London, Canada

The University of Western Ontario , which is commonly referred to among Canadian universities as Western or Western University, is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario." It incorporated Huron University College, which had been founded in 1863. The first four faculties were Arts, Divinity, Law and Medicine. The Western University of London was eventually made non-denominational in 1908.According to the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings, the university ranked 201–300 in the world and top 10 in Canada. The 2011 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 157th in the world, making it seventh in Canada. Several of Western's programs were also ranked in individual rankings. Social science at Western was ranked 96th in the world in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, and Western's Ivey Business School was ranked 1st in the World in the Global MBA Category of Bloomberg Businessweek.Western's Co-educational Student body of over 24,000 represents 107 countries around the world and Western scholars have established research and education collaborations and partnerships on every continent. There are more than 306,000 alumni who are active internationally, living and working around the globe. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, and distinguished fellows.Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Wikipedia.

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University of Western Ontario and Trudell Medical | Date: 2016-04-13

The present invention relates generally to an oral device, or mouthpiece, for delivering a fluid to the mouth or oropharynx of a user. In one embodiment, the oral device includes an intraoral portion, an extraoral portion, and an auxiliary support device that serves to stabilize the oral device. In various embodiments, the auxiliary support device may be configured with ear loops, a support band, a support frame and/or a support member. The intraoral portion generally includes at least one outlet port through which the fluid is delivered to the oral cavity or oropharynx. A method of dispensing a fluid using the oral device is also provided.

University of Western Ontario | Date: 2016-08-30

The present invention relates to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein mutants. One mutant M protein includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 21, a leucine changed to a phenylalanine at position 111 and a methionine changed to an arginine at position 51. Another M protein mutant includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 22 and a methionine changed to an arginine at positions 48 and 51. Yet another VSV M protein mutant includes a glycine changed to a glutamic acid at position 22, a leucine changed to a phenylalanine at position 110 and a methionine changed to an arginine at positions 48 and 51. The present invention is directed also to recombinant VSVs (rVSV) having these M mutants and to vaccines based on the rVSV having the M mutants of the present invention. These new rVSVs having the mutant M were significantly attenuated and lost virulence, including neurovirulence, and are capable of inducing an immune responses against an antigen of interest. In addition, a rVSV serotype Indiana having the first described M mutant is capable of efficient replication at 31 C., and of poor replication or incapable of replication at about 37 C. or higher.

University of Western Ontario | Date: 2015-05-06

Self-immolative polymers degrade by an end-to-end depolymerization mechanism in response to the cleavage of a stabilizing end-cap from the polymer terminus. Examples include homopolymers, mixed polymers including block copolymers, suitable for a variety of applications. A polyglyoxylate can be end-capped or capped with a linker as in a block copolymer.

Hazell T.J.,University of Western Ontario | Kenno K.A.,University of Windsor
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

The purpose of this investigation was to examine if the addition of a light external load would enhance whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced increases in muscle activity during dynamic squatting in 4 leg muscles. Thirteen recreationally active male university students performed a series of dynamic squats (unloaded with no WBV, unloaded with WBV, loaded with no WBV, and loaded with WBV). The load was set to 30% of body mass and WBV included 25-, 35-, and 45-Hz frequencies with 4-mm amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GC) and is reported as EMGrms (root mean square) normalized to %maximal voluntary exertion. During unloaded dynamic squats, exposure to WBV (45 Hz) significantly (p < 0.05) increased baseline muscle activity in all muscles, except the TA compared with no WBV. Adding a light external load without WBV increased baseline muscle activity of the squat exercise in all muscles but decreased the TA. This loaded level of muscle activity was further increased with WBV (45 Hz) in all muscles. The WBV-induced increases in muscle activity in the loaded condition (∼3.5%) were of a similar magnitude to the WBV-induced increases during the unloaded condition (∼2.5%) demonstrating the addition of WBV to unloaded or loaded dynamic squatting results in an increase in muscle activity. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of using external loads with exposure to WBV. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Polat A.,University of Windsor | Longstaffe F.J.,University of Western Ontario
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

The Archean (ca. 2.97 Ga) Fiskenæsset layered intrusion, southwestern Greenland, consists of an association of anorthosite, leucogabbro, gabbro, hornblendite, pyroxenite, peridotite and dunite. The intrusion is characterized by well-preserved igneous layering, cumulate texture and primary igneous minerals including olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, hornblende and chromite. We use new whole-rock (n = 36) and mineral (n = 32) oxygen isotopic data for all major lithologic units from the best preserved stratigraphic section of the Fiskenæsset Complex at Majorqap qâva to revisit geodynamic and petrogenetic hypotheses proposed for the origin of Archean terranes. The Fiskenæsset Complex has modern mantle-like whole-rock O-isotope compositions (δO18=5.8±0.5‰). Average δO18 values increase from peridotite (δO18=5.0‰), through hornblendite (δO18=5.7‰), gabbro (δO18=5.8‰), pyroxene hornblendite (δO18=6.0‰) and leucogabbro (δO18=6.3‰), to anorthosite (δO18=6.3‰). These whole-rock isotopic compositions reflect the approximate modal abundances of olivine (average δO18=4.9‰), hornblende (average δO18=5.7‰), clinopyroxene (average δO18=6.4‰) and plagioclase (average δO18=6.4‰) in each rock type, as a consequence of mineral fractionation in the magma chamber(s). Field relationships and the absence of crustal contamination suggest that the Fiskenæsset Complex formed in an oceanic setting. Subduction zone-like whole-rock trace element signatures and mantle-like δO18 and initial εNd values are consistent with formation of these rocks in a juvenile oceanic island arc setting. Field and geochemical data from the Fiskenæsset region and adjacent terranes suggest that the origin of Archean crust in southwestern Greenland is consistent with Phanerozoic-like plate tectonic processes rather than density-driven sinking, delamination and diapiric processes requiring formation of greenstone belts and anorthosite complexes on pre-existing continental crust. Mantle-like δO18 values in the ca. 2.97 Ga Fiskenæsset Complex are inconsistent with substantial recycling of continental crust, indicating that the Fiskenæsset rocks originated distal from continental sources. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Dube J.W.,University of Western Ontario | MacDonald C.L.B.,University of Windsor | Ragogna P.J.,University of Western Ontario
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Triphosphenium cations (1) have a rich history dating back to pioneering work in 1982 from Schmidpeter et al.[1] This work has since served as the cornerstone for the synthesis of related derivatives featuring various substitutions and ring sizes.[2] Three canonical structures (1a-c; Scheme 1) can be considered for these compounds, where the phosphanide-like structure 1a is the most curious and tantalizing, as the two non-bonding pairs of electrons make these species candidates as ideal ligands for a wide variety of Lewis acids. Despite this intuitive application, there remains an obvious absence of examples of these electron-rich compounds playing this role. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lanius R.A.,University of Western Ontario | Bluhm R.L.,Old Dominion University | Frewen P.A.,University of Western Ontario
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica | Year: 2011

Objective: In this review, we examine the relevance of the social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) paradigm for an understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its effective treatment. Method: The relevant literature pertaining to SCAN and PTSD was reviewed. Results: We suggest that SCAN offers a novel theoretical paradigm for understanding psychological trauma and its numerous clinical outcomes, most notably problems in emotional/self-awareness, emotion regulation, social emotional processing and self-referential processing. A core set of brain regions appear to mediate these collective psychological functions, most notably the cortical midline structures, the amygdala, the insula, posterior parietal cortex and temporal poles, suggesting that problems in one area (e.g. emotional awareness) may relate to difficulties in another (e.g. self-referential processing). We further propose, drawing on clinical research, that the experiences of individuals with PTSD related to chronic trauma often reflect impairments in multiple social cognitive and affective functions. Conclusion: It is important that the assessment and treatment of individuals with complex PTSD not only addresses traumatic memories but also takes a SCAN-informed approach that focuses on the underlying deficits in emotional/self-awareness, emotion regulation, social emotional processing and self-referential processing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Zamani M.A.,University of Western Ontario | Yazdani A.,Ryerson University | Sidhu T.S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a communication-assisted protection strategy implementable by commercially available microprocessor-based relays for the protection of medium-voltage microgrids. Even though the developed protection strategy benefits from communications, it offers a backup protection strategy to manage communication network failures. The paper also introduces the structure of a relay that enables the proposed protection strategy. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed protection strategy under different fault scenarios, in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment. © 2010-2012 IEEE.

Das S.,University of Western Ontario | Singh Sidhu T.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2014

In this paper, areas of power system synchrophasor data communication which can be improved by compressive sampling (CS) theory are identified. CS reduces the network bandwidth requirements of Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS). It is shown that CS can reconstruct synchrophasors at higher rates while satisfying the accuracy requirements of IEEE standard C37.118.1-2011. Different steady state and dynamic power system scenarios are considered here using mathematical models of C37.118.1-2011. Synchrophasors of lower reporting rates are exempted from satisfying the accuracy requirements of C37.118.1-2011 during system dynamics. In this work, synchrophasors are accurately reconstructed from above and below Nyquist rates. Missing data often pose challenges to the WAMS applications. It is shown that missing and bad data can be reconstructed satisfactorily using CS. Performance of CS is found to be better than the existing interpolation techniques for WAMS communication. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

Parmigiani A.,University of Oregon | Klassen R.D.,University of Western Ontario | Russo M.V.,University of Oregon
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2011

The public increasingly holds firms accountable for social and environmental outcomes, such as product toxicity problems and human rights violations, throughout their global supply chains. How can companies improve the social and environmental performance within their supply chains, particularly as other competitive pressures, such as cost and quality, continue to escalate? Starting from an efficient versus responsive supply chain framework, we develop an integrative model that blends together elements of supply chain configuration, stakeholder management, and capability development. Specifically, we spotlight the dimensions of control and accountability that collectively determine stakeholder exposure, and show how this new construct affects the linkages between supply chain capabilities, configuration, and performance. In particular, this analysis reveals that the nature of stakeholder exposure determines how social/environmental technical and relational capabilities impact social and environmental outcomes. We conclude with implications for research and practice, discussing how current supply chain theories must be extended to incorporate external stakeholders, to clarify strategies and identify potential pitfalls, and to better predict performance outcomes. © Published by Elsevier B.V.

Dogra S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Stathokostas L.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: Sitting time has been identified as an independent predictor of health; however, little is known of the determinants of extended sitting time among older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify potential sociodemographic, physical environment, health-related and psychosocial correlates of extended sitting time among older adults living independently in the community.Methods: Data from adults over the age of 65 from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Healthy Aging Cycle, 2008–2009) were used for analysis (n = 14,560). Self-reported sitting time (<4 or ≥4 h/day) was the main outcome.Results: Age, retirement status, dwelling type, chronic disease, perceived health, body mass index, mood disorder and sense of belonging to community were associated with sitting for 4 or more hours/day. Very low, but not low or moderate, physical activity (OR 1.43; CI 1.19–1.72) was associated with sitting for 4 or more hours/day when compared to those classified as having high physical activity.Conclusions: Several specific correlates of extended sitting time were identified among older males and females; these findings have implications for public health strategies targeting older adults. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health.

Filler G.M.,University of Western Ontario
Kidney International | Year: 2011

Definitions of pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) use changes of serum creatinine. There is a paucity of well-designed studies in infants because of creatinine age-dependency. The emerging role of cystatin C as a superior marker of renal dysfunction led to a carefully conducted study on AKI in infants by Zappitelli et al. This Commentary calls for the development of age-independent serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate z scores. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology.

Sharma V.,University of Western Ontario | Sharma V.,Regional Mental Health Care | Pope C.J.,Regional Mental Health Care
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: The postpartum period is generally considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder; however, there is controversy about the effect of pregnancy on the course of bipolar disorder. This article reviews the literature on the relationship between pregnancy and bipolar disorder and suggests areas for future research. Data Sources and Study Selection: Three electronic databases, MEDLINE (1966-2010), PsycINFO (1840-2010), and EMBASE, were searched on April 30, 2010, using the following keywords: pregnancy, bipolar disorder, manic depressive disorder, suicide, hospitalization, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant papers published in English were included. Results: A total of 70 articles were identified and included in the review. Evidence from studies using nonclinical samples, some retrospective studies, and studies on psychiatric hospitalization rates is suggestive of a positive effect of pregnancy on bipolar disorder; however, recent studies conducted at tertiary care facilities have reported high rates of recurrence following discontinuation of mood stabilizers. Conclusions: Understanding the relationship between pregnancy and bipolar disorder has implications for perinatal treatment and etiologic understanding of the disorder. Research is urgently needed to estimate the prevalence of bipolar disorder during pregnancy, using both clinical and nonclinical samples. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Lin Z.,Beijing Normal University | Li X.,Beijing Normal University | Kraatz H.-B.,University of Western Ontario
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

An unlabeled immobilized DNA-based sensor was reported for simultaneous detection of Pb 2+, Ag +, and Hg 2+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN) 6] 4-/3- as redox probe, which consisted of three interaction sections: Pb 2+ interaction with G-rich DNA strands to form G-quadruplex, Ag + interaction with C-C mismatch to form C-Ag +-C complex, and Hg 2+ interaction with T-T mismatch to form T-Hg 2+-T complex. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra indicated that the interactions between DNA and Pb 2+, Ag +, or Hg 2+ occurred. Upon DNA interaction with Pb 2+, Ag +, and Hg 2+, respectively, a decreased charge transfer resistance (R CT) was obtained. Taking advantage of the R CT difference ("R CT), Pb 2+, Ag +, and Hg 2+ were selectively detected with the detection limit of 10 pM, 10 nM, and 0.1 nM, respectively. To simultaneously (or parallel) detect the three metal ions coexisting in a sample, EDTA was applied to mask Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ for detecting Ag +; cysteine was applied to mask Ag + and Hg 2+ for detecting Pb 2+, and the mixture of G-rich and C-rich DNA strands were applied to mask Pb 2+ and Ag + for detecting Hg 2+. Finally, the simple and cost-effective sensor could be successfully applied for simultaneously detecting Pb 2+, Ag +, and Hg 2+ in calf serum and lake water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Sharma V.,University of Western Ontario | Khan M.,Regional Mental Health Care
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2010

Objective: No studies to date have assessed the pharmacological management of treatment-resistant postpartum depression. We reviewed the pharmacological treatment of postpartum depression in patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant 'unipolar' depression. Methods: We conducted a chart review of patients treated consecutively at a perinatal clinic. Treatment-resistant postpartum depression was defined as a failure to respond to at least one adequate antidepressant trial. Patients were diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria, and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) rating scale was used to assess response to various pharmacological interventions. Results: The majority of patients (57%, 34/60) referred for postpartum depression actually suffered from bipolar disorder. All patients were on antidepressants at the time of referral, but by the end of the study 37% (22/60) continued on antidepressants alone or in combination with other medications. CGI-I ratings showed appreciable improvement in depression at the end of six months following the initial consultation. Very much improvement was noted in 65% (39/60) of patients, and 22% (13/60) were considered much improved. The most common change in medication was a switch to or addition of an atypical neuroleptic. Limitations: Retrospective design, small sample size, and lack of a control group. Conclusions: Management of treatment resistance in women with postpartum depression should be considered within the context of types of mood disorders. Atypical neuroleptics and mood stabilizers used alone or as adjuncts should be considered in the treatment of resistant postpartum depression in patients with a bipolar diathesis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Clinchy M.,University of Victoria | Sheriff M.J.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Zanette L.Y.,University of Western Ontario
Functional Ecology | Year: 2013

Predator-induced stress has been used to exemplify the concept of stress for close to a century because almost everyone can imagine the terror of fleeing for one's life from a lion or a tiger. Yet, because it has been assumed to be acute and transitory, predator-induced stress has not been much studied by either comparative physiologists or population ecologists, until relatively recently. The focus in biomedical research has always been on chronic stress in humans, which most comparative physiologists would agree results from 'sustained psychological stress - linked to mere thoughts' rather than 'acute physical crises' (like surviving a predator attack) or 'chronic physical challenges' (such as a shortage of food). Population ecologists have traditionally focused solely on the acute physical crisis of surviving a direct predator attack rather than whether the risk of such an attack may have a sustained effect on other demographic processes (e.g. the birth rate). Demographic experiments have now demonstrated that exposure to predators or predator cues can have sustained effects that extend to affecting birth and survival in free-living animals, and a subset of these have documented associated physiological stress effects. These and similar results have prompted some authors to speak of an 'ecology of fear', but others object that 'the cognitive and emotional aspects of avoiding predation remain unknown'. Recent biomedical studies on animals in the laboratory have demonstrated that exposure to predators or predator cues can induce 'sustained psychological stress' that is directly comparable to chronic stress in humans, and this has now in fact become one of the most common stressors used in studies of the animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review these recent findings and suggest ways the laboratory techniques developed to measure the 'neural circuitry of fear' could be adapted for use on free-living animals in the field, in order to: (i) test whether predator risk induces 'sustained psychological stress' in wild animals, comparable to chronic stress in humans and (ii) directly investigate 'the cognitive and emotional aspects of avoiding predation' and hence the 'ecology of fear'. © 2012 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 1.15M | Year: 2014

Mathematics is a profound intellectual achievement with impact on all aspects of business and society. For centuries, the highest level of mathematics has been seen as an isolated creative activity, to produce a proof for review and acceptance by research peers. Mathematics is now at a remarkable inflexion point, with new technology radically extending the power and limits of individuals. Crowdsourcing pulls together diverse experts to solve problems; symbolic computation tackles huge routine calculations; and computers check proofs that are just too long and complicated for any human to comprehend, using programs designed to verify hardware. Yet these techniques are currently used in stand-alone fashion, lacking integration with each other or with human creativity or fallibility. Social machines are new paradigm, identified by Berners-Lee, for viewing a combination of people and computers as a single problem-solving entity. Our long-term vision is to change mathematics, transforming the reach, pace, and impact of mathematics research, through creating a mathematics social machine: a combination of people, computers, and archives to create and apply mathematics. Thus, for example, an industry researcher wanting to design a network with specific properties could quickly access diverse research skills and research; explore hypotheses; discuss possible solutions; obtain surety of correctness to a desired level; and create new mathematics that individual effort might never imagine or verify. Seamlessly integrated under the hood might be a mixture of diverse people and machines, formal and informal approaches, old and new mathematics, experiment and proof. The obstacles to realising the vision are that (i) We do not have a high level understanding of the production of mathematics by people and machines, integrating the current diverse research approaches (ii) There is no shared view among the diverse re- search and user communities of what is and might be possible or desirable The outcome of the fellowship will be a new vision of a mathematics social machine, transforming the reach, pace and impact of mathematics. It will deliver: analysis and experiment to understand current and future production of mathematics as a social machine; designs and prototypes; ownership among academic and industry stakeholders; a roadmap for delivery of the next generation of social machines; and an international team ready to make it a reality.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.73M | Year: 2013

This project will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of closed conduit and open conduit volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems. Specific experiments and studies will be carried out to improve our understanding of the volcanic internal structure and dynamics, as well as to recognise signals related to impending unrest or eruption. Hazard quantitative assessment will benefit by the outcomes of these studies and by their integration into the cutting edge monitoring approaches thus leading to a step-change in hazard awareness and preparedness and leveraging the close relationship between scientists, SMEs, and end-users.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 2.29M | Year: 2011

A detailed understanding of human biology will require characterisation of the human-associated microorganisms, the human microbiome, and of the roles these microbes play in health and disease. Large projects in Europe, the United States, China and Canada target these objectives, using high throughput omics approaches. Given the complexity of our microbial communities, composed of thousands of species and differing considerably between individuals, as well as the multitude of effects they have on our biology, none of the projects can hope to achieve their comprehensive characterisation. To progress most efficiently towards this ambitious goal it is of utmost importance that the data generated in each individual project be optimally comparable across all the current projects and those yet to come. Our proposal seeks to coordinate development of standard operating procedures and protocols, which will optimize data comparisons in the human microbiome field and thus improve the synergy between all the projects. It focuses on three key aspects of data generation: (i) human sample collection, processing and identification via the associated metadata; (ii) DNA sequence quality obtained by the new generation methods from complex microbial mixtures; (iii) analysis of DNA sequence in conjunction with the metadata. Importantly, it organises public access to the standard operating procedures and protocols and enables exchanges between the users and providers of the standards. It gathers very strong international partnership that includes leaders in the field and represents the current large projects, which span three continents, Europe, Asia and America. Furthermore, it interfaces via the International Human Microbiome Consortium with additional projects from Africa and Australia. The proposal is thus highly congruent with the focus of the call, which targets omics, standards and international context.

News Article | December 8, 2016

Leaders in Mineral Exploration and Mine Development to be Recognized at January 25 Gala VANCOUVER, BC--(Marketwired - December 07, 2016) - The Association for Mineral Exploration ("AME") is pleased to announce its 2016 award recipients. AME will salute its leaders at the AME Awards Celebration of Excellence Gala on January 25 during the AME Roundup 2017 conference. Tickets are available through registration at "It is our honor to recognize with these awards those in our industry who through their leadership, resilience and innovation have contributed at the highest standards of excellence in exploration and mineral development," says Diane Nicolson, Chair of the Board of Directors of AME. "What they have attained is an inspiration to all and we look forward to celebrating their achievements with you at the Awards Gala at AME Roundup." Chris Rockingham, Carl Edmunds and Wade Barnes, recognized with the H.H. "Spud" Huestis Award for excellence in prospecting and mineral exploration for their discovery and resource definition of AuRico Metals Inc.'s Kemess East deposit in British Columbia. Don Parsons and Steve Robertson, recipients of the E.A. Scholz Award for excellence in mine development in British Columbia and Yukon. They are honoured for their pivotal role in advancing Imperial Metals Corporation's Red Chris copper-gold project in British Columbia from development to commercial production. Terry Salman, recipient of the 2016 Murray Pezim Award recognizing perseverance and success in financing mining exploration. Terry has been a leader in junior company exploration financing for the past 40 years through his career at Nesbitt Thomson, Salman Partners and Salman Capital Inc. William Lamb and Lukas Lundin, recognized with the Hugo Dummett Diamond Award for excellence in diamond exploration and development in recognition of their roles in developing Lucara Diamond Corporation's Karowe Mine in Botswana. Dr. David Broughton and Sello Kekana, recipients of the Colin Spence Award for excellence in global mineral exploration. They are recognized for their work that led to the discovery of the Tier One Flatreef underground deposit at Ivanhoe Mines' Platreef platinum group metals-nickel-copper-gold project in the heart of South Africa's Bushveld Complex. Jim Cooney, recipient of the Robert R. Hedley Award for excellence in social and environmental responsibility as a leader and mentor who has led and shaped the integration of environmental and social values into the mining industry. The late Graham Ennis, honoured with the David Barr Award for excellence in leadership and innovation in mineral exploration health and safety for passion and dedication to the well-being and safety of employees in the diamond drilling industry. JoAnne Nelson, a 30-year veteran of the British Columbia Geological Survey, the recipient of a Special Tribute in recognition of her distinguished career in geoscience work focused on the tectonics, structural geology and metallogeny of the Northern Cordillera spanning British Columbia, Yukon and Alaska. Susan Craig, recognized with the Gold Pan Award for her exceptional meritorious service to the mineral exploration community through AME. Barb Caelles, Alex Christopher and Diane Gregory, honoured with the Frank Woodside Past Presidents and Past Chairs Award for their distinguished service to the association and/or contribution to the mineral industry. The two recipients of AME's Outreach Education Fund are Britannia Mine Museum for its education programs and MineralsEd for its Kids & Rocks program. AME is the lead association for the mineral exploration and development industry based in British Columbia. Established in 1912, AME represents, advocates, protects and promotes the interests of thousands of members who are engaged in mineral exploration and development in British Columbia and throughout the world. AME encourages a safe, economically strong and environmentally responsible industry by providing clear initiatives, policies, events and tools to support its membership. Leaders in Mineral Exploration and Mine Development to be Recognized at January 25 Gala Vancouver, B.C. - December 7, 2016 - The Association for Mineral Exploration (AME) is pleased to announce its 2016 award recipients. AME will salute its leaders at the AME Awards Celebration of Excellence Gala on January 25 during the AME Roundup 2017 conference. Tickets are available through registration at Chris Rockingham, Carl Edmunds and Wade Barnes are the recipients of the 2016 H.H. "Spud" Huestis Award for Excellence in Prospecting and Mineral Exploration. It is often said that patience and perseverance surmount every difficulty. The discovery of the Kemess East deposit epitomizes this. Under the leadership of Chris Rockingham, the geological insight of Carl Edmunds and execution of Wade Barnes, a blind porphyry gold copper deposit was discovered and delineated. The recognition that the Kemess North deposit was terminated on its northern and eastern edges by faults led the team to search for the offset under deep post-mineral cover. The first indications of a blind mineralized system were encountered in 2002. By the following year, with a large area of phyllic alteration and some low-grade mineralization, Chris, Carl and Wade were confident that they were vectoring towards better mineralization. This was apparent in 2007 when their fourth hole intersected the longest mineralized intercept in the entire Kemess database to that point, but perhaps more importantly, hole 24 intersected 162 m of 0.62 g/t gold and 0.53% copper in potassic altered intrusive. At this point, however, all exploration stopped as the Kemess North open pit proposal was rejected by the federal government. By 2010, commodity price changes made the concept of block caving appear viable, and Kemess North studies were reinitiated. Nonetheless, exploration did not resume again at Kemess East until 2013 and by January 2015, the first resource estimate was released. The most recent drilling has confirmed and upgraded the initial resources estimation, with spectacular drill intercepts such as 628 m of 0.53 g/t gold with 0.41% copper and the deposit remains open in some areas. Chris has a Master of Science in Geology from the University of Western Ontario and an MBA from the Richard Ivey School of Business. Chris's current role is Vice President, Development at AuRico Metals Inc. While Chris's unwavering belief in the project has been critical, perhaps the key role that he has brought to this project has been his thoughtful commitment to aboriginal engagement. Carl graduated from Queen's University with a Master of Science in Mineral Exploration and currently holds the position of Chief Geologist at Silver Standard Resources Inc. Carl was Exploration Manager at Kemess from 2003 to 2012 and along with Wade made the seemingly bold projections on the potential grade and tonnage at Kemess East. Wade is a geology graduate of Simon Fraser University and has been with the project almost since its inception. As Project Geologist, Wade was instrumental in designing and overseeing the 2013-2015 drilling campaigns with his interpretations being the basis for the resource estimates. Don Parsons and Steve Robertson are the recipients of the 2016 E.A. Scholz Award for Excellence in Mine Development in British Columbia and/or Yukon. They are being honoured for their pivotal role in advancing the Red Chris copper-gold project in northwestern British Columbia from development to commercial production between 2007 and 2015. Exploration at the Red Chris deposit was first reported in 1956 but its development began in earnest after the project was acquired in February 2007 by Imperial Metals Corporation, where Don was Chief Operating Officer (as he is today) and Steve was Exploration Manager. Following the acquisition of Red Chris, Imperial's engineering and development team under the leadership of Don re-appraised the existing engineering and feasibility studies and incorporated updated financial, political and technical data into their mine plan. Concurrently, Imperial began a deep drilling campaign under Steve's direction to ascertain the ultimate size of the project. The results of this program exceeded all expectations for tonnage and grade and helped facilitate financing and a positive construction decision for the mine. The Mines Act Permit application was submitted in 2010 and was shepherded through the process over the next two years under the direction of Don and Steve, with its successful completion allowing the start of mine construction at Red Chris in the summer of 2012. Concurrently with mine construction, a 93-kilometre extension of the 287 kilovolt Northwest Transmission Line power line to the mine site was permitted and built. While Don was overseeing the construction and commissioning of the mine, Steve continued to work in his new role as Vice President Corporate Affairs on all the social and political aspects of the project. This included ongoing permitting issues and working with the Tahltan Nation to ultimately complete an Impact, Benefit and Co-Management Agreement which provides the basis for partnership between the Tahltan people and Red Chris for the life of the mine. The Red Chris mine, treating 30,000 tonnes of copper-gold ore per day and employing 350 workers including 120 Tahltan from local communities, commenced commercial production on July 1, 2015 and has operated since then without significant issues. Currently, it has a mine life of another 26 years. Developing, permitting and constructing a project of the magnitude of Red Chris requires many dedicated and hard-working people with talents and abilities in a variety of fields. Don and Steve were able to coordinate and direct those people so as to achieve a common goal: the successful construction of a new mine. For their skill, dedication and perseverance, Don Parsons and Steve Robertson are worthy recipients of the E. A. Scholz Award for 2016. The Murray Pezim Award was created to recognize perseverance and success in financing mining exploration in British Columbia and Yukon. Terry Salman is the 2016 recipient of this award in recognition of his remarkable career in Canadian mining finance. Terry has been a leader in financing junior exploration and mid-cap to large mining companies over the past 35 years. He began his career at Nesbitt Thomson in 1973, rising from a Research Analyst to Executive Vice-President and Director. He is a highly respected investment banker with a focus on natural resources. At Nesbitt Thomson, Terry helped create the first mining team and in the early 1990s established Nesbitt Thomson's first gold conference in Whistler, which ultimately became BMO's Global Metals & Mining Conference. He left Nesbitt Thomson in 1994 to form Salman Partners where he was President, Chief Executive Officer and Co-Director of Research. For 22 years, Salman Partners was a leading resource based investment dealer known for its high-quality research and integrity. Salman Partners participated in syndicates that helped raise $20 billion for more than 400 companies. Salman Partners provided investment analysis across a wide range of sectors, but over the years carved out a specialty in the Vancouver-based resource industry. In 2016, Salman Partners voluntarily resigned from the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada due to a dramatically changing investment climate for independent investment dealers. Currently, Terry is President and CEO of Salman Capital Inc., an investment advisory and merchant banking firm, capitalizing on his extensive network and relationships he has built in the mining and investment business. In addition to his highly successful work career, Terry has tirelessly devoted his services to many industry and community non-profit organizations, including an important role in initial fundraising for the Britannia Mine Museum. In 2008, Terry was appointed to the Government of Canada's Expert Panel on Securities Regulations. He is a Past-Chair of the Investment Dealers Association of Canada. In 2009, he was awarded a Doctor of Technology honoris causa by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. Terry also served as Chair of the Vancouver Public Library Foundation for sixteen years and is currently Chair Emeritus. Terry has also served as Chair of St. Paul's Hospital Foundation and has been a director of the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Stem Cell Network. Currently, he serves on the advisory boards of the Investment Industry Association of Canada and Pathfinder Asset Management Limited and is a member of the Campaign Executive Committee of St. Paul's Hospital Foundation. In recognition of his outstanding volunteer contributions, Terry was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012. Because of his outstanding career in financing the junior exploration industry, as well as his commitment to volunteer community stewardship, Terry Salman is a deserving recipient of the 2016 Murray Pezim Award. The Hugo Dummett Diamond Award was created to honour those who have made a significant contribution to diamond exploration, discovery or diamond mine development. William Lamb and Lukas Lundin, President, CEO & Director and Chairman & Director respectively, of Lucara Diamond Corp. are the 2016 recipients of the Hugo Dummett Award in recognition of their roles in developing the Karowe Mine in Botswana. William has a Diploma in Extraction Metallurgy, an MBA in Finance and over 23 years of experience in operational and project management in the precious metals, coal, chrome and diamond sectors in South Africa and Canada. Prior to joining Lucara in 2008, he spent 13 years with De Beers working across their operations in southern Africa and at the Victor Mine in Canada, focusing on heavy mineral concentration, project development and operational readiness. Lukas has an engineering degree and he is well known for recognizing value and superior global investment opportunities in the natural resource sector. His uninhibited pursuit of highly prospective properties around the world has resulted in numerous resource discoveries in addition to Karowe including the multi-million ounce Veladero gold discovery. Lucara is a member of the Lundin Group of Companies and was founded, with Lukas's backing, as a diamond company in 2007. The AK6 kimberlite pipe, now known as Karowe, was discovered almost 50 years ago. It was deemed uneconomic at the time, and there was limited exploration on the property until around 12 years ago. William, who had been given the mandate by Lukas and the Lucara Board of Directors to find the best undeveloped diamond project in the world and bring it into production, was aware of Karowe and believed the original assessment was not correct. He and his technical team determined that the value of the project had been underestimated due to diamond breakage. Lukas provided the financial backing to initially acquire a 70% interest in the project, and then a full 100% interest in the project in 2010. Lukas brought it into production in 2012 by way of a personal loan facility, a guarantee for the original purchase price and the financial support to raise funds to finance development of the mine. Further analysis confirmed that Karowe had the potential for the recovery of large, high value Type IIA diamonds, which could also positively impact the commercial diamond value. William recognized the importance of applying and installing new, cutting-edge X-ray technology in tandem with high capacity bulk sorting to facilitate recovery of these large stones. The potential for large, high-value diamonds at Karowe has been validated by the recovery of over 100 diamonds of greater than 100 carats each since the mine opened, including the 813-ct Constellation and the 1109-ct Lesedi La Rona diamond, the world's second largest gem-quality diamond ever recovered. Karowe is truly one of the world's most unique sources of exceptionally large, high quality, gem diamonds. The financial strength and entrepreneurial vision of Lukas Lundin allowed Lucara to acquire the Karowe diamond project, and the engineering ability, processing knowledge and determination of William Lamb and his engineering and construction team brought it into production on schedule and under budget. Lukas and William are deserving recipients of the Hugo Dummett Diamond Award for their roles in the realization of this unique project. This year's recipients of the Colin Spence Award, for making a significant mineral discovery outside of British Columbia and Yukon through the original application of prospecting techniques or other geoscience technology, are Dr. David Broughton and Sello Kekana. They are being recognized for their outstanding work that led to the discovery of the Tier One Flatreef underground deposit at Ivanhoe Mines Ltd.'s Platreef platinum group metals (PGMs) and nickel-copper-gold project in the Northern Limb of South Africa's Bushveld Complex. David Broughton, who received a PhD in Geology from Colorado School of Mines, joined Ivanhoe Mines as Executive Vice President Exploration in January 2008 and is currently Senior Advisor, Exploration and Geology. His career began in Canada in 1984, where he was involved in the mining and exploration for gold, uranium and base metals. In 1997, his focus turned to stratiform copper deposits and he began working in the Central African Copperbelt followed by projects in Namibia, China, United States, Canada and Poland. David was co-leader of Ivanhoe Mines' Kamoa discovery team. Upon joining Ivanhoe, David also assumed responsibility for exploration at the Platreef Project. Sello Kekana was born in Kgobudi village, South Africa, which lies within Ivanhoe's Platreef Project area. He holds a Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of the Witwatersrand. Sello started his professional career in mineral research and then worked as a geotechnologist for a groundwater company. In 2003 he joined Ivanhoe Mines and has worked on projects in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. Sello played a key role in the discovery of the Flatreef deposit, advancing from Geologist, to Project Manager, to General Manager, to Group Manager - Geology. During 2011-2012 Sello managed the deep drilling, which during his tenure expanded to include 30 drill rigs, that delineated the Flatreef deposit. Since January 2015, he has been the Head of Transformation for Ivanplats. Work leading to the discovery of the Flatreef deposit began more than 15 years ago. Exploration in the area by Ivanhoe Mines and its subsidiaries led to delineation of a large, near-surface, low-grade resource that was amenable to open pit mining; however, the open pit area was overlain by villages with a combined population of more than 30,000 people. Realizing the challenges involved with relocating the villagers, the company's geological team led by David and Sello began work to identify other zones of mineralization on the property. Their unique approach, which included applying advanced geophysical modelling to high-resolution airborne gravity data, resulted in the realization in 2010 that the regionally steeply west-dipping mineralized reef flattened at a depth of roughly 700 m below surface on Ivanhoe's property. Deep drilling on the deposit has defined a flat- to gently-dipping NI 43-101 compliant Indicated Mineral Resource with an average thickness of 24 m and a strike length in excess of 6 km, containing an estimated 1.2 million kg (42 million oz) of PGMs plus gold at a cut-off of 2 g/t, and an additional 1.5 million kg (52.8 million oz) of PGMs plus gold in Inferred Resources. The Indicated and Inferred Resources also contain 1.6 and 2.4 billion kilograms of nickel and copper, respectively. Project development commenced in 2014 and shaft sinking is underway. Flatreef is distinguished from other Bushveld projects by its tremendous size and thickness, its high-grade polymetallic nature and potential for byproduct credits of nickel and copper, and its flat-lying orientation leading to the potential for safe, mechanized underground mining. David Broughton and Sello Kekana are deserving recipients of the Colin Spence Award for their roles in the discovery and delineation of this world class deposit. Jim Cooney is the recipient of the Robert R. Hedley Award for Excellence in Social and Environmental Responsibility. Jim is a leader and mentor who has led and shaped the integration of environmental and social values into the mining industry. From early in his career in the 1970s he began incorporating social considerations into mining by directing Cominco's first social impact assessment at what is now the Highland Valley Copper mine. By the early 1990s, following the UN's adoption of sustainable development, Jim began publishing articles that promoted this as a mining company strategy for managing social and political risks. He has been an outspoken advocate for sustainable development ever since as well as an advocate for the inclusion of Indigenous peoples and perspectives into the mining industry. In 1996 Jim was the driving force that led Placer Dome to adopt a policy of sustainable development, the first mining company to do so. Shortly afterward as Chair of the Policy Committee of the International Council on Mining and the Environment (now the ICMM) he successfully led the effort to convince mining companies around the world to adopt sustainable development policies. Among his many significant accomplishments, Jim coined the term "social licence to operate" at a World Bank meeting in 1997. This term has become a widely accepted reference point for mining companies in their relationship with local communities. Jim has inspired and mentored more than one new generation of mining industry professionals. Through teaching at the University of British Columbia, presenting at conferences, participating on committees and providing his time and expertise, he has changed the industry's outlook on working with communities and bringing about positive benefits to communities. Although semi-retired, Jim continues to mentor industry practitioners and leaders, and to shape the progress of the mining industry's social and environmental practices. Graham Ennis is posthumously recognized with the David Barr Award for Excellence in Leadership and Innovation in Mineral Exploration Health and Safety. Graham's passion and dedication to the well-being and safety of employees was simply unsurpassed. His drive and devotion was primarily fueled by experiences from the former part of his career in the mining and forestry sectors, in both British Columbia and Yukon. Through his avalanche rescue and recovery work and mine rescue involvement within these respective sectors, Graham had the unfortunate experience of rescuing or recovering colleagues from both serious and fatal workplace accidents on multiple occasions. Graham transitioned to the mineral exploration sector in 2006 to pursue his passion for safety by accepting a position in the Northwest Territories as a Safety Representative with Major Drilling Group. He moved to Manitoba shortly thereafter upon being promoted to the role of Safety Coordinator, eventually leading to the position of Health, Safety, Environment and Community Manager few years later. During his tenure at Major, Graham worked tirelessly to improve safety performance, always with the best interest of the crews at heart. From the onset, he was adamant on training, emergency preparedness, the implementation of an intensive accident investigation protocol and the return to work process. Even in a managerial role, he kept a direct pulse on the safety culture as well as the challenges and issues faced by the crews through frequent field visits across Canadian surface and underground operations including some international sites. His observations often led to recommendations and continual improvement efforts within the organization. As such, he was instrumental in the development and implementation of numerous company safety programs, including a comprehensive program for constructing and working on ice covers. He was always eager to roll up his sleeves to take the lead or mentor ice crews on ice testing and monitoring techniques to ensure that company protocols were strictly followed. Graham was a strong advocate of sharing best practices, experiences and lessons learned, transcending company boundaries. He was always generous with his time as well as with his wealth of knowledge, experience and industry contacts accumulated over the years. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Canadian Diamond Drilling Association (CDDA); his involvement ranged from presenting papers at the association's Annual General Meeting and Convention to working at the sub-committee level with respect to industry training and safety issues. He was also a long-standing chair of the CDDA's Western Safety Group - coordinating venues and speakers, and relentless rallying for continued support and participation from industry and government parties alike. Graham was also a very active and well-respected member of the Mine Accident Prevention Association of Manitoba (MAPAM) Board of Directors from 2008 through 2015. During this time, MAPAM's directors' collective efforts led to establishment of emergency planning, preparedness and response protocols for Manitoba's mining industry. They also realized marked industry improvements in safety culture and performance, attributed to the sharing of risk management information and lessons learned among their membered companies. Finally, Graham was avid mountaineer and fisherman, not to mention a great story teller. Coffee breaks, meetings and other gatherings were always good fun! Accounts of his excursions and past work experiences, often injected with safety messaging and a great sense of humour, drew his audience near and attracted anyone within earshot to listen in. On or off-the-job, Graham was a great role model - a devoted, energetic and sincere proponent of personal safety - who inspired others to follow suit. For these reasons, Graham Ennis is a fitting posthumous recipient of the David Barr Award. JoAnne Nelson, a 30-year veteran of the British Columbia Geological Survey, is being acknowledged with a Special Tribute for her significant contributions to the advancement of geoscientific knowledge relating to the tectonics, structural geology and metallogeny of the Northern Cordillera. Over this time span she has developed an outstanding geoscience reputation coupled with major contributions as a project leader, mentor and communicator. JoAnne was raised in the western United States where she initially became fascinated with rocks as a young teenager, during a mountaineering course at Yosemite National Park. Following completion of high school she went on to earn B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in geology at the University of Washington and at the University of British Columbia, in 1973 and 1976, respectively. While at UBC she also earned a B.Ed. degree, and later taught high school science on Haida Gwaii followed by sessional lecturing in geology at UBC and at Douglas College between 1978 and 1985. During this period, she also worked as a field geologist with Resource Associates of Alaska, and did some contract petrography for Vancouver Petrographics. Since joining the BCGS in 1986, JoAnne has conducted extensive field mapping and related geological studies throughout British Columbia, with a primary focus on the tectonics and metallogeny of the northwestern part of the province. She has also developed expertise in aspects of the evolution of the B.C.-Yukon-Alaskan Cordillera as a whole. Her current project, as Northwestern BC Manager, involves structural and geochronological studies of the Mesozoic porphyry-epithermal belt known as the Golden Triangle. Throughout her career, JoAnne has successfully interwoven the complex geology of the Cordillera with the wealth of mineral deposits it contains. She understands that this process is best done by also incorporating knowledge developed by industry geologists and prospectors. To this end, she meets with them in their offices and in the field, uses their reports, and engages with them at conferences. Her charisma and enthusiastic presentations at technical conferences and at regional community meetings have informed and inspired a broad spectrum of explorers, researchers, students and the general public. JoAnne's accomplishments were formally recognized in 2013 when she was listed in the top 100 Global Inspirational Women in Mining by the United Kingdom's Standard Bank. Additionally, in 2015, she was presented with the Gold Pick Award by the Kamloops Exploration Group (KEG) in recognition of "outstanding services and contributions to the minerals industry". AME is pleased to add to these accolades by awarding her the 2016 Special Tribute. Susan Craig is recognized with the Gold Pan Award for her exceptional meritorious service to the mineral exploration community through AME. Susan has more than a decade of experience supporting AME. She served as co-chair of the Mineral Exploration Roundup committee in 2009 and 2010, and was chair in 2011, when attendance at AME's Roundup conference first exceeded 7,000 participants. In 2004, she joined the First Nations & Community Relations Committee, and to this day serves on its successor, the Aboriginal Relations Committee. Susan has served on AME's Board of Directors from 2005 to 2008, and since 2014. She was a co-recipient of the inaugural 2007 Robert R. Hedley Award for Excellence in Social and Environmental Responsibility. Outside of AME, Susan has been Chair of the Yukon Minerals Advisory Group and is a director of the Yukon Chamber of Mines. The Frank Woodside Past Presidents and Past Chairs Award is presented to three individuals for their distinguished service to AME. Barbara Caelles graduated with a B.Sc. in Geology from the University of British Columbia, and has worked in the mining industry for more than 40 years. She started her career in exploration as a field geologist, but eventually turned to consulting in records management for mining in order to have a more balanced lifestyle. Barbara has been involved in women's groups since she was appointed in 1975 to the Women Geoscientists Committee in 1975, of which she became Chair in 1977. Barbara is a founding member of Women in Mining British Columbia (formerly known as Women in Mining Vancouver), sits on the executive of the Greater Vancouver Mining Women's Association, and was part of the BC HR Task Force, Diversity-Women Sub-committee. In 2010 Barbara received the Minerva Foundation's Women in Natural Resources Award for Philanthropy and Volunteerism, and was recognized as a Life Member by AME in 2015. Alex Christopher joined Teck's Exploration Group in 1984 and was appointed Senior Vice President, Exploration, Projects & Technical Services in July 2016. He previously held the position of Vice President, Exploration, and has held a number of positions in the company within Exploration, Exploration Business Development and Corporate Development. Alex holds a B.Sc. (Honours) degree in Geology from McMaster University and an Environmental Biology Technology Diploma from Canadore College. Alex is also on the Board of Directors of the Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada ("PDAC") and is a Director of Horizonte Minerals Plc. Alex has served on the AME's Finance & Audit Committee since 2006, and served as a Director from 2006 through 2009. Diane Gregory has a career that ranges from being the geologist and lands manager for Murray Pezim's Prime Explorations Ltd. during the Eskay Creek staking rush to being a land manager with The Claim Group Inc., a mineral tenure management company. Diane was part of the Land Use Committee of AME and Lands Committee of the PDAC several years during the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a Land and Contracts Manager with Kennecott Exploration Canada Inc., Diane sat at the Cassiar-Iskut-Stikine land use for two years and reported to AME regarding the deliberations. Along with Barbara Caelles, Diane was a founding member of Women in Mining British Columbia (formerly known as Women in Mining Vancouver). Diane was previously recognized as a Life Member by AME in 2012. Britannia Mine Museum is granted $10,000 to assist and support the Museum's Educational Program that is focused on earth science programs and events for students. These programs are attended annually by 10,000 students. The 2016 programs focused on the themes of What Use Are Minerals To Me?, Mineral Diversity Up Close and The Bigger Picture XL, a critical thinking game related to operating a mining company for the Grades 5 to 6 students. The inaugural DIG Day-Delving into Geoscience, an activity dealing with plate tectonics, volcanoes, minerals, rocks and fossils was featured during spring break.The educational initiatives for 2017 will focus on developing exhibits on carbon and carbon innovations, enhancing activities associated with DIG Day-Delving into Geoscience with a focus on geological events related to the origin of the Britannia copper deposits. Also, a permanent display of the hydrothermal Black Smoker chimney specimens from the Juan de Fuca Ridge will be developed at the Mineral Gallery of the Beaty - Lundin Visitor Centre. All programs and activities will be coordinated with the primary objective of supporting and assisting the teachers for educating students on geological science. Mineral Resources Education Program of BC (MineralsEd) is granted $10,000 for coordinating the Kids & Rocks hands-on classroom workshop in 2017 for children and students in Kindergarten to Grade 3 in the Lower Mainland schools of BC. A complementary version of the Kids & Rocks program, tentatively referred to as Kids & Rocks 5, will be introduced for Grade 4 to 6 classes. The main objective of Kids & Rocks program is to introduce children to the basic properties of various rocks and minerals and how they are utilized to benefit our lives. The kids are provided with a bag of about 25 rocks and minerals, a hand lens, hardness kit, streak plate, magnet and flashlight to experience and learn the basic physical properties of their specimens. As the children advance, they are introduced on how our daily lives are dependent on earth's non-renewable resources. The more advanced Kids & Rocks 5 program will challenge the students to identify "blind" mineral and rock samples by way of examining, recognizing and recording specific physical properties to identify the mineral specimens; and for rocks, determining whether it is an igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rock. The Kids & Rocks project is an important stepping stone for our current and future mineral exploration industry.

