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McFall M.T.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | McFall M.T.,Apt Therapeutics, Inc.
Ethics and Information Technology | Year: 2012

Aristotle's account of friendship has largely withstood the test of time. Yet there are overlooked elements of his account that, when challenged by apparent threats of current and emerging communication technologies, reveal his account to be remarkably prescient. I evaluate the danger that technological advances in communication pose to the future of friendship by examining and defending Aristotle's claim that perfect or character-friends must live together. I concede that technologically-mediated communication can aid existing character-friendships, but I argue that character-friendships cannot be created and sustained entirely through technological meditation. I examine text-based technologies, such as Facebook and email, and engage a non-text based technology that poses the greatest threat to my thesis-Skype. I then address philosophical literature on friendship and technology that has emerged in the last decade in Ethics and Information Technology to elucidate and defend my account by contrast. I engage Cocking and Matthews (2000), who argue that friendship cannot be created and sustained entirely through text-based contact, Briggle (2008), who argues that friendship can be created and sustained entirely through text-based contact, and Munn (2012), who argues that friendship cannot be created and entirely sustained through text-based contact but can be created and sustained entirely in immersive virtual worlds. My account discusses a certain kind of friendship, character-friendship, and a certain kind of technology, Skype, that these accounts do not. Examination of these essays helps to demonstrate that character friendship cannot be sustained entirely by technologically-aided communication and that character-friends must live together. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Beaver J.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Kaltcheva N.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh | Briley M.,Appalachian State University | Piehl D.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2013

We present CCD uvbyβ, photometry of 1419 stars located in the central region of the rich Galactic open cluster NGC 6705 (M11). Our study utilizes photometric data obtained with the 0.9 m WIYN telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Based on more than 330 stars in the spectral range B-A3, we derive average color excess E(b - y) = 0.33(± 0.033 s.d.; 0.004 s.e.), corresponding to E(B - V) = 0.45, and average distance modulus 11.30(± 0.4 s.d.; 0.04 s.e.), corresponding to 1820 ± 30 s.e. pc. Using the F-type stars of the cluster main sequence, we estimate [Fe/H] = -0.06(± 0.59 s.d.; 0.05 s.e.). Based on PARSEC isochrones for Z = 0.0167, the age of the cluster is estimated as 250 Myr. Moderate differential reddening at the amount of AV = 0.86 is detected. No evidence of extended star formation is found for this cluster. © 2013. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.

Haug C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Briggs D.E.G.,Yale University | Mikulic D.G.,Llinois State Geological Survey | Kluessendorf J.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Haug J.T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2014

Thylacocephala is a group of enigmatic extinct arthropods. Here we provide a full description of the oldest unequivocal thylacocephalan, a new genus and species Thylacares brandonensis, which is present in the Silurian Waukesha fauna from Wisconsin, USA. We also present details of younger, Jurassic specimens, from the Solnhofen lithographic limestones, which are crucial to our interpretation of the systematic position of Thylacocephala. In the past, Thylacocephala has been interpreted as a crustacean ingroup and as closely related to various groups such as cirripeds, decapods or remipeds. Results: The Waukesha thylacocephalan, Thylacares brandonensis n. gen. n. sp., bears compound eyes and raptorial appendages that are relatively small compared to those of other representatives of the group. As in other thylacocephalans the large bivalved shield encloses much of the entire body. The shield lacks a marked optical notch. The eyes, which project just beyond the shield margin, appear to be stalked. Head appendages, which may represent antennulae, antennae and mandibles, appear to be present. The trunk is comprised of up to 22 segments. New details observed on thylacocephalans from the Jurassic Solnhofen lithographic limestones include antennulae and antennae of Mayrocaris bucculata, and endites on the raptorial appendages and an elongate last trunk appendage in Clausocaris lithographica. Preserved features of the internal morphology in C. lithographica include the muscles of the raptorial appendage and trunk. Conclusions: Our results indicate that some 'typical' thylacocephalan characters are unique to the group; these autapomorphies contribute to the difficulty of determining thylacocephalan affinities. While the new features reported here are consistent with a eucrustacean affinity, most previous hypotheses for the position of Thylacocephala within Eucrustacea (as Stomatopoda, Thecostraca or Decapoda) are shown to be unlikely. A sister group relationship to Remipedia appears compatible with the observed features of Thylacocephala but more fossil evidence is required to test this assertion. The raptorial appendages of Thylacocephala most likely projected 45 degrees abaxially instead of directly forward as previously reconstructed. The overall morphology of thylacocephalans supports a predatory mode of life. © 2014 Haug et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jacobson B.A.,University of Minnesota | Thumma S.C.,University of Minnesota | Jay-Dixon J.,University of Minnesota | Patel M.R.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Aberrant cap-dependent translation is implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple tumor types including mesothelioma. In this study, disabling the eIF4F complex by targeting eIF4E with eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide (4EASO) is assessed as a therapy for mesothelioma. Methods: Mesothelioma cells were transfected with 4EASO, designed to target eIF4E mRNA, or mismatch-ASO control. Cell survival was measured in mesothelioma treated with 4EASO alone or combined with either gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Levels of eIF4E, ODC, Bcl-2 and β-actin were assessed following treatment. Binding to a synthetic cap-analogue was used to study the strength of eIF4F complex activation following treatment. Results: eIF4E level and the formation of eIF4F cap-complex decreased in response to 4EASO, but not mismatch control ASO, resulting in cleavage of PARP indicating apoptosis. 4EASO treatment resulted in dose dependent decrease in eIF4E levels, which corresponded to cytotoxicity of mesothelioma cells. 4EASO resulted in decreased levels of eIF4E in non-malignant LP9 cells, but this did not correspond to increased cytotoxicity. Proteins thought to be regulated by cap-dependent translation, Bcl-2 and ODC, were decreased upon treatment with 4EASO. Combination therapy of 4EASO with pemetrexed or gemcitabine further reduced cell number. Conclusion: 4EASO is a novel drug that causes apoptosis and selectively reduces eIF4E levels, eIF4F complex formation, and proliferation of mesothelioma cells. eIF4E knockdown results in decreased expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-growth proteins and enhances chemosensitivity. © 2013 Jacobson et al.

Zaidan Y.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

We consider the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic pulses in complex materials with nonlinear polarization. The physical problem is modeled by Maxwell's equations in variational form, and well-posedness results are established with respect to probability distributions on the polarization parameters (in a Prohorov metric sense). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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