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Johnson B.A.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Carpenter P.J.,Northern Illinois University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

Low-permeability clayey and silty river terrace deposits are an important component in protecting underlying aquifers from contamination by agrochemicals and other contaminants. Such deposits also record deglaciation dynamics, meltwater drainage and local climatic variations. In this study, conducted over Mississippi River terraces near Savanna, Illinois, clayey slackwater terrace deposits and sandy terrace deposits are examined using resistivity soundings, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and direct-push conductivity logs. The clayey terrace deposits are characterized by low resistivity (10-35 ohm-m) and slow GPR wave velocity (0. 07 m/ns), whereas non-clayey terrace deposits exhibit much higher resistivity (169-1,762 ohm-m) and faster GPR wave velocities (0. 15 m/ns). Sandy and clayey terrace deposits may thus be differentiated and mapped on the basis of their geophysical response. Models based on resistivity soundings provide reasonably accurate estimates of the thickness of clayey slackwater deposits, but fail to reveal thin sands embedded in the clayey deposits. In some cases, the full thickness of the slackwater deposits was also not revealed. GPR profiles, however, imaged these embedded shallow sands and possibly imaged deeper sands below the base of the slackwater deposits, giving more accurate estimates of thickness. GPR also accurately resolved the thickness and character of sandy terrace deposits. Direct-push conductivity logs provide both accurate estimates of the thickness of clayey slackwater terrace deposits and a means of identifying thin embedded sands. In summary, resistivity soundings image these deposits at the lowest resolution with one-dimensional models, whereas GPR provides much higher resolution showing detailed layering within the upper several meters. Direct-push conductivity logs provide the highest resolution, but are invasive and only reveal stratigraphy at one location. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Jacobson B.A.,University of Minnesota | Thumma S.C.,University of Minnesota | Jay-Dixon J.,University of Minnesota | Patel M.R.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Aberrant cap-dependent translation is implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple tumor types including mesothelioma. In this study, disabling the eIF4F complex by targeting eIF4E with eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide (4EASO) is assessed as a therapy for mesothelioma. Methods: Mesothelioma cells were transfected with 4EASO, designed to target eIF4E mRNA, or mismatch-ASO control. Cell survival was measured in mesothelioma treated with 4EASO alone or combined with either gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Levels of eIF4E, ODC, Bcl-2 and β-actin were assessed following treatment. Binding to a synthetic cap-analogue was used to study the strength of eIF4F complex activation following treatment. Results: eIF4E level and the formation of eIF4F cap-complex decreased in response to 4EASO, but not mismatch control ASO, resulting in cleavage of PARP indicating apoptosis. 4EASO treatment resulted in dose dependent decrease in eIF4E levels, which corresponded to cytotoxicity of mesothelioma cells. 4EASO resulted in decreased levels of eIF4E in non-malignant LP9 cells, but this did not correspond to increased cytotoxicity. Proteins thought to be regulated by cap-dependent translation, Bcl-2 and ODC, were decreased upon treatment with 4EASO. Combination therapy of 4EASO with pemetrexed or gemcitabine further reduced cell number. Conclusion: 4EASO is a novel drug that causes apoptosis and selectively reduces eIF4E levels, eIF4F complex formation, and proliferation of mesothelioma cells. eIF4E knockdown results in decreased expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-growth proteins and enhances chemosensitivity. © 2013 Jacobson et al.


Beaver J.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Kaltcheva N.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh | Briley M.,Appalachian State University | Piehl D.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2013

We present CCD uvbyβ, photometry of 1419 stars located in the central region of the rich Galactic open cluster NGC 6705 (M11). Our study utilizes photometric data obtained with the 0.9 m WIYN telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Based on more than 330 stars in the spectral range B-A3, we derive average color excess E(b - y) = 0.33(± 0.033 s.d.; 0.004 s.e.), corresponding to E(B - V) = 0.45, and average distance modulus 11.30(± 0.4 s.d.; 0.04 s.e.), corresponding to 1820 ± 30 s.e. pc. Using the F-type stars of the cluster main sequence, we estimate [Fe/H] = -0.06(± 0.59 s.d.; 0.05 s.e.). Based on PARSEC isochrones for Z = 0.0167, the age of the cluster is estimated as 250 Myr. Moderate differential reddening at the amount of AV = 0.86 is detected. No evidence of extended star formation is found for this cluster. © 2013. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.