News Article | December 23, 2015

Kirsty Duncan, the medical geographer who last month became Canada’s first Minister of Science, has a big mandate: to ensure that scientific considerations again figure into public-policy decisions. Duncan, appointed by newly elected Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, inherits a research community bruised by years of cuts to science programmes and research jobs under former prime minister Stephen Harper. Harper’s government also famously muzzled government researchers. But change is in the air. On 5 November, Trudeau’s government reinstated the mandatory long-form census, to cheers from social scientists, and on 6 November, it decreed that federal scientists could again speak freely to the media and to the public. Yet these splashy announcements came not from Duncan, but from Navdeep Bains, the Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development. Duncan has harder tasks ahead, says Paul Dufour, a science-policy analyst at the University of Ottawa. She has been asked to shoulder the burden of shoring up Canada’s science enterprise; this includes steps such as reforming the country’s weakened environmental-assessment process and making basic research a higher funding priority. But it is not clear whether she will have the power to make such changes. Canada’s science ministers have historically operated with minimal budgets, and sometimes as junior ministers. Duncan’s clout will not be put to the test until Trudeau releases his first federal budget in February. “She’s a great person for the job, but is it window dressing?” says Kennedy Stewart, who tracks science issues for the New Democratic Party, the left-wing opposition to Duncan and Trudeau’s middle-left Liberal party. “The budget will tell.” In Canada, where ministers are chosen from among elected members of parliament, it is rare to see higher degrees in fields other than law or medicine. Trudeau’s cabinet is a notable exception: Duncan, who earned a PhD in geography in 1992 at the University of Edinburgh, UK, is one of a small group of ministers with doctoral degrees in economics, sociology or engineering. Duncan is perhaps best known for leading an expedition to Norway in 1998, prompted by her interest in pandemics. Then at Canada’s University of Windsor, she suspected that traces of the deadly 1918 Spanish flu virus might be preserved in the bodies of victims who were buried in permafrost. Although the expedition did not yield any flu samples, team member Robert Webster, a pandemic virologist at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, remains impressed by Duncan’s organizational acumen. “She was smart enough to contact the leaders in the field,” he says. “She got the heavies. She raised the funds.” Economist Paul Kovacs, who worked with Duncan on a chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 2001 report, makes a similar assessment. Kovacs, executive director of the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, describes her as dedicated, determined and skilled at probing the scientific literature to work out “what was really new and what you could do about it”. But Duncan’s political career, which began in 2008, has not been without controversy. Between 2012 and 2014 she introduced seven pieces of legislation, all related to neurological health. Two bills called for clinical trials of controversial treatments for multiple sclerosis; these were based on the work of Paolo Zamboni, an Italian physician who suggested that a circulatory condition called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency was linked to the neurological disorder. Duncan’s bills came after several studies failed to find evidence for Zamboni’s claims, and concluded that the therapy was too expensive and risky for further trials. But Duncan defends the legislation, saying that she wanted to encourage research on the brain. “In science we ask the questions. I asked a question: would the government look at the science?” she says. In the long term, Duncan will work to improve Canada’s science capacity — in part by establishing high-profile professorships in sustainable technologies. According to the United Nations, the country is one of only a few advanced economies whose total spending on research and development has declined relative to its gross domestic product. Observers are keen to see what Duncan can achieve. “She’s certainly got her hands full with limited resources,” Dufour says. For now, Duncan is focused on establishing the post of chief science officer, to replace the national science adviser role that Harper eliminated in 2008. Physicist Ted Hsu, the Liberal party’s former science spokesperson, says that this will take some thought. “She needs to set up something that’s so good, it will survive a change of government in future.” Duncan is happy to go slowly to work out the best system. “We want to get this right,” she says.

News Article | November 24, 2015

An oilfield worker walks past the Statoil oil sands facility near Conklin, Alberta, in this November 3, 2011 file photo. Long criticized as a source for "dirty oil" because most of the reserves are heavy bitumen deposits found in the province's oil sands, Alberta's left-leaning government created an unlikely partnership between oil industry executives, indigenous leaders and prominent environmentalists to forge the accord. The proposal comes as world leaders prepare to discuss plans to prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels at a summit in France starting Nov. 30. It also came as Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met with provincial and territorial leaders to hammer out Canada's position at the meeting, to be held at Le Bourget, north of Paris. "I'm convinced that the oil sands CEOs understand that you can't be the high cost, high carbon producer in the world anymore," said Ed Whittingham, executive director of the Alberta-based Pembina Institute. "It was all a very tight timeline, because obviously, the premier wanted this announcement in the bag... before she goes to Paris," he added. The oil sands, natural deposits of tar-like heavy oil, are a key driver of the Canadian economy and put the province's reserves behind only Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. But environmentalists have criticized the industry's energy intensive production process, which makes it Canada's fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. Whittingham said many senior company executives have accepted, in part due to lower global oil prices, that they must reduce their carbon footprint as well as high production and energy costs in order to be more successful. To that end, the plan foresees an end to coal-fired power generation and a carbon price of C$30 ($22.49) per tonne. The proposal also includes exemptions for upgrading facilities to encourage new investments within Alberta and comes after Premier Rachel Notley's government, which won an election in May to end 44 years of Conservative rule, was stung with the United States' rejection of TransCanada Corp's Keystone XL pipeline. Notley called that decision a "kick in the teeth." Paul Boothe, who was the top bureaucrat in Canada's federal environment department as it developed the country's emissions standards for coal-fired power plants and its attempt to draft similar oil and gas regulations, said Alberta has taken an important first step with the plan. He said the proposal helps firms make a transition with what he described as "subsidies" for the best-performing companies. "Basically, it gives back to (companies), some of the carbon tax that they pay," said Boothe, now an economics professor at the University of Western Ontario. "The least-emitting firms do the best, and the top-emitting firms don't do as well... So I think that frankly, the oil and gas industry did very well in this announcement." At least six energy companies - Canadian Natural Resources Ltd , Cenovus , Enbridge Inc , Royal Dutch Shell Plc , Suncor Energy and TransCanada Corp - publicly supported the plan. Two other companies - Imperial Oil Ltd and Canadian Oil Sands Ltd - declined to say whether they supported or opposed the proposal. Husky Energy Inc said it would continue to work constructively with the province. "What's critically important here is there's no cap on production, it's a cap on emissions," said Cenovus president Brian Ferguson in a CBC radio interview on Monday. Notley must still unveil full details about how much space each company would get in a proposed 100 million ton annual cap on oil sands carbon emissions - an increase of about 40 percent above current annual emissions - as well as incentives to eliminate pollution from coal-fired power plants by 2030. "These things don't pop up overnight," said Alberta Environment Minister Shannon Phillips at a news conference in Edmonton on Monday. "They are the product of negotiations and I think that what we have been able to achieve here is an historic agreement and a significant path forward to de-escalate conflict over Alberta's energy resources."

News Article | December 12, 2016

Science has always issued medical promissory notes. In the 17th century, Francis Bacon promised that an understanding of the true mechanisms of disease would enable us to extend life almost indefinitely; René Descartes thought that 1,000 years sounded reasonable. But no science has been more optimistic, more based on promises, than medical genetics. Recently, I read an article promising that medical genetics will soon deliver 'a world in which doctors come to their patients and tell them what diseases they are about to have'. Treatments can begin 'before the patient feels even the first symptoms!' So promises 'precision medicine', which aims to make medicine predictive and personalized through detailed knowledge of the patient's genome. The thing is, the article is from 1940. It's a yellowed scrap of newsprint in the Alan Mason Chesney Archives at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. The article profiles Madge Thurlow Macklin, a Hopkins-trained physician working at the University of Western Ontario. Macklin's mid-century genetics is not today's genetics. In 1940, genes were made of protein, not DNA. Textbooks stated that we have 48 chromosomes (we have 46). Looking back, we knew almost exactly nothing about the genetic mechanisms of human disease. These genetic promissories echo down the decades with an eerie resonance. In 1912, Harvey Ernest Jordan—who would become dean of the University of Virginia medical school—wrote: 'Medicine is fast becoming a science of the prevention of weakness and morbidity; their permanent not temporary cure, their racial eradication rather than their personal palliation.' (By 'racial' here Jordan simply meant any large, loosely related population.) 'Fast' is relative; 99 years later, in 2011, Leroy Hood wrote: 'Medicine will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline over the next decade.' Cancer is often named as precision medicine's most promising focus. In 2003, Andrew C von Eschenbach, the head of the National Cancer Institute, set a goal of eliminating death and suffering due to cancer—by 2015. On 20 September this year, Microsoft announced an initiative to cure cancer by 2026. Jasmin Fisher, a senior researcher on the project, said: 'If we are able to control and regulate cancer then it becomes like any chronic disease and then the problem is solved.' Such statements bring to mind the old Monty Python sketch, 'How to Do It', in which Eric Idle (in drag) explains how to rid the world of all known diseases. 'Well, first of all become a doctor and discover a marvellous [sic] cure for something,' he announces. 'Then,' he continues, 'when the medical world really starts to take notice of you, you can jolly well tell them what to do and make sure they get everything right so there'll never be diseases any more.' Just a day after Microsoft's announcement, on 21 September, Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, the pediatrician Priscilla Chan, announced that they are giving $3 billion to their Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI). The CZI aims to 'cure all disease in our children's lifetime'. Once again, the Pythons nailed it. With their money, the doctors can discover "marvellous" cures for things. Then, when the medical world really starts to take notice, CZI can jolly well tell them what to do and make sure they get everything right, so there'll never be any diseases any more. Read More: There's One Problem With Mark Zuckerberg's Plan to Solve All Diseases While inflated medical promises are hardly peculiar to molecular medicine, that field does seem particularly prone to breathless rhetoric. You can almost hear K Eric Drexler panting when he writes, in his manifesto Engines of Creation (1986), that protein-based nanomachines 'promise to bring changes as profound as the Industrial Revolution, antibiotics, and nuclear weapons all rolled up in one massive breakthrough'. Bluster, overstatement and aspirations masquerading as hard targets have no single cause. One reason, surely, is the heady sense of impending omnipotence that accompanies major technological and scientific advances. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of heredity, the cracking of the genetic code, genetic engineering, the Human Genome Project, CRISPR—all were followed by grandiose claims of the imminent total control over life's fundamental processes. Every generation of scientists looks back and shakes its collective head in condescending disbelief at how little the previous generation knew, rarely stopping to reflect that the next generation will do the same. In our particular moment, biology is the king, and the perennial desire for simple solutions to complex problems leads people back time and again to biological determinism: it's all in your genes. It's all in your neurons. This new discovery changes everything. The possibility of vast profits in biotech also contribute to the propensity for hype. Buy on the rumors, sell on the news. Nowhere is that more true than in biotech and infotech. As the molecular biologist James Watson—no stranger to hype himself—wrote in his memoir Avoid Boring People (2007): 'Nothing attracts money like the quest for a cure for a terrible disease.' Finally, the researchers and their funders vie for attention from a news media that is itself constantly competing for an overstimulated and numb audience. Overcoming habituation and making a splash requires ever-bigger jolts of hyperbole. It's time to push back. One way is to hold scientists, philanthropists and the press accountable. In 2014, Jonathan Eisen, professor at the Genome Center at the University of California, Davis, compiled a lengthy list of articles on the hype surrounding the genome project—many of them either complaining of promise fatigue or pricking the bubble of inflated expectations. We can and should continue writing, collecting and sharing such pieces. Fund science liberally, but reward knowledge more than market value. Encourage science literacy, not just cheerleading. And teach skepticism of technology, medicine and the media. Now, that might sound like a pipe dream itself. Nevertheless, any progress in this direction will yield results. Science does lead to better understanding, and new knowledge will continue to yield new drugs and other therapies. But better understanding also means an appreciation for how complex nature is. The progress of science is the steady realization of how little we actually know. The more we, the public, understand that about science, the more we will see through the hype. And the more we see through the hype, the more medicine will serve its stakeholders, not its stockholders. We will get better healthcare. Nathaniel Comfort is the Baruch Blumberg Chair of Astrobiology at NASA/Library of Congress and professor of history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. His latest book is The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine (2012). This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons.

News Article | November 1, 2016

EDMONTON, AB--(Marketwired - November 01, 2016) - The PCL family of companies is pleased to announce that succession transition has officially taken place for its leadership position of President and Chief Executive Officer. Dave Filipchuk is appointed the eighth President and CEO of PCL in its 110-year history. Mr. Filipchuk previously held the position of Deputy CEO, and before that was President and COO, Canadian and Australian Operations, with responsibility for the performance of PCL's Buildings and Civil Infrastructure divisions. Mr. Filipchuk has a BSc degree in civil engineering from the University of Alberta and attended the Ivey Executive program at the University of Western Ontario. He is Gold Seal certified and a member of APEGA. Mr. Filipchuk has been with PCL for 32 years and possesses a wealth of knowledge of both the company and the construction industry, having lived and worked in both Canada and the United States in PCL's buildings and civil infrastructure sectors. "I am extremely proud and excited to assume the position of President and CEO at PCL," said Mr. Filipchuk. "Guiding a company with such a storied and successful history is an opportunity I look forward to enjoying well into the future. I would like to thank Paul Douglas for his tireless work and dedication in leading PCL for the past seven years, and I congratulate him on an amazing career in construction and on his new role with our company." Mr. Douglas assumes the role of Chairman with PCL Construction's Board of Directors. "Succession planning is all about having the right people in the right place at the right time," said Mr. Douglas in talking about handing over the reins to Mr. Filipchuk. "We take succession seriously at all levels of our organization and make sure an appropriate amount of time is provided for a seamless transition to preserve continuity in our business. Dave Filipchuk has my, and the entire board of directors', full support in officially becoming the eighth CEO of this great company." During his 31 years with PCL, and apart from leading PCL to some of its most successful years to date, Mr. Douglas has received numerous accolades. Among those are recognition as Alberta's 2015 Business Person of the Year and inclusion on the list of Alberta's 50 Most Influential People for the past two years. About PCL Construction PCL is a group of independent construction companies that carries out work across Canada, the United States, the Caribbean, and in Australia. These diverse operations in the civil infrastructure, heavy industrial, and buildings markets are supported by a strategic presence in 31 major centers. Together, these companies have an annual construction volume of $8.5 billion, making PCL the largest contracting organization in Canada and one of the largest in North America. Watch us build at

News Article | November 16, 2016

Scientists in Argentina are bracing for hard times next year. Later this month, the country’s senate is expected to approve a 2017 budget that would deal a crippling blow to research. Researchers and students have been staging protests in the capital, Buenos Aires, and in other cities since news of the pending cuts broke last month. “The message is clear: Science is not a priority to this government,” says Cecilia Kramar, an Argentinian postdoc studying neuroscience at the University of Western Ontario in London. “There won’t be new science in Argentina because there won’t be new scientists to do it.” When Argentine President Mauricio Macri took office in December 2015, he vowed to double the share of spending on science and technology in the government’s budget from 0.7% to 1.5%. But that promise has collided with an economic downturn that is driving up the nation’s debt. As part of its plan for balancing its books, the government intends to cut the science and technology budget by $198 million, to $2.1 billion in 2017—an 8.5% decrease. Belt-tightening will be felt especially severely at the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), which will have to devote 96% of its $655 million budget next year to salaries for researchers and scholars. That leaves a mere $26 million for research projects, lab equipment, and scholarships. (In 2014, CONICET spent $77 million—31% of its budget that year—on items other than salaries.) Argentina’s young Ph.D. scientists and postdocs rely on CONICET stipends as a bridge to tenure-track positions in academia or other career paths. Young researchers now on stipends are expected to be OK. But “it is not clear whether [CONICET] will have the sufficient funds to open new positions,” warns Jorge Aliaga, a physicist and former dean of the Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires. That could cast many young researchers adrift. For that reason, Aliaga and others worry that the expected cuts will spark an exodus of young scientific talent. Argentina has experienced brain drains before—most recently in the early 2000s, when the country’s economy was in a severe recession. “Whole packs of young people just left,” Aliaga says. Echoing that concern is Franco Bonafé, a Ph.D, student who is studying quantum dynamics at the National University of Córdoba. In 2013, he turned down a chance to enroll in a Ph.D. program at the University of Texas in Austin. “I said, ‘I’ll take a chance here in Argentina,’” he recalls. But the cuts have cast a shadow over his future. If the outlook for science here remains bleak, he says, “I will have no chance whatsoever to become the chemist that I want to be.” Kramar, meanwhile, is one of almost 7000 Argentinian scientists now living outside of the country, according to the science ministry. It has always been her plan to return to Argentina. “I’m not changing my mind,” she says. “But even if I shout and kick, [the government] will be shutting the doors on me. I won’t be able to return home.”

With an upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare, Michelle Solomon, MScN, joins the prestigious ranks of the International Nurses Association. She is a Registered Nurse with six years of experience in her field of mental health nursing, acute care. Michelle is also founder and executive director of CONNECT for Mental Health, a community not-for-profit peer support organization providing support to individuals affected by mental illness. Michelle is currently serving individuals in Ontario,Canada. Michelle received her Nursing degree from the University of Western Ontario, prior to completing her Master of Science degree in Nursing in 2013 from the same educational venue. She maintains a professional membership with the Canadian Depression Research and Intervention Network, and the College of Nurses of Ontario. She is also an inductee of The Honour Society of Nursing Sigma Theta Tau Iota Omicron Chapter. Michelle attributes her success to her passion for patient care, being real, helping others, prevention, and optimizing resources. When she is not assisting patients, Michelle enjoys running and traveling. Learn more about Michelle here: and read her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.

News Article | November 7, 2016

The narrative arc of a recent report by Luke Dittrich concerning Henry Molaison (known as patient H.M.) is deeply disturbing. First, says Dittrich in his book “Patient H.M.,” a surgeon recklessly excised a part of Molaison’s brain critical for memory. Molaison, permanently disabled, was subsequently subjected to years of experimentation without proper consent by a scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Dr. Suzanne Corkin, who built her career on Mr. Molaison’s back and ultimately tried to supress data that conflicted with hers. The attack on Corkin was countered by a letter signed by 203 scientists (including myself), and a detailed rebuttal by MIT. Yet the reader needs to know if they can trust the practice of science with vulnerable people. Molaison was the most prominent volunteer participant in human neuroscience research, but what about the legions of lesser-known volunteers? This speaks to a zeitgeist of mistrust of science and expertise in general, one that undermines society’s engagement with scientists. Modern ethical guidelines for conduct of research with humans originated at Nuremberg in 1947 in response to horrific abuses by researchers at WW II concentration camps. Present-day research abuses are rare because the basic principles of informed consent, beneficence, and protection from harm are codified into federal law. There is no collusion among academics trying to protect questionable research practices. Indeed, researchers must seek approval from independent Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) that include non-scientists before conducting their studies. Studying patients is my job, so it is no secret that I benefit from their participation, including their endurance of discomfort with being tested. Yet like Corkin, I consider studying people who have been exposed to brain disease, surgical errors, or other misfortunes to be a scientific, and even a societal, obligation, both to improve diagnosis and treatment and to better understand the workings of the brain. Still, why would someone volunteer for research when they have suffered so much? While curiosity and a challenge may be sufficient justification, the desire to see something positive come from their suffering is greater. They do not do it as a favour to me; they do it for you and your loved ones. Surgical removal of dysfunctional brain tissue for the relief of severe epilepsy, now strictly controlled relative to the time of Molaison’s surgery, reduces seizures and increases quality of life. This surgery includes placement of electrodes on the brain’s surface to monitor brain activity (no pain is felt as local anesthesia is used). With the help of patients who volunteered their time during monitoring, researchers at University of California at Berkeley discovered that analysis of recordings from the brain’s auditory centres could reconstruct words that the patients heard. That is, they could play back the correct words using the brain recordings alone, giving rise to the future possibility of decoding thoughts in those unable to speak. When patients cannot consent to research participation, a legally appointed guardian with the patients’ best interests at heart makes the decision. As an extreme example, researchers at University of Western Ontario received permission from guardians of patients who are minimally conscious (i.e., nearly in a coma) to test them in an MRI scanner. This research showed that these patients could produce reliable patterns of brain activity when asked to imagine playing tennis or walking in their house. These brain responses could then be used to answer yes/no questions, establishing communication with patients who were previously not known to understand speech or even have a conscious life. What happens when data, so painstakingly collected, conflict with researchers’ cherished theories? The most respected scientists push their limits by creating the most difficult tests of their models, much like elite athletes prefer to compete against the best. Eric Kandel, the neurobiologist and Nobel laureate, recounted that in 1946 the electrophysiologist John Eccles was initially despondent when he realized that he was on the losing side of the battle over whether synaptic transmission in the brain—or how brain cells communicate— was electrical, as Eccles thought, or chemical. In the end Eccles was jubilant in losing the battle. How can this be? I imagine Eccles was a gracious man, but that is immaterial. Eccles knew that he had made the strongest possible test of his theory. Although wrong, he helped to discover a fundamental truth about how the brain works that was recognized in a shared 1963 Nobel prize. Scientists who refuse to admit they are wrong are viewed like sore losers in sports. No one wants that reputation. When my trainees observe a pathognomonic sign of disease, such as a patient being able to write but not able to read their own writing (the syndrome of alexia without agraphia), I tell them that this is like looking into the eyes of God. That is not because I am happy that a patient has suffered, but rather because the accident of their suffering has illuminated something miraculous about the brain as part of nature that we could not have otherwise known. We should ask nothing less from any scientist trying to understand the mechanisms of the brain or any other body part: that they treat us, and Mother Nature, with dignity. Brian Levine is a neuropsychologist and senior scientist at the Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences Centre and Professor of Psychology and Medicine (Neurology) at the University of Toronto. He conducts applied research on memory and executive functions in patients with brain disease and in healthy adults.

