conservation Action Unit
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2012

Empirical data derived from a network of surface elevation tables established on the Hunter River, Australia, in 2000 was used to model sediment accretion within estuarine wetlands using factorial analysis of variance. As surface elevation change did not differ significantly from accretion over the 10 year study period in the mangrove and saltmarsh (p=0.4104), the accretion model was regarded as a reliable estimate of elevation change. Using the current rate of sea-level rise (3.65mmy -1), a rate deemed to be relatively moderate, a landscape elevation model was developed by applying the accretion model to a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model at annual increments to 2050. Based on current rates of sea-level rise and the intertidal elevation that currently supports mangrove and saltmarsh, the landscape elevation model projected a 16% increase in the area within the elevation range suitable to support mangrove and saltmarsh. This contrasts 'bathtub modelling', which projected a 6% decline in wetland extent. Bathtub modelling fails to account for the ability of mangrove and saltmarsh to accommodate sea-level rise through processes of accretion, shrink-swell of sediments and the accumulation of organic material. Results from the landscape elevation model suggest that planning for sea-level rise should be directed towards facilitating wetland adaptation by promoting tidal exchange to mangrove and saltmarsh and providing land for wetland migration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


O'Gorman E.,University of Wollongong
Environmental History | Year: 2012

In April 1990, record-breaking floods in the Warrego River threatened the rural town of Cunnamulla, located in Queensland, Australia. The floods had already inundated the upstream town of Charleville causing significant damage to property and the mass evacuation of residents. This article explores the 1990 floods in Cunnamulla in the context of two key elements of Australian history: first, several decades of rural decline in southwestern Queensland, and second, state responses to floods that had become increasingly centralized over the preceding two decades. I first examine the wider historical contexts of colonial settlement, environmental changes, and past floods in Cunnamulla and the Warrego catchment. I then analyze the 1990 floods, focusing on the interactions between Allan Tannock, a longtime resident of Cunnamulla, and Police Superintendent Harry Edwards, a state government official sent from Queensland's state capital of Brisbane to take charge of the town's flood response. I argue that these events have ongoing relevance in Australia because barriers to the inclusion of local knowledge persist, even as new climate change concerns have emerged. This history of floods in the Warrego River suggests that better flood management can be achieved when state government responses to floods adopt a pragmatic management approach that includes formal avenues through which different kinds of knowledge can be included. © 2012 The Author.


This paper explores the ways physical and health education is justified in two school settings: a private girls' school and a co-educational government school located in the same Australian city. Physical and health education policies and interview material with teachers are drawn on to explore the meanings taken up by the schools. Whilst similar sets of 'truths' around young people and health were drawn on to define the place of physical and health education in the lives of their students, there were also stark differences. It is argued that through these differences important discursive work is being performed. In particular, this paper explores how the schools are implicated in the discursive continuation of particular 'classed' subjectivities. For example, a set of discourses around 'at-risk', 'disadvantaged', 'youth' were drawn on by the teachers from the government school to construct physical and health education as a means for 'saving' their students' lives. By comparison, in the private girls' school's texts, emphasis was on inviting students to become particular 'independent', 'responsible' young women. It is argued that the exposure and access to these different notions of 'health' positioned students quite differently as particular 'classed' subjects. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Perlman D.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model (SEM) on amotivated students affect and needs satisfaction. 78 amotivated students from an original pool of 1,176 students enrolled in one of 32 physical education classes. Classes were randomly assigned to either the SEM (N = 16) or traditional class (N = 16). Data were collected using a pretest/posttest design measuring affect (enjoyment) and needs satisfaction. Analysis of data used repeated-measures ANOVAs to examine differences. Results indicated significant changes in amotivated student's perceptions of enjoyment and relatedness satisfaction within the SEM. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Fang D.,Tianjin University | Yao P.,Tianjin University | Li H.,University of Wollongong
Ceramics International | Year: 2014