Haug C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Briggs D.E.G.,Yale University | Mikulic D.G.,Llinois State Geological Survey | Kluessendorf J.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Haug J.T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2014

Thylacocephala is a group of enigmatic extinct arthropods. Here we provide a full description of the oldest unequivocal thylacocephalan, a new genus and species Thylacares brandonensis, which is present in the Silurian Waukesha fauna from Wisconsin, USA. We also present details of younger, Jurassic specimens, from the Solnhofen lithographic limestones, which are crucial to our interpretation of the systematic position of Thylacocephala. In the past, Thylacocephala has been interpreted as a crustacean ingroup and as closely related to various groups such as cirripeds, decapods or remipeds. Results: The Waukesha thylacocephalan, Thylacares brandonensis n. gen. n. sp., bears compound eyes and raptorial appendages that are relatively small compared to those of other representatives of the group. As in other thylacocephalans the large bivalved shield encloses much of the entire body. The shield lacks a marked optical notch. The eyes, which project just beyond the shield margin, appear to be stalked. Head appendages, which may represent antennulae, antennae and mandibles, appear to be present. The trunk is comprised of up to 22 segments. New details observed on thylacocephalans from the Jurassic Solnhofen lithographic limestones include antennulae and antennae of Mayrocaris bucculata, and endites on the raptorial appendages and an elongate last trunk appendage in Clausocaris lithographica. Preserved features of the internal morphology in C. lithographica include the muscles of the raptorial appendage and trunk. Conclusions: Our results indicate that some 'typical' thylacocephalan characters are unique to the group; these autapomorphies contribute to the difficulty of determining thylacocephalan affinities. While the new features reported here are consistent with a eucrustacean affinity, most previous hypotheses for the position of Thylacocephala within Eucrustacea (as Stomatopoda, Thecostraca or Decapoda) are shown to be unlikely. A sister group relationship to Remipedia appears compatible with the observed features of Thylacocephala but more fossil evidence is required to test this assertion. The raptorial appendages of Thylacocephala most likely projected 45 degrees abaxially instead of directly forward as previously reconstructed. The overall morphology of thylacocephalans supports a predatory mode of life. © 2014 Haug et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sarrab M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Elbasir M.,De Montfort University | Alnaeli S.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Quality issues are commonly reported following the development of mobile learning applications. To evaluate and increase the chance of the successful development of new mobile learning products, the adoption of a complete and well-defined set of technical quality aspects for mobile learning development and their adoption in the education environment are proposed. This work describes a model that captures most abstract and generic technical aspects of mobile learning service quality, including availability, fast response times, flexibility, scalability, usability, maintainability, functionality, functionality, reliability, connectivity, performance, user interface and security. A set of technical quality aspects was developed following a literature study focussing on standards and guidelines for learning and mobile application software quality. The presented case studies point to a set of contextual technical quality factors that influence the choice of mobile learning application. The findings also indicate that there are causal relationships between learner satisfaction and the overall proposed model technical quality aspects. The model has a positive impact on overall learning process outcomes by evaluating the technical aspects while maintaining the quality of mobile learning delivered. The model components purportedly affect learning outcomes by assessing and improving the acceptability to stakeholders of the technical aspects of mobile learning. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


McFall M.T.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | McFall M.T.,Apt Therapeutics, Inc.
Ethics and Information Technology | Year: 2012