News Article | October 28, 2016

VANCOUVER, BC--(Marketwired - October 26, 2016) - Marching Moose Capital Corp. (TSX VENTURE: MMC.P) ("MMCC" or the "Company"), a capital pool company, is pleased to announce that it has entered into a Letter of Intent dated October 20, 2016 (the "LOI") for the acquisition (the "Proposed Transaction") of Avidian Gold Inc. ("Avidian"), a private company incorporated under the Provincial Laws of Ontario. Upon completion of the Proposed Transaction, the business of Avidian will become the business of MMCC. MMCC is a capital pool company and the Proposed Transaction is intended to constitute the Company's qualifying transaction ("Qualifying Transaction") under Policy 2.4 of the TSX Venture Exchange (the "Exchange"). The Proposed Transaction is an arm's length transaction and accordingly will not require the approval of MMCC's shareholders. All amounts referred herein are in Canadian dollars unless otherwise indicated. Avidian Gold Inc. was incorporated by articles of incorporation dated June 22, 2011 under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario). Avidian's principal business activity is mineral exploration. The registered head office of Avidian is located at 390 Bay Street, Suite #806, Toronto, Ontario, M4H 2Y2. Avidian is in the business of acquiring and exploring gold projects. As of October 2016, Avidian has acquired the rights to explore four gold properties in the United States of America and has acquired all the issued and outstanding shares of High Tide Resources Inc. which holds the right to explore a volcanogenic massive sulfide ("VMS") property in Newfoundland, Canada. Avidian has three principal advanced gold properties, the Golden Zone and Amanita properties, located in south-central Alaska, and the Jungo property located in Nevada. The Golden Zone and Amanita properties lie within the prolific Tintina Gold Belt that hosts gold deposits such as Donlin Creek, Fort Knox and Dublin Gulch. From an exploration and development perspective these two properties are considered high priority targets. They have well documented mineral occurrences, significant historical investments with identified targets to explore and are close to infrastructure (both accessible by road with nearby rail and power). The Jungo property is located within the Humboldt mineral trend that hosts the Hycroft and Sleeper gold deposits. This property also saw significant investment in the past with many targets not tested as result of depressed market and commodity prices. Also in Nevada, Avidian has the Dome Hill property, located within the gold prolific Walker Lane Trend, which has excellent exploration potential. While Avidian will continue to evaluate other mineral opportunities as they arise, they are determined to remain prudent and disciplined in advancing their high quality mineral portfolio up the value chain, thereby ultimately creating a return on investment for their shareholders. Avidian's property interests are at an early stage of exploration and, in common with many exploration companies, it raises financing for its exploration and appraisal activities in discrete tranches. As of its fiscal year end of June 30, 2016 Avidian holds US$556,819 of current assets that are part of its US$1,083,193 total Assets. Avidian has current liabilities of US$62,794 part of its total liabilities of US$698,437. It had operating expenses of US$774,808 and a comprehensive loss of US$774,808 for the year. It raised US$609,380 from the issuance of convertible debentures and has a cash balance of US$532,088. Avidian has two shareholders who beneficially own, direct or control more than 10% of Avidian's common shares on a non-diluted basis: David C. Anderson - director (10.9%) and Victor H. Bradley - director (10.5%). Pursuant to the terms of the LOI, a wholly owned subsidiary of MMCC will amalgamate with Avidian by way of a three-cornered amalgamation by which the Avidian shareholders will receive one post-consolidated MMCC common share (the "Transaction Shares"), for every 2.17 Avidian Shares currently held, as set forth below. The Transaction Shares will be issued to the shareholders of Avidian pursuant to exemptions from the registration and prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws. The Transaction Shares will be subject to resale restrictions as required under the applicable securities legislation and the Exchange and will also be subject to escrow restrictions as required by the Exchange. In connection with the Proposed Transaction, the resulting issuer (the "Resulting Issuer") will change its name to a name acceptable to Avidian and to applicable regulatory authorities (the "Name Change"). It is expected that upon completion of the Proposed Transaction, the Resulting Issuer will be listed as a Tier 1 Mining Issuer on the Exchange. Completion of the Proposed Transaction is subject to a number of conditions, including execution of a definitive agreement, completion of satisfactory due diligence and receipt of applicable regulatory approvals. There can be no assurance that the Proposed Transaction will be completed as proposed or at all. Prior to the completion of the Proposed Transaction, MMCC will complete a share consolidation on a 2 to 1 basis (two pre-consolidated shares for one post-consolidated share) (the "Share Consolidation"), as approved by its shareholders at an AGM held on November 25, 2015. The name of the Resulting Issuer following the Name Change is expected to be "Avidian Gold Inc." Under the terms of the LOI, a subsidiary of MMCC will amalgamate with Avidian by way of a three cornered amalgamation whereby the Avidian shareholders will be issued shares of MMCC on the basis of one post-consolidated common share of MMCC for every 2.17 Avidian shares held. There are currently 50,709,701 Avidian common shares issued and outstanding, as well as 38,223,835 that will be issued concurrently with the closing of the Proposed Transaction under the terms of convertible debentures previously issued by Avidian. This will result in MMCC issuing an aggregate of 40,983,196 post-consolidated common shares to Avidian shareholders. These numbers shall be adjusted accordingly to account for any common shares issued by Avidian in connection with the Private Placement. Upon completion of the Proposed Transaction, Avidian will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of MMCC. There are currently 3,640,002 MMCC common shares issued and outstanding, as well as 200,000 common share purchase warrants and 346,650 stock options of MMCC outstanding. The holders of the MMCC stock options have agreed to cancel their stock options save and except for 55,200 options held by David W. Smalley. Upon completion of the Share Consolidation, the Proposed Transaction and including those securities issued in the Private Placement discussed below, there are expected to be a minimum of 42,803,198 and a maximum of 46,136,531 post-consolidated MMCC common shares issued and outstanding, 100,000 post-consolidated share purchase warrants, and 55,200 stock options of MMCC. All current directors and officers of Marching Moose and Avidian shall be party to a support agreement (the "Support Agreements") under which they agree to vote, or cause to be voted, in favour of the Transaction all of the Marching Moose Shares and Avidian Gold Shares currently owned or controlled by them, or any such shares acquired by them after closing.. Upon completion of the Proposed Transaction, all MMCC common shares to be issued to holders of Avidian shares upon completion of the Proposed Transaction may be subject to resale restrictions under securities laws and the policies of the Exchange, as applicable. In addition, all common shares held by Principals of MMCC (as such term is defined in the policies of the Exchange) will be held in escrow in accordance with the policies of the Exchange. Prior to or concurrent with the Closing of the Proposed Transaction, Avidian will complete a financing (debt or equity) (the "Private Placement") for a minimum of $500,000 at a price no less than $0.15 per share. The resulting funds will provide the Resulting Issuer with sufficient working capital. All securities issued pursuant to the Private Placement will be subject to a hold period of four months and one day. The proceeds raised will be used to fund the costs associated with completing the Proposed Transaction, mineral exploration and working capital. Avidian will pay commission on proceeds raised commensurate with industry norms. It is not known if any investment dealer or other registrant will be engaged to assist with fund raising activities. Subject to the approval of the TSX Venture Exchange, MMCC believes that the Proposed Transaction will be exempt from any sponsorship requirement. The parties' obligations to complete the Proposed Transaction are subject to the satisfaction of customary conditions precedent including: (a) all necessary approvals of the Exchange and all other regulatory authorities and third parties to the Proposed Transaction and the Private Placement being obtained; (b) the approval or consent by shareholders of Avidian of the Proposed Transaction, has been obtained to the extent applicable; (c) MMCC has completed the Name Change and Share Consolidation on the terms set forth above; (d) Avidian has completed the Private Placement and raised not less than $500,000; (e) the parties have been satisfied with the results of their respective due diligence reviews in connection with the Proposed Transaction; and (f) the Exchange has conditionally accepted the common shares of the Resulting Issuer for listing, subject to the Resulting Issuer fulfilling the listing requirements of the Exchange. On completion of the Proposed Transaction, the directors, officers and insiders of the resulting issuer are anticipated to be the individuals below. Giulio T. Bonifacio - Director and Executive Chairman Mr. Bonifacio has over 30 years in senior executive positions in the mining industry including as the founder, President & CEO of Nevada Copper Corp. which advanced the Pumpkin Hollow Copper Project located in Nevada from exploration and now ranks as the largest fully permitted, shovel-ready copper project in the Americas. Among his many accomplishments Mr. Bonifacio has been instrumental in arranging over US$400 million in equity and project debt related financings. Mr. Bonifacio is a Chartered Professional Accountant with extensive experience and knowledge in areas of capital markets, project finance, securities matters and mergers & acquisitions. Mr. Bonifacio has held senior executive roles primarily in the precious metal sector with Getty Resources Limited, TOTAL S.A., and Vengold Inc. Mr. Bonifacio has been a senior or lead director of several publicly traded companies in the mining industry and most recently was with Goldrock Mines Corp. which was recently acquired in July. Dino Titaro - Director, President and CEO A geologist with an MSc degree in economic geology from the University of Western Ontario, Mr. Titaro has over 30 years of experience in the mining and exploration sector, and is a qualified person as defined by National Instrument 43-101 and is registered as a P.Geo in Ontario. He was the founder of Carpathian Gold Inc. and was the President and CEO from 2003 to early 2014 and a director to late 2014. From 1986 to 2003, Mr. Titaro was President and CEO of A.C.A. Howe International Limited, a geological and mining consulting firm that worked on precious, base and industrial mineral projects throughout the world. From 1980 to1986 Mr. Titaro was with Getty Mines Ltd. in various supervisory positions as a geologist working on base metal and uranium projects, principally in the resource definition stages. Mr. Titaro currently sits on the board of directors of Yamana Gold Inc., a publicly listed TSX mining company. He is also currently a director of Mincor Inc., a private resource company, operating in Mexico and a founder and director of Tethyan Resources Inc., a private resources company in the acquisition stage of mineral resource properties within the Tethyan Metal Belt of Europe. Mr. Titaro has previously been a director and officer of several publicly traded companies in the mining, industrial and health care technology fields. David C. Anderson - Director Mr. Anderson studied both Geology and Geophysics and has subsequently worked in the mining industry for more than 40 years. He is a registered professional geologist with the Association of Professional Geologists of Ontario (APGO). In addition to providing contract and consulting services to most major mining companies during the initial part of his career, Mr. Anderson was also a founding shareholder in three successful companies: Quantec Geoscienes Ltd., a company which provides geophysical services primarily to the mining industry; QGX Ltd., a junior mining exploration company which focused on mineral exploration in Mongolia; and Antares Minerals Inc., a junior mining exploration company which explored in Argentina and Peru. Although he is no longer directly involved in the company, Quantec Geosciences Ltd. continues to offer services to the resource industry throughout the world. Both QGX Ltd. and Antares Minerals Inc. were public companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, and were subsequently sold to major mining companies after successfully discovering economic mineral deposits. Currently Mr. Anderson is an entrepreneur who continues to identify and invest in junior mining exploration companies that are focused on gold and copper opportunities. In 2010 Mr. Anderson founded the David C Anderson Charitable Foundation whose primary objective is to provide assistance for women and children in underprivileged situations. Victor H. Bradley - Director Vic Bradley is a Chartered Professional Accountant with more than 50 years' experience in the mining industry, including more than 15 years with Cominco Ltd. and McIntyre Mines Ltd. in a wide variety of senior financial positions from Controller to Chief Financial Officer. Over the past 30 years Mr. Bradley has founded, financed and operated several mining and advanced stage exploration and development companies, including Yamana Gold Inc., Aura Minerals Inc. and Nevoro Inc. (sold to Starfield Resources Inc.). Mr. Bradley founded Yamana Gold early 1994, and served as President and CEO and then Chairman of the Board and Lead Director until 2008. He served as Chairman of Osisko Mining Corporation from November 2006 up to its sale for $3.9 billion to Agnico Eagle Mines Limited and Yamana Gold June, 2014. Osisko Mining Corporation unlocked the porphyry gold target at Malartic, Quebec and, in 6 years from first drill hole to commercial production, created the largest open pit gold mine in Canada. Mr. Bradley now serves as a director of Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd. (spun out of the Osisko Mining Corporation sale) and as Chairman and a director of Nevada Copper Corp. Mr. Bradley has considerable experience in corporate acquisitions and has participated in numerous equity and debt related financings for projects around the world. Jeff Mosher - CFO Mr. Mosher is a Certified Professional Accountant with international public accounting experience focused in the audit and advisory practice serving both public and private entities. He has held financial positions with several private companies providing financial statement preparation services and equity/debt financing guidance. Mr. Mosher holds a B.Comm (Honours) from the University of Ottawa. Dr. Tom Setterfield - Vice President Exploration Dr. Setterfield has thirty-five years of international exploration experience and is considered an expert in IOCG, epithermal Au and VMS deposit types. He holds a PhD from Cambridge University (England) and has lived and worked in Australia, Fiji and Canada and on assignments in many other countries. As a consultant for QGX Ltd., he was that company's first representative to visit the Golden Hills (Bayan Airag) area in western Mongolia, and was integral to the decision to acquire this property, upon which a gold-rich VMS deposit was discovered and is presently being developed. Dr. Setterfield is a co-founder and principal of the geological consulting firm GeoVector Management Inc. He also co-founded Monster Copper Corporation and served as VP Exploration from its incorporation in 2002 to its takeover by Mega Uranium Ltd in 2007. Dr. Setterfield co-founded TerraX Minerals Inc. and is presently its VP Exploration. Catherine Tanaka - Corporate Secretary Ms. Tanaka has over 15 years of experience in the management and administration of public companies in the resource sector, including extensive experience in public company governance and regulation. Ms. Tanaka has served as Corporate Secretary to Nevada Copper Corp. since 2005. Prior to her role as a Corporate Secretary, Ms. Tanaka was a paralegal for a US law firm specializing in corporate and securities law. Ms. Tanaka holds a Bachelor Degree from the University of British Columbia. Upon the execution of the LOI, the shares of MMCC were halted and it is expected that they will remain halted until completion of the Qualifying Transaction. Completion of the Proposed Transaction is subject to a number of conditions, including but not limited to, Exchange acceptance. Where applicable, the Proposed Transaction cannot close until the required shareholder approval is obtained. There can be no assurance that the Proposed Transaction will be completed as proposed or at all. Investors are cautioned that, except as disclosed in the filing statement or other disclosure document to be prepared in connection with the Proposed Transaction, any information released or received with respect to the Proposed Transaction may not be accurate or complete and should not be relied upon. Trading in the securities of a capital pool company should be considered highly speculative. The TSX Venture Exchange Inc. has in no way passed upon the merits of the Proposed Transaction and has neither approved nor disapproved the contents of this press release. All information contained in this news release with respect to MMCC and Avidian was supplied by the parties, respectively, for inclusion herein, and MMCC and its directors and officers have relied on Avidian for any information concerning such party. Mr. Dino Titaro, P.Geo., the President, CEO and a director of Avidian, is a qualified person who has reviewed and approved the technical disclosure in this press release. MMCC and Avidian will continue to provide further details in respect of the Proposed Transaction, in due course, by way of news releases. MMCC had previously entered into an agreement in principle with Empower Environmental Solutions Ltd. ("Empower") dated 2nd November, 2015 whereby MMCC would have acquired all of the shares of Empower as its qualifying transaction. The agreement with Empower ultimately expired and could not be renegotiated despite repeated best efforts by both parties. David W. Smalley resigned as a director of the Company effective November 3, 2015. Catherine Chen did not consent to be a director at the 2015 annual general meeting of the shareholders of the Company held on 25th November, 2015. No replacement directors were appointed. Presently the directors of MMCC are Larry K. Doan, Luc Pelchat and Anurag Arun who will all resign at the closing of the Proposed Transaction. Statements in this press release regarding MMCCs business which are not historical facts are "forward-looking statements" that involve risks and uncertainties, such as terms and completion of the Proposed Transaction. Since forward-looking statements address future events and conditions, by their very nature, they involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Actual results in each case could differ materially from those currently anticipated in such statements. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release. This news release contains forward-looking statements relating to the timing and completion of the Proposed Transaction, the future operations of the Company and other statements that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements are often identified by terms such as "will", "may", "should", "anticipate", "expects" and similar expressions. All statements other than statements of historical fact, included in this release, including, without limitation, statements regarding the Proposed Transaction and the future plans and objectives of the Company, are forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate and actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the Company's expectations include the failure to satisfy the conditions to completion of the Proposed Transaction set forth above and other risks detailed from time to time in the filings made by the Company with securities regulations. The reader is cautioned that assumptions used in the preparation of any forward-looking information may prove to be incorrect. Events or circumstances may cause actual results to differ materially from those predicted, as a result of numerous known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are beyond the control of the Company. As a result, the Company cannot guarantee that the Proposed Transaction will be completed on the terms and within the time disclosed herein or at all. The reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking information. Such information, although considered reasonable by management at the time of preparation, may prove to be incorrect and actual results may differ materially from those anticipated. Forward-looking statements contained in this news release are expressly qualified by this cautionary statement. The forward-looking statements contained in this news release are made as of the date of this news release and the Company will update or revise publicly any of the included forward-looking statements as expressly required by Canadian securities law. In the case of Avidian, this news release includes certain "forward-looking statements" which are particular to Avidian and are not comprised of historical facts. Forward-looking statements include estimates and statements that describe Avidian's future plans, objectives or goals, including words to the effect that Avidian or its management expects a stated condition or result to occur. Forward-looking statements may be identified by such terms as "believes", "anticipates", "expects", "estimates", "may", "could", "would", "will", or "plan". Since forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and address future events and conditions, by their very nature they involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Although these statements are based on information currently available to Avidian, Avidian provides no assurance that actual results will meet management's expectations. Risks, uncertainties and other factors involved with forward-looking information could cause actual events, results, performance, prospects and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking information. Forward looking information in this news release includes, but is not limited to, Avidian's objectives, goals or future plans, statements, exploration results, potential mineralization, the estimation of mineral resources, exploration and mine development plans, timing of the commencement of operations and estimates of market conditions. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from such forward-looking information include, but are not limited to failure to identify mineral resources, failure to convert estimated mineral resources to reserves, inadequate metallurgical test results, delays in obtaining or failures to obtain required governmental, environmental or other project approvals, political risks, uncertainties relating to the availability and costs of financing needed in the future, changes in equity markets, inflation, changes in exchange rates, fluctuations in commodity prices, delays in the development of projects, capital and operating costs varying significantly from estimates and the other risks involved in the mineral exploration and development industry, and those risks to be disclosed in the filing statement or other disclosure document to be prepared in connection with the Proposed Transaction. Although Avidian believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking information in this news release are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on such information, which only applies as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Avidian disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, other than as required by law.

News Article | February 21, 2017

SUDBURY, ON / ACCESSWIRE / February 21, 2017 / Frontier Lithium Inc. (TSX-V: FL) ("Frontier") (the "Company") announces the appointment of Frontier's President Trevor Walker, as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company following the resignation of Mr. Henry Kloepper. "Frontier would like to thank Henry and wish him success in all of his future endeavors," stated Reginald (Rick) Walker, Chairman of the Board. The Board is delighted with their appointment of Trevor Walker and his added role of Chief Executive Officer. Walker joined Frontier in 2010, and since then he has played a key strategic role in focusing the company on its PAK Lithium deposit in Northwestern Ontario. Under his leadership, he has increased the company's overall readiness to develop its world-class lithium deposit, advanced global-minded marketing activities, and bridged partnerships to bring Canada's newest lithium mine project on line. Prior to joining the company, Walker was Vice President of the Consbec Group of Companies, where he accumulated 10 years of experience in mining and construction industry. During his tenure at Consbec, he worked closely with companies such as GoldCorp, Rio Tinto, Westdome, Barrick, Noranda, Agrium, and Unimin, as well as other major companies. Walker holds an honours BA from the University of Western Ontario, and an MBA from Webster University Geneva, Switzerland. Frontier's goal is to become a low-cost, fully integrated lithium and tantalum producer through development of the PAK lithium deposit in Ontario, Canada. Frontier maintains a tight share structure with management ownership exceeding 30% of the Company. CAD $4 million of exploration work has been conducted from 2013 to 2016 on the deposit which boasts its lithium in a rare, high-purity, low-iron spodumene. The Company has adopted a staged growth approach to exploration and development in order to avoid unnecessary share dilution - a strategic imperative for the Company. The initial target market is the glass-ceramic industry, which consumes roughly one-third of global lithium supply and is currently faced with monopolistic conditions, coupled with major lithium producers increasingly directing output toward supporting battery manufacture. Ceramic/glass customers prefer to source technical-grade (low-iron) spodumene concentrate in excess of 7% lithium oxide (Li2O), if available, to avoid inferior lower grade petalite concentrates, or paying much higher prices for battery grade lithium compounds that require chemical plants costing hundreds of millions of dollars. The PAK lithium deposit remains open in all directions and Company Management believes the resource can be developed into a world-class operation. The Company is currently conduction pre-feasibility to produce lithium concentrates. If production of lithium concentrates can be established from Frontier, the possible second stage of investment and longer term prospect is to further process some of PAK's output to produce the higher purity lithium compounds required for lithium battery technologies used in the electrification of transportation and electric grid storage applications. For additional information, please visit the company website at The PAK Lithium Project lies close to the boundary between two geological sub-provinces of the western Superior geologic province in northwestern Ontario and hosts a rare metals pegmatite deposit. The deposit is an LCT (lithium- cesium- tantalum) type pegmatite. These types of pegmatites have been the principal source of hard rock lithium, tantalum, rubidium, and cesium ores mined in the world but there are comparatively few commercially-viable deposits. Frontier is actively exploring its 100% owned project which contains the Pakeagama Lake pegmatite. The PAK deposit is one of the highest grade lithium mineral resources in North America which has a current Measured and Indicated Resource of 7.89 million tonnes of 1.73% Li2O equivalent (eq.) and Inferred Resource of 295,600 tonnes of 1.35% Li2O eq. which has a technical/ceramic grade spodumene with low inherent iron (below 0.1% Fe2O3). The deposit has adjacent zones that are enriched in tantalum and rubidium. Frontier is also evaluating the phased co-production of tantalum and mica-product concentrates once lithium mineral production has been commercialized. The deposit now has a known 500m strike length with an estimated true width varying from 10m to 125m with a sub-vertical orientation. The resource remains open to depth and along strike to the northwest and southeast.

News Article | February 21, 2017

"Frontier would like to thank Henry and wish him success in all of his future endeavors," stated Reginald (Rick) Walker, Chairman of the Board. The Board is delighted with their appointment of Trevor Walker and his added role of Chief Executive Officer. Walker joined Frontier in 2010, and since then he has played a key strategic role in focusing the company on its PAK Lithium deposit in Northwestern Ontario. Under his leadership, he has increased the company's overall readiness to develop its world-class lithium deposit, advanced global-minded marketing activities, and bridged partnerships to bring Canada's newest lithium mine project on line. Prior to joining the company, Walker was Vice President of the Consbec Group of Companies, where he accumulated 10 years of experience in mining and construction industry. During his tenure at Consbec, he worked closely with companies such as GoldCorp, Rio Tinto, Westdome, Barrick, Noranda, Agrium, and Unimin, as well as other major companies. Walker holds an honours BA from the University of Western Ontario, and an MBA from Webster University Geneva, Switzerland. Frontier's goal is to become a low-cost, fully integrated lithium and tantalum producer through development of the PAK lithium deposit in Ontario, Canada. Frontier maintains a tight share structure with management ownership exceeding 30% of the Company. CAD $4 million of exploration work has been conducted from 2013 to 2016 on the deposit which boasts its lithium in a rare, high-purity, low-iron spodumene. The Company has adopted a staged growth approach to exploration and development in order to avoid unnecessary share dilution - a strategic imperative for the Company. The initial target market is the glass-ceramic industry, which consumes roughly one-third of global lithium supply and is currently faced with monopolistic conditions, coupled with major lithium producers increasingly directing output toward supporting battery manufacture. Ceramic/glass customers prefer to source technical-grade (low-iron) spodumene concentrate in excess of 7% lithium oxide (Li2O), if available, to avoid inferior lower grade petalite concentrates, or paying much higher prices for battery grade lithium compounds that require chemical plants costing hundreds of millions of dollars. The PAK lithium deposit remains open in all directions and Company Management believes the resource can be developed into a world-class operation. The Company is currently conduction pre-feasibility to produce lithium concentrates. If production of lithium concentrates can be established from Frontier, the possible second stage of investment and longer term prospect is to further process some of PAK's output to produce the higher purity lithium compounds required for lithium battery technologies used in the electrification of transportation and electric grid storage applications. For additional information, please visit the company website at The PAK Lithium Project lies close to the boundary between two geological sub-provinces of the western Superior geologic province in northwestern Ontario and hosts a rare metals pegmatite deposit. The deposit is an LCT (lithium- cesium- tantalum) type pegmatite. These types of pegmatites have been the principal source of hard rock lithium, tantalum, rubidium, and cesium ores mined in the world but there are comparatively few commercially-viable deposits. Frontier is actively exploring its 100% owned project which contains the Pakeagama Lake pegmatite. The PAK deposit is one of the highest grade lithium mineral resources in North America which has a current Measured and Indicated Resource of 7.89 million tonnes of 1.73% Li2O equivalent (eq.) and Inferred Resource of 295,600 tonnes of 1.35% Li2O eq. which has a technical/ceramic grade spodumene with low inherent iron (below 0.1% Fe2O3). The deposit has adjacent zones that are enriched in tantalum and rubidium. Frontier is also evaluating the phased co-production of tantalum and mica-product concentrates once lithium mineral production has been commercialized. The deposit now has a known 500m strike length with an estimated true width varying from 10m to 125m with a sub-vertical orientation. The resource remains open to depth and along strike to the northwest and southeast.

Dr. Neumeister has previously served as President of the Plastic Surgery Foundation, Plastic Surgery Research Council and a Leader in Translational Regenerative Medicine SOUTH PLAINFIELD, NJ--(Marketwired - Dec 9, 2016) - Majesco Entertainment, Inc. ( : COOL) ("Majesco") following announcement that it had signed a definitive merger agreement with PolarityTE, Inc. ("Polarity")  announced it has appointed Michael W. Neumeister, MD, FRCSC, FACS as Chief Medical Officer ( Dr. Neumeister was formerly President of the Plastic Surgery Foundation and Plastic Surgery Research Council and is a Leader in Regenerative Medicine ( Following satisfaction of the conditions to closing, including approval of stockholders, Polarity will be acquired by Majesco, and will operate as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Majesco, which will change its name to Polarity in connection with the contemplated transaction.  "Polarity seeks to alter the paradigms of regenerative medicine and patient-specific tissue engineering for the future. It is with these ambitious goals in mind that I am pleased to announce world renowned plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Michael Neumeister has agreed to join as Chief Medical Officer of PolarityTE™. Beyond his tremendous expertise in some of the most complex reconstructive procedures performed, he has remained a leader and mentor in the field and an innovator in pragmatic translational regenerative medicine," said Chief Executive Officer and Chairman Dr. Denver Lough. "I am extremely excited to join the Polarity Team and help transform the landscape of translational tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery. I believe I can add tremendous value with a large network of clinical thought leaders and practical viewpoint on the application of the technology. Dr. Lough and I have a close working relationship and I consider him to be one of the most gifted and brilliant innovators in regenerative medicine, and it is an honor to be brought on to his team in this role. I have no doubt, he will change field as we know it," said Dr Neumeister. About PolarityTE PolarityTE, Inc. is the owner of a novel regenerative medicine and tissue engineering platform developed and patented by Denver Lough MD, PhD. This radical and proprietary technology employs a patients' own cells for the healing of full-thickness functionally-polarized tissues. If clinically successful, the PolarityTE platform will be able to provide medical professionals with a truly new paradigm in wound healing and reconstructive surgery by utilizing a patient's own tissue substrates for the regeneration of skin, bone, muscle, cartilage, fat, blood vessels and nerves. It is because PolarityTE uses a natural and biologically sound platform technology, which is readily adaptable to a wide spectrum of organ and tissue systems, that the company and its world-renowned clinical advisory board, are poised to drastically change the field and future of translational regenerative medicine. More info can be found online at Welcome to the Shift™. About Michael W. Neumeister, MD, FRCSC, FACS Professor & Chairman - Department of Surgery The Elvin G. Zook Endowed Chair in Plastic Surgery Microsurgery/Research Lab Director Director: Memorial Medical Center Regional Burn Unit Director: Memorial Medical Center Wound Center Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL Dr. Neumeister is Professor & Chairman of the Department of Surgery and The Elvin G. Zook Endowed Chair in Plastic Surgery at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine in Springfield, IL. He received his medical degree from the University of Toronto and previously completed a degree in physiology and pharmacology at the University of Western Ontario. Dr. Neumeister began his residency at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in general surgery and went on to complete his plastic surgery residency at the University of Manitoba. He continued his training as a microsurgery fellow at Harvard University's Brigham & Women's Hospital in Boston and completed a one year hand and microsurgery fellowship at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Dr. Neumeister is board certified in plastic surgery by the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada and the American Board of Plastic Surgery. He has also received his Certificate in (SOTH) Surgery of The Hand. Dr. Neumeister has received awards for presentations given regionally, nationally and internationally, has over 150 book chapters and articles, and has multiple research interests in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Dr. Neumeister is the Editor in Chief of the official AAHS journal HAND. He is the past President of the American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery, American Association for Hand Surgery, The Plastic Surgery Foundation (The Research Body of The American Society of Plastic Surgeons), Plastic Surgery Research Council, and the Midwest Association of Plastic Surgeons. His memberships include the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic Surgery Foundation, Plastic Surgery Research Council, American Association for Hand Surgery, American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, American Burn Association, American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons and the American Association of Plastic Surgeons where he also serves as an elected official on several of their committees. Dr. Neumeister has received awards for presentations given regionally, nationally and internationally and has over 150 published manuscripts and book chapters. Dr. Neumeister's research interests include: allotransplantation, tissue engineering, the role of stem cells in reconstruction, ischemia reperfusion, peripheral nerve, and burn modulation. Forward-Looking Statements Certain statements contained in this release are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward looking statements contained in this release relate to, among other things, the Company's ongoing compliance with the requirements of The NASDAQ Stock Market and the Company's ability to maintain the closing bid price requirements of The NASDAQ Stock Market on a post reverse split basis. They are generally identified by words such as "believes," "may," "expects," "anticipates," "should" and similar expressions. Readers should not place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements, which are based upon the Company's beliefs and assumptions as of the date of this release. The Company's actual results could differ materially due to risk factors and other items described in more detail in the "Risk Factors" section of the Company's Annual Reports filed with the SEC (copies of which may be obtained at Subsequent events and developments may cause these forward-looking statements to change. The Company specifically disclaims any obligation or intention to update or revise these forward-looking statements as a result of changed events or circumstances that occur after the date of this release, except as required by applicable law.

News Article | November 4, 2016

VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - Nov. 3, 2016) - Argentina Lithium & Energy Corp. (TSX VENTURE:LIT)(FRANKFURT:OAY1) (WKN:A0RK7E) ("Argentina Lithium" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that over 79.9% of the Company's shares were represented at the Special and Annual Meeting of Shareholders held on November 2, 2016. All resolutions received overwhelming support at the meeting. The Company has appointed Joseph Grosso, Nikolaos Cacos, David Terry, Nick DeMare and Nicolas Galli to its Board of Directors. "The new Board brings an exceptional breadth of expertise to Argentina Lithium," said Nikolaos Cacos, President and C.E.O. "In particular, we welcome Nicolas Galli, a lithium expert with extensive development and production experience in Argentina. Argentina Lithium is now poised to deliver together with the rest of the Board." Mr. Grosso became one of the early pioneers of the mining sector in Argentina in 1993 when mining was opened to foreign investment, and was named Argentina's 'Mining Man of The Year' in 2005. His knowledge of Argentina was instrumental in attracting a premier team which led to the acquisition of key properties in Golden Arrow's portfolio. He has successfully formed strategic alliances and negotiated with mining industry majors such as Barrick, Teck, Newmont, Viceroy (now Yamana Gold) and Vale S.A., and government officials at all levels. Mr. Grosso's specialty is financing, negotiations, corporate and marketing strategy, and he was an early and passionate adopter of best practices in environmental protection and socio-economic development through mineral exploration. He is the founder and president of Grosso Group Management Ltd. Nicolas Galli has extensive experience as a founder, partner and general manager of several service companies focused on lithium prospects in the Puna region of Argentina. Mr. Galli has gained valuable experience by contributing to the development and construction of important Lithium projects in Argentina including Orocobre, Enirgi, FMC, and others. Mr. Galli holds a Chemical Engineering degree from Buenos Aires University. Dr. Terry has more than 20 years of experience focused on exploration for a wide spectrum of precious and base metal deposits throughout North and South America. He has held numerous senior positions with both major and junior mining companies, including Boliden Limited, Westmin Resources Limited, Hemlo Gold Mines Inc., Cominco Limited and Gold Fields Mining Corporation. He holds a BSc and PhD from the University of Western Ontario. Mr. Nick DeMare, a chartered accountant, has been President of Chase Management Inc. since 1991, providing accounting, management, securities regulatory compliance and corporate secretarial services to private and public-listed companies. Mr. DeMare also serves as an officer and/or director of a number of public-listed companies. Mr. DeMare holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of British Columbia and is a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of British Columbia. Messrs. Sean Hurd and Brian McEwen agreed to step down from the board. We thank them for their service to the Company. The shareholders approved the special resolution to amend the Company's Articles. The amendment of the Company's Articles is subject to receipt of final approval of the TSX Venture Exchange. ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release may contain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements address future events and conditions and therefore involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated in such statements. Readers are encouraged to refer to the Company's public disclosure documents for a more detailed discussion of factors that may impact expected future results. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements.