Mg-Al co-doped ZnO (AMZO) thin films were deposited on quartz glass via sol-gel spin coating method. The structural and optical properties of Mg-Al co-doped ZnO thin films annealed at different temperatures were characterized via X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results revealed that the films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and the calculated average grain size increased from 23.02 nm to 49.85 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 500 C to 800 C. The change in lattice parameters was demonstrated by grain size, strain, and residual stress. The SEM images showed that the AMZO thin film surface appeared flat, and the grain size was uniformly distributed at 500 C. When the annealing temperature was increased from 600 C to 800 C, the surface of the films showed larger grain sizes, numerous micropores, and some cracks. The EDS results confirmed the presence of Mg and Al elements in the AMZO thin films. Raman spectroscopy results showed that all films had E2 (high) mode, which indicates that all films had a ZnO wurtzite structure. Moreover, the optical transmittance of the AMZO thin films was over 85% in the visible region. The optical band gap of the AMZO thin films decreased from 3.348 eV to 3.304 eV when the annealing temperature was increased from 500 C to 800 C. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra showed an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a strong defect emission peak. The UV peaks of the AMZO thin films were red-shifted from 372 nm to 379 nm. In addition, the defect peaks of the AMZO thin films were blue-shifted from 598 nm to 527 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 500 C to 800 C. The possible mechanisms of the defect peaks were studied. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.


Mullins S.,University of Wollongong
Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy | Year: 2012

McCauley's research adds to what we know about sympathy for elements of the "global jihad frame" among the wider U.S. Muslim population and establishes the need for a targeted and differentiated approach to persuasive communication aimed at undermining sympathy for terrorism. This commentary aims to supplement McCauley's paper with a brief discussion of the distinction between radical thought and action, and what this means for the "war on ideas. © 2012 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.


Goldsmith A.J.,University of Wollongong
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010

This paper applies the concept of 'new visibility' (Thompson 2005) to recent developments around policing, particularly the prevalence of mobile phone cameras in the wider community and the capacity via video-sharing platforms such as YouTube, and social networking sites like Facebook, to share images of apparent police misconduct with mass audiences and to mobilize groups into taking action of some kind. Two case studies, the Ian Tomlinson case in London in April 2009 and the Robert Dziekanski case in Vancouver in October 2007, are used to illustrate the unprecedented power of this new capability and the challenges that it poses for police image management. The implications for police legitimacy and accountability of these developments are explored. The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). All rights reserved.2010 © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). All rights reserved.


Gordon R.,University of Wollongong | Heim D.,University of Central Lancashire | MacAskill S.,University of Stirling
Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: This paper presents the synthesis of findings from a literature review study of drinking cultures across five West European countries (France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK), examining the nature and features of drinking typologies before proposing a new dimensional approach. Study design: The study incorporated a systematic literature search covering the period 1980-2010 for literature from each of the five countries. Methods: Researchers reviewed abstracts and selected relevant material, leading to the inclusion of 203 articles from database searches plus 26 records from other sources. A summary of key findings are presented here. Intercoder reliability checks were performed to ensure consistency in inclusion in the review according to pre-ordained selection criteria. The review was further supplemented by the inclusion of gray literature including policy documents obtained from a range of sources. Results: It was found that sociocultural contexts have a major influence on drinking cultures, and this is an area in which there have been dramatic changes over the past 30 years. Differences were found between the countries in terms of drinking cultures, the way in which alcohol is viewed, and how alcohol-related policy and practice operates. However, there seems to be an increasing homogenization of drinking cultures across many countries, strongly influenced by Anglo-US cultural zeitgeist. Modern drinking patterns have emerged, offering a complex and often overlapping schema of drinking typologies. Conclusions: The study suggests that the wet-dry dichotomy is no longer relevant and that a revised version of a more recent dimensional approach featuring three dimensions - hedonism, function and control - may be better placed to describe and measure contemporary drinking cultures. © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health.


Tam L.,University of Wollongong | Dholakia U.,Rice University
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money. © The Author(s) 2013.


Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA. © 2016 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Freeman M.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Cases on Information Technology | Year: 2011

This case examines the issue of increasing adoption of Social Networking Technologies (SNTs), particularly microblogging, for emergency management practices during natural disasters. It discusses the technologies and how they are an integral part of information transfer for citizens in the geographic region affected by the natural disaster. This case presents the progression of how SNTs have been used during and in the aftermath of natural disasters in Australia between 2009 and 2011; these events are used as 'organization' for the paper. Accurate and timely information during natural disasters is essential in providing citizens with details about whether they should stay or leave an area. Traditionally, information was provided through television and radio broadcasts; however, these types of communications were one-way and only allowed for the push of information to citizens. SNTs are being used by the media and emergency organizations to provide information to citizens. These technologies are dynamic in their approach, allowing for knowledge sharing of all parties involved. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global.