Aristotle's account of friendship has largely withstood the test of time. Yet there are overlooked elements of his account that, when challenged by apparent threats of current and emerging communication technologies, reveal his account to be remarkably prescient. I evaluate the danger that technological advances in communication pose to the future of friendship by examining and defending Aristotle's claim that perfect or character-friends must live together. I concede that technologically-mediated communication can aid existing character-friendships, but I argue that character-friendships cannot be created and sustained entirely through technological meditation. I examine text-based technologies, such as Facebook and email, and engage a non-text based technology that poses the greatest threat to my thesis-Skype. I then address philosophical literature on friendship and technology that has emerged in the last decade in Ethics and Information Technology to elucidate and defend my account by contrast. I engage Cocking and Matthews (2000), who argue that friendship cannot be created and sustained entirely through text-based contact, Briggle (2008), who argues that friendship can be created and sustained entirely through text-based contact, and Munn (2012), who argues that friendship cannot be created and entirely sustained through text-based contact but can be created and sustained entirely in immersive virtual worlds. My account discusses a certain kind of friendship, character-friendship, and a certain kind of technology, Skype, that these accounts do not. Examination of these essays helps to demonstrate that character friendship cannot be sustained entirely by technologically-aided communication and that character-friends must live together. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Alnaeli S.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Sarnowski M.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Meier C.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Hall M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
25th International Conference on Software Engineering and Data Engineering, SEDE 2016 | Year: 2016

An empirical study that examines the challenges that scientific software systems developed in C/C++ have that prevent them from efficiently exploiting the full potential of the new multicore technology is presented. The study is conducted on 12 open source scientific systems comprising more than 5.4 million lines of code and containing over 84.5 thousand for-loop statements. Static analysis methods are applied to each system to determine the number of for-loops and free-loops (i.e., loops that can be parallelized). Additionally, each system is analyzed and the challenges and inhibitors to parallelization from a software engineering perspective are detected and presented. Some challenges towards adapting and re-engineering scientific software systems to better utilize modern multi-core architectures are determined including function side effects, data dependency and jumping statements. The results show that the most prevalent inhibitors are functions called within for-loops that have side effects, followed by data dependency as the second most prevalent inhibitor. These inhibitors pose the greatest roadblock to re-engineer and transform systems to better utilize parallelization. Results also show that data dependency has a more significant impact on scientific systems compared to general purpose systems that have been studied in previous studies. The study suggests some software engineering techniques that have the potential to improve the parallelizability of scientific systems. Copyright ISCA, SEDE 2016.


Alnaeli S.M.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Taha A.D.A.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Binder S.B.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley
IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology | Year: 2016

An empirical study that examines challenges middleware software systems have to take full advantages of multicore technology is presented. The study is conducted on 9 open source middleware systems containing over 3.39 million lines of code. Each system is analyzed and the inhibitors to parallelization are detected and presented. Additionally, some challenges in analyzing, adapting, and re-engineering middleware systems to better utilize modern multi-core architectures are determined including function side effects. Function side effects categorized based on their types and the complexity they pose in conducting inter-procedural static analysis. The data shows that the most prevalent inhibitor by far is functions called within for-loops that have side effects. Moreover, the study shows that parameters by reference and global variables modification are the most prevalent side effects that poses the greatest challenges in re-engineering middleware systems to improve their parallelizability to better utilize multi-core architectures. That is, conducting accurate program analysis with existing software engineering tools becomes exigent and impractical with those side effects. The study suggests some software engineering techniques (e.g., refactoring) that have the potential to improve the parallelizability of middleware systems. © 2016 IEEE.


Alnaeli S.M.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Taha A.A.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley | Timm T.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley
Studies in Computational Intelligence | Year: 2016

A study that examines the prevalence and distribution of function side effects in general-purpose software systems is presented. The study is conducted on 19 open source systems comprising over 9.8 Million lines of code (MLOC). Each system is analyzed and the number of function side effects is determined. The results show that global variables modification and parameters by reference are the most prevalent side effect types. Thus, conducting accurate program analysis or many adaptive changes processes (e.g., automatic parallelization to improve their parallelizability to better utilize multi-core architectures) becomes very costly or impractical to conduct. Analysis of the historical data over a 7-year period for 10 systems shows that there is a relatively large percentage of affected functions over the lifetime of the systems although trend is flat in general, thus posing further problems for inter-procedural analysis. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Zaidan Y.,University of Wisconsin Fox Valley
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

We consider the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic pulses in complex materials with nonlinear polarization. The physical problem is modeled by Maxwell's equations in variational form, and well-posedness results are established with respect to probability distributions on the polarization parameters (in a Prohorov metric sense). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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