News Article | September 22, 2016

The first time Jessica Cantlon met Kumang at the Seneca Park Zoo, the matriarch orangutan regurgitated her previous meal right into Cantlon’s face. “I was retching,” Cantlon recalls. “It was so gross.” But Cantlon was there to kick off a series of behavioral experiments, and her students, who would be working with Kumang regularly, were watching. “Does anyone have any towels?” she remembers asking, knowing she had to keep her cool. Cantlon’s deliberate nature and whatever-it-takes attitude have served her well. As a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Rochester in New York, she investigates numerical thinking with some of the most unpredictable and often difficult study subjects: nonhuman primates, including orangutans, baboons and rhesus macaques, and — most remarkably — children as young as age 3. Both groups participate in cognitive tests that require them, for example, to track relative quantities as researchers sequentially add items to cups and to distinguish between quantities of assorted dots on touch screens. The kids also go into the functional MRI scanner where, in a feat impressive to parents everywhere, they lie completely still for 20 to 30 minutes so Cantlon and colleagues can get pictures of their brains. “She takes steps carefully, and she thinks very hard about where she is going,” says Daniel Ansari, a developmental cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, who is familiar with Cantlon’s work. “She goes for the big questions and big methodological challenges.” The central question in Cantlon’s research is: How do humans understand numbers and where does that understanding come from? Sub-questions include: What are the most primitive mathematical concepts? What concepts do humans and other primates share? Are these shared concepts the foundation for fancier forms of mathematical reasoning? In addressing these questions, Cantlon draws on a wide range of methods. “Very few people can combine work on cognitive skills — studies from the point of view of behavior — with imaging work in very young children, and very few people do that same combination in nonhuman primates,” says Elissa Newport, who chaired the brain and cognitive sciences department at Rochester for more than a decade and now leads the Center for Brain Plasticity and Recovery at Georgetown University. As a graduate student, Cantlon determined that neuroimaging studies would add an independent source of data to the cognitive questions under exploration in Elizabeth Brannon’s lab at Duke University. So she identified collaborators and taught herself functional MRI. “By the time she graduated, she had something like four dissertations' worth of work,” says Brannon, now of the University of Pennsylvania. In the years since, Cantlon has identified a type of “protocounting” in baboons; they can keep tabs on approximate quantities of peanuts as researchers increase those quantities (SN Online: 5/17/15). In her most attention-grabbing work, Cantlon studied activity in the brains of children while they watched Sesame Street clips that dealt with number concepts — an unexpected success that proved everyday, relatively unaltered stimuli can yield meaningful data. An ongoing study in Cantlon’s lab seeks to find out how monkeys, U.S. kids and adults, and the Tsimané people of Bolivia, who have little formal education, distinguish between quantities. Do they determine the number of dots presented on the computer screen or do they rely on a proxy such as the total area covered by the dots? The work explores how the brain understands everyday concepts, but it could also inform strategies in math education. “If we understand the fundamental nature of the human brain and mind, that might give us a better insight into how to communicate number concepts to kids,” Cantlon says. Growing up outside of Chicago, Cantlon enjoyed digging deep into a topic and becoming an expert. She and a friend turned themselves into ice skating superfans one summer, reading up on the Olympic skaters and checking videos out of the local library. In another project, Cantlon decided to learn everything possible about the price of gold. When she moved to a school where she could no longer take Latin, she taught and tested herself. Despite the fact that neither of her parents went to college, no one ever questioned that Cantlon would go. She studied anthropology as an undergraduate at Indiana University in Bloomington. “I was interested in the question of where we come from,” Cantlon says. “I was interested in studying people.” During college, she went on an archaeological dig in Belize and studied lemurs in Madagascar. For a year after graduation, she observed mountain gorillas in Rwanda, detailing their behavior every 10 minutes. “What they were thinking was something that was constantly on my mind,” she says. “‘How are we similar? Are you thinking what I’m thinking?’” Though she might have succeeded in any number of careers, she wanted exploration to be a big part of her life: “I don’t think doing a less exotic type of work would have been as satisfying.” Today, Cantlon, who at age 40 recently earned tenure, doesn’t spend much time in the field. And even in the lab, she leaves much of the data collection to her graduate students and research assistants. “At this point, we are a well-oiled system,” she says, referring to the brain scan studies on kids. To make the kids comfortable, Cantlon’s team does trial runs in a mock scanner, describing it as a spaceship and providing “walkie-talkies” for any necessary communication. To keep them interested, the researchers treat it as a team activity and offer a ton of positive reinforcement, with prizes including Lego sets and a volcano-making kit. The kids receive pictures of their brains, which typically interest the parents most. The older of Cantlon’s two daughters, a 5-year-old extrovert named Cloe, has participated in behavioral tests and will no doubt be excited for her first brain scan. The Sesame Street study was in part inspired by a paper by Uri Hasson, a neuroscientist at Princeton University who imaged the brains of volunteers while they watched The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. To better understand brain development, Cantlon wanted to see how brain activity compared in kids and adults exposed to math in a natural way. Of particular interest was a region called the intraparietal sulcus, or IPS, thought to play a role in symbolic number processing. The results, reported in PLOS Biology in 2013, showed that kids with IPS activity more closely resembling adults’ activity performed better on mathematical aptitude tests. “It was the clearest, cleanest — did not have to come out this way — result,” Cantlon says. Cantlon is notable for her diverse set of tools, says Steve Piantadosi, a computational neuroscientist and colleague at Rochester. “But she has something which is even more powerful than that. If you have different hypotheses and you want to come up with the perfect experiment that distinguishes them, that is something she is very good at thinking about. She is a great combination of critical and creative.” To add another methodological approach, Cantlon next plans to collaborate with Piantadosi to develop computational models that explain the operations the brain performs as it counts or compares quantities. She would also like to add data analyses from wild primates into the mix. When researchers talk about the evolution of a primitive number sense, they often speak about foraging activity — identifying areas of the forest with more food, for example. But Cantlon wonders whether social interactions also require some basic understanding of quantities. As for a recent question from a colleague about what risky project she’ll pursue now that she has tenure, Cantlon says nothing in particular comes to mind: “I feel like we’ve been doing the crazy things all along.”

News Article | November 4, 2016

ETOBICOKE, ON, November 04, 2016-- Mike Lecky, Director, Technical Security Services for Scotiabank, has been recognized for showing dedication, leadership and excellence in Information Security.Worldwide Branding is proud to endorse the recent, notable professional efforts and accomplishments of Mike Lecky. A member in good standing, Mike Lecky parlays 20 years of experience into his professional network, and has been noted for his business achievements, leadership abilities, and technical knowledge.Mr. Lecky is a creative Information Security executive with a focus on progressive security solutions and transforming Information Security in enterprise environments. He is a collaborator, and is skilled at building and aligning talent and leading teams in complex issues. In his current role, he is charged with managing and maintaining security technologies and delivering security services in over 60 countries for one of the larger international retail banking and wealth management corporations. Mr. Lecky has a history of building enterprise-wide security operations, consolidating and centralizing business units and maturing delivery of security services. He has developed security governance capability in risk management, 3rd party security contracts, compliance and regulatory reporting (OFSE, FFIEC, SEC, MAS, SOX, Basel and PCI), disaster recovery, data loss prevention and security awareness.With a background in numerous industry sectors, including financial, retail, telecommunications, high technology and military aerospace, Mike Lecky brings diversity and fresh perspectives to business, technology and organizational challenges. Having earned a Bachelor of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Waterloo, a Master of Science in Information Technology from the University of Liverpool, and an MBA from the Ivey Business School at the University of Western Ontario Mr. Lecky has now honed his expertise in security operations, cyber risk management, technology strategy, cloud solutions, and organizational change management.Mr. Lecky is a Certified Chief Information Security Officer (C|CISO) and holds several Information Security professional credentials. Also a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.) and a Project Management Professional (PMP), he remains updated in his field through his affiliation with the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario (APEO), Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), Information Security System Association (ISSA), International Information Systems Security Certifications Consortium (ISC2), and the Project Management Institute (PMI). Mr. Lecky attributes his success to staying current, building and maintaining solid relationships and to being loyal to his passions.Worldwide Branding has added Mike Lecky to their distinguished Registry of Executives, Professionals and Entrepreneurs. While inclusion in Worldwide Branding is an honor, only small selections of members in each discipline are endorsed and promoted as leaders in their professional fields.About Worldwide BrandingFor more than 15 years, Worldwide Branding has been the leading, one-stop-shop, personal branding company, in the United States and abroad. From writing professional biographies and press releases, to creating and driving Internet traffic to personal websites, our team of branding experts tailor each product specifically for our clients' needs. From health care to finance to education and law, our constituents represent every major industry and occupation, at all career levels.For more information, please visit

Biggar K.K.,University of Western Ontario | Storey K.B.,Carleton University
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

Living animals are constantly faced with various environmental stresses that challenge normal life, including: oxygen limitation, very low or high temperature, as well as restriction of water and food. It has been well established that in response to these stresses, tolerant organisms regularly respond with a distinct suite of cellular modifications that involve transcriptional, translational and posttranslational modification. In recent years, a new mechanism of rapid and reversible transcriptome regulation, via the action of noncoding RNA molecules, has emerged into post-transcriptional regulation and has since been shown to be part of the survival response. However, these RNA-based mechanisms by which tolerant organisms respond to stressed conditions are not well understood. Recent studies have begun to show that non-coding RNAs control gene expression and translation of mRNA to protein, and can also have regulatory influence over major cellular processes. For example, select microRNAs have been shown to have regulatory influence over the cell cycle, apoptosis, signal transduction, muscle atrophy and fatty acid metabolism during periods of environmental stress. As we are on the verge of dissecting the roles of non-coding RNA in environmental stress adaptation, this Commentary summarizes the hallmark alterations in microRNA expression that facilitate stress survival. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Brotchie J.,University of Western Ontario | Jenner P.,King's College London
International Review of Neurobiology | Year: 2011

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major complication of the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). LID comprises two major components, the priming process responsible for its onset and the expression of involuntary movements that underlies its clinical manifestation. The mechanisms responsible for these components are partially understood and their biochemical basis is being unraveled but avoidance and treatment remain an issue. In this chapter, we review what is known about the involvement of dopaminergic systems in LID and the way in which dopaminergic therapy can be used to avoid the onset of LID or to reverse or suppress involuntary movements once these have been established. The involvement of specific dopamine receptor subtypes, continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) and continuous drug delivery (CDD) is reviewed. However, a major role is emerging in the avoidance and suppression of LID through the use of nondopaminergic mechanisms and we consider the present and future use of glutamatergic drugs, serotoninergic agents, adenosine antagonists and others as a means of improving therapy. There is compelling basic science supporting a role for nondopaminergic approaches to LID but at the moment the translational benefit to PD is not being achieved as predicted. There needs to be further consideration of why this is the case and how in future, both experimental models of dyskinesia and clinical trial design can be optimized to ensure success. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Wang J.,University of Western Ontario | Wang J.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Sun X.,University of Western Ontario
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Rechargeable batteries can effectively store electrical energy as chemical energy, and release it when needed, providing a good choice for applications in electric vehicles (EVs). Naturally, safety concerns are the key issue for the application of battery technology in EVs. Olivine LiFePO4 is considered to be the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its environmental friendliness, high cycling performance and safety characteristics. Some important breakthroughs in recent years have allowed its successful commercialization. However, in spite of its success, the commercial application of LiFePO4 batteries in EVs is still hindered by some technological obstacles. Herein, we provide an update on our previous review, and overview the most significant advances in the remaining challenges for this promising battery material. New research directions and future trends have also been discussed. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Vuong C.,Drew University | Van Uum S.H.M.,University of Western Ontario | O'Dell L.E.,University of Texas at El Paso | Lutfy K.,Drew University | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine Reviews | Year: 2010

Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Adams P.C.,University of Western Ontario | Barton J.C.,Southern Iron Disorders Center | Barton J.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Blood | Year: 2010

Hemochromatosis is a common genetic disorder in which iron may progressively accumulate in the liver, heart, and other organs. The primary goal of therapy is iron depletion to normalize body iron stores and to prevent or decrease organ dysfunction. The primary therapy to normalize iron stores is phlebotomy. In this opinion article, we discuss the indications for and monitoring of phlebotomy therapy to achieve iron depletion, maintenance therapy, dietary and pharmacologic maneuvers that could reduce iron absorption, and the role of voluntary blood donation. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

Polushin I.G.,University of Western Ontario | Liu X.P.,Carleton University | Lung C.-H.,Carleton University
Automatica | Year: 2012

A general stability result for bilateral teleoperator systems with projection-based force reflection algorithms from a broad class is presented. It is shown that the overall stability of a teleoperator system can be achieved under mild assumptions on subsystem stability, properties of the communication channel, dynamics of the human operator, and the human force measurement/estimation process. In particular, the stability is achieved under a new general assumption on human dynamics which allows for both passive and nonpassive behaviour of the human operator. It is demonstrated that the use of projection-based force reflection algorithms effectively removes the constraints on subsystem gains that are typical for direct application of the small-gain design, thus solving the trade-off between stability, manoeuvrability, and high force reflection gain in bilateral teleoperation over communication networks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kirouac K.N.,University of Western Ontario | Basu A.K.,University of Connecticut | Ling H.,University of Western Ontario
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common environmental pollutants, of which many are mutagenic and carcinogenic. 1-Nitropyrene is the most abundant nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, which causes DNA damage and is carcinogenic in experimental animals. Error-prone translesion synthesis of 1-nitropyrene-derived DNA lesions generates mutations that likely play a role in the etiology of cancer. Here, we report two crystal structures of the human Y-family DNA polymerase iota complexed with the major 1-nitropyrene DNA lesion at the insertion stage, incorporating either dCTP or dATP nucleotide opposite the lesion. Polι maintains the adduct in its active site in two distinct conformations. dCTP forms a Watson-Crick base pair with the adducted guanine and excludes the pyrene ring from the helical DNA, which inhibits replication beyond the lesion. By contrast, the mismatched dATP stacks above the pyrene ring that is intercalated in the helix and achieves a productive conformation for misincorporation. The intra-helical bulky pyrene mimics a base pair in the active site and facilitates adenine misincorporation. By structure-based mutagenesis, we show that the restrictive active site of human polη prevents the intra-helical conformation and A-base misinsertions. This work provides one of the molecular mechanisms for G to T transversions, a signature mutation in human lung cancer. © 2012 The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.

Compeau D.,University of Western Ontario | Marcolin B.,University of Western Ontario | Kelley H.,University of Lethbridge | Higgins C.,University of Western Ontario
Information Systems Research | Year: 2012

information systems researchers, like those in many other disciplines in the social sciences, have debated the Ivalue and appropriateness of using students as research subjects. This debate appears in several articles that have been published on the subject as well as in the review process. In this latter arena, however, the debate has become increasingly like a script-the actors (authors and reviewers) simply read their parts of the script; some avoid the underlying issues whereas others cursorily address generalizability without real consideration of those issues. As a result, despite the extent of debate, we seem no closer to a resolution. Authors who use student subjects rely on their scripted arguments to justify the use of student subjects and do not always consider whether those arguments are valid. But reviewers who oppose the use of student subjects are equally culpable. They, too, rely on scripted arguments to criticize work using student subjects, and do not always consider whether those arguments are salient to the particular study. By presenting and reviewing one version of this script in the context of theoretical discussions of generalizability, we hope to demonstrate its limitations so that we can move beyond these scripted arguments into a more meaningful discussion. To do this, we review empirical studies from the period 1990-2010 to examine the extent to which student subjects are being used in the field and to critically assess the discussions within the field about the use of student samples. We conclude by presenting recommendations for authors and reviewers, for determining whether the use of students is appropriate in a particular context, and for presenting and discussing work that uses student subjects. © 2012 INFORMS.

Meng X.,University of Western Ontario | Meng X.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Yang X.-Q.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Sun X.,University of Western Ontario
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are used widely in today's consumer electronics and offer great potential for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs, pure EVs, and also in smart grids as future energy-storage devices. However, many challenges must be addressed before these future applications of LIBs are realized, such as the energy and power density of LIBs, their cycle and calendar life, safety characteristics, and costs. Recently, a technique called atomic layer deposition (ALD) attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach for resolving these issues. In this article, recent advances in using ALD for LIB studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: 1) ALD for designing and synthesizing new LIB components, i.e., anodes, cathodes, and solid electrolytes, and; 2) ALD used in modifying electrode properties via surface coating. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using ALD for developing high-performance LIBs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xie W.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Barr C.L.,University of Western Ontario | Barr C.L.,Hospital for Sick Children | Kim A.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 7 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2012

Differential methylation of the two parental genomes in placental mammals is essential for genomic imprinting and embryogenesis. To systematically study this epigenetic process, we have generated a base-resolution, allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) map in the mouse genome. We find parent-of-origin dependent (imprinted) ASM at 1,952 CG dinucleotides. These imprinted CGs form 55 discrete clusters including virtually all known germline differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 23 previously unknown DMRs, with some occurring at microRNA genes. We also identify sequence-dependent ASM at 131,765 CGs. Interestingly, methylation at these sites exhibits a strong dependence on the immediate adjacent bases, allowing us to define a conserved sequence preference for the mammalian DNA methylation machinery. Finally, we report a surprising presence of non-CG methylation in the adult mouse brain, with some showing evidence of imprinting. Our results provide a resource for understanding the mechanisms of imprinting and allele-specific gene expression in mammalian cells. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Cami J.,University of Western Ontario | Cami J.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Bernard-Salas J.,Cornell University | Bernard-Salas J.,University Paris - Sud | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010

In recent decades, a number of molecules and diverse dust features have been identified by astronomical observations in various environments. Most of the dust that determines the physical and chemical characteristics of the interstellar medium is formed in the outflows of asymptotic giant branch stars and is further processed when these objects become planetary nebulae. We studied the environment of Tc 1, a peculiar planetary nebula whose infrared spectrum shows emission from cold and neutral C60 and C70. The two molecules amount to a few percent of the available cosmic carbon in this region. This finding indicates that if the conditions are right, fullerenes can and do form efficiently in space.

Tay L.,Purdue University | Morrison M.,University of Western Ontario | Diener E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

This study examined whether national income can have effects on happiness, or subjective well-being (SWB), over and above those of personal income. To assess the incremental effects of national income on SWB, we conducted crosssectional multilevel analysis on data from 838,151 individuals in 158 nations. Although greater personal income was consistently related to higher SWB, we found that national income was a boon to life satisfaction but a bane to daily feelings of well-being; individuals in richer nations experienced more worry and anger on average. We also found moderating effects: The income-SWB relationship was stronger at higher levels of national income. This result might be explained by cultural norms, as money is valued more in richer nations. The SWB of more residentially mobile individuals was less affected by national income. Overall, our results suggest that the wealth of the nation one resides in has consequences for one's happiness. © The Author(s) 2014.

Velayos F.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Kahn J.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Sandborn W.J.,University of California at San Diego | Feagan B.G.,University of Western Ontario
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Patients with Crohn's disease who become unresponsive to therapy with tumor necrosis factor antagonists are managed initially with either empiric dose escalation or testing-based strategies. The comparative cost effectiveness of these 2 strategies is unknown. We investigated whether a testing-based strategy is more cost effective than an empiric doseescalation strategy. METHODS: A decision analytic model that simulated 2 cohorts of patients with Crohn's disease compared outcomes for the 2 strategies over a 1-year time period. The incremental costeffectiveness ratio of the empiric strategy was expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, compared with the testing-based strategy. We performed 1-way, probabilistic, and prespecified secondary analyses. RESULTS: The testing strategy yielded similar QALYs compared with the empiric strategy (0.801 vs 0.800, respectively) but was less expensive ($31,870 vs $37,266, respectively). In sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the empiric strategy ranged from $500,000 to more than $5 million per QALY gained. Similar rates of remission (63% vs 66%) and response (28% vs 26%) were achieved through differential use of available interventions. The testing-based strategy resulted in a higher percentage of surgeries (48% vs 34%) and lower percentage use of high-dose biological therapy (41% vs 54%). CONCLUSIONS: A testing-based strategy is a cost-effective alternative to the current strategy of empiric dose escalation for managing patients with Crohn's disease who have lost responsiveness to infliximab. The basis for this difference is lower cost at similar outcomes.© 2013 AGA Institute.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-09-2015 | Award Amount: 24.09M | Year: 2015

HIV-1 is responsible for a global pandemic of 35 million people, and continues to spread at a rate of >2 million new infections/year. It is widely acknowledged that a protective vaccine would be the most effective means to reduce HIV-1 spread and ultimately eliminate the pandemic, while a therapeutic vaccine may help mitigate the clinical course of disease and lead to strategies of viral eradication. However despite 30 years of research, we do not have a vaccine capable of protecting from HIV-1 infection or impacting on disease progression. This in part represents the challenge of identifying immunogens and vaccine modalities with reduced risk of failure in late stage development. To overcome this bottleneck some of the most competitive research groups in vaccine discovery from European public institutions and biotechs from 9 EU countries together with top Australian and Canadian groups and US collaborators, have agreed to join forces in EAVI, providing a pool of international expertise at the highest level. EAVI2020 will provide a platform for the discovery and selection of several new, diverse and novel preventive and/or therapeutic vaccine candidates for HIV/AIDS. Emphasis will be placed on early rapid, iterative, small Experimental medicine (EM) human vaccine studies to select and refine the best immunogens, adjuvants, vectors, homologous and heterologous primeboost schedules, and determine the impact of host factors such as gender and genetics. Animal models will be used to complement human studies, and to select novel immunization technologies to be advanced to the clinic. To shift the risk curve in product development we will develop innovative risk prediction methods, specifically designed to reduce the risk associated with late stage preventive or therapeutic vaccine failure, increasing the chance of discovery of an effective vaccine.

News Article | November 10, 2016

CCL Industries Inc. (TSX: CCL.A) (TSX: CCL.B) ("CCL" or "the Company"), a world leader in specialty label and packaging solutions for global corporations, small businesses and consumers, today reported 2016 third quarter results. Sales for the third quarter of 2016 increased 34.0% to $1,089.3 million, compared to $812.9 million for the third quarter of 2015, with 0.4% organic growth, 1.1% negative currency translation impact and 34.7% acquisition-related growth, primarily driven by the May 13, 2016 acquisition of Checkpoint Systems, Inc. ("Checkpoint") and November 6, 2015 acquisition of Worldmark Ltd. ("Worldmark"). Operating income(1) for the third quarter of 2016 was $149.7 million, an increase of 11.5% compared to $134.3 million for the comparable quarter of 2015. Included in the 2016 third quarter was a final $17.3 million non-cash acquisition accounting adjustment related to the acquired finished goods inventory from the Checkpoint acquisition that was expensed in the Company's cost of goods sold for the quarter. Excluding this non-cash adjustment, operating income was $167.0 million for the three-month period ended September 30, 2016. Excluding the impact of currency translation and the non-cash accounting adjustment operating income improved 26.0%. Restructuring and other items of $6.0 million ($4.9 million after tax) was reported for the third quarter of 2016. This consisted of severance costs of $3.0 million and $0.8 million for the Checkpoint and Worldmark acquisitions, respectively, as well as other acquisition related transaction costs of $2.2 million. There was a net expense for restructuring and other items of $0.9 million ($0.8 million gain after tax) in the 2015 third quarter. Net earnings was $86.1 million for the 2016 third quarter compared to $81.8 million for the 2015 third quarter. Basic and adjusted basic earnings per Class B share(3) were $2.47 and a record $2.98, respectively, compared to basic and adjusted basic earnings per Class B share(3) of $2.36 and $2.34, respectively, in the prior year third quarter. For the nine-month period ended September 30, 2016, sales, operating income and net earnings improved 30.2%, 18.4% and 11.1% to $2,916.3 million, $442.7 million and $248.0 million, respectively, compared to the same nine-month period in 2015. Included in the 2016 nine-month period was a $33.9 million non-cash acquisition accounting adjustment to the acquired finished goods inventory from the Checkpoint and Worldmark businesses that was expensed in the Company's cost of goods sold for the period. Excluding this non-cash adjustment, operating income was $476.6 million and improved 27.4% for the comparable nine-month periods. 2016 included results from fourteen acquisitions completed since January 1, 2015, delivering acquisition-related sales growth for the period of 23.7%. 4% organic sales growth provided the foundation for solid profit improvement and foreign currency translation added $0.13 per share. For the nine-month period ended September 30, 2016, basic and adjusted basic earnings per Class B share(3) were $7.10 and $8.43, respectively, compared to basic and adjusted basic earnings per Class B share(3) of $6.45 in the prior year nine-month period. Geoffrey T. Martin, President and Chief Executive Officer, commented, "Third quarter results were driven by good performance in the base business, considering the very strong prior year period, augmented by Checkpoint. CCL Label posted solid 4.3% organic growth with profit gains on improving performance from recent acquisitions. Avery delivered modest operating margin improvement despite the predicted share loss in economy 'back-to-school' binders and slow sales in general to the superstore channel. Results for CCL Container were below an unusually strong third quarter in 2015, impacted by start-up costs for new capacity in the United States and challenges with the significant Mexican peso devaluation. Our acquisition pipeline remains robust and we closed two more bolt on Healthcare acquisitions for CCL Label, one in Germany and the other in Northern Ireland, during the quarter." Mr. Martin added, "We are pleased with the performance of Checkpoint as the underlying operating margin for their first full quarter exceeded expectations. Our restructuring initiative is well underway with severance charges totaling $16 million to date. Further charges are expected over at least the next three quarters in order to meet our objective of $40 million in annual cost savings. We now expect the cost of the restructuring plan not to exceed $30 million compared to our original estimate of $40 million." Mr. Martin continued, "Foreign currency translation reduced earnings $0.04 per share for the quarter, largely driven by the significant devaluations of the U.K. pound and Mexican peso. At today's Canadian dollar exchange rates, currency translation would remain a modest headwind for the final quarter of 2016, if sustained." Mr. Martin concluded, "We concluded the third quarter with our initial public bond offering, achieving investment grade credit rating from both major rating agencies, raising proceeds of US$500 million at 3.25% for a ten year term. The proceeds were used to reduce borrowings on the Company's syndicated revolving credit facility resulting in undrawn and available credit capacity of US$582 million at the end of the quarter. Despite two acquisitions in the third quarter and a total of eight in 2016 for aggregate purchases of $675 million, CCL's net debt(4) leverage ratio(4) declined from 1.8 times EBITDA at the end of the second quarter to a modest 1.6 times EBITDA(2) at the end of September. Excluding undrawn capacity within our syndicated credit facility we have $458 million of cash-on-hand, giving CCL ample capacity to execute future growth plans. Given the Company's outlook and strong free cash flow, the Board of Directors declared a continuation of the $0.50 per Class B non-voting share and $0.4875 per Class A voting share dividend, payable to shareholders of record at the close of business on December 9, 2016, to be paid on December 21, 2016." Donald G. Lang, Executive Chairman of the Board of CCL Industries Inc., is pleased to announce the appointment of Douglas W. Muzyka to the Board of Directors. Mr. Muzyka is currently Chief Science and Technology Officer of E.I. DuPont de Nemours, an international manufacturer of chemical products, specialty materials, consumer and industrial products. During Mr. Muzyka's 30-year career at DuPont, his responsibilities have included President of DuPont, Greater China and DuPont China Holding Co. Ltd. Prior to July of 2006, Mr. Muzyka was Vice President and General Manager of DuPont Nutrition and Health, and President and CEO of E.I. DuPont de Nemours Canada Company. Until January of 2003, Mr. Muzyka was President and General Manager of DuPont Mexico. Since joining the DuPont organization as a research scientist in 1985, Mr. Muzyka has held numerous key management roles within the company in Hong Kong, the U.S.A., Mexico and Canada. Mr. Muzyka holds bachelor's, master's and doctorate degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Western Ontario. Mr. Lang stated, "We are extremely pleased to welcome Mr. Muzyka, and his wealth of knowledge and invaluable international experiences in new venture developments back to CCL's Board and Committees." CCL will hold a conference call at 5:30 p.m. EST on November 9, 2016, to discuss these results. The analyst presentation will be posted on the Company's website. To access this call, please dial: Audio replay service will be available from November 9, 2016, at 7:30 p.m. EST until December 10, 2016, at 11:59 p.m. EST. This press release contains forward-looking information and forward-looking statements (hereinafter collectively referred to as "forward-looking statements"), as defined under applicable securities laws, that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are predictive in nature or depend on future events or conditions. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans" or similar expressions. Statements regarding the operations, business, financial condition, priorities, ongoing objectives, strategies and outlook of the Company, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Specifically, this press release contains forward-looking statements regarding the anticipated growth in sales, income and profitability of the Company's segments; and the Company's expectations regarding general business and economic conditions. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance. They involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties relating to future events and conditions including, but not limited to, the after-effects of the global financial crisis and its impact on the world economy and capital markets; the impact of competition; consumer confidence and spending preferences; general economic and geopolitical conditions; currency exchange rates; interest rates and credit availability; technological change; changes in government regulations; risks associated with operating and product hazards; and CCL's ability to attract and retain qualified employees. Do not unduly rely on forward-looking statements as the Company's actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are also based on a number of assumptions, which may prove to be incorrect, including, but not limited to, assumptions about the following: global economic recovery and higher consumer spending; improved customer demand for the Company's products; continued historical growth trends, market growth in specific sectors and entering into new sectors; the Company's ability to provide a wide range of products to multinational customers on a global basis; the benefits of the Company's focused strategies and operational approach; the achievement of the Company's plans for improved efficiency and lower costs, including stable aluminum costs; the availability of cash and credit; fluctuations of currency exchange rates; the Company's continued relations with its customers; the Company's estimated annual cost reductions from the restructuring of the Checkpoint Systems, Inc. acquisition, and economic conditions. Should one or more risks materialize or should any assumptions prove incorrect, then actual results could vary materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Further details on key risks can be found in the 2015 Annual Report, Management's Discussion and Analysis, particularly under Section 4: "Risks and Uncertainties." CCL's annual and quarterly reports can be found online at and or are available upon request. Except as otherwise indicated, forward-looking statements do not take into account the effect that transactions or non-recurring or other special items announced or occurring after the statements are made may have on CCL's business. Such statements do not, unless otherwise specified by the Company, reflect the impact of dispositions, sales of assets, monetizations, mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or transactions, asset write-downs or other charges announced or occurring after forward-looking statements are made. The financial impact of these transactions and non-recurring and other special items can be complex and depends on the facts particular to each of them and therefore cannot be described in a meaningful way in advance of knowing specific facts. The forward-looking statements are provided as of the date of this press release and the Company does not assume any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements to reflect new events or circumstances, except as required by law. The financial information presented herein has been prepared on the basis of IFRS for financial statements and is expressed in Canadian dollars unless otherwise stated. (1) Operating income and operating income margin are key non-IFRS financial measures used to assist in understanding the profitability of the Company's business units. Operating income is defined as earnings before corporate expenses, net finance cost, goodwill impairment loss, earnings in equity accounted investments, restructuring and other items, and taxes. Operating income margin is defined as operating income over sales. (2) EBITDA is a critical non-IFRS financial measure used extensively in the packaging industry and other industries to assist in understanding and measuring operating results. EBITDA is also considered as a proxy for cash flow and a facilitator for business valuations. This non-IFRS financial measure is defined as earnings before net finance cost, taxes, depreciation and amortization, goodwill impairment loss, non-cash acquisition accounting adjustments to finished goods inventory, earnings in equity accounted investments and restructuring and other items. Calculations are provided below to reconcile operating income to EBITDA. The Company believes that this is an important measure as it allows management to assess CCL's ongoing business without the impact of net finance cost, depreciation and amortization and income tax expenses, as well as non-operating factors and one-time items. As a proxy for cash flow, it is intended to indicate CCL's ability to incur or service debt and to invest in property, plant and equipment, and it allows management to compare CCL's business to those of CCL's peers and competitors who may have different capital or organizational structures. EBITDA is tracked by financial analysts and investors to evaluate financial performance and is a key metric in business valuations. EBITDA is considered an important measure by lenders to the Company and is included in the financial covenants of CCL's senior notes and bank lines of credit. (3) Adjusted basic earnings per Class B share is an important non-IFRS measure to assist in understanding the ongoing earnings performance of the Company excluding items of a one-time or non-recurring nature. It is not considered a substitute for basic net earnings per Class B share but it does provide additional insight into the ongoing financial results of the Company. This non-IFRS financial measure is defined as basic net earnings per Class B share excluding gains on business dispositions, goodwill impairment loss, non-cash acquisition accounting adjustments to finished goods inventory, restructuring and other items, and tax adjustments. (4) Leverage ratio is a measure that indicates the Company's ability to service its existing debt. Leverage ratio is calculated as net debt divided by EBITDA. CCL Industries employs more than 19,000 people operating 150 production facilities in 35 countries on 6 continents with corporate offices in Toronto, Canada and Framingham, Massachusetts. CCL Label is the world's largest converter of pressure sensitive and extruded film materials for a wide range of decorative, instructional and functional applications for large global customers in the consumer packaging, healthcare and chemicals, consumer durable, electronic device and automotive markets. Extruded and laminated plastic tubes, folded instructional leaflets, precision decorated and die cut components, electronic displays and other complementary products and services are sold in parallel to specific end-use markets. Avery is the world's largest supplier of labels, specialty converted media and software solutions to enable short-run digital printing in businesses and homes alongside complementary products sold through distributors and mass market retailers. CCL Container is a leading producer of impact extruded aluminum aerosol cans and bottles for consumer packaged goods customers in the United States and Mexico. Checkpoint is a leading manufacturer of technology-driven, loss prevention, inventory management and labeling solutions, including RF and RFID-based, to the retail and apparel industry. CCL partly backward integrates into materials science with capabilities in polymer extrusion, adhesive development and coating, surface engineering and metallurgy that are deployed across all four business segments.

News Article | November 14, 2016

HOLLAND LANDING, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 14, 2016) - Inscape (TSX:INQ) is pleased to announce the appointment of Aziz Hirji as Chief Financial Officer effective immediately. Aziz leads the company's Financial and IT operations, and Investor Relations. Aziz joins Inscape from Renin Corporation, where he was CFO for 8 years. Highly accomplished, Aziz has extensive experience in financial operations in both public and privately held companies in a diverse range of industries. His relevant industry experience includes 7 years of progressive financial roles at Teknion. Earlier in his career, he worked at Bank of Montreal, The Oshawa Group and Grant Thornton. He is a Chartered Accountant and holds a BA from the University of Western Ontario. Aziz is an outstanding addition to our leadership team, and represents another major step in the company's commitment to strengthening our financial position and delivering results. His team leadership and results orientation will certainly be key assets as we continue to evolve the organization. Inscape has supported the evolution of the workspace since 1888. A versatile portfolio of systems, storage, walls and seating products addresses the diverse needs of today's office with solutions stand the test of time - built to last and inherently flexible. Dedicated to delivering innovative solutions with care and expertise, Inscape is here to help you make life at work better.