Anderson E.J.,University of Sydney | Coltman T.,University of Wollongong | Devinney T.M.,University of Technology, Sydney | Keating B.,University of Canberra
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2011

It is generally believed that companies choose supply chain partners on the basis of their distinctive value propositions - a fact one would also expect holds true when companies choose a logistics service provider. However, faced with the complexities of varied customer demands, it can be difficult for logistics service companies to obtain an effective understanding of how customers differentially value the service components they offer. In this paper, we address this issue by identifying the factors that are important in a customer's choice of a logistics service provider. Using stated choice methods we explore the relative importance of seven service attributes using a sample of 309 managers with a central role in purchasing logistics services across a range of industries and countries. The results reveal that three distinct decision models populate our data where the preferences for different logistics service attributes - such as price and delivery performance - vary greatly between customer groups represented by these models. Strategically, our findings provide the management of a third-party logistics provider with a logical starting point from which to determine the goals that are set for their operations, particularly in choosing the customer segments to service. © 2011 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.™.


Louie J.C.Y.,University of Sydney | Buyken A.E.,Research Institute of Child Nutrition | Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets may be less nutritious because of limited food choices. Alternately, high-GI diets could be less healthful because of a higher intake of refined carbohydrate. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between dietary GI, intakes of carbohydrates from high-GI (CHOhigh GI) and low-GI (CHO low GI) sources, and the risk of nutrient inadequacy in children and adolescents. Design: Children, aged 2-16 y, who provided 2 plausible 24-h recalls in a national survey were included (n = 4140). The ORs of not meeting the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results: Subjects with higher intakes of CHOhigh GI were found to be at risk of not meeting the NRVs for a wide range of nutrients, including calcium and iodine (both P-trend < 0.001). In comparison with subjects in the lowest quartile of CHOhigh GI, those in the highest quartile had 3 times (adjusted OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 2.47, 3.97; P-trend < 0.001) the risk of not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for calcium. For iodine, the risk increased >5-fold (adjusted OR: 5.45; 95% CI: 3.97, 7.48; P-trend < 0.001). On the other hand, subjects with higher intakes of CHO low GI were less likely to meet Adequate Intakes of unsaturated fatty acids (all P-trend < 0.001), despite having lower risks of not meeting the NRVs for most nutrients. Conclusion: Children and adolescents who consume more CHOlow GIare more likely to meet most nutrient recommendations than those consuming higher GI diets. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Tapsell L.C.,University of Wollongong
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD. Copyright © The Author 2015.


Aim: Food is a phenomenon that everyone has an opinion on because eating is a frequent, often social occurrence, and as such the importance of mealtimes can be undervalued in healthcare settings. Some staff may not share our concerns about suboptimal dietary intakes as they assume that nutritional status will improve as people feel better. However, the provision and consumption of an appealing and adequate diet is a critical aspect of holistic health care. This review examines the role of dietitians in food services to improve the situation. Methods: A narrative review was formed with reference to the literature. Results: Labelling food service departments as a 'hotel service' or a 'non-clinical service' does little to assist the perception of these services by others; to enhance the knowledge and skills needed by others about optimising dietary intake opportunities by the sick and elderly; or to enhance the communication that is needed between stakeholders about food and mealtimes. The issue of addressing malnutrition, reviewing and improving menus, mealtime environments, feeding assistance, communication between staff, and acknowledgement of the important care role of food service providers becomes even more relevant as the population ages and the demand for health care grows. Conclusion: This narrative highlights that the importance of dietitians building links with food services, leading high-quality research, and improving the profile and recognition of food and mealtimes as integral to care, has never been greater. © 2012 The Author. Nutrition & Dietetics © 2012 Dietitians Association of Australia.


