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Ghode A.,University of Mumbai | Periyasamy K.,University of Wisconsin osse
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation. © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Bolkan C.,Washington State University | Srinivasan E.,University of Wisconsin osse | Dewar A.R.,University of Central Florida | Schubel S.,Washington State University
Gerontology and Geriatrics Education | Year: 2015

Students may have a greater willingness to discuss issues of death and loss through written assignments; however, there is little guidance for instructors regarding how to manage these sensitive assignments, nor how students benefit from them. The authors implemented and evaluated a “lossography” assignment in an undergraduate thanatology course in which students wrote about their losses and anonymously shared these narratives with their classmates. Although many themes of loss emerged, the most frequently reported significant loss was death of a grandparent. Additionally, most significant losses occurred in childhood/adolescence. Prominent themes related to student learning included gaining self-awareness, knowledge about grief responses, and compassion for others. Students (N = 64) also completed a survey reflecting on their course learning. Of all aspects of course delivery, 44% identified the lossography as the most beneficial, whereas 97% recommended this assignment for future students. The implications of the assignment for death education are also discussed. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Double M.L.,West Virginia University | Kolp M.R.,Michigan State University | Jarosz A.M.,Michigan State University | Davelos Baines A.,University of Wisconsin osse | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

A research project to introduce hypoviruses and monitor their spread was initiated 20 years ago in an American chestnut (Castanea dentata) stand growing 900 km west of the natural range of the species in western Wisconsin (USA). During this period, CHV1 and CHV3 hypoviruses were deployed by treating cankers with the resident Cryphonectria parasitica strains that were hypovirus infected. Hypovirus spread has been assessed annually by removing and culturing small bark plugs from cankers and evaluating whether the resulting colonies were morphologically virulent or hypovirulent. A variety of fungi other than C. parasitica have been recovered from cankers during this study. In order to better understand the role of recovered fungi and their relationship over time, fungal isolates recovered in 2012 from 500 cankers were categorized by the age of the canker (based on date of discovery), appearance/morphology and location within the stand. Cankers were divided into four age categories: (1) one-year-old cankers; (2) two-to-four years-old; (3) five-toten years-old; and (4) eleven-to-twenty years-old. Virulent C. parasitica isolates were most frequently recovered from one-year old cankers, but recovery decreased from a high of 60% in one-year-old cankers to 43, 30 and 19%, respectively, for the three increasingly older categories. In contrast, the recovery of hypovirulent C. parasitica isolates increased from 17% in one-year-old cankers to 35% in cankers representing the oldest canker category. Isolation of Trichoderma atroviride and T. aureoviride increased as cankers aged and accounted for 42% of all the colonies recovered from the oldest cankers. Most species of Trichoderma are aggressive saprophytes; some are proven biocontrol agents. Other fungi that were isolated included Botryosphaeria sp., Didymostilbe sp., Dothiorella sp., Epicoccum nigrum, Paraconiothyrium sp., Pestalotia sp., Penicillium spinulosum, Penicillium glabrum and Umbellopsis isabellina but these represented only 4-7% of isolates among all age categories. A decrease in the recovery of virulent C. parasitica strains and a corresponding increase in recovery of hypovirulent C. parasitica strains would be expected if biological control is active. The frequency with which Trichoderma spp. have been recovered may implicate this organism as a contributor to chestnut blight biological control. Source

Ebben W.P.,Marquette University | Kaufmann C.E.,University of Wisconsin osse | Fauth M.L.,Marquette University | Petushek E.J.,Marquette University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

Concurrent activation potentiation enhances muscular force during open kinetic chain isometric and isokinetic exercises via remote voluntary contractions (RVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of RVCs on the performance of closed kinetic chain ground-based exercises. Subjects included 13 men (21.4 ± 1.5 years) who performed the back squat and jump squat in 2 test conditions. The RVC condition included performing the test exercises while clenching the jaw on a mouth guard, forcefully gripping and pulling the barbell down into the trapezius, and performing a Valsalva maneuver. The normal condition (NO-RVC) included performing the test exercises without RVCs. Exercises were assessed with a force platform. Peak ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development (RFD) during the first 100 milliseconds (RFD-100), RFD to peak GRF (RFD-P), and jump squat height (JH) were calculated from the force-time records. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance. Results reveal that GRF and RFD-100 were higher in the RVC compared with the NO-RVC condition for both the back squat and jump squat (p ≤ 0.05). The RFD-P was higher in the RVC compared with NO-RVC condition for the jump squat (p ≤ 0.05) but not for the back squat (p = 0.82). The JH was higher in the RVC compared to the NO-RVC condition for the jump squat (p ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrates that RVCs enhance the performance of closed kinetic chain exercises for most of the outcome variables assessed, yielding a 2.9-32.3% greater performance. Practitioners should encourage athletes to use RVCs to improve the acute training effect of exercises such as those used in this study. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Ebben W.P.,Marquette University | Fauth M.L.,Marquette University | Kaufmann C.E.,University of Wisconsin osse | Petushek E.J.,Marquette University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

This study evaluated impulse (I), peak ground reaction forces (GRF), and the rate of force development (RFD) of a variety of exercise modes for the purpose of estimating the magnitude and rate of mechanical loading as a measure of osteogenic potential. Twenty-three subjects participated in this study (mean 6 SD, age 21.2 ± 1.4 years; body mass 77.8 ± 16.2 kg). Kinetic data were obtained via a force platform for the test exercises modes, which included walking, jogging, depth jumps, loaded jump squats, and the back squat. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for I, GRF, and RFD (p ≤ 0.001). Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc analyses demonstrated that I and GRF were different between each exercise mode and that RFD was different between all exercise modes except for jogging and the back squat. The depth jump demonstrated the highest GRF and RFD, while the back squat produced the highest I. The jump squat produced the second highest value for all the variables assessed. Thus, the depth jump, jump squat, and back squat appear to offer the greatest potential as osteogenic stimuli and a mixed mode training strategy including exercises such as these is recommended. These results suggest that walking and jogging may have less osteogenic potential. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

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