News Article | November 2, 2016

TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 2, 2016) - G4G Capital Corp. (TSX VENTURE:GGC) (the "Company") announces the appointment of Robert Carpenter to the Company's board of directors, effective as of November 1, 2016. Robert Carpenter is a Professional Geoscientist with over 25 years of technical and executive experience for junior and major mining companies. He was co-founder and President and CEO of Kaminak Gold Corporation from 2005 to 2013 and led the company through the acquisition, discovery and maiden resource of the multi-million ounce Coffee Gold Project, located in the White Gold District, Yukon. The project was subsequently acquired by Goldcorp Inc in 2016. He has received awards from the Association for Mineral Exploration of British Columbia for excellence in mineral exploration (2013) and social and environmental stewardship (2008). He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Western Ontario in 2004 where he worked on the newly discovered Meliadine Lake gold deposits that are currently owned by Agnico Eagle. David D'Onofrio, the President and Chief Executive Officer, states: "Rob's extensive experience identifying and prioritizing drill targets has directly led to major gold discoveries in the White Gold District. He will be a great addition to our board of directors and an invaluable resource to help lead the Company toward its new strategic focus on exploration in the White Gold District of the Yukon Territory. We look forward to Rob being part of our team." This news release contains forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable securities legislation. Forward-looking information is typically identified by words such as: believe, expect, anticipate, intend, estimate, postulate and similar expressions, or are those, which, by their nature, refer to future events. Such statements include, without limitation, statements regarding the future results of operations, performance and achievements of the Company. Although the Company believes that such statements are reasonable, it can give no assurances that such expectations will prove to be correct. All such forward-looking information is based on certain assumptions and analyses made by the Company in light of their experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors management believes are appropriate in the circumstances. This information, however, is subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking information. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ from this forward-looking information include those described under the heading "Risks and Uncertainties" in G4G's most recently filed MD&A. The Company does not intend, and expressly disclaims any obligation to, update or revise the forward-looking information contained in this news release, except as required by law. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking information. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

News Article | February 22, 2017

Around the world, no matter where we are, we can usually expect the weather to change from one season to the next. In North America, the warm days of summer eventually turn into the cooler days of autumn, and these changes are vital to a lot of the animals that inhabit the region as they trigger the urge of animals to prepare for winter. Migratory animals, like songbirds, use these predictable weather changes as environmental cues to tell them when it's time to migrate south. But with the earth now getting hotter and hotter each year, birds can no longer rely on the once predictable climate. As autumns are becoming milder, ornithologists keep pondering on how it could be affecting birds' migratory decisions. Now, a new paper published this week in an online journal Animal Migration, has experimentally investigated how birds use temperature as a signal to migrate. The study led by Adrienne Berchtold from the Advanced Facility for Avian Research at the University of Western Ontario, focused on one songbird species that is known to rely on weather for its migratory journey: the white-throated sparrow. The bird migrates from Canada to the southern United States each autumn, and it tends to migrate later than other migrants, basing its journeys on when the weather provides opportunities for flight. To figure out the underlying pressures that drive the birds to migrate, the researchers captured white-throated sparrows during one autumn migration and placed them in specially-designed bird cages equipped with high-tech monitoring gear that kept track of how active the birds were by day and night. The scientists then changed the room temperatures throughout the experiment to see how the birds would react. When the temperature dropped to chilly 4ºC, in an attempt to mimic the typical fall conditions in the northern part of the flyway, the birds all became restless at night, signifying they were in a migratory state. When, in turn, the temperature was raised to a warm 24ºC, none of the birds showed signs of migratory restlessness, indicating they were under no pressure to depart in these balmy conditions. These results will have considerable implications for the future of the migration as this and other bird species rely on predictable weather changes to leave home for the season. In North America, the continuous trend in soaring autumn temperatures could delay the birds migration. Yet another more drastic possibility is that the birds would decide, perhaps unsurprisingly, to stay put and not to migrate at all. In fact, a recent paper in this same journal found this very pattern is happening in the population of American Robins of North America, who are increasingly deciding not to migrate. According to Andrew Farnsworth, a Research Associate at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology who studies bird migration, "This type of research gives us more of the clues that scientists need to understand how birds respond, and might respond in the future, to changes in environmental conditions they experience. Considering these findings in light of previous research on nocturnal migratory restlessness from the mid to late 20th century, and more importantly, recent research on fuel accumulation and photoperiodicity, these results add to our growing understanding of how birds migrate and even how their migration evolved. Furthermore, given the predicted changes in global temperatures from human activities, these findings highlight the potential for dramatic changes to movements for many migratory species." The original article is available fully open access to read, download and share on De Gruyter Online.

News Article | February 24, 2017

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES Perseus Mining Limited (ASX:PRU)(TSX:PRU) wishes to advise that its founding Chairman, Mr. Reg Gillard has advised the Board of his decision to retire from the roles of Chairman and Director of Perseus with effect from March 31, 2017. Mr. Gillard has served Perseus with distinction since its incorporation as a private entity in October 2003 and will leave behind a company that has a solid asset base, a capable management team and workforce, an improving balance sheet and a strong social licence to operate in West Africa - all ingredients for a successful West African focussed gold exploration, development and mining company. Following Mr. Gillard's retirement, Mr. Sean Harvey, who has served as a non-executive Director of Perseus since September 2009 will assume the role of non-executive Chairman of Perseus's Board. Mr. Harvey has extensive experience in investment banking as well as executive management experience in the resources sector and brings valuable experience to assist the company as it seeks to broaden global market awareness of its growth as a West African gold producer. Mr. Harvey holds an Honours BA degree in Economics and Geography and an MA in Economics, both from Carleton University, an LLB from the University of Western Ontario and an MBA from the University of Toronto and he is a member of the Law Society of Upper Canada. Mr. Harvey currently serves as non-executive Chairman of several other listed resources companies including Victoria Gold Corporation, Serabi Gold plc, and Sarama Resources Ltd, and is a non-executive director of Abacus Mining & Exploration Corporation.

News Article | December 16, 2016

TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - December 16, 2016) - dynaCERT Inc. (TSX VENTURE: DYA) ( : DYFSF) ("dynaCERT" or the "Company") has strengthened their team with the appointment of Jean-Pierre Colin to the Board of Directors. Mr. Colin is a corporate strategy consultant to high-growth publicly listed companies. He has been a recognized senior securities industry executive and effective investment banking professional providing financing and mergers and acquisitions services to numerous prosperous issuers in Canada. As a result of his extensive financial background throughout his career, he has been called to lead teams of corporate finance professionals at national securities dealers, such as Richardson Greenshields, JP Colin Securities, Deacon Capital, Octagon Capital and Desjardins. He has also served as a high-profile corporate board director and C-suite executive of numerous public companies, often chairing audit committees, compensation committees and corporate governance committees, including with Premier Gold Mines; Wolfden Resources, sold to Zinifex for over $350 million; Virginia Gold whose Eleonore property was sold to Goldcorp for over $ 1 billion; and, Pelangio Mines, the former controlling shareholder of Detour Gold, one of Canada's largest gold mining operations. Mr. Colin holds a DCS from McGill University where he studied Biology & Engineering, an MBA from the University of Western Ontario, a Law Degree from the University of Ottawa and also practiced corporate law prior to his investment-banking profession. Jean-Pierre Colin states, "I am very pleased to join dynaCERT and commence working closely with my fellow board members and dynaCERT management, especially for the benefit of our numerous shareholders and stakeholders. Jim Payne, our CEO, has accomplished many very enviable milestones for dynaCERT while assembling a remarkable team of experts and he has my full commitment in moving dynaCERT to a successful future." Jim Payne, President & CEO of dynaCERT, states, "We are privileged to welcome Jean-Pierre Colin to our Board. He brings deep expertise and a proven track record in investment banking and corporate governance and well-known for his ethical business acumen." dynaCERT Inc. also announces that a total of 3,925,000 options were granted today to its directors, officers, consultants and employees. Of this number, 2,700, 000 stock options were granted to Directors and Officers to acquire common shares in the capital of dynaCERT (each, an "Option"). Options vest immediately and entitles the holder to purchase one common share of the Corporation at a price of $ 0.80 each being exercisable on or before December 16, 2021. All of the foregoing options and common shares when exercised are subject to applicable securities law hold periods. dynaCERT Inc. manufactures, distributes, and installs Carbon Emission Reduction Technology for use with internal combustion engines. Our patent-pending technology creates hydrogen and oxygen on-demand through electrolysis and supplies these additives through the air intake to enhance combustion, resulting in lower carbon emissions and greater fuel efficiency. Our technology is currently in use with on-road applications. Website: Except for statements of historical fact, this news release contains certain "forward-looking information" within the meaning of applicable securities law. Forward-looking information is frequently characterized by words such as "plan", "expect", "project", "intend", "believe", "anticipate", "estimate" and other similar words, or statements that certain events or conditions "may" or "will" occur. In particular, forward-looking information in this press release includes, but is not limited to periodic updates of results, testing programs and results, negotiations with third parties concerning potential business transactions, and the timing of certain going forward projects. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking information are reasonable, there can be no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. We cannot guarantee future results, performance or achievements. Consequently, there is no representation that the actual results achieved will be the same, in whole or in part, as those set out in the forward-looking information. Forward-looking information is based on the opinions and estimates of management at the date the statements are made, and are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking information. Some of the risks and other factors that could cause the results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking information include, but are not limited to: uncertainty as to whether our strategies and business plans will yield the expected benefits; availability and cost of capital; the ability to identify and develop and achieve commercial success for new products and technologies; the level of expenditures necessary to maintain and improve the quality of products and services; changes in technology and changes in laws and regulations; the uncertainty of the emerging hydrogen economy; including the hydrogen economy moving at a pace not anticipated; our ability to secure and maintain strategic relationships and distribution agreements; and the other risk factors disclosed under our profile on SEDAR at Readers are cautioned that this list of risk factors should not be construed as exhaustive. The forward-looking information contained in this news release is expressly qualified by this cautionary statement. We undertake no duty to update any of the forward-looking information to conform such information to actual results or to changes in our expectations except as otherwise required by applicable securities legislation. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking information. Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of the release. On Behalf of the Board

News Article | December 15, 2016

NEW YORK NY (December 15, 2016)--Gastric tumors are started by specialized cells in the stomach that signal nerves to make more acetylcholine, according to a study in mice. The multinational team of researchers who conducted the study also identified a substance called nerve growth factor that stimulates nerve development and, when blocked, inhibits stomach cancer development. The findings were published today in Cancer Cell. Previous studies have shown that nerves are abundant in the gastric tumor microenvironment. In an earlier paper, the researchers demonstrated that inhibiting signaling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, by severing the vagus nerve in the stomach or treating with Botulinum toxin, shrank or prevented the growth of gastric tumors in mouse models. "Nerves and acetylcholine clearly play a key role in regulating the development and growth of cancer cells, particularly cancer stem cells, in the gastric tumor microenvironment," said Timothy C. Wang, MD, the Dorothy L. and Daniel H. Silberberg Professor of Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and senior author of the paper. "But little is known about what is driving cancer in the earliest stage of development, before the expansion of nerves in the microenvironment. We also wanted to find out where acetylcholine is coming from before the growth of nerves." Through a series of experiments in mouse models, the researchers determined that a neurotrophin (substance that triggers nerve growth) called nerve growth factor is highly expressed in gastric cancer cells. They also discovered that tuft cells--specialized cells found in the lining of the digestive tract that, like nerves, communicate with other cells--provide another source of acetylcholine for cancer cell growth, particularly during the formation of tumors. "We learned that tuft cells are increased during the earliest stage of gastric tumor development, making acetylcholine and stimulating the production of nerve growth factor within the lining of the stomach," said Dr. Wang. "As nerves grow in around the tumor, tuft cells decrease." In additional experiments, the scientists showed that overexpression of nerve growth factor in the mouse stomach drove tumorigenesis. Furthermore, administration of a nerve growth factor receptor inhibitor prevented stomach cancer in the mice. "Our study provides some insight into the cellular crosstalk that leads to the development of stomach cancer, and points to a viable therapeutic target for this type of cancer," said Dr. Wang. "Using our findings as a paradigm, additional studies can be done to identify the specific neurotrophins and neurotransmitters that are involved in tumor development in other areas of the body." The study is titled, "Nerve growth factor promotes gastric tumorigenesis through aberrant cholinergic signaling." The other contributors are: Yoku Hayakawa (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), Kosuke Sakitani (University of Tokyo), Mitsuru Konishi (University of Tokyo), Samuel Asfaha (University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada), Ryota Niikura (University of Tokyo), Hiroyuki Tomita (Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan), Bernhard W. Renz (Hospital of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany), Yagnesh Taylor (CUMC), Marina Macchini (CUMC). Moritz Middlehoff (CUMC), Zhengyu Jiang (CUMC), Takayuki Tenaka (CUMC), Zinaida A. Dubeykovskaya (CUMC), Woosook Kim (CUMC), Xiaowei Chen (CUMC), Aleksandra M. Urbanska (CUMC), Karan Nagar (CUMC), Christoph B. Westphalen (Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany), Michael Quante (Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany), Chyuan-Sheng Lin (CUMC), Michael D. Gershon (CUMC), Akira Hara (Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine), Chun-Mei Zhao (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. Norway), Duan Chen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Daniel L. Worthley (University of Aidelaide, Australia), and Kazuhiko Koike (University of Tokyo). The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (U54CA126513, R01CA093405, R01CA120979, and R01DK052778), the Clyde Wu Family Foundation, the Nakayama Cancer Research Institute, the Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, and the Project for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Evolution from the Japan Agency of Medical Research and Development. Y.H. and K.S. were supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and Y.H. and T.T. were supported by Uehara Memorial Foundation. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Columbia University Medical Center provides international leadership in basic, preclinical, and clinical research; medical and health sciences education; and patient care. The medical center trains future leaders and includes the dedicated work of many physicians, scientists, public health professionals, dentists, and nurses at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Mailman School of Public Health, the College of Dental Medicine, the School of Nursing, the biomedical departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and allied research centers and institutions. Columbia University Medical Center is home to the largest medical research enterprise in New York City and State and one of the largest faculty medical practices in the Northeast. The campus that Columbia University Medical Center shares with its hospital partner, NewYork-Presbyterian, is now called the Columbia University Irving Medical Center. For more information, visit or

Gorelick L.,University of Western Ontario | Schmidt F.R.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Boykov Y.,University of Western Ontario
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2013

Trust region is a well-known general iterative approach to optimization which offers many advantages over standard gradient descent techniques. In particular, it allows more accurate nonlinear approximation models. In each iteration this approach computes a global optimum of a suitable approximation model within a fixed radius around the current solution, a.k.a. trust region. In general, this approach can be used only when some efficient constrained optimization algorithm is available for the selected non-linear (more accurate) approximation model. In this paper we propose a Fast Trust Region (FTR) approach for optimization of segmentation energies with non-linear regional terms, which are known to be challenging for existing algorithms. These energies include, but are not limited to, KL divergence and Bhattacharyya distance between the observed and the target appearance distributions, volume constraint on segment size, and shape prior constraint in a form of L2 distance from target shape moments. Our method is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than the existing state-of-the-art methods while converging to comparable or better solutions. © 2013 IEEE.

Murli C.,University of Western Ontario | Song Y.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2010

We report here the first in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of pressure-induced structural and polymeric transformations of acrylic acid. Two crystalline phases (I and II) were observed upon compression to ∼0.3 and ∼2.7 GPa. Phase I can be characterized with a single s-cis molecular conformation with possibly a similar structure to the low-temperature phase, while phase II suggests significantly enhanced molecular interactions toward polymerization and structural disordering. Beyond ∼8 GPa, spectroscopic features indicate the onset of polymerization. The high-pressure polymeric phase together with the pressure-quenched materials was examined and compared with two commercial acrylic acid polymers using Raman spectroscopy. The characteristics of polymeric acrylic acid and their transformation mechanisms as well as the implications of hydrogen-bonding interactions are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Reese P.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Boudville N.,University of Western Australia | Garg A.X.,University of Western Ontario
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Since the first living-donor kidney transplantation in 1954, more than half a million living kidney donations have occurred and research has advanced knowledge about long-term donor outcomes. Donors in developed countries have a similar life expectancy and quality of life as healthy non-donors. Living kidney donation is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, although this outcome is uncommon (<0·5% increase in incidence at 15 years). Kidney donation seems to elevate the risks of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Many donors incur financial expenses due to factors such as lost wages, need for sick days, and travel expenses. Yet, most donors have no regrets about donation. Living kidney donation is practised ethically when informed consent incorporates information about risks, uncertainty about outcomes is acknowledged when it exists, and a donor's risks are proportional to benefits for the donor and recipient. Future research should determine whether outcomes are similar for donors from developing countries and donors with pre-existing conditions such as obesity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Henley S.A.,University of Western Ontario | Henley S.A.,Grande Prairie College | Dick F.A.,University of Western Ontario
Cell Division | Year: 2012

The retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins are found in organisms as distantly related as humans, plants, and insects. These proteins play a key role in regulating advancement of the cell division cycle from the G1 to S-phases. This is achieved through negative regulation of two important positive regulators of cell cycle entry, E2F transcription factors and cyclin dependent kinases. In growth arrested cells transcriptional activity by E2Fs is repressed by RB proteins. Stimulation of cell cycle entry by growth factor signaling leads to activation of cyclin dependent kinases. They in turn phosphorylate and inactivate the RB family proteins, leading to E2F activation and additional cyclin dependent kinase activity. This propels the cell cycle irreversibly forward leading to DNA synthesis. This review will focus on the basic biochemistry and cell biology governing the regulation and activity of mammalian RB family proteins in cell cycle control. © 2012 Henley and Dick; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lother A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Moser M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bode C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Feldman R.D.,University of Western Ontario | Hein L.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015

The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a key regulator of water and electrolyte homeostasis. Numerous recent developments have advanced the field of mineralocorticoid pharmacology-namely, clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of aldosterone antagonists in chronic heart failure and post-myocardial infarction treatment. Experimental studies using cell type-specific gene targeting of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene in mice have revealed the importance of extrarenal aldosterone signaling in cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth cells, and macrophages. In addition, several molecular pathways involving signal transduction via the classical MR as well as the G protein-coupled receptor GPER mediate the diverse spectrum of effects of aldosterone on cells. This knowledge has initiated the development of new pharmacological ligands to specifically interfere with targets on different levels of aldosterone signaling. For example, aldosterone synthase inhibitors such as LCI699 and the novel nonsteroidal MR antagonist BAY 94-8862 have been tested in clinical trials. Interference with the interaction between MR and its coregulators seems to be a promising strategy toward the development of selective MR modulators. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Bains J.S.,University of Calgary | Cusulin J.I.W.,University of Calgary | Cusulin J.I.W.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Inoue W.,University of Calgary | Inoue W.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Stress necessitates an immediate engagement of multiple neural and endocrine systems. However, exposure to a single stressor causes adaptive changes that modify responses to subsequent stressors. Recent studies examining synapses onto neuroendocrine cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrate that stressful experiences leave indelible marks that alter the ability of these synapses to undergo plasticity. These adaptations include a unique form of metaplasticity at glutamatergic synapses, bidirectional changes in endocannabinoid signalling and bidirectional changes in strength at GABAergic synapses that rely on distinct temporal windows following stress. This rich repertoire of plasticity is likely to represent an important building block for dynamic, experience-dependent modulation of neuroendocrine stress adaptation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Nalamachu S.,International Clinical Research Institute Inc. | Morley-Forster P.,University of Western Ontario
Drugs and Aging | Year: 2012

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) represents a potentially debilitating and often undertreated form of neuropathic pain that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations, including the elderly and the immunocompromised. Varicella zoster infection is almost universally prevalent, making prevention of acute herpes zoster (AHZ) infection and prompt diagnosis and aggressive management of PHN of critical importance. Despite the recent development of a herpes zoster vaccine, prevention of AHZ is not yet widespread or discussed in PHN treatment guidelines. Diagnosis of PHN requires consideration of recognized PHN signs and known risk factors, including advanced age, severe prodromal pain, severe rash, and AHZ location on the trigeminal dermatomes or brachial plexus. PHN pain is typically localized, unilateral and chronic, but may be constant, intermittent, spontaneous and/or evoked. PHN is likely to interfere with sleep and daily activities. First-line therapies for PHN include tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin and pregabalin, and the lidocaine 5 % patch. Second-line therapies include strong and weak opioids and topical capsaicin cream or 8 % patch. Tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids and strong opioids are effective but are also associated with systemic adverse events that may limit their use in many patients, most notably those with significant medical comorbidities or advanced age. Of the topical therapies, the topical lidocaine 5 % patch has proven more effective than capsaicin cream or 8 % patch and has a more rapid onset of action than the other first-line therapies or capsaicin. Given the low systemic drug exposure, adverse events with topical therapies are generally limited to application-site reactions, which are typically mild and transient with lidocaine 5 % patch, but may involve treatment-limiting discomfort with capsaicin cream or 8 % patch. Based on available clinical data, clinicians should consider administering the herpes zoster vaccine to all patients aged 60 years and older. Clinicians treating patients with PHN may consider a trial of lidocaine 5 % patch monotherapy before resorting to a systemic therapy, or alternatively, may consider administering the lidocaine 5 % patch in combination with a tricyclic antidepressant or a gabapentinoid to provide more rapid analgesic response and lower the dose requirement of systemic therapies. © 2012 The Author(s).

Beck A.T.,University of Pennsylvania | Dozois D.J.A.,University of Western Ontario
Annual Review of Medicine | Year: 2011

Cognitive therapy is a system of psychotherapy with a powerful theoretical infrastructure, which has received extensive empirical support, and a large body of research attesting to its efficacy for a wide range of psychiatric and medical problems. This article provides a brief overview of the conceptual and practical components of cognitive therapy and highlights some of the empirical evidence regarding its efficacy. Cognitive therapy (often labeled generically as cognitive behavior therapy) is efficacious either alone or as an adjunct to medication and provides a prophylaxis against relapse and recurrence. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Zou G.Y.,University of Western Ontario | Zou G.Y.,Nanjing Southeast University
Statistical Methods in Medical Research | Year: 2013

The limits of agreement (LoA) method proposed by Bland and Altman has become a standard for assessing agreement between different methods measuring the same quantity. Virtually, all method comparison studies have reported only point estimates of LoA due largely to the lack of simple confidence interval procedures. In this article, we address confidence interval estimation for LoA when multiple measurements per individual are available. Separate procedures are proposed for situations when the underlying true value of the measured quantity is assumed changing and when it is perceived as stable. A fixed number of replicates per individual is not needed for the procedures to work. As shown by the worked examples, the construction of these confidence intervals requires only quantiles from the standard normal and chi-square distributions. Simulation results show the proposed procedures perform well. A SAS macro implementing the methods is available on the publisher's website. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions:

Trudell Medical and University of Western Ontario | Date: 2016-02-10

An oral device comprises an extraoral handle, a shield connected to said handle, a tether extending from said shield, and a bolus simulator connected to said tether.

University of Western Ontario and Trudell Medical | Date: 2013-08-29

An oral appliance for administering a stimulus, such as a substance, to the mouth of a user includes a flexible tube having an inlet portion, a first curved portion forming an ear loop connected to the inlet portion, a second curved portion forming a lip bend connected to the first curved portion, and an outlet portion extending from the second curved portion. Alternatively, a mouthpiece for delivering a substance to the mouth of a user includes a housing having an inlet portion, a riser portion extending upwardly from the inlet portion and a curved outlet portion. A flexible tube is coupled to the housing. A method of delivering a substance to a predetermined location in a users mouth includes disposing a flexible tube between a row of teeth and an interior surface of a cheek. The flexible tube has an exit port positioned in a rear portion of the users mouth. No portion of the flexible tube is disposed between the upper and lower teeth of the user such that the upper and lower teeth can be closed against each other. The method further includes dispensing a substance through the exit port.

Trudell Medical and University of Western Ontario | Date: 2015-09-15

The present invention relates generally to an oral device, or mouthpiece, for delivering a fluid to the mouth or oropharynx of a user, and to a pneumatic vibrating element. In one embodiment, the oral device includes an intraoral portion, an inlet line and the pneumatic vibrating element. The pneumatic vibrating element may include a shell defining a cavity and an inlet portion in fluid communication with the cavity. The inlet portion may be in fluid communication with the inlet line. A user interface is coupled to the shell and closes the cavity. Methods of dispensing a fluid using the oral device, and/or using the pneumatic vibrating element, are also provided.

News Article | November 30, 2016

When Christian Agrillo runs number-related experiments in his lab, he wishes his undergraduate subjects good luck. For certain tests, that’s about all he says. Giving instructions to the people would be unfair to the fish. Agrillo, of the University of Padua in Italy, is finishing up several years of pitting humans against fish in trials of their abilities to compare quantities. He can’t, of course, tell his angelfish or his guppies to choose, say, the larger array of dots. So in recent tests he made the bemused students use trial and error too. “At the end, they start laughing when they find they are compared with fish,” he says. Yet the fish versus humans face-offs are eye-opening comparisons in his search for the deep evolutionary basis of what has blossomed into human mathematics. If it turns out that fish and people share some idiosyncrasies of their number sense (like spidey sense, except focused on quantities rather than danger), those elements might in theory date from a common ancestor more than 400 million years old. Comparisons of animals’ mental powers are “the paleontology of cognition,” Agrillo says. No one seriously argues that animals other than people have some kind of symbolic numeral system, but nonhuman animals — a lot of them — can manage almost-math without numbers. “There’s been an explosion of studies,” Agrillo says. Reports of a quantity-related ability come from chickens, horses, dogs, honeybees, spiders, salamanders, guppies, chimps, macaques, bears, lions, carrion crows and many more. And nonverbal number sensing, studies now suggest, allows much fancier operations than just pointing to the computer screen that shows more dots. News stories on this diversity often nod to the idea that such a broad sweep of numberlike savvy across the animal tree of life could mean that animals all inherited rudiments of quantification smarts from a shared ancestor. Some scientists think that idea is too simple. Instead of inheriting the same mental machinery, animals could have just happened upon similar solutions when confronting the same challenge. (Birds and bats both fly, but their wings arose independently.) Chasing down those deep origins means figuring out how animals, including humans too young or too rushed, manage quantitative feats without counting. It’s not easy. Putting together what should be a rich and remarkable story of the evolution of nonverbal number sense is just beginning. Symbolic numbers do marvels for humankind, but for millions of years, other animals without full powers to count have managed life-and-death decisions about magnitude (which fruit pile to grab, which fish school to join, whether there are so many wolves that it’s time to run). For a sense of the issues, consider the old and the new in dog science. Familiar as dogs are, they’re still mostly wet-nosed conundrums when it comes to their number sense. When food is at stake, dogs can tell more from less, according to a string of laboratory studies over more than a decade. And dogs may be able to spot cheating when people count out treats. Dog owners may not be amazed at such food smarts, but the interesting question is whether dogs solve the problem by paying attention to the actual number of goodies they see, or some other qualities. An experiment in England in 2002, for instance, let 11 pet dogs settle down in front of a barrier that researchers then moved so the dogs could get a peek at a row of bowls. One bowl held a Pedigree Chum Trek treat. The barrier went up again, and researchers lowered a second treat into a bowl behind the screen, or sometimes just pretended to. When the barrier dropped again, the dogs overall stared a bit longer if only one treat was visible than if 1 + 1 had indeed equaled 2. Five of the dogs, in an extra test, also stared longer on average after a researcher covertly sneaked an extra treat into a bowl and then lowered the barrier on the unexpected 1 + 1 = 3. Dogs could in theory recognize funny business by paying attention to the number of treats — or the treats’ “numerosity,” as researchers often call a quantity recognized nonverbally. But, depending on the design of a test, dogs might also get the right answers by judging the total surface area of treats instead of their numerosity. A multitude of other clues — density of objects in a cluster, a cluster’s total perimeter or darkness and so on — would also work. Researchers lump those giveaways under the term “continuous” qualities, because they change in a smooth continuum of increments instead of in the discrete 1, 2, 3. The continuous qualities present a real staring-at-the-ceiling, heavy-sigh challenge for anyone inventing a numerosity test. By definition, nonverbal tests don’t use symbols such as numbers, so an experimenter has to show something, and those somethings inevitably have qualities that intensify or dwindle as the numerosity does. To at least see whether dogs evaluate total area to choose more food, Krista Macpherson of the University of Western Ontario in Canada devised a task for her rough collie Sedona. The dog had already served as an experimental subject in Macpherson’s earlier test of whether real dogs would try to seek help for their owners in danger, as TV’s trusty Lassie did. Sedona hadn’t tried to seek help for Macpherson (no dog in the test aided its owner), but she had proved amenable to doing lab work, especially for bits of hot dog or cheese. Sedona was put to work to select whichever of two magnet boards had a greater number of geometric shapes fastened to it. Macpherson varied the dimensions of black triangles, squares and rectangles so that their total surface area wasn’t a reliable clue to the right answer. The idea came from an experiment involving monkeys that reacted to a computer touch screen. But “I’m all cardboard and tape,“ Macpherson says. Sedona was perfectly happy to look at two magnet boards fastened to cardboard boxes on the ground and then indicate her choice by knocking over a box. Sedona in the end triumphed at picking the box with more geometric thingies regardless of area, though the project took considerable effort from both woman and beast. The dog worked through more than 700 trials, starting as simply as 0 versus 1 and eventually scoring better than chance scrutinizing bigger magnitudes, such as 6 versus 9, Macpherson and William A.  Roberts reported in Learning and Motivation in 2013. (Eight versus nine finally stumped the collie, but more on patterns in accuracy later.) In a 2016 paper in Behavioural Processes, another lab hailed the Sedona research as the “only evidence of dogs’ ability to use numerical information.” Dogs might have number sense, but when, or how much, they use it is another matter, notes Clive Wynne of Arizona State University in Tempe, a co­author of that 2016 paper. To see what dogs do in more natural situations, he and Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini of the University of Padua designed a test offering pets at a doggie daycare a choice of two plates of cut-up treat strips. A mix of breeds considered such options as a few big treat strips versus a smaller total amount of treats cut up into numerous small pieces. The dogs, without Sedona’s arduous training, went for the greater total amount of food, regardless of the number of pieces. Of course they did; it’s food — more is better. Without controls, food tests may not be measuring numerosity at all. It’s not just edibility that affects whether an animal pays attention to numerosity. Experience with similarity or differences in objects can matter. Rosa Rugani, also at Padua, has pioneered studying number sense in recently hatched chicks, which can learn experimental procedures fast if she gets them motivated. “One of the more fascinating challenges of my job is to come up with ‘games’ the chicks like to play,” she says. Newly hatched chicks can develop a strong social attachment to objects, as if little plastic balls or ragged crosses of colored bars were pals to huddle near in a flock. Taking advantage of this tendency, Rugani let day-old chicks imprint on either two or three objects. Then she watched them choose between two little flocks of novel pals to toddle over to. If the potential buddy-objects in a flock looked identical to each other, the chicks in the test typically just moved near the larger cluster or largest object. But if the buddies in each group had individual quirks, mixing colors, shapes and sizes, the chicks paid attention to numerosity. Those imprinted on three pals were a bit more likely to club with three different kinds of pals; those imprinted on the pairs more often clubbed with the twos. Some animals can deal with what people would call numerical order, or ordinality. Rats have learned to choose a particular tunnel entrance, such as the fourth or 10th from the end, even when researchers fiddled with distances between entrances. Five-day-old chicks rewarded for pecking at an item in a sequence, the fourth hole or the third jar, still showed a preference for position when researchers lengthened the distances between options or even moved the whole array. Rhesus monkeys react if researchers violate rules of addition and subtraction, as dogs seemed to do in the Chums experiment. Chicks can track additions and subtractions too, well enough to pick the card hiding the bigger result. The chicks can also go one better. Rugani and colleagues have shown that chicks have some sense of ratios, for example choosing between mixes of red and green dots to match a ratio they learned from such mixes as 18 greens mingling with 9 reds. A sense of numerosity itself, regardless of volume or surface area, may not be limited to fancy vertebrate brains. One recently published test takes advantage of overkill among golden orb-web spiders (Nephila clavipes). When they have a crazy run of luck catching insects faster than they can eat them, the spiders wrap each catch in silk and fasten it with a single strand to dangle from the center of the web. Turning this hoarding tendency into a test, Rafael Rodríguez of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee tossed bits of mealworms of different sizes into the web as spiders created a dangling treasure trove. Then shooing the spider off the web, he snipped the strands and watched how long the spiders searched for their stolen meals. Losing a greater volume of food inspired more strumming of the web and searching about. But losing four items instead of just one or two increased the search time even more, Rodríguez and his colleagues reported in 2015 in Animal Cognition. It’s not just volume of food in a hoard, they argue. Numerosity has its own effects. Nonhuman animals don’t have human language for counting, so researchers studying behavior talk about an “approximate number system” that allows for good-enough estimates of quantities with no real counting. One of the features of this still mysterious system is its declining accuracy in comparing bigger numbers that are very close together, the trend that made Sedona the collie’s struggles as noteworthy as her successes. As the ratios of the two quantities Sedona had to compare drew closer to 1, she was more prone to make mistakes. Her scores worsened as she moved from 0.11 (comparing 1 to 9), 0.2 (1 to 5) and so on. She never conquered the fiendish 8 versus 9. That same trend, described by what’s called Weber’s law, shows up in humans’ nonverbal approximate number system as well as in those of other animals. When Agrillo tested guppies against humans, both fell behind in accuracy for such difficult comparisons as 6 versus 8. But for small quantities, both fish and people performed well, he and colleagues reported in 2012. People and fish could tell 3 dots from 4 about as reliably as 1 dot from 4. Researchers have long recognized this instant human ease of dealing with very small quantities, calling it subitizing: suddenly just seeing that there are three dots or ducks or daffodils without having to count them. Agrillo suspects the underlying mechanism will prove different from the approximate number systems, though he describes this as a minority view. The similarity between guppies and people in subitizing skill doesn’t prove it’s a shared inheritance from that ancient common ancestor several hundred million years ago, Agrillo says. Yet the similarity does raise the possibility. Struggling to separate some pure response to numerosity from all the confounding surface areas and other continuous qualities may not even be the most important question, says Lisa Cantrell, now at the University of California, Davis. Human babies, as an example of noncounting animals, might start figuring out the world by relying on these other confounders and grow into their numerical abilities, she and Linda Smith of Indiana University, Bloomington, suggested in 2013. The hypothesized approximate number system might be part of some more general way of perceiving the world, which can draw on multiple clues to get a clearer sense of quantity. Cantrell and Smith called their version of the idea the “signal clarity hypothesis.” Studying behavior alone isn’t enough to trace the inheritance of any part of number savvy, says Andreas Nieder of the University of Tübingen in Germany. “At the behavioral level, it may look as if number estimation follows the same laws, but the underlying neural code could actually look quite different.” He’s not going as far afield as fish yet, but Nieder and colleagues have looked at how monkey and bird brains handle quantity. The researchers described neurons (nerve cells) in the brains of carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) that function much like those in rhesus macaques. Research in monkeys over the last 15 years has identified what Nieder calls “number neurons.” They could have multiple functions, but each responds to a specific number of whatevers, be it six crows or six crowbars. Some number neurons respond to sight, some to sound, and amazingly, some to either. The neurons could be responding to increasing total surface area or density or darkness. But researchers have varied one aspect at a time, and used multiple imaging and pharmacological techniques, to argue that as far as strenuous efforts can tell, these neurons detect the actual numerosity. Individual neurons in parts of a monkey brain have their own preferred number and respond most strongly to it and less so to neighboring numbers. The neurons for three get less excited for two and four, while others light up at four. In 2015, Nieder and colleagues started untangling how monkey neurons handle zero, suggesting the beginnings of an ability to treat “nothing there” as an abstract numerosity of zero. These neurons lie in notable places: the six-layered neocortex of the parietal and frontal lobes of the brain. That’s territory that primates boast about, a feature of mammalian brain structure credited with allowing human mental capacities to reach such heights. Nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, don’t have a multilayered neocortex. Yet Nieder and colleagues have, for the first time, detected individual neurons in the bird brain that fire in response to numerosities much as primate number neurons do. Recordings from four nerve cells in monkeys suggest each cell responds most to a particular number of dots (lines with circles) and the same number of musical tones (squares). The bird versions of number neurons lie in a relatively newfangled area of the avian brain called the nidopallium caudolaterale, or NCL. It didn’t exist as such, nor did the primate’s precious neocortex, in the reptile-ish ancestors that mammals and birds last shared some 300 million years ago. Both the bird NCL and the primate number neuron zones arose from the same tissue, the pallium. In mammals, that ancient pallium morphed into layers of neocortex tissue, in birds the transformation went a different way. For the number sense tingling through specialized neurons in birds and primates alike, similarity does not strictly mean shared inheritance, Nieder wrote in the June Nature Reviews Neuroscience. The systems of number neurons probably specialized independently. Finding some brain structures to compare across deep time is a promising step in fathoming the evolution of animal number sense, but it’s just a beginning. There are many questions about how the neurons work, not to mention what’s going on in all those other brains that contemplate quantity. For now, looking across the tree of life at the crazy abundance of number smarts, which may or may not be related but are certainly numerous, the clearest thing to say may be just: Wow. This article appears in the December 10, 2016, issue of Science News with the headline, "Animal math: Searching the barnyard and zoo for the evolutionary roots of human number crunching."