Szabo K.,University of Wollongong | Amesbury J.R.,Micronesian Archaeological Research Services
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The vast Asia-Pacific region, spanning from the islands of Indonesia and Borneo in the west through Melanesia, Micronesia, and West Polynesia in the east, is a panorama of water and islands. Encompassing the " coral triangle" , this region is the most speciose of the global marine biogeographic provinces with a mosaic of high-biomass habitats such as mangrove swamps and coral reefs as well as rocky shores, seagrass meadows and beaches. The importance of molluscs across this region, as a consistent source of food as well as providing raw materials for artefacts, can hardly be overestimated. The western parts of this region have Pleistocene human occupation records, with some zones of Indonesia yielding non-sapiens hominin remains (Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis). For most of the tropical Pacific Islands, the archaeological record commences at ∼3.5-∼1 ka BP. Rather than conducting an exhaustive survey of knowledge of the human use of molluscs over this vast span of space and time, the focus here is on central issues regarding the use of molluscan resources for food. Four major issues are discussed; (1) the evidence for shellfish collection by non-sapiens hominins; (2) the character of early Homo sapiens shellfish-gathering relative to discussions of coastal adaptations; (3) what was the effect on shell-gathering practices as seas rose in the Holocene; and (4) where do shellfish fit into the notions of early subsistence in Oceanic Micronesia and Melanesia-West Polynesia? © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Niu Z.,Nanyang Technological University | Chen J.,University of Wollongong | Hng H.H.,Nanyang Technological University | Ma J.,Nanyang Technological University | Chen X.,Nanyang Technological University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

Making graphene "bread": A leavening strategy - involving hydrazine vapor - is used to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foams with porous and continuously cross-linked structures from freestanding compact GO layered films. Such rGO foams perform excellently as flexible electrode materials for supercapacitors and selective organic absorbents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cooper P.,University of Wollongong | Hunt G.R.,Imperial College London
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

This paper describes the fluid mechanics within a box containing a vertical plane distributed source of buoyancy. A theoretical analysis is presented that models the development of plumes from such sources in an unconfined ambient of uniform density. Two extensions are considered. The first concerns a sealed box and the second involves the more general situation where the box is ventilated by openings at top and bottom. In the sealed box the stratification develops in much the same way as for a filling box containing a single-point source of buoyancy on the floor. An initial front descends from the ceiling of the box and an asymptotic stratification eventually develops which is continuous in the vertical direction. In the case of the ventilated box it is found that a complex stratification develops where one or more horizontal intrusions are formed by detachment of the plume/boundary layer from the vertically distributed source where the buoyancy of the plume is less than, or equal to, that of the stratified ambient at a given height. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the theory. The findings are relevant to both forced and naturally ventilated buildings containing non-adiabatic vertical surfaces. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.


Taechakumthorn C.,University of Wollongong | Rowe R.K.,Queens University
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2012

An existing elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is modified using concepts of the state-dependent fluidity parameters and the damage law, to incorporate the effect of soil structure and its destructuration. The model is employed to simulate the performance of a well-documented case study of the reinforced test embankment constructed over a sensitive Champlain clay deposit at Saint Alban, Quebec. The finite element calculations, using both the original (nonstructured) and modified (structured) elastoviscoplastic soil models, are compared with the observed field data from a test embankment brought to failure. The results from the structured elastoviscoplastic soil model show better agreements with the field data when compared with those analyzed using the nonstructured elastoviscoplastic soil model. The modified model captures many features of the reinforced embankment behaviour, such as vertical settlement, excess pore-water pressure responses, and reinforcement force. However, they also reveal the fact that another important characteristic of the natural clay deposit - anisotropy - needs to be considered to provide an adequate prediction of horizontal deformations. The role of geosynthetic reinforcement and its viscosity on short-term responses of the reinforced embankment examined in this study is also discussed.


Taechakumthorn C.,University of Wollongong | Rowe R.K.,Queens University
Geosynthetics International | Year: 2012

The time-dependent behavior of reinforced embankments constructed over ratesensitive soils is examined for different maximum allowable long-term reinforcement strains using finite element analysis. The long-term service height, lateral toe spreading, maximum differential settlement and maximum settlement of reinforced embankments are examined. The viscoelastic nature of geosynthetic reinforcement is considered. Various factors affecting the performance of reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive soil are investigated: soil viscosity, reinforcement type and construction rate. Based on a series of finite element analyses, the ideal allowable long-term reinforcement strains that control the embankment deformations to modest levels while maximizing the long-term service height of reinforced embankments, considering the combined effect of soil and reinforcement viscosity, are suggested. © 2012 Thomas Telford Ltd.


