University of Wisconsin Extension

Spooner, WI, United States

University of Wisconsin Extension

Spooner, WI, United States
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PubMed | University of Wisconsin Extension
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurological research and therapy | Year: 2016

We sought to identify early uses of blinding in therapeutic clinical trials of neurological disorders by multiple search methods. A 1784 report by Benjamin Franklin and others described the evaluation of the use of Mesmerism to treat neurological and other syndromes including headache and epilepsy, using blindfolds and screens. This report demonstrated the usefulness of blinding to reduce bias in clinical research, yet despite this early discovery, blinding was not widely accepted or routinely used until the 20

Dampier J.E.E.,University of Wisconsin Extension | Harper R.W.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Schwartzberg L.,102 Wood End Court | Lemelin R.H.,Lakehead University
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry | Year: 2015

Recent research describing host resistance of hemlocks to the lethal, invasive insect hemlock woolly adelgid has suggested that Chinese hemlock (Tsuga chinensis) may be a suitable pest-resistant urban landscape replacement for eastern hemlock (T. canadensis). Presented here are the research findings of an in situ field questionnaire survey and participant observations. The study's objective was to collect and evaluate arborists' and other horticulturists' perceptions and purchase preferences between eastern and Chinese hemlock to assess whether Chinese hemlock has potential to be accepted as an alternative landscape replacement for eastern hemlock. Fifty-five participants visually inspected both hemlock specimens and responded to questions about which one they would prefer to purchase, what their preferences would be in light of potential insect resistance, and the likelihood of fewer insecticide applications being required. Multiple cross-tabulations indicated that there was no statistical association (Fisher's Exact Test, P > 0.05) between participant background (i.e., arborists versus others) and questions related to general purchase preference, and purchase preference if a specimen exhibited natural pest resistance or required less pesticides. Over three-quarters of participants were more inclined to purchase the specimen that possessed resistance to a serious pest. These findings suggest that Chinese hemlock may potentially serve as a hemlock woolly adelgid-resistant alternative to eastern hemlock in the landscape. ©2015 International Society of Arboriculture

Stepenuck K.F.,University of Wisconsin Extension | Stepenuck K.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Green L.T.,URI Watershed Watch | Green L.T.,University of Rhode Island
Ecology and Society | Year: 2015

Citizens have long contributed to scientific research about the environment through volunteer environmental monitoring programs. Their participation has also resulted in outcomes for themselves, their communities, and the environment. This research synthesizes 35 peer-reviewed journal articles that reported such outcomes through 2012. This collection of articles was derived from a pool of 436 peer-reviewed journal articles about participatory environmental monitoring. Reported outcomes for participants and communities ranged from increasing personal knowledge and community awareness to changing attitudes and behaviors, building social capital, and ultimately, influencing change in natural resource management and policies. Mixed results were reported in regard to citizen participation in natural resource decision-making processes and in terms of participant knowledge gain. Future research recommendations that address identified knowledge gaps include the following: (1) assessing knowledge beyond the basic content of the subject of monitoring to better address the value of volunteer environmental monitoring as a public participation tool; (2) conducting independent research across programs to enable null or negative outcome reporting, understand commonalities of outcomes across programs, and make linkages between outcomes and program characteristics; (3) carrying out rigorous research that includes data collection and statistical analysis focused on the effectiveness of citizen participation in decision making; (4) assessing the time component of outcome achievement to inform the volunteer monitoring community; and (5) conducting additional research to identify changes in attitudes and behaviors, particularly geared toward minimizing losses in biodiversity and impacts of climate change. © 2015 by the author(s).

Schiller L.F.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire | Donham K.,University of Iowa | Anderson T.,University of Wisconsin Extension | Dingledein D.M.,Shawano County Rural Health Initiative | Strebel R.R.,Shawano County Rural Health Initiative
Journal of Agromedicine | Year: 2010

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the willingness of the farm community to participate in a farm safety health initiative (expanding a community-based health program to include elements of the Certified Safe Farm program), as well as understand farmers' experiences with participation in the intervention. Focus groups and individual interviews were held to explore farmers' experience with the expanded health screening and on farm safety review. Results indicate that incorporation of the expanded intervention was well accepted amongst participants in this study. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Justin Hougham R.,University of Wisconsin Extension | Bradley Eitel K.C.,University of Idaho | Miller B.G.,University of Idaho
Journal of Geoscience Education | Year: 2015

In this article we explore how reconceptualizing the role of technology in place-based education (PBE) enhances place responsive pedagogies through technology. Combining the strengths of adventure learning (AL) and PBE, Adventure Learning @ (AL@) advances both place responsive education and online learning in science education. This is needed, as the conventional AL model lacks authentic explorations of places that are ‘‘local’’ to the expedition teams and the students following along. The AL@ approach promotes localized authorship and knowledge keeping. AL@ more fully realizes the potential of AL, using PBE approaches that engage students as authors of knowledge through direct field experiences and the creation of digital artifacts of scientific inquiry. © 2015 National Association of Geoscience Teachers.

