The University of Western Sydney is an Australian multi-campus university in the Greater Western region of Sydney. It is currently ranked in the top 400 in the world in the 2014QS World University Rankings.UWS has campuses in Greater Western Sydney - Parramatta, Richmond, Blacktown, Penrith , Bankstown, and Campbelltown. UWS is a provider of undergraduate, postgraduate and higher research degrees. In recent years UWS has opened a medical school. Wikipedia.
Nielsen U.N.,Colorado State University |
Wall D.H.,University of Western Sydney
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013
The polar regions are experiencing rapid climate change with implications for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, despite limited knowledge, we make some early predictions on soil invertebrate community responses to predicted twenty-first century climate change. Geographic and environmental differences suggest that climate change responses will differ between the Arctic and Antarctic. We predict significant, but different, belowground community changes in both regions. This change will be driven mainly by vegetation type changes in the Arctic, while communities in Antarctica will respond to climate amelioration directly and indirectly through changes in microbial community composition and activity, and the development of, and/or changes in, plant communities. Climate amelioration is likely to allow a greater influx of non-native species into both the Arctic and Antarctic promoting landscape scale biodiversity change. Non-native competitive species could, however, have negative effects on local biodiversity particularly in the Arctic where the communities are already species rich. Species ranges will shift in both areas as the climate changes potentially posing a problem for endemic species in the Arctic where options for northward migration are limited. Greater soil biotic activity may move the Arctic towards a trajectory of being a substantial carbon source, while Antarctica could become a carbon sink. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source
Cairney J.W.G.,University of Western Sydney
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are potentially extensive in soil and receive significant allocations of plant-derived carbon. Although losses from living EMM occur via respiration and exudation, EMM represents a considerable biomass component and potential carbon sink in many forest soils. ECM root tips and rhizomorphs may persist in soil for many months, but interactions between grazing arthropods and decomposers probably facilitate more rapid turnover of diffuse EMM. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration [CO 2] is likely to increase carbon allocation to ECM fungi by their tree hosts. This will probably increase root colonization by ECM fungi and drive changes in their communities in soil. The likely effects of elevated [CO 2] and other climate change factors on the production and turnover of EMM production are difficult to predict from current evidence, and this hampers our understanding of their potential value as future carbon sinks. Responses of grazing soil arthropods to future climate change will have a strong influence on EMM turnover, along with the abilities of ECM fungi to store carbon in below-ground, and this should be seen as a priority area for future research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Zhao M.,University of Western Sydney
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013
Flow induced vibration of two rigidly coupled identical circular cylinders in tandem and side-by-side arrangements at a low Reynolds number of 150 is studied numerically. The two cylinders vibrate in the cross-flow direction and have the same displacement. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite element method and the equation of motion of the cylinders is solved by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Simulations are conducted for a constant mass ratio of 2 and the gap ratios (defined as the ratio of the centre-to-centre distance between the two cylinders L to the cylinder diameter D) of 1.5, 2, 4, and 6. The reduced velocities range from 0.5 to 15 with an increment of 0.5 for the tandem arrangement and from 0.5 to 30 with an increment of 0.5 for the side-by-side arrangement. It is found that the gap between the two cylinders has significant effect on the response. For a tandem arrangement, the lock-in regime of the reduced velocity is narrower than that of a single cylinder for L/D = 1.5 and 2 and wider than later for L/D = 4 and 6. If the two cylinders are allowed to vibrate in the cross-flow direction, the vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder occurs at L/D as small as 2. The most interesting phenomenon found in the side-by-side arrangement is the combination of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and galloping at L/D = 1.5 and 2. For L/D = 1.5 and 2, the response is dominated by VIV as Vr<15 and by galloping as Vr>15. At reduced velocities close to 15, the response is a combination of VIV and galloping. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source
University of Western Sydney and Bioprospect Ltd | Date: 2012-03-27
The present invention is directed to pest-controlling compositions comprising as active ingredients one or more -diones, particularly -diketones and -triketones, and to the use of these compositions inter alia for preventing, eradicating, destroying, repelling or mitigating harmful, annoying or undesired pests including insects, arachnids, helminths, molluscs, protozoa and viruses. The present invention is further directed to processes of preparing -diones by de novo synthesis or from natural sources such as volatile oil-bearing plants from families including Alliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Cannabinaceae, Lamiaceae, Pteridaceae, Myrtaceae, Myoporaceae, Proteaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae.
University of Western Sydney | Date: 2012-12-21
Disclosed herein is an ophthalmic formulation comprising a compound of formula (I): wherein R R and an ophthalmologically acceptable carrier.