Janssen X.,University of Strathclyde | Cliff D.P.,University of Wollongong
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science | Year: 2015

The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by researchers when examining sedentary behavior. The different issues researchers may encounter when measuring sedentary behavior have been divided into (a) activity monitor placement; (b) epochs, cut points, and non-wear time definitions; (c) criteria for sedentary behavior bouts and breaks; and (d) combining motion and posture data. This article recommends that (a) activity monitors should be placed on the thigh and combined with a data reduction approach that estimates inclination, especially in children and adults; and (b) researchers should clearly report their data processing decisions to enhance the ability to evaluate and compare studies in the future. However, the article also highlights a dearth of methodological evidence to inform the use of objective measures of sedentary behavior. Based on the gaps in the literature, research recommendations, which require addressing to develop a best practice protocol when measuring sedentary behavior objectively, have been made. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Li Z.,University of Wollongong
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

A generalized minimum variance controller is developed for linear time-varying systems for servo applications. The plants to be controlled is described using a SISO CARMA model and the control objective is to minimize a generalized minimum variance performance index, where the output tracking error variance is penalized by squared incremental of plant input in order to reduce fluctuation in plant input and attenuate process disturbances. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Taylor N.A.S.,University of Wollongong
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2014

In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation. © 2014 American Physiological Society.


Nattestad A.,Monash University | Mozer A.J.,University of Wollongong | Fischer M.K.R.,University of Ulm | Cheng Y.-B.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

Thin-film dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous semiconductor electrodes are low-cost alternatives to conventional silicon devices. High-efficiency DSCs typically operate as photoanodes (n-DSCs), where photocurrents result from dye-sensitized electron injection into n-type semiconductors. Dye-sensitized photocathodes (p-DSCs) operate in an inverse mode, where dye-excitation is followed by rapid electron transfer from a p-type semiconductor to the dye (dye-sensitized hole injection). Such p-DSCs and n-DSCs can be combined to construct tandem solar cells (pn-DSCs) with a theoretical efficiency limitation well beyond that of single-junction DSCs (ref.4). Nevertheless, the efficiencies of such tandem pn-DSCs have so far been hampered by the poor performance of the available p-DSCs (refs3, 5-15). Here we show for the first time that p-DSCs can convert absorbed photons to electrons with yields of up to 96%, resulting in a sevenfold increase in energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported photocathodes. The donor-acceptor dyes, studied as photocathodic sensitizers, comprise a variable-length oligothiophene bridge, which provides control over the spatial separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. As a result, charge recombination is decelerated by several orders of magnitude and tandem pn-DSCs can be constructed that exceed the efficiency of their individual components. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Deng C.,University of Wollongong
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

Although clozapine, olanzapine, and other atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have fewer extrapyramidal side effects, they have serious metabolic side effects such as substantial weight gain, intra-abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that most patients with mental disorders face chronic, even life-long, treatment with APDs, the risks of weight gain/obesity and other metabolic symptoms are major considerations for APD maintenance treatment. This review focuses on the effects of APDs on weight gain, appetite, insulin resistance, and glucose dysregulation, and the relevant underlying mechanisms that may be help to prevent and treat metabolic side effects caused by APD therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Oakley A.,University of Wollongong
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2011

The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are one of the most important families of detoxifying enzymes in nature. The classic activity of the GSTs is conjugation of compounds with electrophilic centers to the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), but many other activities are now associated with GSTs, including steroid and leukotriene biosynthesis, peroxide degradation, double-bond cis-trans isomerization, dehydroascorbate reduction, Michael addition, and noncatalytic gandin activity (ligand binding and transport). Since the first GST structure was determined in 1991, there has been an explosion in structural data across GSTs of all three families: the cytosolic GSTs, the mitochondrial GSTs, and the membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG family). In this review, the major insights into GST structure and function will be discussed. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Al-Rifai J.H.,University of Wollongong | Khabbaz H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Schafer A.I.,University of Edinburgh
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011

