The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a selective public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin, United States. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, and the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System. It was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866. The 933-acre main campus includes four National Historic Landmarks.UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 29,504 undergraduate, 9,430 graduate, and 2,526 professional students and granted 6,494 bachelor's, 3,560 graduate and professional degrees in 2012-2013. The University employs over 21,727 faculty and staff. Its comprehensive academic program offers 132 undergraduate majors, along with 149 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs.The UW is categorized as an RU/VH Research University in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities.The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wikipedia.
Yu L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2016
Amorphous molecular materials (molecular glasses) are useful for drug delivery, bio-preservation and organic electronics. A central issue in developing amorphous materials is the stability against crystallization and other transformations that can compromise material performance. We review recent progress in understanding the stability of molecular glasses, particularly the role for surface mobility. Surface diffusion in molecular glasses can be vastly faster than bulk diffusion. This high surface mobility enables fast crystal growth on the free surface. In this process, surface crystals grow upward and laterally, with the lateral growth rate being roughly proportional to surface diffusivity. Surface mobility also influences bulk crystal growth as the process can create fracture and free surfaces. During vapor deposition, surface mobility allows efficient equilibration of newly deposited molecules, producing low-energy, high-density glasses that are equivalent to liquid-cooled glasses aged for thousands of years. Free surfaces can accelerate chemical degradation of proteins. Measures for inhibiting surface-facilitated transformations include minimizing free surfaces, applying surface coatings, and preventing fracture. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Tononi G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Cirelli C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Neuron | Year: 2014
Sleep is universal, tightly regulated, and its loss impairs cognition. But why does the brain need todisconnect from the environment for hours every day? The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY)proposes that sleep is the price the brain pays for plasticity. During a waking episode, learning statistical regularities about the current environment requires strengthening connections throughout thebrain. This increases cellular needs for energy and supplies, decreases signal-to-noise ratios, and saturates learning. During sleep, spontaneous activity renormalizes net synaptic strength and restores cellular homeostasis. Activity-dependent down-selection of synapses can also explain the benefits of sleep on memory acquisition, consolidation, and integration. This happens through the offline, comprehensive sampling of statistical regularities incorporated in neuronal circuits over a lifetime. This Perspective considers the rationale and evidence for SHY and points to open issues related to sleep and plasticity. What is the purpose of sleep? The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY) proposes that sleep renormalizes net synaptic strength and restores cellular homeostasis. Tononi and Cirelli review the rationale and evidence behind SHY and discuss open issues related to sleep and plasticity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Saalmann Y.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2014
The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing. © 2014 Saalmann.
Birn R.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
NeuroImage | Year: 2012
Functional connectivity between different brain regions can be estimated from MRI data by computing the temporal correlation of low frequency (< 0.1. Hz) fluctuations in the MRI signal. These correlated fluctuations occur even when the subject is "at rest" (not asked to perform any particular task) and result from spontaneous neuronal activity synchronized within multiple distinct networks of brain regions. This estimate of connectivity, however, can be influenced by physiological noise, such as cardiac and respiratory fluctuations. This brief review looks at the effect of physiological noise on estimates of resting-state functional connectivity, discusses ways to remove physiological noise, and provides a personal recollection of the early developments in these approaches. This review also discusses the importance of physiological noise correction and provides a summary of evidence demonstrating that functional connectivity does have a neuronal underpinning and cannot purely be the result of physiological noise. © 2012.
Kalil K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Dent E.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014
The remarkable ability of a single axon to extend multiple branches and form terminal arbors enables vertebrate neurons to integrate information from divergent regions of the nervous system. Axons select appropriate pathways during development, but it is the branches that extend interstitially from the axon shaft and arborize at specific targets that are responsible for virtually all of the synaptic connectivity in the vertebrate CNS. How do axons form branches at specific target regions? Recent studies have identified molecular cues that activate intracellular signalling pathways in axons and mediate dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton to promote the formation of axon branches. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Grupe D.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Nitschke J.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Uncertainty about a possible future threat disrupts our ability to avoid it or to mitigate its negative impact and thus results in anxiety. Here, we focus the broad literature on the neurobiology of anxiety through the lens of uncertainty. We identify five processes that are essential for adaptive anticipatory responses to future threat uncertainty and propose that alterations in the neural instantiation of these processes result in maladaptive responses to uncertainty in pathological anxiety. This framework has the potential to advance the classification, diagnosis and treatment of clinical anxiety. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Hyde J.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2016
Gender stereotypes hold that males outperform females in mathematics and spatial tests, and females outperform males on verbal tests. According to meta-analyses, however, among both children and adults, females perform equally to males on mathematics assessments. The gender difference in verbal skills is small and varies depending on the type of skill assessed (e.g., vocabulary, essay writing). The gender difference in 3D mental rotation shows a moderate advantage for males, but this gender difference occurs in the absence of a spatial curriculum in the schools. Meta-analyses of gender differences across a wide array of psychological qualities support the Gender Similarities Hypothesis, which states that males and females are quite similar on most - but not all - psychological variables. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Kent K.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014
A 76-year-old woman presents with a 2-day history of left-lower-quadrant pain. A computed tomographic (CT) scan reveals diverticulitis and an incidental 5.6-cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Her medical history is notable for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. She is a current smoker, with an 80 pack-year history. How should her case be managed? Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Chubukov A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2012
I review recent works on the symmetry and the structure of the superconducting gap in Fe-based superconductors (FeSCs) and on the underlying pairing mechanism in these systems. The experimental data on superconductivity show very rich behavior, with potentially different symmetry of a superconducting state for different compositions of the same material. The variety of different pairing states raises the issue of whether the physics of FeSCs is model dependent or is universal, governed by a single underlying pairing mechanism. I argue that the physics is universal and that all pairing states obtained so far can be understood within the same universal pairing scenario and are well described by the effective low-energy model with small numbers of input parameters. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Reich H.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Organolithium reagents show an astonishingly wide range of aggregated structures in the solid state, with numerous arrangements of the lithium cations, the basic sites in the carbanion and the associated solvent and cosolvent molecules. The generally higher reactivity of lower aggregates has stood up well to close scrutiny, although the reactivity difference between different aggregates varies enormously, from 1 to <8 orders of magnitude. Mixed aggregates are routinely formed during organolithium reactions, and they can be close in reactivity to the reactant aggregates, much less reactive, causing autoinhibition, or more reactive, causing autocatalysis. The crucial role solvents play in the structure and reactivity of lithium reagents continues to be probed. Organolithium compounds are rich in diverse structures, often closely balanced energetically, and the transition states for reactions are similarly diverse, often with closely competing pathways.