News Article | November 1, 2016

BEER-SHEVA, ISRAEL...November 1, 2016 - A new theory regarding how the brain first learns basic math could alter approaches to identifying and teaching students with math learning disabilities. Published in the Behavioral and Brain Sciences journal, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) researchers offer a better understanding of how, when and why people grasp every day math skills. The most widely accepted theory today suggests people are born with a "sense of numbers," an innate ability to recognize different quantities, like the number of items in a shopping cart, and that this ability improves with age. Early math curricula and tools for diagnosing math-specific learning disabilities such as dyscalculia, a brain disorder that makes it hard to make sense of numbers and math concepts, have been based on that consensus. Ph.D. students Naama Katzin and Maayan Harel and Prof. Avishai Henik, all from the BGU Department of Psychology and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, collaborated with Dr. Tali Leibovich from the Numerical Cognition Laboratory at the Department of Psychology & Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario. Dr. Leibovich was formerly a Ph.D. researcher at BGU's Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the Zlotowski Center. "If we are able to understand how the brain learns math, and how it understands numbers and more complex math concepts that shape the world we live in, we will be able to teach math in a more intuitive and enjoyable way," says Dr. Leibovich. "This study is the first step in achieving this goal." The study challenges the prevalent "sense of numbers" theory. Other theories suggest that a "sense of magnitude" that enables people to discriminate between different "continuous magnitudes," such as the density of two groups of apples or total surface area of two pizza trays, is even more basic and automatic than a sense of numbers. The researchers argue that understanding the relationship between size and number is critical for the development of higher math abilities. By combining number and size (e.g., area, density and perimeter), we can make faster and more efficient decisions. Take for example the dilemma over choosing the quickest checkout line at the grocery store. While most people intuitively get behind someone with a less filled-looking cart, a fuller-looking cart with fewer, larger items may actually be quicker. The way we make these kinds of decisions reveals that people use the natural correlation between number and continuous magnitudes to compare magnitudes. The researchers also urge colleagues to consider the roles other factors, such as language and cognitive control, play in acquiring numerical concepts. While the theoretical models presented in this review may raise more questions than answers, the researchers hope their hypothesis will reveal new ways of identifying dyscalculia, which can currently only be diagnosed in school-aged children. By this stage, children with the disorder are already lagging behind their peers. "This new approach will allow us to develop diagnostic tools that do not require any formal math knowledge, thus allowing diagnosis and treatment of dyscalculia before school age," says Dr. Leibovich. The study, "From 'sense of number' to 'sense of magnitude' - The role of continuous magnitudes in numerical cognition," was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement 295644 to AH. http://dx. American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more. AABGU, headquartered in Manhattan, has nine regional offices throughout the United States. For more information, https:/ .

Hollywood, Feb. 09, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Earth Science Tech, Inc. (OTC PINK: ETST) ("ETST" or "the Company"),   an innovative biotech company, which focuses on cannabis-industrial hemp, cannabinoid research and development, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals is proud to announce that four new scientists and doctors have joined the company’s Advisory Board. ETST strategy of recruiting industry experts to help expand and increase the Development of Cannabinoids' Therapeutic Indications, R&D, Technology, IP and Treatments. These Four Distinguished Scientists and Doctors will serve on the board of advisory for Earth Science Tech and or its two (2) wholly owned subsidiaries, Cannabis Therapeutics Inc., and Earth Science Pharmaceutical Inc. Dr. Laurent Azoulay, PhD. Laurent Azoulay, Ph.D., has joined both the Cannabis Therapeutics Inc. and Earth Science Pharmaceutical Inc. Advisory Boards. He is an Associate Professor of Oncology at McGill University, where he actively researches cancer pharmacoepidemiology, which includes evaluating the safety of cancer drugs at a societal level. After receiving his PhD in 2007 from the Université de Montréal, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship in pharmacoepidemiology at the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University. He then joined the Gerald Department of Oncology as an Assistant Professor in 2009. In 2016, he was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor with a cross-appointment with the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health. Dr. Chandra Panchal, PhD. Chandra Panchal, Ph.D., has joined the Cannabis Therapeutics Inc., Earth Science Pharmaceutical Inc., and Earth Science Tech Inc. Advisory Boards. He is a serial entrepreneur with a wealth of expertise acquired from 28 years of experience in the biotech/pharmaceutical sector. Dr. Panchal founded Axcelon in 2001 and was a co-founder of Procyon Biopharma Inc., a publicly traded biotechnology company involved in the development of wound healing, cancer therapeutic, and diagnostic products. Now known as Ambrilia BioPharma Inc., the company listed on the Alberta Stock Exchange in 1998 and the TSX in 2000. He served as Procyon Biopharma Inc.’s Chairman, President, and CEO; and Ambrilia Biopharma Inc.’s Senior Executive Vice-President, Business Development, Licensing, and Intellectual Property in charge of both out-licensing, in-licensing and M&A activities. He retired from Ambrilia Biopharma Inc. in February 2008. Since then, Dr. Panchal has been actively involved in Axcelon.  Prior to founding Procyon Biopharma Inc., Dr. Panchal was a senior scientist/group leader supervising activities related to yeast genetics, fermentations, and product development at John Labatt Ltd., a multinational food and beverage company. Dr. Panchal sits on the board of directors of several public and private companies.  He has authored/co-authored over 60 scientific papers and has edited a book entitled Yeast Strain Selection. Dr. Panchal has been an Adjunct Professor at the University of Western Ontario where he obtained his Ph.D. in biochemical engineering. Dr. Domenico Fuoco, PhD. Domenico Fuoco, Ph.D., has joined the Cannabis Therapeutics Inc. Advisory Board. Dr. Fuoco has over 16 years’ experience in the research and development of innovative solutions for the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Fuoco trained at the prestigious Department of Oncology of McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montreal, from 2012 to 2015. During this time, Dr. Fuoco worked on the next generation of medications for AVEO Oncology and Helsinn Therapeutics.  Prior to this, Dr. Fuoco obtained his PhD and Post-Doc training in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery at the University of Perugia in Italy with further studies at the University of Salamanca School of Pharmacy in Spain. Dr. Fuoco is recognized for the transdisciplinary approach of his work. In 2010, Dr. Fuoco was Principal Scientist of the Italian Mission in Amazonia, Bogotà, Colombia.  Dr. Fuoco’s publications cover a wide-range of chemical fields, from functional foods to autoimmune diseases. In 2015, Dr. Fuoco was honored with the prestigious Dr. Henry Shibata Fellowship from the Cedar Cancer Foundation for his work in the field of palliative care. Dr. Fuoco is an active member of the Italian Canadian Community Foundation and is very active within his community.  He is also the chairman from Smart Medicines Consortium for the advancement of health care. Dr. Fuoco’s expertise in human health and functional foods are highly valued as strategic assets by ETST. Calvin Higgins, M.D. Calvin Higgins, M.D., has joined the Earth Science Tech Inc. Advisory Board. Dr. Calvin Higgins is board-certified in internal medicine. Diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He was born in Kingston, Jamaica. He came to the United States in 1979. He attended Cornell Medical School and graduated in 1985. In 1998, he completed his residency at Lenox Hill Medical Center in Manhattan, New York in Internal Medicine. In 1998 he moved to Florida and completed 3 years in office-based medicine. He then moved onto hospital-based medicine in 2001 to present. Dr. Higgins is affiliated with Memorial Hospital Miramar, Memorial Hospital Pembroke, Memorial Hospital West and Memorial Regional Hospital. Dr. Higgins has a great core for alternative medicine. He always encourages his patients to seek lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, meditation and mental wellness, just to name a few. “We are very excited to have so much new talent joining our Advisory Boards,” said President, Director, and COO Nickolas Tabraue, “We are well on our way to developing top-notch treatments to some of the most common health problems people face, and bringing on such esteemed talent to advise us will only get us there quicker.” About Earth Science Tech: ( is a publicly traded (ETST) unique Science based Biotechnology company focused on cutting edge Nutraceuticals, Bioceuticals, and Phytoceuticals for the Health, Wellness and Alternative Medicine Markets to help improve the quality of life for Consumers Worldwide. ETST is also dedicated to providing Natural Alternatives to prescription medications through the use of its cutting edge Nutritional and Dietary Supplements. This may include products such as its High-Grade Hemp CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil, Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, Botanicals, Personal Care Products, Homeopathies, Functional Foods and other products. These products may be in various formulations and delivery systems including (but not limited to) capsules, tablets, soft gels, chewables, liquids, creams, sprays, powders, and whole herbs. ETST is focused on researching and developing innovative Hemp extracts and to make them accessible Worldwide. ETST plans to be the premier supplier of the highest quality and purity of High Grade Hemp CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil. ETST's primary goal is to advance different High Quality Hemp extracts with a broad profile of Cannabinoids and additional natural molecules found in Industrial Hemp and to identify their distinct properties. The company is dedicated in offering its consumers the finest and purest quality All Natural-Organic Hemp CBD Oil while never compromising on quality. ETST High Grade Hemp CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil is classified as "food based" and therefore perfectly permissible in all 50 states and more than 40 countries. Cannabinoids (Cannabidiol/CBD) are natural constituents of the Hemp plant and CBD is derived from Hemp stalk and seed. Hemp oil is a well-known dietary supplement and the naturally occurring CBD possesses no psychoactive qualities and presents a continuing stream of overwhelming evidence of significant Wellness benefits. With no psychoactive ingredient, Hemp CBD Oil is a ready-for-market Hemp-basedNutraceutical. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently considers non-THC hemp based cannabinoids, including CBD, to be "food based" and therefore salable. These new non-psychoactive CBD-rich hemp oil products that ETST has geared up to market and distribute are beyond reproach. CBD (Cannabidiol), a naturally occurring constituent of the Industrial Hemp plant, promotes and supports the nutritional health of aging bodies in particular. Source: US Government Patent #6,630,507 "Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants." ETST does not grow, sell or distribute any substances that violate United States Law or the controlled substance act. ETST does sell and distribute cannabis industrial hemp based products. About Cannabis Therapeutics: Cannabis Therapeutics, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Earth Science Tech, Inc (ETST). Cannabis Therapeutics, Inc. was formed as an emerging biotechnology company poised to become a world leader in cannabinoid research and development for a broad line of cannabis cannabinoid-based pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals as well as other products & solutions. Cannabis Therapeutics mission it to help change the healthcare landscape by introducing their proprietary cannabis-cannabinoid based products made for both the pharmaceutical and retail consumer markets worldwide. The company is currently working on finishing the launch of its new corporate website at About Earth Science Pharmaceutical: Earth Science Pharmaceutical, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Earth Science Tech, Inc (ETST). Earth Science Pharmaceutical is focused on becoming a world leader in the development of low cost, non-invasive diagnostic tools, medical devices, testing processes and vaccines for STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections and/or Diseases). Earth Science Pharmaceutical CEO, Dr. Michel Aubé, a renowned scientist, is committed to help grow ETST in the medical and pharmaceutical industry. The company is currently working on finishing the launch of its new corporate website at FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE: These statements and products have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease. Always check with your physician before starting a new dietary supplement program. The FDA has not evaluated the validity or truthfulness of these claims; therefore, we encourage you to review published researches relating to the benefits and properties of CBD hemp oils and other CBD products. SAFE HARBOR ACT: Forward-Looking Statements are included within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. 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« Pioneer Valley Transit Authority acquires three Proterra electric buses | Main | SAE International and @GM announce new collegiate competition for autonomous technology; Chevy #Bolt as platform » A research team from University of Western Ontario, McMaster University and Beijing Computational Science Research Center has developed an effective synthesis method to produce isolated single platinum (Pt) atoms and clusters for use as catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water splitting to produce hydrogen. In an open-access paper published in Nature Communications, the researchers reported that the single Pt atom catalysts exhibit significantly enhanced catalytic activity (up to 37 times) and high stability in comparison to the state-of-the-art commercial platinum/carbon (Pt/C) catalysts. Platinum-based catalysts are generally considered to be the most effective electrocatalysts for the HER. Unfortunately, Pt is expensive and scarce, limiting the commercial potential for such catalysts. Significant effort has been devoted to the search of non-precious-metal based HER catalysts including sulfide-based materials, and C N . Although these candidate materials show promising activities for the HER, the activities of these catalysts in their present form are insufficient for industrial applications. In this work, the team fabricated single platinum atoms and clusters supported on nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGNs) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The size and density of the Pt catalysts on the NGNs are precisely controlled by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. The researchers also prepared single Pt atoms on graphene to compare with the samples on N-doped graphene. The researchers found that the stability of the single Pt atoms on pure graphene was low, resulting in the loss of 24% of the initial HER activity after stability tests. On the other hand, the single Pt atoms on the N-doped graphene resulted in a decreased activity of only 4%. First-principles calculations showed that the interaction energy between the single Pt atoms and N-dopants is about 5.3 eV, which is approximately 3.4 eV larger than the bond strength between the Pt atoms on the graphene substrate, suggesting that the Pt prefers to bind to the N-sites. The researchers also studied the mechanisms of the single-atom catalysis. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and density functional theory (DFT) analyses indicated that the partially unoccupied density of states of the Pt atoms’ 5d orbitals on the N-doped graphene are responsible for the excellent performance.

Flash Physics is our daily pick of the latest need-to-know developments from the global physics community selected by Physics World's team of editors and reporters An underground deposit of water ice on Mars covering an area larger than Poland and containing more water than Lake Superior – the largest of the North American Great Lakes – has been discovered by Cassie Stuurman of the University of Texas, Austin, and colleagues. The deposit was found in a mid-latitude region called Utopia Planitia using SHARAD – a ground-penetrating radar instrument aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Its composition varies between 50–85% frozen water that is mixed with dust and larger rocky particles. The ice is buried about 1–10 m under a layer of soil, which the researchers believe stops the water from subliming into the atmosphere. "This deposit probably formed as snowfall accumulating into an ice sheet mixed with dust during a period in Mars history when the planet's axis was more tilted than it is today," explains Stuurman. The study is described in Geophysical Research Letters and was inspired by work done by Gordon Osinski of the University of Western Ontario. He noticed that patterns on the surface of Utopia Planitia are similar to those seen in regions of ground ice in the Canadian Arctic (see figure). Water close to the surface of Mars could be used as a resource for future human colonization of the planet. "Sampling and using this ice with a future mission could help keep astronauts alive, while also helping them unlock the secrets of Martian ice ages," says Joe Levy of the University of Texas. "Devastating", "embarrassed", "worried" and "set the clock back" were just some of the words used by environmental scientists when asked for their views on the election of climate-change sceptic Donald Trump as US president – according to an article in environmentalresearchweb called "The climate after Trump". In January, Trump will become the only leader of a major industrialized country to deny the existence of human-caused climate change and he looks set to renege on the Paris climate agreement that came into force on 4 November. "It took the US two decades to go from climate obstructionist to climate leader, and one ugly season to throw it away," lamented Dan Kammen of the University of California, Berkeley. Other researchers believe that the scientific community was naive to think that better information and more knowledge are enough to convince wider society of the importance of tackling environmental degradation. "We must leave our castles in the sky; we must get out and listen deeply and with empathy, we must stop preaching to the converted," says Hallie Eakin of Arizona State University. An "ultra-transparent" medium that transmits electromagnetic radiation incident from all angles has been unveiled by physicists at Soochow University and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in China. The new metamaterial comprises a regular array of alumina bars. These are arranged so that the refractive index within the array is identical to that in free space, regardless of the incident angle of the radiation. This is unlike materials like glass, which has an index of refraction that is greater than air. This means that some incident light is reflected at the surface of glass, and that rays are bent when they travel between the two media. Both of these effects can have distorting effects on light moving through an optical system and cause, for example, the blurring of images. The metamaterial created by Zhi Hong Hang, Yun Lai and colleagues works at microwave frequencies, but writing in Physical Review Letters, the team says that it should be possible to create ultra-transparent metamaterials that work for visible light.

Consta S.,University of Western Ontario | Malevanets A.,Hospital for Sick Children
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Ion-release processes from droplets that contain excess charge are of central importance in determining the charge-state distributions of macromolecules in electrospray ionization methods. We develop an analytical theory to describe the mechanism of contiguous extrusion of a charged macromolecule from a droplet. We find that the universal parameter determining the system behavior is the ratio of solvation energy per unit length to the square of the ion charge density per unit length. Systems with the same value of the ratio will follow the same path in the course of droplet evaporation. The analytical model is compared with molecular simulations of charged polyethylene glycol macroion in aqueous droplets, and the results are in excellent agreement. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Kudoh T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Basu S.,University of Western Ontario
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We employ three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion to study the gravitationally driven fragmentation of subcritical molecular clouds, in which the gravitational fragmentation is stabilized as long as magnetic flux-freezing applies. The simulations show that the cores in an initially subcritical cloud generally develop gradually over an ambipolar diffusion time, which is about a few ×107yr in a typical molecular cloud. On the other hand, the formation of collapsing cores in subcritical clouds is accelerated by supersonic nonlinear flows. Our parameter study demonstrates that core formation occurs faster as the strength of the initial flow speed in the cloud increases. We found that the core formation time is roughly proportional to the inverse of the square root of the enhanced density created by the supersonic nonlinear flows. The density dependence is similar to that derived in quasistatically contracting magnetically supported clouds, although the core formation conditions are created by the nonlinear flows in our simulations. We have also found that the accelerated formation time is not strongly dependent on the initial strength of the magnetic field if the cloud is highly subcritical. Our simulation shows that the core formation time in our model subcritical clouds is several ×106 yr due to the presence of large-scale supersonic flows (∼3 times sound speed). Once a collapsing core forms, the density, velocity, and magnetic field structure of the core do not strongly depend on the initial strength of the velocity fluctuation. The infall velocities of the cores are subsonic and the magnetic field lines show weak hourglass shapes. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printedin the U.S.A.

Siegers G.M.,University of Western Ontario | Lamb L.S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2014

Exploration of cancer immunotherapy strategies that incorporate γδ T cells as primary mediators of antitumor immunity are just beginning to be explored and with a primary focus on the use of manufactured phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Increasing evidence, however, supports a critical role for Vδ1+ γδ T cells, a minor subset in peripheral blood with distinct innate recognition properties that possess powerful tumoricidal activity. They are activated by a host of ligands including stress-induced self-antigens, glycolipids presented by CD1c/d, and potentially many others that currently remain unidentified. In contrast to Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, tumor-reactive Vδ1+ T cells are not as susceptible to activation-induced cell death and can persist in the circulation for many years, potentially offering durable immunity to some cancers. In addition, specific populations of Vδ1+ T cells can also exhibit immunosuppressive and regulatory properties, a function that can also be exploited for therapeutic purposes. This review explores the biology, function, manufacturing strategies, and potential therapeutic role of Vδ1+ T cells. We also discuss clinical experience with Vδ1+ T cells in the setting of cancer, as well as the potential of and barriers to the development of Vδ1+ T cell-based adoptive cell therapy strategies. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.

Perret L.,CNRS Laboratory for Hydrodynamics, Energetics & Atmospheric Environment | Savory E.,University of Western Ontario
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2013

An analysis of the dynamics of the flow over a street canyon immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer is presented, using particle image velocimetry measurements in a wind tunnel. Care was taken to generate a 1:200 model scale urban type boundary layer that is correctly scaled to the size of the canyon buildings. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the velocity field and conditional averaging techniques, it is first shown that the flow above the opening of the canyon consists of a shear layer separating from the upstream obstacle, animated by a coherent flapping motion and generating large-scale vortical structures. These structures are alternately injected into the canyon or shed off the obstacle into the outer flow. It is shown that unsteady fluid exchanges between the canyon and the outer flow are mainly driven by the shear layer. Finally, using POD, the non-linear interaction between the large-scale structures of the oncoming atmospheric boundary layer and the flow over the canyon is demonstrated. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wang Y.,Acadia University | Meister D.B.,University of Western Ontario | Gray P.H.,University of Virginia
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2013

Theory suggests that coworkers may influence individuals' technology use behaviors, but there is limited research in the technology diffusion literature that explicates how such social influence processes operate after initial adoption. We investigate how two key social influence mechanisms (identification and internalization) may explain the growth over time in individuals' use of knowledge management systems (KMS)-a technology that because of its publicly visible use provides a rich context for investigating social influence. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal KMS usage data on over 80,000 employees of a management consulting firm. Our approach infers the presence of identification and internalization from associations between actual system use behaviors by a focal individual and prior system use by a range of reference groups. Evidence of these kinds of associations between system use behaviors helps construct a more complete picture of social influence mechanisms, and is to our knowledge novel to the technology diffusion literature. Our results confirm the utility of this approach for understanding social influence effects and reveal a fine-grained pattern of influence across different social groups: we found strong support for bottom-up social influence across hierarchical levels, limited support for peer-level influence within levels, and no support for top-down influence. Copyright © 2013 by the Management Information Systems Research Center (MISRC) of the University of Minnesota.

Fang H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Beier F.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease that results in pain and low quality of life for patients, as well as enormous medical and socioeconomic burdens. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of OA are still poorly understood. As such, mouse models of the disease are having increasingly important roles in OA research owing to the advancements of microsurgical techniques and the use of genetically modified mice, as well as the development of novel assessment tools. In this Review, we discuss available mouse models of OA and applicable assessment tools in studies of experimental OA. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Guo F.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Fang Z.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Xu C.C.,University of Western Ontario | Smith Jr. R.L.,Tohoku University
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2012

Solid acid catalysts, which have favorable characteristics such as efficient activity, high selectivity, long catalyst life and ease in recovery and reuse, have great potential for efficiently transforming lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and can replace many conventional liquid acids for hydrolysis and pretreatment. This work briefly introduces conventional biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis techniques, and reviews in detail the characteristics of biomass hydrolysis for five types of solid acid catalysts grouped as H-form zeolites, transition-metal oxides, cation-exchange resins, supported solid acids and heteropoly compounds. Carbonaceous solid acid (CSA) catalysts are considered as the most promising catalyst for cellulose hydrolysis, since they provide good access of reactants to the acidic sites of SO 3H groups. High glucose yields of up to 75% with 80% selectivity have been achieved at 150 °C for 24 h with CSA. However, separation of CSA from un-hydrolyzed cellulose residues after hydrolysis needs further research since these catalysts have similar physical and chemical properties to the residues. Use of functionalized CSA catalysts that contain paramagnetic groups is one method to improve CSA separation and reuse. Suggestions are given for promoting catalytic efficiency for each kind of solid acid catalysts. Methods to promote reactions or increase selectivities such as microwave, ultrasonication and nanotechnology are introduced. Finally, we highlight a recent strategy that exploits acid-functionalized paramagnetic nanoparticles suitable for cellulose hydrolysis, and address new opportunities for the use of solid acid catalysts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rotondi M.A.,York University | Donner A.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Objective: Studies measuring interobserver agreement (reliability) are common in clinical practice, yet discussion of appropriate sample size estimation techniques is minimal as compared with clinical trials. The authors propose a sample size estimation technique to achieve a prespecified lower and upper limit for a confidence interval for the κ coefficient in studies of interobserver agreement. Study Design and Setting: The proposed technique can be used to design a study measuring interobserver agreement with any number of outcomes and any number of raters. Potential application areas include: pathology, psychiatry, dentistry, and physical therapy. Results: This technique is illustrated using two examples. The first considers a pilot study in oral radiology, whose authors studied the reliability of the mandibular cortical index as measured by three dental professionals. The second example examines the level of interobserver agreement among four nurses with respect to five triage levels used in the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale. Conclusion: This method should be useful in the planning stages of an interobserver agreement study in which the investigator would like to obtain a prespecified level of precision in the estimation of κ. An R software package (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria), kappaSize is also provided that implements this method. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Adams P.C.,University of Western Ontario | Barton J.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Elevated serum ferritin concentrations are common in clinical practice. In this review, we provide an approach to interpreting the serum ferritin elevation in relationship to other clinical parameters including the patient history, transferrin saturation, serum concentrations of alanine, and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT, AST), testing for HFE mutations, liver imaging, liver biopsy, and liver iron concentration. We used observations from a large series of patients with hepatic iron overload documented by liver iron concentration measurement from two referral practices as a gold standard to guide the interpretation of the predictive values of non-invasive iron tests. Three case studies illustrate common problems in interpreting iron blood tests. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver.

Phillips J.M.,University of Western Ontario | Vinck M.,University of Amsterdam | Everling S.,University of Western Ontario | Everling S.,Robarts Research Institute | Womelsdorf T.,York University
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2014

The capacity to rapidly adjust behavioral strategies according to changing task demands is closely associated with coordinated activity in lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. Subdivisions within prefrontal cortex are implicated to encode attentional task sets and to update changing task rules, particularly when changing task demands require top-down control. Here, we tested whether these top-down processes precede stimulus processing and constitute a preparatory attentional state that functionally couples with parietal cortex. We examined this functional coupling by recording from intracranial EEG electrodes in macaques during performance of a task-switching paradigm that separates task performance that is based on controlled top-down guidance from automatic, stimulus- triggered processing modes. We identify a prefrontal-parietal network that phase synchronizes at 5-10 Hz, particularly during preparatory states that indicate top-down controlled task-processing modes. Phase relations in the network suggest that medial and lateral prefrontal cortices synchronize bidirectionally, with medial prefrontal cortex showing a phase-lead relative to left parietal recorded 5- to 10-Hz preparatory signals. These findings reveal a 5- to 10-Hz coordinated, long-range fronto-parietal network prior to actual task-relevant stimulus processing, particularly when subjects engage in controlled task processing modes. © The Author 2013.

Everling S.,University of Western Ontario | Everling S.,Bielefeld University | Johnston K.,University of Western Ontario
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Several decades of patient, functional imaging and neurophysiological studies have supported a model in which the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) acts to suppress unwanted saccades by inhibiting activity in the oculomotor system. However, recent results from combined PFC deactivation and neural recordings of the superior colliculus in monkeys demonstrate that the primary influence of the PFC on the oculomotor system is excitatory, and stands in direct contradiction to the inhibitory model of PFC function. Although erroneous saccades towards a visual stimulus are commonly labelled reflexive in patients with PFC damage or dysfunction, the latencies of most of these saccades are outside of the range of express saccades, which are triggered directly by the visual stimulus. Deactivation and pharmacological manipulation studies in monkeys suggest that response errors following PFC damage or dysfunction are not the result of a failure in response suppression but can best be understood in the context of a failure to maintain and implement the proper task set. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Zhou W.,University of Western Ontario | Huang G.X.,TransCanada
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping | Year: 2012

The model errors associated with eight well-known burst capacity models for corroded pipelines, namely B31G, B31G Modified, CPS, the CSA model, the DNV model, PCORRC, RSTRENG and SHELL92, are characterized based on a full-scale burst test database that consists of 150 data points collected from the literature for pipe specimens containing single isolated real corrosion defects. The probabilistic characteristics of the model errors, including the mean values, coefficients of variation and probability distributions, for the burst models are obtained by analyzing the ratios between the test and predicted burst pressures corresponding to the test data applicable to the model. For each of the burst models, separate model errors for short and long defects are also evaluated, whereby the short and long defects are separated by the transition normalized defect length that is identified using the weighted average COV approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghent University, University of Western Ontario and Vib Vzw | Date: 2010-10-01

Described are silk proteins derived from spider mite, more specifically derived from Tetranychus urticae. More specifically, described is the use of these proteins to make fibers, or fiber-composed material and the resulting fibers and materials.

University of Western Ontario and Vib Vzw | Date: 2010-10-13

The present invention relates to a method of controlling spider mites on plants. More specifically, the invention relates to plants expressing RNAi of one or more essential genes of the spider mite, and the use of those plants to control the spider mite proliferation into pest proportions. In a preferred embodiment, the spider mite is Tetranychus urticae.

News Article | December 8, 2016

SALT LAKE CITY, UT--(Marketwired - December 07, 2016) - Lice Clinics of America®, the nation's largest network of head lice removal clinics, announces today the addition of Krista Lauer, MD as medical director to the organization. Dr. Lauer will help further Lice Clinics of America's mission of ending the nightmare of head lice, once and for all, for families across North America and around the world. After receiving her medical degree from University of Western Ontario, Dr. Lauer's extensive experience ranges from a successful private practice for over 18 years to most recently holding the position of associate medical director at Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield for the state of New York. Now based in Park City, Utah, Dr. Lauer will be an instrumental part of communicating with Lice Clinics of America clinic owners on both a national and international level. "It's a really exciting opportunity for me to bring my previous expertise and join a company that is helping people around the world deal with lice infestations. Over the years I have seen firsthand the annoyance and embarrassment lice can have on entire families, and I'm looking forward to being part of a solution," said Dr. Lauer. "I believe Lice Clinics of America's revolutionary and highly effective process for killing lice and their eggs is a necessity to members of the medical community, and I am thrilled to further introduce them to this technology." Lice Clinics of America provides screenings, diagnosis and treatment options for people infested with head lice, and is the exclusive provider of the AirAllé device. Using controlled, heated air, the AirAllé medical device dehydrates lice and eggs, eliminating an infestation without pesticides in about an hour. "Dr. Lauer brings a wealth of knowledge to our organization and we are thrilled to have her join our team. She will be a great resource for parents, nurses, and anyone who is looking for help about lice," said Claire Roberts, CEO of Lice Clinics of America. With more than 140 U.S. clinics and 90 international clinics, Lice Clinics of America is the largest network of professional head lice treatment centers in the world. Lice Clinics of America is owned by Larada Sciences, Inc. For more information please visit

VANCOUVER, BC--(Marketwired - December 12, 2016) - UEX Corporation (TSX: UEX) ("UEX" or the "Company") announces that Mr. Colin Macdonald, one of UEX's founding Board members and current Chairman of the Board of Directors will be retiring from the Board effective December 31, 2016. Mr. Macdonald has served as Director of the Company since 2002, and has been Chairman since 2015. As Vice President, Exploration for Cameco Corporation, one of the Company's founding shareholders, Mr. Macdonald was integral in the formation of UEX and in the obtaining the Company's listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange. He served as Cameco's nominee to the Board until his retirement from Cameco in 2011, and was subsequently reappointed to serve on the Board as an independent Director. As a visionary with a long-term view, Colin was instrumental in the creation of UEX in 2001, one of the first junior uranium pure-play companies. Through his long service and leadership, first as Cameco's Board nominee and ultimately as Board Chairman, Colin has been one of the key drivers of our Company's success. I have been privileged to work with Colin during these past 15 years and along with current and former members of the Board and Executive, I would like to wish the best to Colin and his family in his retirement. The Company would also like to announce the appointment of Ms. Catherine Stretch of Toronto, Ontario to the Board effective January 1, 2017. Ms. Stretch has over 15 years experience in capital markets and in managing companies and investment funds focused in the resource industry. Ms. Stretch is currently the Chief Commercial Officer of ASX-listed Aguia Resources Ltd., and is a director of TSX:V-listed Emerita Resources Corp and AnalytixInsight Inc. Previously, Catherine was a partner and the Chief Operating Officer of a Canadian investment firm which had $1 billion in assets under management and focused on managing resource-oriented investments. Catherine has a BA in Economics from the University of Western Ontario and an MBA in International Business from the Schulich School of Business at York University. I am excited that Catherine has accepted our offer to join the Board. Her extensive experience in the resource and financial sectors will be great additions to the UEX Board and will help steer the Company towards continued success as we emerge from these challenging uranium markets. On behalf of the Board of Directors of UEX

Paulson W.D.,University of Georgia | Moist L.,University of Western Ontario | Lok C.E.,Toronto General Hospital
Kidney International | Year: 2012

Hemodialysis vascular access surveillance continues to be widely recommended despite ongoing controversy as to its benefit in prolonging access patency compared with clinical monitoring alone. The most common screening tests are access blood flow and dialysis venous pressure measurements. When surveillance test results cross a predetermined threshold, accesses are referred for intervention with correction of stenosis to reduce future thrombosis and prolong access survival. Current surveillance strategies have four components: (1) underlying condition; (2) screening test; (3) intervention; and (4) outcomes. However, limitations exist within each component that may prevent achieving the desired outcomes. This review discusses these limitations and their consequences. To date, randomized controlled trials have not consistently shown that surveillance improves outcomes in grafts, and there is limited evidence that surveillance reduces thrombosis without prolonging the life of native fistulae. In conclusion, current evidence does not support the concept that all accesses should undergo routine surveillance with intervention. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology.