A detailed investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence, persistence and fate of a range of micropollutants at different processing points at a full-scale water recycling plant (WRP) in Queensland, Australia. The WRP, which combines an advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), produces high quality recycled water for industrial users. The concentrations of 11 pharmaceuticals from various therapeutic categories and two endocrine disrupting chemicals were examined in full-scale microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane facilities. Salicylic acid was the most abundant analyte in the WWTP influent, with a concentration range of 11-38 μg/L, followed by bisphenol A with concentrations ranging from 6 to 23 μg/L. The concentration of all analytes decreased on average by one order of magnitude following primary and secondary treatment. Gemfibrozil, primidone and carbamazepine were found to have lower removal efficiencies (74-78%) than other compounds during these stages, which could indicate lower biodegradability. The microfiltration and reverse osmosis systems were found to further lower the pollutant concentrations by an order of magnitude. The overall removal efficiencies in the final recycled water were above 97%, resulting in product water concentrations of lower than 0.1 μg/L for most compounds. An exception to this finding was observed for bisphenol A, which was detected in concentrations up to 0.5 μg/L in the final recycled water. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li W.H.,University of Wollongong | Nakano M.,Tohoku University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2013

This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a new magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a matrix. The base and curing agent of PDMS with a weight ratio of 10:1 were mixed first as the carrying matrix, and then carbonyl iron particles were added to the matrix and stirred sufficiently. The final mixture was placed in a vacuum chamber to eliminate bubbles for 30 min and was moulded later to form membranes of 1 mm thickness. A total of four PDMS based MRE samples, with different weight fractions of 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%, were fabricated. Their mechanical properties under both steady-state and dynamic loading conditions were tested. The effects of particle composition, magnetic field, strain amplitude and frequency on the MRE effects were summarized. With the increase of iron particle composition, the magnetorheological effects of the samples increase steadily. It is also noted that the initial modulus of the MRE samples shows an increasing trend with the iron particle composition. Additionally, the microstructures of the PDMS based MREs were also observed by a low vacuum scanning electric microscope (LV-SEM). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Clark R.G.,University of Wollongong
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Distance sampling is a technique for estimating the abundance of animals or other objects in a region, allowing for imperfect detection. This paper evaluates the statistical efficiency of the method when its assumptions are met, both theoretically and by simulation. The theoretical component of the paper is a derivation of the asymptotic variance penalty for the distance sampling estimator arising from uncertainty about the unknown detection parameters. This asymptotic penalty factor is tabulated for several detection functions. It is typically at least 2 but can be much higher, particularly for steeply declining detection rates. The asymptotic result relies on a model which makes the strong assumption that objects are uniformly distributed across the region. The simulation study relaxes this assumption by incorporating over-dispersion when generating object locations. Distance sampling and strip transect estimators are calculated for simulated data, for a variety of overdispersion factors, detection functions, sample sizes and strip widths. The simulation results confirm the theoretical asymptotic penalty in the non-overdispersed case. For a more realistic overdispersion factor of 2, distance sampling estimation outperforms strip transect estimation when a half-normal distance function is correctly assumed, confirming previous literature. When the hazard rate model is correctly assumed, strip transect estimators have lower mean squared error than the usual distance sampling estimator when the strip width is close enough to its optimal value (± 75% when there are 100 detections; ± 50% when there are 200 detections). Whether the ecologist can set the strip width sufficiently accurately will depend on the circumstances of each particular study. © 2016 Robert Graham Clark. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Loring T.A.,University of New Mexico | Sorensen A.P.W.,Copenhagen University | Sorensen A.P.W.,University of Wollongong
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

The behavior of fermionic systems depends on the geometry of the system and the symmetry class of the Hamiltonian and observables. Almost commuting matrices arise from band-projected position observables in such systems. One expects the mathematical behavior of almost commuting Hermitian matrices to depend on two factors. One factor will be the approximate polynomial relations satisfied by the matrices. The other factor is what algebra the matrices are in, either Mn(A) for A = ℝ, A = ℂ or A = ℍ, the algebra of quaternions. There are potential obstructions keeping k-tuples of almost commuting operators from being close to a commuting k-tuple.We consider two-dimensional geometries and so this obstruction lives in KO-2(A). This obstruction corresponds to either the Chern number or spin Chern number in physics. We show that if this obstruction is the trivial element in K-theory then the approximation by commuting matrices is possible. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hemberger P.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Trevitt A.J.,University of Wollongong | Ross E.,University of Melbourne | Da Silva G.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Xylyl (methylbenzyl) radicals are important combustion intermediates, formed in the pyrolysis and oxidation of xylenes and other substituted aromatic fuel additives. We have used VUV synchrotron radiation and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy techniques to identify para-xylylene as the dominant stable C8H8 product arising from thermal decomposition of the meta-xylyl radical. A complex rearrangement from a meta- to a para-substituted aromatic, supported by quantum chemical calculations, can rationalize the observed reaction products. This work provides the first experimental evidence for the pyrolysis products of the meta-xylyl radical and can explain why the decomposition of this radical is considerably slower than that of the ortho and para isomers. This study emphasizes the utility of VUV synchrotron radiation and iPEPICO spectroscopy to tackle the reaction mechanism of combustion-relevant processes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