PubMed | Dep. of Land and Water Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, University of Wisconsin - Madison, University of Wisconsin Extension and University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2015

Decades of farming and fertilization of farm land in the unglaciated/Driftless Area (DA) of southwestern Wisconsin have resulted in the build-up of P and to some extent, N, in soils. This build-up, combined with steep topography and upper and lower elevation farming (tiered farming), exacerbates problems associated with runoff and nutrient transport in these landscapes. Use of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS) as an additional conservation practice to contour strip cropping and no-tillage, proved to be successful in reducing organic and sediment bound N and P within an agricultural watershed located in the DA. The research site was designed as a paired watershed study, in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects statistics were used to determine significant changes in nutrient concentrations before and after installation of an AGSS. Results indicate a significant reduction in storm event total P (TP) concentrations (P=0.01) within the agricultural watershed after installation of the AGSS, but not total dissolved P (P=0.23). This indicates that the reduction in P concentration is that of the particulate form. Storm event organic N concentrations were also significantly reduced (P=0.03) after the AGSS was installed. We conclude that AGSS was successful in reducing the organic and sediment bound N and P concentrations in runoff waters thus reducing their delivery to nearby surface waters.

Ryan E.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Shaw B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Shaw B.,University of Wisconsin Extension
Human Dimensions of Wildlife | Year: 2011

Current trends show that despite overall support for hunting, fewer Americans are participating in the activity. Traditional recruitment and retention methods in which hunting families initiate, train, and socialize their children or other family members into hunting tradition are still the primary routes to recruiting and retaining new hunters. With declining numbers of hunters, however, this approach alone will not be able to counter declining participation trends. This article describes strategies and future research directions that may help improve existing hunter recruitment and retention efforts. The article suggests that greater emphasis must be placed on the unique values and benefits of hunting as a way to attract new hunters and keep those who already hunt active in the hunting community. Supporters of hunting who best understand the culture and the contributions that hunters make to their communities are poised to be the most effective proponents of hunting. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Schoessow K.A.,University of Wisconsin Extension | Kilian K.C.,University of Wisconsin - Platteville | Bundy L.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2010

Variability in N fertilizer requirements for corn (Zea mays L.) following soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] across sites and years emphasizes the need to understand management practice effects on apparent soybean N contributions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of three soybean harvest management systems (HMS) and tillage on subsequent corn grain yields, and apparent soybean N contributions. Field experiments to evaluate the effects of returning or removing soybean residue, soybean forage harvest at the R6 growth stage, and applied N (0-180 kg N ha-1) on corn grain yields were conducted for 3 yr at four locations. The soybean residue returned treatment significantly decreased yields by 1.1 and 2.5 Mg ha-1 for 2 of 12 site years. The soybean residue returned treatment also required 134, 41, and 87 kg ha-1 more fertilizer N to maximize yields for 3 of 12 site years, but not at the remaining sites. Greater early season soil NO3-N in the forage harvested or residue removed treatments before planting and when corn plants were 30 cm tall (presidedress) is probably a result of warmer soil temperatures and increased soil N mineralization where residue was removed. Economic optimum N rates for corn following soybean varied substantially across sites and years and ranged from 0 to 180 kg N ha-1 but were not greatly affected by soybean HMS or tillage at most sites. This work emphasizes the need for a field-specific approach to better predict the apparent soybean N contribution to a subsequent corn crop. © 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy.

Amato M.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Shaw B.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Haack J.,University of Wisconsin Extension
Lake and Reservoir Management | Year: 2012

Amato MS, Shaw BR, Haack J. 2012. The challenge of self-enhancement bias for educational programs designed to encourage natural shorelines. Lake Reserv Manage. 28:206-211. This study proposed and found support for a potential barrier to successful implementation of programs designed to promote natural shorelines along residential property. Increased residential development around lakeshores in the UpperMidwest is associated with reduced wildlife habitat, lower biodiversity, and degraded water quality compared to undeveloped shorelines. Property owners can reduce the impact of shoreline development through personal choices, such as planting native vegetation or allowing natural flora to regrow. Various educational programs encouraging more natural shorelines have been implemented; however, evaluative research on their success and studies about improving these programs are scant. This study explored how the phenomenon of self-enhancement bias may cause property owners to over-estimate the natural state of their shorelines, preventing remedial action they otherwise might take if a more accurate self-assessment were available. Surveys were mailed to 212 property owners on 2 lakes in northwest Wisconsin. Biologists' assessments of the "naturalness" of each property parcel's shoreline were compared with survey data from residents indicating their own perceptions about how natural their shorelines were. Results revealed that residents evaluated their own shorelines significantly more natural than did the biologists. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that self-enhancement bias may be a barrier to educational programs designed to encourage more natural shorelines among lakeshore property owners. Based on these findings, the authors offer recommendations for lake and water resource managers to potentially improve the efficacy of such programs. © Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2012.

Shaw B.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Radler B.T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Haack J.,University of Wisconsin Extension
Lake and Reservoir Management | Year: 2011

Increased residential development around lakeshores in the Upper Midwest is associated with reduced wildlife habitat, lower biodiversity, and degraded water quality. Subsequently, it is important to identify strategies that encourage property owners to adopt more natural shorelines. One potential framework for understanding property owners' attitudes and intent toward adopting natural shorelines is the Stages of Change Model (SCM). The model suggests people will be differentially ready to adopt a new behavior based on their respective knowledge, beliefs, and motivations and will move through a progression of stages before adopting a new practice. The specific stages include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and relapse. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stages specified by the SCM may be useful in identifying lakeshore property owners' attitudes and intent toward adopting more natural shorelines. Surveys were mailed to 212 property owners on 2 lakes in northwest Wisconsin; 165 were returned for a 78% response rate. Sixteen measures representing the 6 stages of change were created building on scales previously used in health-related behavior change research. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the scales were correlated strongly with, and reliable measures of, 5 underlying factors representing the different stages of change. Results provide preliminary support that the SCM may represent a useful framework for understanding property owners' propensities toward adopting more natural shorelines. The authors suggest additional research will improve the external reliability of the SCM as adopted in an environmental context. © Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2011.

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