Sydney, Australia

University of Western Sydney

www.westernsydney.edu.au
Sydney, Australia

The University of Western Sydney is an Australian multi-campus university in the Greater Western region of Sydney. It is currently ranked in the top 400 in the world in the 2014QS World University Rankings.UWS has campuses in Greater Western Sydney - Parramatta, Richmond, Blacktown, Penrith , Bankstown, and Campbelltown. UWS is a provider of undergraduate, postgraduate and higher research degrees. In recent years UWS has opened a medical school. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Beginning in December 2016, northern China (including Tianjin, Beijing and 70 other cities in northern China) was covered for weeks in dense, toxic smog, which was composed of high concentrations of PM2.5. Though it is the world ‘leader’ in pollution, China admitted that this air pollution episode was one of the worst in its history. The smog affected 460 million people! How many of these people were afflicted with dry eye disease? Water advocate Sharon Kleyne, founder of Bio-Logic Aqua® Research Water Life Science® and host of the nationally syndicated radio program, The Sharon Kleyne Hour Power of Water, Global Climate Change and Your Health on VoiceAmerica, speculated on air that more than 175 million Chinese were affected by dry eye disease, which Kleyne explained is a disorder of the tear film as a result of deficient production or excessive evaporation. This condition can lead to damage to the ocular system and even blindness. Well known symptoms include pain, discomfort, headaches, redness, swelling and poor vision. Depression and anxiety are also common in people suffering from dry eye disease. “The prevalence of dry eye in China is 17% of the total population of approximately 1.5 billion people,” Kleyne said. “This means that approximately 38,3000,000 Chinese are going to suffer from dry eye disease in 2017.” Sharon Kleyne also agrees with a recent study that researchers must learn more about natural tears to better understand how to treat eyes that do not tear (eyes that suffer from dry eye). Such is the conclusion of a recent study conducted at the University of Western Sydney. Associate Professor M. Millar, director of the study, believes that researchers need to approach dry eyes “in a new, more constructive manner”. Kleyne, who has conducted groundbreaking research on dehydration of the body’s water vapor due to excessive evaporation for more than two decades, sees the need for more research because dry eye disease is on the rise around the world. “Everyone suffers dry eyes on occasion,” says Kleyne, “but billions of people are chronically afflicted with dry eye symptoms that can result in blindness." “Natural tears in China,” Kleyne said, “are the right ticket to getting rid of dry eye,” said Kleyne. “Natural tears lubricate our eyes. They protect the cornea and the surrounding tissues.” Sharon Kleyne’s research center, which developed the only product on the global market that solves the dry eye dilemma by supplementing the tear film, has just made Nature’s Tears® EyeMist® available in China. Kleyne explained that Nature’s Tears® EyeMist® is applied with a personal hand-held humidifying device emitting a pure, pH balanced, 100% Trade Secret tissue culture grade water in a patented micron-size mist. It supplements the eye’s tear film, which is 99 percent water. “With Natures Tears® EyeMist®,” Kleyne said, “tired and irritated eyes are supplemented with pure water, and that’s what dry eyes need. Eye drops provide temporary chemical relief,” Kleyne continued, “but they can become addictive and even make the dry eye condition worse.” Why? Because eye drops only trap water on the eye’s tear lens; they do not supplement the tear lens or the moisture (the tears) around it. Nature’s Tears® EyeMist® does supplement both.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Sharon Kleyne, founder of Bio-Logic Aqua® Research Water Life Science® and host of the nationally syndicated radio program, The Sharon Kleyne Hour Power of Water, Global Climate Change and Your Health on VoiceAmerica, shared recent discoveries and findings from her research center suggesting that though people worldwide are conscious of saving water, they often ignore their own body water. “This is not good,” Kleyne insists. “A healthy understanding of water begins with a thorough understanding of water’s role in the functioning of one’s own body.” Sharon Kleyne also agrees with a recent study that researchers must learn more about natural tears to better understand how to treat eyes that do not tear (eyes that suffer from dry eye). Such is the conclusion of a recent study conducted at the University of Western Sydney. Associate Professor M. Millar, director of the study, believes that researchers need to approach dry eyes “in a new, more constructive manner”. Kleyne, who has conducted groundbreaking research on dehydration of the body’s water vapor due to excessive evaporation for more than two decades, sees the need for more research because dry eye disease is on the rise around the world. “Everyone suffers dry eyes on occasion,” says Kleyne, “but billions of people are chronically afflicted with dry eye symptoms that can result in blindness. “Natural tears,” Kleyne continues, “are essential to our wellness, to our health. Natural tears protect our eyes by lubricating them. They protect the cornea as well as the surrounding tissues.” Kleyne wants people to understand that tears are not just about crying. Yes, tears can appear to be plentiful when we feel sad or some other overpowering emotion, but natural tears moisten our eyes and keep them lubricated. Natural tears make it possible for our eyes to focus without obstructions. Simply put, natural tears help us to see clearly. “If we didn’t have natural tears,” says Kleyne, “we’d be looking at the world through a haze.” According to professor Millar, whose study extended 14 years, we now know more about tears than ever before, but there is still more to discover. We do know now that the key to understanding dry eyes is to know how air interacts with the liquid tear in the eye and makes tears evaporate. Earlier, we believed that tears contained proteins that were found only in the teardrop. But new research discovered that proteins also exist at the surface and around the tear. These outer proteins, not those within the tear, determine how quickly tears will evaporate and cause dry eyes. Sharon Kleyne believes that research like Millar’s study can lead to a cure for dry eye disease. Until now, researchers have focused mostly on studying and comprehending the internal workings of the tear. Now, researchers are focusing on the outer surface. In time, Kleyne believes, researchers will come up with new tools for slowing down the rate at which tears evaporate into the air. Millar and other researchers working at the University of Western Sydney, believe that the key to solving dry eyes will be to develop an almost natural teardrop that will evaporate slowly so that dry eyes become less and less of an issue. Sharon Kleyne shares that dry eye disease symptoms include blurred vision, redness, burning, itching, stinging, a gritty sensation and watery eyes. These symptoms are triggered by a number of causes including pollution, allergies, post-menopausal changes, windy conditions, computer use, reading, television viewing and artificial environments (air conditioning, central heating). Kleyne described how she has also developed the only product on the world market that comes close to the ‘cure’ that Professor Millar envisions. Nature’s Tears® EyeMist®, Kleyne points out, is applied with a personal hand-held humidifying device emitting a pure, pH balanced, 100% Trade Secret tissue culture grade water in a patented micron-size mist. It supplements the eye’s tear film, which is 99 percent water. Kleyne also refers to the fact that it is endorsed by more than 22,000 ophthalmologists and optometrists nationwide. The product was successfully test-marketed in more than 70,000 outlets. “With Natures Tears® EyeMist®,” Kleyne says, “tired and irritated eyes are supplemented with pure water, and that’s what eyes challenged by dry eye symptoms need. Eye drops may provide some temporary chemical relief,” Kleyne continues, “but they can become addictive and even make the dry eye condition worse.” Why? Because eye drops only trap water on the eye’s tear lens; they do not supplement the tear lens or the moisture (the tears) around it. Nature’s Tears® EyeMist® does supplement both. “Dry eye disease is a billion dollar business,” Kleyne says, “and we must educate people about the short-and-long-term dangers of dry eye conditions. We must also move forward with new research and new technology so that we can stamp out this terrible disease once and for all.”