The International Maritime Organization (IMO) received its mandate to regulate shipping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Kyoto Protocol. However, the IMO Convention and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea also provide it with competence in this area. In exercising its mandate, the IMO has developed regulatory initiatives. China's shipping industry is playing a growing role in the international shipping market, and its response to these initiatives will have a substantial effect on the future application of these regulations. This article analyses the GHG mandate of the IMO, examines the main outcomes achieved within the organization on this issue, and assesses the response from China's shipping industry to this issue. It concludes that the interests of the shipping industries from developing countries will need to be taken into account in the development of regulatory efforts if a consensus is to be achieved in the global reduction of GHG emissions from ships. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 2014.


Woodroffe C.D.,University of Wollongong | Webster J.M.,University of Sydney
Marine Geology | Year: 2014

Coral reefs provide significant evidence for former sea-level positions because of their geological preservation and suitability for dating. Interpretation of this evidence presumes an understanding of reef geomorphology, modern reef organism distributions, and environmental factors influencing them. Fossil reef terraces, formed during the last interglacial, marine oxygen isotope (MIS) substage 5e (~. 128-116. ka), are prevalent on many tropical shorelines and there has been ongoing debate as to the height reached by sea level during that highstand. Observations from numerous last interglacial sites suggest that sea level was at least 3. m above present sea level, implying less extensive icesheets than at present. An elevation of 6. m has commonly been adopted when correcting tectonically active sites for uplift. Recent compilations suggest elevations up to 8-9. m, but incorporate few observations from reefs where the last interglacial is found below sea level. Oscillation of sea level during MIS 5e has been interpreted from several sites, with recent studies inferring rapid rise of several metres at the end of the interglacial. These interpretations are at the limits to the precision with which corals can currently be dated and their palaeo-water depths inferred. It is not surprising that constraining last interglacial sea-level changes within uncertainties of less than 1-2. m remains controversial, considering sea-level variations recognised between reef sites in the Holocene, and observed geographical variation in isostatic or flexural adjustments. Fossil coral reefs on uplifting margins also provide clear evidence for MIS substages 5c and 5a, and those on Huon Peninsula indicate fluctuations related to Heinrich events (MIS 3). Interpretations show considerable variability between sites, with still greater uncertainties about sea-level timing and elevation during previous interglacials. Future study of extensive sequences of fossil reefs preserved on rapidly subsiding margins could address these uncertainties. Submerged reefs have already yielded important information about sea-level rise during the last deglaciation. Coring around Barbados and Tahiti, as well as on the Huon Peninsula, has produced a broadly consistent picture of ice melt, reflecting eustatic change since the last glacial maximum. These studies have shown the sensitivity of reefs to rapid sea-level rise associated with meltwater pulses, with some reefs drowning while others back-stepped. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expeditions to Tahiti, and recently the Great Barrier Reef, extended these records, but details of timing, nature and impact of deglacial meltwater pulses remain elusive. Studies of Holocene reefs have indicated different growth strategies; some kept up with sea level, while others caught up when sea level decelerated. Holocene sea level appears to have experienced a gradual rise up to present across the Caribbean, providing accommodation space for reefs to accrete vertically; whereas in the Indo-Pacific sea level has been near its present level since 7. ka, with many reef flats emergent following a slight fall of sea level caused by ocean siphoning. Microatolls on reef flats provide perhaps the clearest evidence of past sea-level position, but, in their absence, novel biological or other sea-level indicators are required to better constrain palaeo-water depths. There is an urgent need for further research from additional key reef locations, not only to decipher processes driving past sea-level change and its geographical variability, but also to better understand how coral reefs will respond in the context of future sea-level rise. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Abeysekera I.,University of Wollongong
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Many research questions in studies on environmental practices have used variables with little regard as to whether they represent theoretical constructs. This validation is fundamental to testing and interpreting theories using variables. This study examines whether environmental disclosure, environmental performance, and economic performance are different constructs. It uses canonical correlation analysis technique, and reviews two published studies as case presentations. Analyzing the study by Al-Tuwaijri et al., the environmental disclosure variable is found to represent the disclosure construct, while the environmental performance and economic performance variables are found to represent two dimensions of the performance construct. In the Hasseldine et al. study, environmental performance is found to represent the performance construct. Results indicate that the two disclosure variables are uni-dimensional of the disclosure construct. These findings are supported by the main analysis and additional analysis undertaken for each study. This research demonstrates how the canonical correlation analysis technique can be used to test whether empirical variables represent expressed theoretical constructs before publishing findings. It also shows a unique way to review published studies to develop and analyze research questions not examined in the original work. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wilson S.R.,University of Wollongong
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Estimates of the rate of production of excited oxygen atoms due to the photolysis of ozone (J(O1D)) have been derived from radiation measurements carried out at Cape Grim, Tasmania (40.6°S, 144.7°E). The individual measurements have a total uncertainty of 16 % (1σ). These estimates agree well with model estimates of clear-sky photolysis rates. Observations spanning 2000-2005 have been used to quantify the impact of season, clouds and ozone column amount. The annual cycle of J(O1D) has been investigated via monthly means. These means show an interannual variation (monthly standard deviation) of 9 %, but in midsummer and midwinter this reduces to 3-5 %. Variations in solar zenith angle and total column ozone explain 86 % of the observed variability in the measured photolysis rates. The impact of total column ozone, expressed as a radiation amplification factor (RAF), is found to be ∼ 1.53, in agreement with model estimates. This ozone dependence explains 20 % of the variation observed at medium solar zenith angles (30-50°). The impact of clouds results in a median reduction of 30 % in J(O1D) for the same solar zenith angle range. Including estimates of cloudiness derived from long-wave radiation measurements resulted in a statistically significant fit to observations, but the quality of the fit did not increase significantly as measured by the adjusted R2. © Author(s) 2015.


