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London, Canada

The University of Western Ontario , which is commonly referred to among Canadian universities as Western or Western University, is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario." It incorporated Huron University College, which had been founded in 1863. The first four faculties were Arts, Divinity, Law and Medicine. The Western University of London was eventually made non-denominational in 1908.According to the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings, the university ranked 201–300 in the world and top 10 in Canada. The 2011 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 157th in the world, making it seventh in Canada. Several of Western's programs were also ranked in individual rankings. Social science at Western was ranked 96th in the world in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, and Western's Ivey Business School was ranked 1st in the World in the Global MBA Category of Bloomberg Businessweek.Western's Co-educational Student body of over 24,000 represents 107 countries around the world and Western scholars have established research and education collaborations and partnerships on every continent. There are more than 306,000 alumni who are active internationally, living and working around the globe. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, and distinguished fellows.Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Wikipedia.


Neff B.D.,University of Western Ontario
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research.


Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

In recent years our understanding of connexins has advanced from viewing them simply as proteins with a surprisingly short lifespan that form gap junction channels. Connexins are now known to be multifaceted proteins at the core of many multiprotein complexes that link to structural junctional complexes and cytoskeletal elements, and also to the cellular machinery that facilitates their transport, assembly, function and internalization. Collectively, these connexin-binding proteins can be termed the 'gap junction proteome'. The mechanistic understanding of the gap junction proteome with regards to the dynamic life cycle of connexins has grown further in importance in light of the large number of human diseases attributed to connexin gene mutations and regulatory changes in connexin spatial localization and expression levels. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cruse D.,University of Western Ontario
Neurology | Year: 2012

Functional neuroimaging has shown that the absence of externally observable signs of consciousness and cognition in severely brain-injured patients does not necessarily indicate the true absence of such abilities. However, relative to traumatic brain injury, nontraumatic injury is known to be associated with a reduced likelihood of regaining overtly measurable levels of consciousness. We investigated the relationships between etiology and both overt and covert cognitive abilities in a group of patients in the minimally conscious state (MCS). Twenty-three MCS patients (15 traumatic and 8 nontraumatic) completed a motor imagery EEG task in which they were required to imagine movements of their right-hand and toes to command. When successfully performed, these imagined movements appear as distinct sensorimotor modulations, which can be used to determine the presence of reliable command-following. The utility of this task has been demonstrated previously in a group of vegetative state patients. Consistent and robust responses to command were observed in the EEG of 22% of the MCS patients (5 of 23). Etiology had a significant impact on the ability to successfully complete this task, with 33% of traumatic patients (5 of 15) returning positive EEG outcomes compared with none of the nontraumatic patients (0 of 8). The overt behavioral signs of awareness (measured with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) exhibited by nontraumatic MCS patients appear to be an accurate reflection of their covert cognitive abilities. In contrast, one-third of a group of traumatically injured patients in the MCS possess a range of high-level cognitive faculties that are not evident from their overt behavior.


Dick F.A.,University of Western Ontario | Rubin S.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Inactivation of the RB protein is one of the most fundamental events in cancer. Coming to a molecular understanding of its function in normal cells and how it impedes cancer development has been challenging. Historically, the ability of RB to regulate the cell cycle placed it in a central role in proliferative control, and research focused on RB regulation of the E2F family of transcription factors. Remarkably, several recent studies have found additional tumour-suppressor functions of RB, including alternative roles in the cell cycle, maintenance of genome stability and apoptosis. These advances and new structural studies are combining to define the multifunctionality of RB. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Sui R.,University of Calgary | Charpentier P.,University of Western Ontario
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to demonstrate synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures by direct sol-gel chemistry in supercritical fluids (SCF). The emphasis of the investigations was on the physics, chemistry, and engineering aspects of the polycondensation of metal oxide precursors in SCFs, while highlighting the mechanisms of the chemical reactions and nanostructure formation. SCF drying circumvented the liquid-gas interface during vaporization due to its single phase nature, preventing collapse of the solid network from capillary forces during the drying process. The latest developments in the sol-gel technology were marked by the use of organic solvents or SCFs for synthesizing a variety of metal oxides. Another major advantage of using SCFs as reaction media for sol-gel reactions relied on the fact that the resulting materials were readily dried after SCF venting.

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