Van der Burg E.,University of Sydney | Alais D.,University of Sydney | Cass J.,University of Western Sydney
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

To combine information from different sensory modalities, the brain must deal with considerable temporal uncertainty. In natural environments, an external event may produce simultaneous auditory and visual signals yet they will invariably activate the brain asynchronously due to different propagation speeds for light and sound, and different neural response latencies once the signals reach the receptors. One strategy the brain uses to deal with audiovisual timing variation is to adapt to a prevailing asynchrony to help realign the signals. Here, using psychophysical methods in human subjects, we investigate audiovisual recalibration and show that it takes place extremely rapidly without explicit periods of adaptation. Our results demonstrate that exposure to a single, brief asynchrony is sufficient to produce strong recalibration effects. Recalibration occurs regardless of whether the preceding trial was perceived as synchronous, and regardless of whether a response was required.Wepropose that this rapid recalibration is a fast-acting sensory effect, rather than a higher-level cognitive process. Anaccountintermsofresponsebias is unlikelyduetoastrongasymmetrywherebystimuliwithvision leadingproducebigger recalibrations than audition leading. A fast-acting recalibration mechanism provides a means for overcoming inevitable audiovisual timing variation and serves to rapidly realign signals at onset to maximize the perceptual benefits of audiovisual integration. © 2013 the authors.