Remennikov A.M.,University of Wollongong | Kaewunruen S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Engineering Structures | Year: 2014

Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are structural members that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. Recent studies have established two main limit states for the design consideration of concrete sleepers: ultimate limit states under extreme impact and fatigue limit states under repeated probabilistic impact loads. It was noted that the prestress level has a significant role in maintaining the high endurance of the sleepers under low to moderate repeated impact loads. This experimental investigation was aimed at static and dynamic load rating of aged railway concrete sleepers after service. Fifteen sleepers were extracted from a heavy haul rail network for testing using experimental facilities at the University of Wollongong (UoW), Australia. The structural evaluation program included quasi-static bending tests, dynamic impact tests, and tests to establish the current level of prestress in the steel wires using the dynamic relaxation technique. Two of the sleepers were evaluated for the level of prestressing forces in accordance with Australian Standards. Through diagnostic tests, the results of quasi-static bending tests produced the in-track bending capacities of sleepers that can be combined with the moments and forces anticipated over the next ten years to predict performance of the sleepers on a heavy haul coal line. The dynamic tests simulating the ability of concrete sleepers to resist extreme loading events due to heavy impact loads demonstrated that the sleepers in-track are likely to be able to resist the planned increased traffic without catastrophic failure over the next decade. Final conclusions suggest that there should be a routine test program every five years to ascertain the load rating of clustered sleepers and their fastening system in the heavy haul track system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kent L.M.,National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health | Worsley A.,University of Wollongong
Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Head L.,University of Wollongong
Geographical Research | Year: 2012

The usefulness of the concept of biotic nativeness has been challenged in both the social and natural sciences, for different reasons. This paper explores the particular construction of nativeness in Australia in relation to plants, showing that the definition builds on and inscribes more deeply the boundary between humans and the rest of nature seen in the wider literature. In this context two further boundaries are etched: between some humans and others, and before and after European colonisation. Such a use of nativeness as an axiom of environmental management is argued to be problematic, foreclosing a number of future options just when we need to increase our capacity to deal with contingency and unpredictability. But if Australia has experienced distinctive historical processes of entrenching these boundaries, it also has a distinctive heritage of destabilisation in a range of geographic work. The paper discusses how we might build on this heritage to imagine more open futures in which the problematic boundaries were removed. Some of these futures resonate with vernacular recombinations of plants from diverse origins. © 2011 The Author. Geographical Research © 2011 Institute of Australian Geographers.