Winterhager E.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Kidder G.M.,University of Western Ontario
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2015

Background: Connexins comprise a family of ~20 proteins that form intercellular membrane channels (gap junction channels) providing a direct route for metabolites and signalling molecules to pass between cells. This reviewprovides a critical analysis of the evidence for essential roles of individual connexins in female reproductive function, highlighting implications for women's reproductive health. Methods: No systematic review has been carried out. Published literature from the past 35 years was surveyed for research related to connexin involvement in development and function of the female reproductive system. Because of the demonstrated utility of genetic manipulation for elucidating connexin functions in various organs,muchof the cited information comes fromresearch with genetically modified mice. Insomecases, a distinction is drawn between connexin functions clearly related to the formation of gap junction channels and those possibly linked to nonchannel roles. Results and conclusions: Based on work with mice, several connexins are known to be required for female reproductive functions. Loss of connexin43 (CX43) causes an oocyte deficiency, and follicles lacking or expressing less CX43 in granulosa cells exhibit reduced growth, impairing fertility. CX43 is also expressed in human cumulus cells and, in the context of IVF, has been correlated with pregnancy outcome, suggesting that this connexin may be a determinant of oocyte and embryo quality in women. Loss of CX37, which exclusively connects oocytes with granulosa cells in the mouse, caused oocytes to cease growing without acquiring meiotic competence. Blocking of CX26 channels in the uterine epithelium disrupted implantation whereas loss or reduction of CX43 expression in the uterine stroma impaired decidualization and vascularization in mouse and human. Several connexins are important in placentation and, in the human, CX43 is a key regulator of the fusogenic pathway from the cytotrophoblast to the syncytiotrophoblast, ensuring placental growth. CX40, which characterizes the extravillous trophoblast (EVT), supports proliferation of the proximal EVTs while preventing them from differentiating into the invasive pathway. Furthermore, women with recurrent early pregnancy loss as well as those with endometriosis exhibit reduced levels of CX43 in their decidua. The antimalaria drug mefloquine, which blocks gap junction function, is responsible for increased risk of early pregnancy loss and stillbirth, probably due to inhibition of intercellular communication in the decidua or between trophoblast layers followed by an impairment of placental growth. Gap junctions also play a critical role in regulating uterine blood flow, contributing to the adaptive response to pregnancy. Given that reproductive impairment can result from connexin mutations in mice, it is advised that women suffering from somatic disease symptoms associated with connexin gene mutations be additionally tested for impacts on reproductive function. Better knowledge of these essential connexin functions in human female reproductive organs is important for safeguarding women's reproductive health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Williams C.M.,University of Florida | Henry H.A.L.,University of Western Ontario | Sinclair B.J.,University of Western Ontario
Biological Reviews | Year: 2014

Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

AlDakheel A.,University of Western Ontario | Kalia L.V.,University of Western Ontario | Lang A.E.,Toronto Western Hospital
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Parkinson disease is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Multiple attempts have been made to establish therapies for Parkinson disease which provide neuroprotection or disease modification-two related, but not identical, concepts. However, to date, none of these attempts have succeeded. Many challenges exist in this field of research, including a complex multisystem disorder that includes dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features; poorly understood and clearly multifaceted disease pathogenic mechanisms; a lack of reliable animal models; an absence of effective biomarkers of disease state, progression, and target engagement; and the confounding effects of potent symptomatic therapy. In this article, we will review previous, ongoing, and potential future trials designed to alter the progressive course of the disease from the perspective of the targeted underlying pathogenic mechanisms. © 2013 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Moores J.E.,University of Western Ontario | Schuerger A.C.,University of Florida
Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets | Year: 2012

Reanalysis of the Viking Lander results on Mars has suggested a surface reservoir of organic carbon at the ppm level. The size of this putative reservoir could be explained if the source of carbon on Mars is meteoritic in origin and is destroyed primarily by UV irradiation, yielding methane. By combining a numerical UV model for the surface of Mars with published laboratory measurements of organic UV photolysis, the times required to completely convert the carbon within individual particles to methane may be calculated. For interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) initially containing 10 wt% carbon, lifetimes of organics range from 3.9 years for a 0.2 m diameter particle at equatorial latitudes to 4900 years for a 200 m diameter particle at polar latitudes, and implies a median time for IDP organics by UV photolysis of 320 years at equatorial latitudes and 1500 years at polar latitudes. Assuming no redistribution of organics over the surface, the IDP organic reservoir at the surface would range from 1.1 × 10 -6 kg m -2 at equatorial latitudes to 6.6 × 10 -6 kg m -2 at polar latitudes. If accreted carbon is evenly mixed with the soil, up to 3.4 ppm of organic carbon at the VL1 landing site can be explained from a meteoritic origin and up to 4.9 ppm at the VL2 landing site. Derived from the IDP organic reservoir, small fluctuations in methane would exist due to variations in UV irradiation with latitude and L S. Production of methane is expected to range up to 0.35 pptv sol -1. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Vaughan L.,University of Western Ontario | You J.,ApacBridge Consulting
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2010

Web hyperlink analysis has been a key topic of Webometric research. However, inlink data collection from commercial search engines has been limited to only one source in recent years, which is not a promising prospect for the future development of the field. We need to tap into other Web data sources and to develop new methods. Toward this end, we propose a new Webometrics concept that is based on words rather than inlinks on Webpages. We propose that word co-occurrences on Webpages can be a measure of the relatedness of organizations. Word co-occurrence data can be collected from both general search engines and blog search engines, which expands data sources greatly. The proposed concept is tested in a group of companies in the LTE and WiMax sectors of the telecommunications industry. Data on the co-occurrences of company names on Webpages were collected from Google and Google Blog. The co-occurrence matrices were analyzed using MDS. The resulting MDS maps were compared with industry reality and with the MDS maps from co-link analysis. Results show that Web co-word analysis could potentially be as useful as Web co-link analysis. Google Blog seems to be a better source than Google for co-word data collection. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Moorhead A.V.,Geocent, LLC | Wiegert P.A.,University of Western Ontario | Cooke W.J.,NASA
Icarus | Year: 2014

Long-period Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will experience a close encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19. As of 2013 October 21, the distance of closest approach between the two is projected to be between 89,000. km and 173,000. km, with a nominal value of 131,000. km. Thus, a collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comet's coma may very well envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. We present a simple analytic model of the dust component of cometary comae that describes the spatial distribution of cometary dust and meteoroids and their size distribution. We find that this model successfully reproduces, to within an order of magnitude, particle fluxes measured by spacecraft Giotto in the coma of 1P/Halley and by spacecraft Stardust in the coma of 81P/Wild 2. We apply our analytic model to C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and compute the expected total fluence of potentially damaging particles at Mars at the time of closest approach between the two bodies; we obtain a nominal fluence of 0.15 particles per square meter. We conduct numerical simulations of particle ejection from the comet's nucleus and compare the resulting spatial distribution with that of our analytic model, and conclude that our spherically symmetric analytic model is adequate for order-of-magnitude fluence estimates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.7.2 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2010

The deployment of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) for non-responsive patients will provide access to modern information and communication technology such as internet, personal computer or home appliances when only a single response of a person is available. In this extreme case, no current assistive technology can help the patient interact with the environment. This situation poses serious ethical issues, since medical treatment can prolong the patients life, but leave them in a state of unacceptable quality of life.\nDECODER will develop a BCI into single-switch based systems to practically enhance inclusion of patients who are otherwise only little or not at all able to interact with their environment and share ICT. This achievement will move on from the improvement of three components of state-of-the-art BCIs, i.e. signal acquisition (input), signal classification and signal translation (output) and adapt them to the specificities of non-responsive patients such as low arousal, short attention span, and altered electrical activity of the brain. A forth component is the application; existing assistive technology will be adapted to a single-switch control. Besides classic EEG paradigms near-infrared spectroscopy will be used for signal acquisition due to its higher spatial resolution. Potential and automated software will identify the best signal for each user and will optimize signal translation.\nPrior to providing such patients with ICT an unequivocal diagnosis is of utmost importance to define the most appropriate rehabilitation strategy and most suitable supportive technology for interaction. A hierarchical diagnostic approach starting with simple presentation of stimuli to intentional control of BCI will be developed, validated and disseminated.\nBy implementing existing well-established and currently developed tools at all levels of the BCI and bringing together a multidisciplinary team we can ensure the achievement of the goals of DECODER.

University of Western Ontario and Center For Imaging Technology Commercialization | Date: 2013-07-15

A mechanical tracking system comprises a first set of linkage arms, a second set of linkage arms, a pair of shafts connected at a first end to one arm of the first set of linkage antis and at a second end to one arm of said second set of the linkage arms, wherein each arm of the second set of linkage arms is oriented out of phase with a respective arm of the first set of linkage arms, an attachment shaft positioned adjacent to the first set of linkage arms to accommodate a tool, and a sensor arrangement configured to sense the orientation and position of the attachment shaft.

Tracey Tremayne-Lloyd, Founder & Managing Attorney, TTL Health Law, has joined The Expert Network©, an invitation-only service for distinguished professionals. Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd has been chosen as a Distinguished Lawyer™ based on peer reviews and ratings, dozens of recognitions, and accomplishments achieved throughout her career. Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd outshines others in her field due to her extensive educational background, numerous awards and recognitions, and career longevity. She earned her Juris Doctor from the University of Western Ontario where she was on the Dean's List of Honour Students. She is also a Certified Specialist in Health Law by the Law Society of Upper Canada. With over 30 years dedicated to law, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd brings a wealth of knowledge to her industry, and in particular to her area of specialization, healthcare law. When asked why she decided to pursue this specialization in law, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd said: "I saw that the landscape for healthcare providers was rapidly changing in the decade or so before I was called to the bar but there wasn’t any specialty in healthcare law. My concern was that it was so important to the public but there not a depth of legal knowledge in the area." In 1987, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd founded the healthcare section of the Canadian Bar Association and becoming its first National Health Law Chair. After becoming a Certified Specialist in Health Law, she began writing, lecturing, and practicing this brand new area of the law, dealing with novel regulatory and policy issues that had not yet been addressed in a comprehensive way. In her practice today, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd focuses on representing medical professionals in the myriad issues they may face in today’s legal climate. She is widely recognized for her expertise in advocating for clients in both Ontario and the United States and has extensive experience arguing before the Superior, Divisional, and Appellate courts of Ontario. Throughout her career, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd has successfully shepherded numerous clients through the travails of navigating top administrative boards and tribunals. As a thought-leader in her field, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd continues to write, speak, and teach on a broad range of topics in health law. She recently has spoken to audiences of prominent medical professionals at events such as the Bayer Medical-Legal Dinner and the Canadian Association of Aesthetic Medicine’s 13th annual conference. She also has written about such important topics as private healthcare in Ontario and recent regulatory changes. From this unique vantage point, Ms. Tremayne-Lloyd keeps her finger on the pulse of prevailing trends within health law. In particular, she notes how universal healthcare in Canada has created a possibly unconstitutional problem in prohibiting citizens from paying in exchange for expedited medical care: "The government in each province is the only health insurer, and they pay for everything. You have access to healthcare regardless of whether you have pre-existing conditions or how costly your care will be. That’s the superb side of the system. But the problem with that is that as the population ages and as our population grows, there aren’t enough funds to keep throwing it into the healthcare pot. So what’s happening is they are trying to deliver more care with less, and the wait lists were going into years. They still are in some areas and yet the public are not allowed by law to pay for medically necessary care. That’s the downside of the system." The Expert Network© has written this news release with approval and/or contributions from Tracey Tremayne-Lloyd. The Expert Network© is an invitation-only reputation management service that is dedicated to helping professionals stand out, network, and gain a competitive edge. The Expert Network selects a limited number of professionals based on their individual recognitions and history of personal excellence.

Kucyi A.,University of Western Ontario | Kucyi A.,University of Toronto | Davis K.D.,University of Western Ontario | Davis K.D.,University of Toronto | Davis K.D.,Toronto Western Hospital
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2015

Traditionally, studies of how pain and attention modulate one another involved explicit cognitive-state manipulations. However, emerging evidence suggests that spontaneous brain-wide network communication is intrinsically dynamic on multiple timescales, and attentional states are in constant fluctuation. Here, in light of studies on neural mechanisms of spontaneous attentional fluctuations and pain variability, we introduce the concept of a dynamic 'pain connectome' in the brain. We describe how recent progress in our understanding of individual differences in intrinsic attention to pain and neural network dynamics in chronic pain can facilitate development of personalized pain therapies. Furthermore, we emphasize that the dynamics of pain-attention interactions must be accounted for in the contemporary search for a 'neural signature' of the pain connectome. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Titantah J.T.,University of Western Ontario | Karttunen M.,University of Waterloo
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The physical mechanisms behind hydrophobic hydration have been debated for over 65 years. Spectroscopic techniques have the ability to probe the dynamics of water in increasing detail, but many fundamental issues remain controversial. We have performed systematic first-principles ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations over a broad temperature range and provide a detailed microscopic view on the dynamics of hydration water around a hydrophobic molecule, tetramethylurea. Our simulations provide a unifying view and resolve some of the controversies concerning femtosecond-infrared, THz-GHz dielectric relaxation, and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our computational results are in good quantitative agreement with experiments, and we provide a physical picture of the long-debated "iceberg" model; we show that the slow, long-time component is present within the hydration shell and that molecular jumps and over-coordination play important roles. We show that the structure and dynamics of hydration water around an organic molecule are non-uniform. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Hughson R.L.,University of Waterloo | Shoemaker J.K.,University of Western Ontario
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical | Year: 2015

Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Klassen R.D.,University of Western Ontario | Vereecke A.,Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

Social issues in the supply chain are defined as product- or process-related aspects of operations that affect human safety, welfare and community development. Drawing from related literatures, basic constructs related to capabilities and risk are defined and used to underpin case research in five multinational firms. This data extended our understanding of three key social management capabilities: monitoring, collaboration, and innovation. Moreover, the field research revealed four key linkages that detail how managers actively can work toward mitigating social risks, creating new opportunities, and improving firm performance. Collectively, these capabilities and linkages establish the basis for an integrative framework and five research propositions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gladman D.D.,University of Toronto | Thavaneswaran A.,University of Western Ontario | Chandran V.,University of Toronto | Cook R.J.,University of Waterloo
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: This investigation aimed to determine whether patients presenting to a psoriatic arthritis (PsA) clinic early in the course of the disease had less severe disease at presentation, and whether disease duration at presentation predicts progression of joint damage. Methods: Patients followed prospectively in a specialised clinic were divided into those first seen within 2 years of diagnosis (group 1) and those seen with more than 2 years of disease (group 2). The groups were compared with regard to demographics and disease characteristics at presentation. A multivariate analysis using a negative binomial model was conducted to determine whether patients with early disease had less progression of joint damage. Results: 436 patients were identified in group 1 and 641 patients in group 2. Patients in group 2 were older, had longer duration of psoriasis and PsA, more joint damage and were less likely to be treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but had similar level of education and degree of psoriasis severity. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, clinical joint damage at first visit and treatment, group 2 had significantly greater rate of clinical damage progression compared with group 1. Conclusions: Disease progression is more marked in patients presenting with established disease of more than 2 years' duration. These results suggest that patients with PsA should be treated earlier in the course of their disease.

Ribbink D.,University of Western Ontario | Grimm C.M.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2014

In today's global economy, an ever-increasing number of companies are dealing with international partners, instigating a need to understand the impact of cultural differences on business interactions. Using Hall's distinction of high- and low-context culture, this study investigates the direct and moderating effects of cultural differences in dyadic buyer-supplier negotiations. Theory is developed regarding the impact of culture on joint profits, juxtaposing Transaction Cost Economics and the Relational View. The theory is tested with a negotiation experiment. Participants, classified by their country of origin, negotiate prices and quality levels for three products. This study finds that cultural differences within the negotiation dyad reduce joint profits when compared to dyads of participants with similar cultural backgrounds. Cultural differences also moderate the impact of trust and bargaining strategy on joint profits. Overall, this study concludes that cultural differences, as encountered in day-to-day business interactions in global supply chains, significantly impact negotiation outcomes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Striemer C.L.,University of Western Ontario | Danckert J.A.,University of Waterloo
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2010

Many studies have demonstrated that prism adaptation can reduce several symptoms of visual neglect: a disorder in which patients fail to respond to information in contralesional space. The dominant framework to explain these effects proposes that prisms influence higher order visuospatial processes by acting on brain circuits that control spatial attention and perception. However, studies that have directly examined the influence of prisms on perceptual biases inherent to neglect have revealed very few beneficial effects. We propose an alternative explanation whereby many of the beneficial effects of prisms arise via the influence of adaptation on circuits in the dorsal visual stream controlling attention and visuomotor behaviors. We further argue that prisms have little influence on the pervasive perceptual biases that characterize neglect. © 2010.

Cino E.A.,University of Western Ontario | Choy W.-Y.,University of Western Ontario | Karttunen M.,University of Waterloo
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2012

We have compared molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a β-hairpin forming peptide derived from the protein Nrf2 with 10 biomolecular force fields using trajectories of at least 1 μs. The total simulation time was 37.2 μs. Previous studies have shown that different force fields, water models, simulation methods, and parameters can affect simulation outcomes. The MD simulations were done in explicit solvent with a 16-mer Nrf2 β-hairpin forming peptide using Amber ff99SB-ILDN, Amber ff99SB*-ILDN, Amber ff99SB, Amber ff99SB*, Amber ff03, Amber ff03*, GROMOS96 43a1p, GROMOS96 53a6, CHARMM27, and OPLS-AA/L force fields. The effects of charge-groups, terminal capping, and phosphorylation on the peptide folding were also examined. Despite using identical starting structures and simulation parameters, we observed clear differences among the various force fields and even between replicates using the same force field. Our simulations show that the uncapped peptide folds into a native-like β-hairpin structure at 310 K when Amber ff99SB-ILDN, Amber ff99SB*-ILDN, Amber ff99SB, Amber ff99SB*, Amber ff03, Amber ff03*, GROMOS96 43a1p, or GROMOS96 53a6 were used. The CHARMM27 simulations were able to form native hairpins in some of the elevated temperature simulations, while the OPLS-AA/L simulations did not yield native hairpin structures at any temperatures tested. Simulations that used charge-groups or peptide capping groups were not largely different from their uncapped counterparts with single atom charge-groups. On the other hand, phosphorylation of the threonine residue located at the β-turn significantly affected the hairpin formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing such a large set of force fields with respect to β-hairpin folding. Such a comprehensive comparison will offer useful guidance to others conducting similar types of simulations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Xu J.,University of Western Ontario | Terskikh V.V.,National Research Council Canada | Huang Y.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have excellent adsorption capability. To understand their adsorptive properties requires detailed information on the host-guest interaction. The information on MOF desolvation (or activation) is also crucial because the very first step of many applications requires removal of the solvent molecules occluded inside of the pores. Unfortunately, such information is not always available from powder XRD data. Solid-state NMR is an excellent complementary technique to XRD. CPO-27-Mg is a MOF with unusual adsorption ability. The adsorption involves a direct interaction between Mg and guest species. Herein, we present, for the first time, a natural abundance 25Mg solid-state NMR study of CPO-27-Mg at an ultrahigh magnetic field of 21.1 T. The results provide new physical insights into the effects of dehydration/rehydration and adsorption of guest species on the Mg local environment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Xu J.,University of Western Ontario | Terskikh V.V.,National Research Council Canada | Huang Y.,University of Western Ontario
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

In a spin: Directly differentiating multiple Mg sites in Mg-containing MOFs by 25Mg solid-state NMR spectroscopy is very challenging at natural abundance. By performing 25Mg two-dimensional triple-quantum magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments at a magnetic field of 21.1 T at natural abundance, four non-equivalent Mg sites with very similar local environments in α-Mg3(HCOO)6 were unambiguously resolved (see figure). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Cino E.A.,University of Western Ontario | Karttunen M.,University of Waterloo | Choy W.-Y.,University of Western Ontario
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Inside cells, the concentration of macromolecules can reach up to 400 g/L. In such crowded environments, proteins are expected to behave differently than in vitro. It has been shown that the stability and the folding rate of a globular protein can be altered by the excluded volume effect produced by a high density of macromolecules. However, macromolecular crowding effects on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are less explored. These proteins can be extremely dynamic and potentially sample a wide ensemble of conformations under non-denaturing conditions. The dynamic properties of IDPs are intimately related to the timescale of conformational exchange within the ensemble, which govern target recognition and how these proteins function. In this work, we investigated the macromolecular crowding effects on the dynamics of several IDPs by measuring the NMR spin relaxation parameters of three disordered proteins (ProTα, TC1, and α-synuclein) with different extents of residual structures. To aid the interpretation of experimental results, we also performed an MD simulation of ProTα. Based on the MD analysis, a simple model to correlate the observed changes in relaxation rates to the alteration in protein motions under crowding conditions was proposed. Our results show that 1) IDPs remain at least partially disordered despite the presence of high concentration of other macromolecules, 2) the crowded environment has differential effects on the conformational propensity of distinct regions of an IDP, which may lead to selective stabilization of certain target-binding motifs, and 3) the segmental motions of IDPs on the nanosecond timescale are retained under crowded conditions. These findings strongly suggest that IDPs function as dynamic structural ensembles in cellular environments. © 2012 Cino et al.

MARKHAM, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 14, 2016) - VIQ Solutions Inc. ("VIQ", "VIQ Solutions" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE:VQS), a global expert providing cybersecurity protected technology and services, is pleased to announce the appointment of Joseph D. Quarin to its Board of Directors. "Joe was recognized for his outstanding achievement in North American corporate growth. He is an important new VIQ Director at a critical time as we pursue our transformation and growth strategy," said Larry D. Taylor, VIQ Chairman of the Board. "His excellent business experience and wealth of knowledge will most ably assist us in achieving the next phase of our growth plan. He brings great value and we're very pleased to welcome him to the VIQ team." "I am very excited to join VIQ at this time of transformation and opportunity," stated Mr. Quarin. "I look forward to working with CEO Sebastien Paré, the rest of the Company's talented management team and the Board to capitalize on our momentum and help drive VIQ to even greater growth." Mr. Quarin was Chief Executive Officer of Progressive Waste Solutions Ltd. ("Progressive") from January 2012 until the US$4.8 billion reverse merger announcement with Waste Connections Inc. in January 2016. During his 15+ year tenure at Progressive, he was a key member of its executive that drove the company's success and revenue from US$100 million to US$2 billion. Mr. Quarin was ranked #10 on the Financial Post's Top 100 CEO Scorecard 2016, delivering a two-year return of 78% to shareholders, and named one of Canada's Top 40 Under 40 in 2004. Prior to joining BFI Canada, predecessor to Progressive, in 2000, Mr. Quarin developed his finance and business management skills at Edgestone Capital Partners, KPMG Corporate Finance, Deloitte and Arthur Andersen. Mr. Quarin's experience includes corporate strategy and capital allocation, capital structure and financing growth, North American capital markets, regulatory reporting and disclosures, investor relations and liaising with institutional shareholders. Mr. Quarin holds a Master of Business Administration (Dean's Honour List) from the Ivey Business School at the University of Western Ontario, a Bachelor of Commerce from Queen's University, and is a Chartered Professional Accountant and Chartered Accountant. Mr. Quarin is an Advisory Board member of Spark Power Corporation. For more information on what is making the news at VIQ Solutions, please visit our website at VIQ Solutions is the leading technology and service platform provider for digital evidence capture and content management. Our secure modular software allows customers to onboard the VIQ platform at any stage of their organization's digitization, from the capture of digital content from video and audio devices through to online collaboration, mobility, data analytics and integration with sensors, facial recognition, speech recognition and case management or patient record systems. VIQ's technology leads the industry in security, meeting the highest international standards for digital/cyber security and privacy, including military and medical regulations. Our solutions are in use in over 20 countries with tens of thousands of users in over 200 government and private agencies including law enforcement, immigration, medical, legal, insurance, courts, transportation and transcription service providers. VIQ also provides end to end transcription services to several large government agencies through our Australia-based reporting and transcription partners. VIQ operates worldwide with partners like security integrators, audio-video specialists, and hardware and data storage suppliers. For more information about VIQ Solutions, please visit Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

Rotenberg B.W.,University of Western Ontario | Pang K.P.,Asia Sleep Center
International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology | Year: 2015

Background: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is standard for patients who fail medical management of chronic sinusitis (CRS). The beneficial impact of surgery on CRS is well known. However, patients often note that their sleep is improved after FESS even without simultaneous correction of nasal obstruction. Sleep outcomes after FESS are significantly understudied. Hence in the current study we look to characterize patient sleep quality following sinus surgery. Methods: Data was gathered from 2 sites (Western University [Canada] and the Asia Sleep Center [Singapore]). Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) were included. Cases with polyposis and those who needed a septoplasty were excluded so as to purely analyze the impact of the sinus surgery on sleep. Sleep outcomes recorded at baseline just prior to surgery and 6 months after surgery were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EpSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We also recorded 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) scores and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores. Comparisons were made with paired t tests. Results: Fifty-three patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Sleep outcomes showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement (EpSS before FESS = 14.7 ± 3.1, EpSS after FESS = 9.1 ± 1.1, p < 0.01; PSQI before FESS = 10.9 ± 2.8, PSQI after FESS = 5.3 ± 2.2, p < 0.01). CRS-specific outcomes were improved as well. Nasal obstruction scores did not change significantly. Conclusion: FESS improved sleep outcomes for the patients in our study. This was independent of correction of nasal obstruction. Sinus surgery for CRSsNP has a beneficial impact on sleep; this novel information can be used during patient counseling and for justification to third-party payers. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

Fletcher G.J.O.,Victoria University of Wellington | Simpson J.A.,University of Minnesota | Campbell L.,University of Western Ontario | Overall N.C.,University of Auckland
Perspectives on Psychological Science | Year: 2015

This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a “commitment device” for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. © The Author(s) 2014.

Williamson P.C.,University of Western Ontario | Allman J.M.,California Institute of Technology
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Some promising genetic correlates of schizophrenia have emerged in recent years but none explain more than a small fraction of cases. The challenge of our time is to characterize the neuronal networks underlying schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. Early models of schizophrenia have been limited by the ability to readily evaluate large-scale networks in living patients. With the development of resting state and advanced structural magnetic resonance imaging, it has become possible to do this. While we are at an early stage, a number of models of intrinsic brain networks have been developed to account for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the recent voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging literature in light of the proposed networks underlying these disorders. It is suggested that there is support for recently proposed models that suggest a pivotal role for the salience network. However, the interactions of this network with the default mode network and executive control networks are not sufficient to explain schizophrenic symptoms or distinguish them from other neuropsychiatric disorders. Alternatively, it is proposed that schizophrenia arises from a uniquely human brain network associated with directed effort including the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), auditory cortex, and hippocampus while mood disorders arise from a different brain network associated with emotional encoding including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbital frontal cortex, and amygdala. Both interact with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and a representation network including the frontal and temporal poles and the fronto-insular cortex, allowing the representation of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of self and others across time. © 2012 Williamson and Allman.

Ye Q.-Z.,University of Western Ontario | Hui M.-T.,Nhut Thung Pau Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

The dynamically new comet, C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), is to make a close approach to Mars on 2014 October 19 at 18:30 UT at a distance of 40 ± 1 Martian radii. Such an extremely rare event offers a precious opportunity for the spacecrafts on Mars to closely study a dynamically new comet itself as well as the planet-comet interaction. Meanwhile, the high-speed meteoroids released from C/Siding Spring also pose a threat to physically damage the spacecrafts. Here we present our observations and modeling results of C/Siding Spring to characterize the comet and assess the risk posed to the spacecrafts on Mars. We find that the optical tail of C/Siding Spring is dominated by larger particles at the time of the observation. Synchrone simulation suggests that the comet was already active in late 2012 when it was more than 7 AU from the Sun. By parameterizing the dust activity with a semi-analytic model, we find that the ejection speed of C/Siding Spring is comparable to comets such as the target of the Rosetta mission, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Under a nominal situation, the simulated dust cone will miss the planet by about 20 Martian radii. At the extreme ends of uncertainties, the simulated dust cone will engulf Mars, but the meteoric influx at Mars is still comparable to the nominal sporadic influx, seemly indicating that an intense and enduring meteoroid bombardment due to C/Siding Spring is unlikely. Further simulation also suggests that gravitational disruption of the dust tail may be significant enough to be observable at Earth. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Matejko A.A.,University of Western Ontario | Price G.R.,University of Western Ontario | Mazzocco M.M.M.,University of Minnesota | Ansari D.,University of Western Ontario
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Turley E.A.,University of Western Ontario | Naor D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2012

CD44 and RHAMM are two extracellar matrix receptors whose principle ligand is the polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA). Both proteins are involved in wound repair and their aberrant regulation contributes to a variety of diseases including arthritis and cancer. Over the past decade, a number of peptide-based therapeutics that block the binding of CD44 or RHAMM-specific ligands have been developed and tested in experimental models of disease. Here, we review the structure of each of these proteins, the functions they control and the mechanisms, including their interactions with each other, responsible for these functions. We also review the development of peptide mimics that block the key functions of CD44 and RHAMM and their use in experimental models of disease.

We describe the yeast genus Tortispora gen. nov., an early-diverging lineage in the Saccharomycetales that displays the formation of helical ascospores. The genus is based on 16 strains resembling Candida caseinolytica that were isolated from necrotic plant tissue in warm regions of the New World. Based on sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene, as well as other data, the strains are assigned to eight distinct species. The species are nutritionally specialized and share the unusual ability to hydrolyse casein and to grow on 1-butanol as sole carbon source. One species of the proposed new genus produces a simple ascus with a helical ascospore, whereas other species of the clade have failed to form ascospores. All species in the clade, including C. caseinolytica, are assigned to Tortispora gen. nov. The new binomials are Tortispora ganteri sp. nov., type species of the genus (SUB 86-469.5T = CBS 12581T = NRRL Y-17035T), Tortispora caseinolytica f.a., comb. nov. (UCD-FST 83-438.3T = CBS 7781T = NRRL Y-17796T), Tortispora mauiana f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 87-2430.3T = CBS 12803T = NRRL Y-48832T), Tortispora agaves f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 94-257.6T = CBS 12794T = NRRL Y-63662T), Tortispora sangerardonensis f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 00-157.1T = CBS 12795T = NRRL Y-63663T), Tortispora cuajiniquilana f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 99-344.4T = CBS 12796T = NRRL Y-63664T), Tortispora starmeri f.a., sp. nov. (G 91-702.5T = CBS 12793T = NRRL Y-63665T) and Tortispora phaffii f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 91-445.1T = CBS 12804T = NRRL Y-48833T). In addition, species formerly assigned to the genus Ascobotryozyma are reassigned to the genus Botryozyma. The genera Trigonopsis, Botryozyma and Tortispora are assigned to the family Trigonopsidaceae fam. nov. © 2013 IUMS.

Chen J.,University of Winnipeg | Bell P.C.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2012

Products returned by customers are common in the retail industry and result in costs to both the supplier and the retailer. In practice, retailers implement returns policies that may give customers a full, partial, or no refund for returned products. In this paper, we examine how a firm that faces customer returns can enhance profit by using different customer returns policies, full-refund and no-returns, as a device to segment its market into a dual-channel structure. We also show the impact of customer returns on the firms pricing and ordering decisions, as well as on the firms profit in such a dual-channel structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Johansen C.T.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2012

Demonstration of a direct relationship between plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration and atherosclerosis has proven difficult due to confounding variables that accompany elevated plasma TG, such as other dyslipidemias, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. However, human genetic studies have provided evidence suggesting a causal link between plasma TG and cardiovascular risk. Analyses in human patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) also provides insight into the relationship between genetic variation, predisposition to elevated plasma TG, and risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we review recent key studies that have contributed to our understanding of the genetic determinants of plasma TG concentration, including HTG susceptibility and phenotypic heterogeneity, and discuss our maturing model of the allelic and phenotypic spectrum of plasma TG. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Singh G.,Dayanand Medical College | Singh G.,University College London | Burneo J.G.,University of Western Ontario | Sander J.W.,Dayanand Medical College
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Summary Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the main risk factor for late-onset seizures in many Taenia solium endemic countries and is also increasingly recognized in high income countries, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. The course and outcome of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are poorly understood. Substrates underlying NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are unknown. Another unknown is if there is an association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and if it leads to intractable epilepsy. We review evidence regarding the structural basis of seizures and epilepsy in NCC and its association with HS. There are only a limited number of prospective studies of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy. From these, it can be inferred that the risk of seizure recurrence is high following a first seizure, even though seizures are well-controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The single most important risk factor for ongoing or recurrent seizures is the persistence of either degenerating or residual calcified cysticercus cysts in the brain parenchyma on follow-up imaging studies. Medically intractable epilepsy requiring surgical treatment appears to be rare in people with NCC. In few cases that have been operated, gliosis around the cysticerci is the principal pathologic finding. Reports of the association between NCC and HS might be categorized into those in which the calcified cysticercus is located within the hippocampus and those in which the calcified cysticercus is located remote from the hippocampus. The former are convincing cases of medically intractable epilepsy with good seizure control following hippocampal resection. In the remaining, it is unclear whether a dual pathology relationship exists between HS and the calcified cysticercus. Carefully planned, follow-up studies incorporating high-resolution and quantitative imaging are desirable in order to clarify the outcome, the structural basis of NCC-associated epilepsy, and also its association with HS. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

Rubin V.L.,University of Western Ontario
Information Processing and Management | Year: 2010

This article introduces a type of uncertainty that resides in textual information and requires epistemic interpretation on the information seeker's part. Epistemic modality, as defined in linguistics and natural language processing, is a writer's estimation of the validity of propositional content in texts. It is an evaluation of chances that a certain hypothetical state of affairs is true, e.g., definitely true or possibly true. This research shifts attention from the uncertainty-certainty dichotomy to a gradient epistemic continuum of absolute, high, moderate, low certainty, and uncertainty. An analysis of a New York Times dataset showed that epistemically modalized statements are pervasive in news discourse and they occur at a significantly higher rate in editorials than in news reports. Four independent annotators were able to recognize a gradation on the continuum but individual perceptions of the boundaries between levels were highly subjective. Stricter annotation instructions and longer coder training improved intercoder agreement results. This paper offers an interdisciplinary bridge between research in linguistics, natural language processing, and information seeking with potential benefits to design and implementation of information systems for situations where large amounts of textual information are screened manually on a regular basis, for instance, by professional intelligence or business analysts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gupta M.A.,University of Western Ontario
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes. © 2013 Institute of Psychiatry.

Mulvihill E.E.,University of Western Ontario | Huff M.W.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Epidemiological studies suggest that higher flavonoid intake from fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms explaining this observation remain unclear, but current evidence suggests that flavonoids may exert their effects through the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. The present review summarizes data suggesting that flavonoids improve endothelial function, inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation, decrease blood pressure and improve dyslipidemia. A large number of studies have reported the impact of consuming flavonoid-rich foods on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy volunteers or at-risk individuals. Most studies have focused on cocoa, soy, and green and black tea. Recent evidence suggests that some polyphenols in their purified form, including resveratrol, berberine and naringenin, have beneficial effects on dyslipidemia in humans and/or animal models. In a mouse model of cardiovascular disease, naringenin treatment, through correction of dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity, attenuated atherosclerosis. Therefore, the beneficial effects of flavonoids on multiple risk factors may explain, in part, the observed beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. © 2010 Pulsus Group Inc.

Carrasco A.,University of Western Ontario | Lomber S.G.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

Interactions between living organisms and the environment are commonly regulated by accurate and timely processing of sensory signals. Hence, behavioral response engagement by an organism is typically constrained by the arrival time of sensory information to the brain. While psychophysical response latencies to acoustic information have been investigated, little is known about how variations in neuronal response time relate to sensory signal characteristics. Consequently, the primary objective of the present investigation was to determine the pattern of neuronal activation induced by simple (pure tones), complex (noise bursts and frequency modulated sweeps), and natural (conspecific vocalizations) acoustic signals of different durations in cat auditory cortex. Our analysis revealed three major cortical response characteristics. First, latency measures systematically increase in an antero-dorsal to postero- ventral direction among regions of auditory cortex. Second, complex acoustic stimuli reliably provoke faster neuronal response engagement than simple stimuli. Third, variations in neuronal response time induced by changes in stimulus duration are dependent on acoustic spectral features. Collectively, these results demonstrate that acoustic signals, regardless of complexity, induce a directional pattern of activation in auditory cortex.