Gribble K.D.,University of Western Sydney
JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing | Year: 2013

Objective: To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. Methods: A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Setting: Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Participants: Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. Results: One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Conclusion: Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.


Simard J.,University of Western Sydney
Annals of Palliative Medicine | Year: 2017

Disruptive vocalization and resisting personal care is a problem for staff in most skilled nursing facilities. Often these behaviors result in the resident being treated with antipsychotics. The Namaste Care program which takes place in a calm environment and offers a loving touch approach to care, has been successful in eliminating these behaviors. The room or space where Namaste Care takes place is as free from disruption as possible and as the resident is welcomed into the room, the calming music and scent of lavender surrounds them. In this case report, the resident stopped crying out as soon as she entered the room. This resident also became comfortable with being touched when touch was offered in a slow, loving manner. Much to the delight of staff this had a “trickle down” effect as the resident stopped resisting care even when she was out of the Namaste Care room. The result was that this resident’s last year of life was filled with loving care until she took her last breath. © Annals of Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.


Gribble K.D.,University of Western Sydney
Early Child Development and Care | Year: 2014

The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these risks; however, their knowledge and risk mitigation was incomplete. Recipient respondents were well informed as to the risks involved in artificial feeding and this contributed to their decision to prefer peer-shared milk. Many donor respondents did not follow guidelines for safe milk expression. Many respondents had not discussed milk sharing with a health provider. It is recommended that health providers be proactive in providing education to minimise the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing. This is the first study to examine the views and practices of Internet-facilitated peer-to-peer milk sharing and provides insight that may improve the safety of the practice. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Reich P.B.,University of Minnesota | Reich P.B.,University of Western Sydney
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) provides a useful framework for examining species strategies as shaped by their evolutionary history. However, that spectrum, as originally described, involved only two key resources (carbon and nutrients) and one of three economically important plant organs. Herein, I evaluate whether the economics spectrum idea can be broadly extended to water - the third key resource -stems, roots and entire plants and to individual, community and ecosystem scales. My overarching hypothesis is that strong selection along trait trade-off axes, in tandem with biophysical constraints, results in convergence for any taxon on a uniformly fast, medium or slow strategy (i.e. rates of resource acquisition and processing) for all organs and all resources. Evidence for economic trait spectra exists for stems and roots as well as leaves, and for traits related to water as well as carbon and nutrients. These apply generally within and across scales (within and across communities, climate zones, biomes and lineages). There are linkages across organs and coupling among resources, resulting in an integrated whole-plant economics spectrum. Species capable of moving water rapidly have low tissue density, short tissue life span and high rates of resource acquisition and flux at organ and individual scales. The reverse is true for species with the slow strategy. Different traits may be important in different conditions, but as being fast in one respect generally requires being fast in others, being fast or slow is a general feature of species. Economic traits influence performance and fitness consistent with trait-based theory about underlying adaptive mechanisms. Traits help explain differences in growth and survival across resource gradients and thus help explain the distribution of species and the assembly of communities across light, water and nutrient gradients. Traits scale up - fast traits are associated with faster rates of ecosystem processes such as decomposition or primary productivity, and slow traits with slow process rates. Synthesis. Traits matter. A single 'fast-slow' plant economics spectrum that integrates across leaves, stems and roots is a key feature of the plant universe and helps to explain individual ecological strategies, community assembly processes and the functioning of ecosystems. © 2014 British Ecological Society.


Cairney J.W.G.,University of Western Sydney
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are potentially extensive in soil and receive significant allocations of plant-derived carbon. Although losses from living EMM occur via respiration and exudation, EMM represents a considerable biomass component and potential carbon sink in many forest soils. ECM root tips and rhizomorphs may persist in soil for many months, but interactions between grazing arthropods and decomposers probably facilitate more rapid turnover of diffuse EMM. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration [CO 2] is likely to increase carbon allocation to ECM fungi by their tree hosts. This will probably increase root colonization by ECM fungi and drive changes in their communities in soil. The likely effects of elevated [CO 2] and other climate change factors on the production and turnover of EMM production are difficult to predict from current evidence, and this hampers our understanding of their potential value as future carbon sinks. Responses of grazing soil arthropods to future climate change will have a strong influence on EMM turnover, along with the abilities of ECM fungi to store carbon in below-ground, and this should be seen as a priority area for future research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gaborieau M.,University of Western Sydney
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. © 2010 The Author(s).


Tran N.H.,University of Western Sydney | Kannangara G.S.K.,University of Western Sydney
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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