Chande N.,University of Western Ontario
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2013

Venous thromboembolism is a relatively common and potentially serious complication in inpatients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are a number of pathophysiologic mechanisms for venous thromboembolism that are specific to patients with IBD that may be active. The use of anticoagulants for prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with IBD needs to be balanced against the potential for worsening of rectal bleeding. Evidence from randomized trials suggests that heparin and low-molecular weight heparin are generally safe to use in patients with active IBD, and a number of guidelines support their use for thromboprophylaxis in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Siddiquee M.N.,University of Western Ontario | Rohani S.,University of Western Ontario
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

The most promising renewable alternative fuel, biodiesel, is produced from various lipid sources. Primary and secondary sludge of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are potential sources of lipids. In this study, factorial experimental analyses were used to study the influence of different variables on the lipid extraction and biodiesel production from dried municipal primary and secondary sludge (Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, ON, Canada). The empirical models were developed for each factorial analysis. The temperature turned out to be the most significant variable for lipid extraction by using methanol and hexane as solvents. Extraction using methanol resulted in a maximum of 14.46 (wt/wt) % and 10.04 (wt/wt) % lipid (on the basis of dry sludge), from the primary and secondary sludge sources respectively. A maximum of 11.16 (wt/wt) % and 3.04 wt/wt% lipid (on the basis of dry sludge) were extracted from the primary and secondary sludge sources, respectively, using hexane as a solvent. The FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) yield of the H 2SO 4 catalyzed esterification-transesterification of the hexane and methanol extracted lipids were 41.25 (wt/wt) % and 38.94(wt/wt) % (on the basis of lipid) for the primary sludge, and 26.89 (wt/wt) % and 30.28 (wt/wt) % (on the basis of lipid) for the secondary sludge. The use of natural zeolite as a dehydrating agent was increased the biodiesel yield by approximately 18 (wt/wt) % (on the basis of lipid). The effect of temperature and time was also investigated for biodiesel production from the lipid of wastewater sludge. The yield and quality of the FAME were determined by gas chromatography. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khalili Najafabadi B.,University of Western Ontario | Corrigan J.F.,University of Western Ontario
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

The ligation of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) to [CuStBu] and [AgStBu] was developed as an alternative to PR3 ligands as solubilizing reagents for these coordination polymers in order to form polynuclear copper and silver t-butylthiolate clusters. 1,3-Di- isopropylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (iPr2-bimy) and 1,3-di-isopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene (iPr 2-mimy) were ligated to [CuStBu] and [AgStBu] forming [Cu4(StBu)4(iPr 2-bimy)2] 1, [Cu4(StBu) 4(iPr2-mimy)2] 2, [Ag 4(StBu)4(iPr2-bimy) 2] 5 and [Ag5(StBu)6][Ag( iPr2-mimy)2] 6. For comparison, the trialkyl phosphines PnPr3 and PiPr3 were also used to solubilize [AgStBu] and [CuStBu] to form copper and silver t-butylthiolate clusters. [Cu4(StBu) 4(PnPr3)2] 3, [Cu4(S tBu)4(PiPr3)2] 4, [Ag4(StBu)4(PnPr3) 2] 7 and [Ag6(StBu)6(P iPr3)2] 8 were thus formed upon reaction with [CuStBu] and [AgStBu]. The synthesized complexes have been characterized via spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. The molecular structures of the clusters, which can vary according to the ligand type, are described. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Xu S.X.,University of Western Ontario
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2012

Superantigens (SAgs) are a family of potent immunostimulatory exotoxins known to be produced by only a few bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. More than 20 distinct SAgs have been characterized from different S. aureus strains and at least 80% of clinical strains harbor at least one SAg gene, although most strains encode many. SAgs have been classically associated with food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome (TSS), for which these toxins are the causative agent. TSS is a potentially fatal disease whereby SAg-mediated activation of T cells results in overproduction of cytokines and results in systemic inflammation and shock. Numerous studies have also shown a possible role for SAgs in other diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), atopic dermatitis (AD), and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is also now a rich understanding of the mechanisms of action of SAgs, as well as their structures and function. However, we have yet to discover what purpose SAgs play in the life cycle of S. aureus, and why such a wide array of these toxins exists. This review will focus on recent developments within the SAg field in terms of the molecular biology of these toxins and their role in both colonization and disease.

Orbach D.N.,University of Western Ontario | Fenton B.,University of Western Ontario
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Free-flying insectivorous bats occasionally collide with stationary objects they should easily detect by echolocation and avoid. Collisions often occur with lighted objects, suggesting ambient light may deleteriously affect obstacle avoidance capabilities. We tested the hypothesis that free-flying bats may orient by vision when they collide with some obstacles. We additionally tested whether acoustic distractions, such as ''distress calls'' of other bats, contributed to probabilities of collision. Methodology/Principal Findings: To investigate the role of visual cues in the collisions of free-flying little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with stationary objects, we set up obstacles in an area of high bat traffic during swarming. We used combinations of light intensities and visually dissimilar obstacles to verify that bats orient by vision. In early August, bats collided more often in the light than the dark, and probabilities of collision varied with the visibility of obstacles. However, the probabilities of collisions altered in mid to late August, coincident with the start of behavioural, hormonal, and physiological changes occurring during swarming and mating. Distress calls did not distract bats and increase the incidence of collisions. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings indicate that visual cues are more important for free-flying bats than previously recognized, suggesting integration of multi-sensory modalities during orientation. Furthermore, our study highlights differences between responses of captive and wild bats, indicating a need for more field experiments. © 2010 Orbach, Fenton.

Ye Q.,University of Western Ontario | Wiegert P.A.,University of Western Ontario
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Previous studies have suggested that comet 209P/LINEAR may produce strong meteor activity on Earth on 2014 May 24; however, exact timing and activity level is difficult to estimate due to the limited physical observations of the comet. Here, we reanalyse the optical observations of 209P/LINEAR obtained during its 2009 apparition. We find that the comet is relatively depleted in dust production, with Af? at 1 cm level within eight months around its perihelion. This feature suggested that this comet may be currently transitioning from a typical comet to a dormant comet. Syndyne simulation shows that the optical cometary tail is dominated by larger particles with β ̃ 0.003. Numerical simulations of the cometary dust trails confirm the arrival of particles on 2014 May 24 from some of the 1798-1979 trails. The nominal radiant is at RA 122° ± 1°, Dec. 79° ± 1° (J2000) in the constellation of Camelopardalis. Given that the comet is found to be depleted in dust production, we concluded that a meteor storm (ZHR > 1000) may be unlikely. However, our simulation also shows that the size distribution of the arrived particles is skewed strongly to larger particles. Coupling with the result of syndyne simulation, we think that the event, if detectable, may be dominated by bright meteors. We encourage observers to monitor the expected meteor event as it will provide us with rare direct information on the dynamical history of 209P/LINEAR which is otherwise irretrievably lost. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Gray D.F.,University of Western Ontario
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2014

Projected rotation rates of five early A-type slowly rotating stars are measured spectroscopically to a precision of 0.2 km s-1. A detailed Fourier analysis is done, as well as a comparison of profiles directly. Macroturbulence is needed in addition to rotation to reproduce the profile shapes. An upper limit of ≲2 km s-1 is placed on the microturbulence dispersion. Small unexplained differences between the models and the observations are seen in the sidelobe structure of the transforms. The v sin i results are: α Dra, 26.2; θ Leo, 22.5; α CMa A, 16.7; γ Gem A, 10.7; o Peg, 6.0 km s-1. These stars are suitable as standards for measuring rotation using less fundamental methods. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Hazell T.J.,University of Western Ontario | Lemon P.W.R.,University of Western Ontario
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Single bout whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been shown to produce small but significant increases in oxygen consumption (VO 2). How much more a complete whole-body exercise session (multiple dynamic exercises targeting both upper and lower body muscles) can increase VO 2 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify VO 2 during and for an extended time period (24 h) following a multiple exercise WBV exercise session versus the same session without vibration (NoV). VO 2 of healthy males (n = 8) was measured over 24 h on a day that included a WBV exercise session versus a day with the same exercise session without vibration (NoV), and versus a control day (no exercise). Upper and lower body exercises were studied (five, 30 s, 15 repetition sets of six exercises; 1:1 exercise:recovery ratio over 30 min). Diet was controlled. VO 2 was 23% greater (P = 0.002) during the WBV exercise session versus the NoV session (62.5 ± 12.0 vs. 50.7 ± 8.2 L O 2) and elicited a higher (P = 0.033) exercise heart rate versus NoV (139 ± 6 vs. 126 ± 11 bpm). Total O 2 consumed over 8 and 24 h following the WBV exercise was also increased (P < 0.010) (240.5 ± 28.3 and 518.9 ± 61.2 L O 2) versus both NoV (209.7 ± 22.9 and 471.1 ± 51.6 L O 2) and control (151.4 ± 20.7 and 415.2 ± 51.6 L O 2). NoV was also increased versus control (P < 0.003). A day with a 30-min multiple exercise, WBV session increased 24 h VO 2 versus a day that included the same exercise session without vibration, and versus a non-exercise day by 10 and 25%, respectively. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Xiao L.,University of Western Ontario
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2012

Known as hidden profiles problem in group decision-making, a group tends to retrieve and discuss information that are known to majority of the group members and omit or neglect unique information to individuals which leads to the correct solution. Prior studies have shown that validity of the unique information is one key factor of the hidden profiles problem. In an attempt to address hidden profiles problem in computer-mediated communication, this paper presents a work-in-progress tool, Rationale Flower that visualizes the rationales exchanged through instant messaging in an online group decision making activity. In this study, a rationale is a member's explanation of why a piece of information should be brought to the group discussion. By this definition, it is expected that visualizing the members' rationales will not only attract group members' attentions to them but also support the group to testify and validate the unique information. © 2012 Author.

Colinet H.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Sinclair B.J.,University of Western Ontario | Vernon P.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Renault D.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2015

All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Volovik G.E.,Aalto University | Volovik G.E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zubkov M.A.,University of Western Ontario
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2014

In Ref. [1] Hořava suggested, that the multi-fermion many-body system with topologically stable Fermi surfaces may effectively be described (in a vicinity of the Fermi surface) by the theory with coarse-grained fermions. The number of the components of these coarse-grained fermions is reduced compared to the original system. Here we consider the 3 + 1 D system and concentrate on the particular case when the Fermi surface has co-dimension p = 3, i.e. it represents the Fermi point in momentum space. First we demonstrate explicitly that in agreement with Hořava conjecture, in the vicinity of the Fermi point the original system is reduced to the model with two-component Weyl spinors. Next, we generalize the construction of Hořava to the situation, when the original 3 + 1 D theory contains multi-component Majorana spinors. In this case the system is also reduced to the model of the two-component Weyl fermions in the vicinity of the topologically stable Fermi point. Those fermions experience the emergent gauge field and the gravitational field given by the emergent vierbein. Both these fields (the emergent gauge field and the emergent gravitational field) originate from certain collective excitations of the original system. We speculate, that the given construction may be relevant for the high energy physics in the paradigm, in which the Lorentz symmetry as well as the gravitational and gauge fields are the emergent phenomena, i.e. they appear dynamically in the low energy approximation of the underlined high energy theory. © 2014 The Authors.

Ganel T.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Goodale M.A.,University of Western Ontario
Experimental Brain Research | Year: 2014

Garner's speeded classification task has been used as an effective tool to probe holistic processing of object shape. This is achieved by comparing classification performance of a given object dimension between two experimental conditions. Worse performance in a "filtering" condition in which a second, irrelevant dimension of the same object varies on a trial-to-trial basis, compared to a "baseline" condition in which the irrelevant dimension is held constant, is labeled Garner interference, and indicates that the two dimensions are processed in a holistic manner. About a decade ago, we used Garner's task to provide evidence for different frames of processing mediating action and perception. Unlike perceptual estimations, visually guided grasping showed no Garner interference when subjects were asked to reach out and grasp an object along a given dimension. In other words, slower reaction times were observed in the filtering compared to the baseline condition only for perceptual estimates but not for grasping. In two experiments, we extend these findings to kinematic measures beyond simple reaction times. The results showed that Garner interference is also expressed in the variability of the response, with more variable within-subject performance in the filtering compared to the baseline condition for perceptual estimates but not for grasping. These findings provide converging evidence for the idea that, unlike perception, which processes objects holistically, visually guided action is performed in an analytic manner. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Neff B.D.,University of Western Ontario
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research.

Frolov A.M.,University of Western Ontario
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2015

Absorption of infrared and visible radiation from stellar emission spectra by the negatively charged hydrogen ions H- is considered. The explicit formula for the photodetachment cross-section of the negatively charged hydrogen ion(s) is derived. Photodetachemnt cross-sections of the ∞H-, 3H- (or T-), 2H- (or D-) and 1H- ions are determined to high accuracy and for a large number of photo-electron momenta/energies. We introduce criteria which can be used to evaluate the overall quality of highly accurate wave functions of the hydrogen ion(s). One of these criteria is based on highly accurate calculations of the lowest order QED corrections in the negatively charged hydrogen ions, including 1H- (protium), 2H- (deuterium), 3H- (tritium) and model ion with the infinitely heavy nucleus ∞H-. An effective approach has been developed to calculate three-body integrals with the Bessel functions of different orders. Some preliminary evaluations of the phototdetachment cross-sections of the negatively charged hydrogen ions are performed. Inverse bremsstrahlung in the field of the neutral hydrogen atom is briefly discussed. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bhatt N.H.,University of Western Ontario | Cami J.,University of Western Ontario | Cami J.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2015

We present a comprehensive and sensitive unbiased survey of interstellar features in the near-UV range (3050-3700 Å). We combined a large number of VLT/UVES archival observations of a sample of highly reddened early-type stars - typical diffuse interstellar band targets - and unreddened standards. We stacked the individual observations to obtain a reddened "superspectrum" in the interstellar rest frame with a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 1500. We compared this to the analogous geocentric and stellar rest frame superspectra as well as to an unreddened superspectrum to find interstellar absorption features. We find 30 known features (11 atomic and 19 molecular) and tentatively detect up to 7 new interstellar absorption lines of unknown origin. Our survey is sensitive to narrow and weak features; telluric residuals preclude us from detecting broader features. For each sightline, we measured fundamental parameters (radial velocities, line widths, and equivalent widths) of the detected interstellar features. We also revisit upper limits for the column densities of small, neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules that have strong transitions in this wavelength range. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Liu J.,University of Western Ontario | Sun X.,University of Western Ontario
Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are very promising power supply systems for a variety of applications, such as electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid energy storage, and microelectronics. However, to realize these practical applications, many challenges need to be addressed in LIBs, such as power and energy density, cycling lifetime, safety, and cost. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is emerging as a powerful technique for solving these problems due to its exclusive advantages over other film deposition counterparts. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progresses of employing ALD to design novel nanostructured electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes and to tailor electrode/electrolyte interface by surface coatings in order to prevent unfavorable side reactions and achieve optimal performance of the electrode. Insights into the future research and development of the ALD technique for LIB applications are also discussed. We expect that this review article will provide resourceful information to researchers in both fields of LIBs and ALD and also will stimulate more insightful studies of using ALD for the development of next-generation LIBs. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Whitton G.,University of Western Ontario | Gillies E.R.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2015

Linear-dendron (LD) hybrids are macromolecules comprising a linear polymer or oligomer conjugated at one or both termini with branched macromolecules called dendrons. Since their introduction approximately 2 decades ago, tremendous progress has been made in their synthesis, the study of their self-assembly, and toward their application in a variety of fields. This highlight is focused on aqueous assemblies of LD hybrids where function is imparted by the dendron, linear component, or both. These functions include the encapsulation and release of drug molecules, enhancement of cell uptake and targeting of specific tissues, and the stabilization of enzymes for catalysis. In addition, many stimuli-responsive LD hybrids that undergo changes in response to light, enzymes, pH, temperature, redox potential, or even multiple stimuli have been developed. LD hybrids can also be used to form networks via cross-linking reactions. Described here are the structure-property relationships underlying the functions of these materials, along with their potential applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Norman R.M.G.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Investigation of possible mechanisms by which longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) could influence treatment outcomes has focused primarily on evidence for neurotoxic effects. It is also possible that longer DUP has psychosocial effects, which could mediate its impact on outcomes. The evidence of relevance to such socially toxic effects is reviewed, with particular reference to the possible role of social support. There is no definite evidence for social support as a mediator of the influence of DUP, but further investigation of this issue is warranted.

Zheng J.,University of Western Ontario | Rehmann L.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic) hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Staples J.F.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Hibernation evolved in some small mammals that live in cold environments, presumably to conserve energy when food supplies are low. Throughout the winter, hibernators cycle spontaneously between torpor, with low metabolism and near-freezing body temperatures, and euthermia, with high metabolism and body temperatures near 37° C. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this natural model of extreme metabolic plasticity is important for fundamental and applied science. During entrance into torpor, reductions in metabolic rate begin before body temperatures fall, even when thermogenesis is not active, suggesting active mechanisms of metabolic suppression, rather than passive thermal effects. Mitochondrial respiration is suppressed during torpor, especially when measured in liver mitochondria fuelled with succinate at 37° C in vitro. This suppression of mitochondrial metabolism appears to be invoked quickly during entrance into torpor when body temperature is high, but is reversed slowly during arousal when body temperature is low. This pattern may reflect body temperaturesensitive, enzyme-mediated post-translational modifications of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, for instance by phosphorylation © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Hampson E.,University of Western Ontario | Morley E.E.,University of Western Ontario
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

Objective: Estrogen has been proposed to exert a regulatory influence on the working memory system via actions in the female prefrontal cortex. Tests of this hypothesis have been limited almost exclusively to postmenopausal women and pharmacological interventions. We explored whether estradiol discernibly influences working memory within the natural range of variation in concentrations characteristic of the menstrual cycle. Method: The performance of healthy women (n= 39) not using hormonal contraceptives, and a control group of age- and education-matched men (n= 31), was compared on a spatial working memory task. Cognitive testing was done blind to ovarian status. Women were retrospectively classified into low- or high-estradiol groups based on the results of radioimmunoassays of saliva collected immediately before and after the cognitive testing. Results: Women with higher levels of circulating estradiol made significantly fewer errors on the working memory task than women tested under low estradiol. Pearson's correlations showed that the level of salivary estradiol but not progesterone was correlated inversely with the number of working memory errors produced. Women tested at high levels of circulating estradiol tended to be more accurate than men. Superior performance by the high estradiol group was seen on the working memory task but not on two control tasks, indicating selectivity of the effects. Conclusions: Consistent with previous studies of postmenopausal women, higher levels of circulating estradiol were associated with better working memory performance. These results add further support to the hypothesis that the working memory system is modulated by estradiol in women, and show that the effects can be observed under non-pharmacological conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

In recent years our understanding of connexins has advanced from viewing them simply as proteins with a surprisingly short lifespan that form gap junction channels. Connexins are now known to be multifaceted proteins at the core of many multiprotein complexes that link to structural junctional complexes and cytoskeletal elements, and also to the cellular machinery that facilitates their transport, assembly, function and internalization. Collectively, these connexin-binding proteins can be termed the 'gap junction proteome'. The mechanistic understanding of the gap junction proteome with regards to the dynamic life cycle of connexins has grown further in importance in light of the large number of human diseases attributed to connexin gene mutations and regulatory changes in connexin spatial localization and expression levels. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Moharana A.,University of Western Ontario | Dash P.K.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2010

This paper presents a robust nonlinear controller for VSC-HVDC transmission link using inputoutput linearization and sliding mode-control strategy. The feedback linearization is used to cancel nonlinearities and the sliding mode control offers invariant stability to modeling uncertainties due to converter parameter changes, changes in system frequency, and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances, such as changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses. Based upon the time-domain simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, the proposed controller is tested. © 2010 IEEE.

Sutherland D.E.K.,University of Western Ontario | Stillman M.J.,University of Western Ontario
Metallomics | Year: 2011

Metallothioneins (MT) are a family of small cysteine rich proteins, which since their discovery in 1957, have been implicated in a range of roles including toxic metal detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, and as a metallochaperone involved in the homeostasis of both zinc and copper. The most well studied member of the family is the mammalian metallothionein, which consists of two domains: a β-domain with 9 cysteine residues, which sequesters 3 Cd2+ or Zn2+ or 6 Cu+ ions, and an α-domain with 11 cysteine residues and, which sequesters 4 Cd 2+ or Zn2+ or 6 Cu+ ions. Despite over half a century of research, the exact functions of MT are still unknown. Much of current research aims to elucidate the mechanism of metal binding, as well as to isolate intermediates in metal exchange reactions; reactions necessary to maintain homeostatic equilibrium. These studies further our understanding of the role(s) of this remarkable and ubiquitous protein. Recently, supermetallated forms of the protein, where supermetallation describes metallation in excess of traditional levels, have been reported. These species may potentially be the metal exchange intermediates necessary to maintain homeostatic equilibrium. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the mechanistic properties of metal binding, the implications for the metal induced protein folding reactions proposed for metallothionein metallation, the value of "magic numbers", which we informally define as the commonly determined metal-to-protein stoichiometric ratios and the significance of the new supermetallated states of the protein and the possible interpretation of the structural properties of this new metallation status. Together we provide a commentary on current experimental and theoretical advances and frame our consideration in terms of the possible functions of MT. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) is a validated physical function measure. It is predictive for disability and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the comparative efficacy of biologic agents in improving HAQ in patients with established RA who failed DMARDs or anti- TNF agents and in early RA (ERA). We performed random effects meta-analyses of published randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Outcome was the mean difference in change in HAQ for biologic agents compared to controls (ΔHAQB-ΔHAQC). Indirect comparisons of the different biologic drugs were conducted using the Q-test based on analysis of variance. Meta-regression was performed using the method of moments. Twenty-eight trials were included: 19 with DMARD-failures; 4 with anti-TNF-failures and 5 ERA. The following biologics were represented: abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab and tocilizumab. Efficacy of biologics at reducing HAQ was significantly different based on prior treatment (p=0.001). In RA patients with DMARD failures, ΔHAQB-ΔHAQC was -0.22; 95%CI: -0.24, -0.20 (I2=55%). Infliximab, abatacept and tocilizumab had lower ΔHAQB-ΔHAQC compared to other biologics (p<0.02). In anti-TNF-failures, ΔHAQB-ΔHAQC was -0.36; 95%CI: -0.42, -0.30 (I2=0%). In ERA, methotrexate-naïve trials, ΔHAQB-ΔHAQC was -0.19; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.13 (I2=0%). There were no significant differences in the efficacy of different biologics for anti-TNF failures and ERA. Biologic agents were efficacious at lowering HAQ in RA. Differences between agents in RA with DMARD failures were less than the minimally clinically important difference for HAQ; therefore, the clinical significance of these differences is unclear.

El Ruby Mohamed A.,University of Western Ontario | El Ruby Mohamed A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Rohani S.,University of Western Ontario
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Since first introduced by Zwilling and co-workers in 1999, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by simple electrochemical anodization method have attracted great interest due to their outstanding photoelectrochemical properties which render them the most promising candidate for many solar energy harvesting applications. In this contribution, the fabrication, properties, and applications of TiO 2 nanotube arrays have been reviewed, with special focus on synthesis by anodization in fluoride-containing electrolytes. The effect of anodization process parameters such as electric potential, pH, anodization duration and electrolyte composition on the size, and morphology of TNTAs has been discussed in detail. Electronic property modification strategies of the wide band gap TNTAs to enhance the material responsiveness to visible light irradiation have also been reviewed. Modification strategies include nonmetal doping such as nitrogen, carbon, boron and sulfur; metal ion doping such as Fe, Zn, Zr and Cr; surface decoration with precious metal nanoparticles such as Pt, Ag, Au; and sensitization with CdS nanoparticles. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Bansal P.,University of Western Ontario | Knox-Hayes J.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Organization and Environment | Year: 2013

In this article, we argue that prior organizations research has contributed to the erosion of the natural environment by failing to discriminate physical materiality from sociomateriality. The time-space attributes of physical materiality are more immutable than sociomateriality, so the compression of time and space in and by organizations is disrupting the cycles of the natural environment. We illustrate this point through the example of carbon markets. The development of futures and other financial derivatives contributes to the compression of time, whereas the movement of capital worldwide contributes to the compression of space. This time-space compression disembodies financial instruments from their physical target, namely, carbon, leading to the distortion of the instrument's "real" value and hampering carbon emissions reductions. We call for organizational theories that more fully account for physical materiality. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

Ahadi E.,University of Western Ontario | Konermann L.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

The mechanism whereby macromolecular analytes are transferred into the gas phase during the final stages of electrospray ionization (ESI) remains a matter of debate. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to examine the temporal behavior of nanometer-sized aqueous ESI droplets containing a polymer chain and excess ammonium ions. The polymer is modeled using a coarse-grained framework where a bead-string backbone is decorated with side chains that can be nonpolar, cationic, or anionic. Polymers that adopt compact conformations and that carry a large number of charged side chains remain close to the droplet center, where the charges are extensively hydrated. The ESI process for these compact/hydrophilic macromolecules must involve solvent evaporation to dryness. This behavior is consistent with the charged residue model (CRM). A completely different scenario is encountered for disordered (extended) chains that carry a large number of nonpolar side chains. In this case, the macromolecule tends to be rapidly expelled from the droplet surface in a stepwise sequential fashion. This process produces metastable structures where one end of the extended polymer chain remains connected with the droplet via charge solvation. Disruption of these last interactions will then produce a free gas phase macromolecular ion. The data of this work imply that the ESI process for unfolded/hydrophobic polymers proceeds via an ion evaporation (IEM)-like mechanism that is facilitated by hydrophobic solute/solvent interactions. Our model predicts that the ESI efficiency of the latter scenario is considerably higher than for the CRM. This prediction is verified experimentally through ESI mass spectrometry measurements on myoglobin. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Konermann L.,University of Western Ontario | Pan J.,University of Western Ontario | Liu Y.-H.,University of Western Ontario
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key technique for monitoring structural and dynamic aspects of proteins in solution. This approach relies on the fact that exposure of a protein to D2O induces rapid amide H → D exchange in disordered regions that lack stable hydrogen-bonding. Tightly folded elements are much more protected from HDX, resulting in slow isotope exchange that is mediated by the structural dynamics ("breathing motions") of the protein. MS-based peptide mapping is a well established technique for measuring the mass shifts of individual protein segments. This tutorial review briefly discusses basic fundamentals of HDX/MS, before highlighting a number of recent developments and applications. Gas phase fragmentation strategies represent a promising alternative to the traditional proteolysis-based approach, but experimentalists have to be aware of scrambling phenomena that can be encountered under certain conditions. Electron-based dissociation methods provide a solution to this problem. We also discuss recent advances that facilitate the applicability of HDX/MS to membrane proteins, and to the characterization of short-lived protein folding intermediates. It is hoped that this review will provide a starting point for novices, as well as a useful reference for practitioners, who require an overview of some recent trends in HDX/MS. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Siddiquee M.N.,University of Western Ontario | Rohani S.,University of Western Ontario
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Extensive research is being conducted all over the world to produce fuels from renewable biomass. Biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel produced from lipid sources, is one of the most attractive among the options explored for alternative energy sources. However, 70-80% of the overall biodiesel production cost is associated with raw materials cost. Municipal sewage sludge is readily available at no cost. It contains various lipids and hence it is a promising raw material for biodiesel production. Lipids can be initially extracted from the sludge. Subsequently, the extracted lipid is converted to biodiesel by esterification and/or transesterification reaction. Biodiesel is also produced by in situ transesterification of dried sludge. This paper reviews the various lipid extraction techniques and biodiesel production processes from municipal wastewater sludge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dutton J.L.,University of Western Ontario | Ragogna P.J.,University of Western Ontario
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2011

The rapidly expanding area of main group atom centered polycations is reviewed. For groups 13, 14, 15 and low-oxidation state group 16 dications, the critical feature is the use of neutral ligands to complete the coordination sphere of the otherwise highly electron deficient polycations. The focus of this review is on compounds where the polycationic charge can be localized onto a central p-block element, and materials that can be isolated in the condensed phase and structurally characterized, rather than on fleeting species that may be observed in the gas phase. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

MacDougall-Shackleton S.A.,University of Western Ontario
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

The term levels of analysis has been used in several ways: to distinguish between ultimate and proximate levels, to categorize different kinds of research questions and to differentiate levels of reductionism. Because questions regarding ultimate function and proximate mechanisms are logically distinct, I suggest that distinguishing between these two levels is the best use of the term. Integrating across levels in research has potential risks, but many benefits. Consideration at one level can help generate novel hypotheses at the other, define categories of behaviour and set criteria that must be addressed. Taking an adaptationist stance thus strengthens research on proximate mechanisms. Similarly, it is critical for researchers studying adaptation and function to have detailed knowledge of proximate mechanisms that may constrain or modulate evolutionary processes. Despite the benefits of integrating across ultimate and proximate levels, failure to clearly identify levels of analysis, and whether or not hypotheses are exclusive alternatives, can create false debates. Such non-alternative hypotheses may occur between or within levels, and are not limited to integrative approaches. In this review, I survey different uses of the term levels of analysis and the benefits of integration, and highlight examples of false debate within and between levels. The best integrative biology reciprocally uses ultimate and proximate hypotheses to generate a more complete understanding of behaviour. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Liu Y.,University of Western Ontario | Feng Q.,University of Western Ontario
Differentiation | Year: 2012

Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect in humans. Identifying factors that are critical to embryonic heart development could further our understanding of the disease and lead to new strategies of its prevention and treatment. Nitric oxide synthase-3 (NOS3) or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is known for many important biological functions including vasodilation, vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis. Over the past decade, studies from our lab and others have shown that NOS3 is required during heart development. More specifically, deficiency in NOS3 results in congenital septal defects, cardiac hypertrophy and postnatal heart failure. In addition, NOS3 is pivotal to the morphogenesis of major coronary arteries and myocardial capillary development. Interestingly, these effects of NOS3 are mediated through induction of transcription and growth factors that are crucial in the formation of coronary arteries. Finally, deficiency in NOS3 results in high incidences of bicuspid aortic valves, a disease in humans that often leads to complications with age including aortic valve stenosis or regurgitation, endocarditis, aortic aneurysm formation, and aortic dissection. In summary, these data suggest NOS3 plays a critical role in embryonic heart development and morphogenesis of coronary arteries and aortic valves. © 2012 International Society of Differentiation.

Silver J.T.,University of Western Ontario | Noble E.G.,University of Western Ontario | Noble E.G.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2012

Rapid expression of the survival gene, inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), is critical for mounting cytoprotection against severe cellular stress, like elevated temperature. Hsp70 protein chaperones the refolding of heatdenatured peptides to minimize proteolytic degradation as a part of an eukaryotically conserved phenomenon referred to as the heat shock response. The physiologic stress associated with exercise, which can include elevated temperature, mechanical damage, hypoxia, lowered pH, and reactive oxygen species generation, may promote protein unfolding, leading to hsp70 gene expression in skeletal myofibers. Although the pre-transcriptional activation of hsp70 gene expression has been thoroughly reviewed, discussion of downstream hsp70 gene regulation is less extensive. The purpose of this brief review was to examine all levels of hsp70 gene regulation in response to heat stress and exercise with a special focus on skeletal myofibers where data are available. In general, while heat stress represses bulk gene expression, hsp70 mRNA expression is enhanced. Posttranscriptionally, intronless hsp70 mRNA circumvents a host of decay pathways, as well as heat stress-repressed premRNA splicing and nuclear export. Pre-translationally, hsp70 mRNA is excluded from stress granules and preferentially translated during heat stress-repressed global cap-dependent translation. Post-translationally, nascent Hsp70 protein is thermodynamically stable at elevated temperatures, allowing for the commencement of chaperoning activity early after synthesis to attenuate the heat shock response and protect against subsequent injury. This review demonstrates that hsp70 mRNA expression is closely coupled with functional protein translation. © 2011 Cell Stress Society International.

Arghavan S.,University of Western Ontario | Singh A.V.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

In this paper, a detailed numerical study on the free and forced vibrations of single walled carbon nanotubes is presented. A simple and straightforward method developed such that the proximity of the mathematical model to the actual atomic structure of the nanotube is significantly retained, is used for this purpose. Both zigzag and armchair chiralities of the carbon nanotubes for clampedfree and clampedclamped boundary conditions are analyzed and their natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are obtained. Results pertaining to axial, bending, and torsional modes of vibration are reported with discussions. These modes of vibration appear in the eigen-values and eigen-vectors without any distinction. The direct integration method by Newmark is used extensively along with the fast Fourier transform to identify different types of vibrational modes. In the case of zigzag nanotubes, the axial, bending, and torsional modes appear to be decoupled, whereas the armchair nanotubes show coupling between such modes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Johansen C.T.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2012

The genetic underpinnings of both normal and pathological variation in plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration are relatively well understood compared to many other complex metabolic traits. For instance, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 32 common variants that are associated with plasma TG concentrations in healthy epidemiologic populations. Furthermore, GWAS in clinically ascertained hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) patients have shown that almost all of the same TG-raising alleles from epidemiologic samples are also associated with HTG disease status, and that greater accumulation of these alleles reflects the severity of the HTG phenotype. Finally, comprehensive resequencing studies show a burden of rare variants in some of these same genes - namely in LPL, GCKR, APOB and APOA5 - in HTG patients compared to normolipidemic controls. A more complete understanding of the genes and genetic variants associated with plasma TG concentration will enrich our understanding of the molecular pathways that modulate plasma TG metabolism, which may translate into clinical benefit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Leask A.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

There is no universally agreed-upon treatment for the fibrosis of scleroderma. Recently, much information has been generated relating to the fundamental mechanisms underlying this disease. Partly based on these observations, both anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic agents have been considered as possible therapies. However, this information has not been successfully translated into clinical practice. In this issue, Pendergrass et al. use genome-wide expression profiling to provide valuable insights into scleroderma. Previously, the authors showed that morphea and limited scleroderma patients and a small subset of diffuse scleroderma (dSSc) patients express an inflammatory profile, whereas the majority of dSSc patients express a fibroproliferative profile. In the current study, the investigators show that the gene expression profile of these patients is fixed over time; i.e., in contrast to a previously held belief, the inflammatory patients do not go on to become fibrotic, and vice versa. These data suggest that expression profiling might be used to design clinical trials for scleroderma. The inflammatory patients might be treated with anti-inflammatory agents, whereas fibroproliferative patients might be treated with antifibrotic agents. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Leask A.,University of Western Ontario
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2015

Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is an often-fatal disease characterized by connective tissue fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In scleroderma, there is an excessive production and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components resulting from an increase in collagen synthesis and matrix stability. Understanding how this how excessive ECM is produced and remodeled may represent a novel therapeutic approach. In this review, the transcription factors and collagen-modifying enzymes underlying collagen overexpression and enhancing stability in SSc are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix stiffness in promoting fibrosis via a feed-forward mechanism is discussed. Indeed, the emerging evidence is that enhanced ECM remodeling resulting in increased ECM stiffness may be sufficient in itself to sustain persistence fibrosis in SSc. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Goss P.E.,Harvard University | Chambers A.F.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2010

The increasing number of cancer survivors is cause for celebration, but this expanding population has highlighted the problem of tumour dormancy, which can lead to relapse. As we start to understand more about the biology of dormant cancer cells, we can begin to address how best to treat this form of disease. Preclinical models and initial clinical trials, as exemplified in patients with breast cancer, are paving the way to address how best to treat long-term cancer survivors to minimize the risk of cancer recurrence. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Price E.R.,University of Western Ontario
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

Birds rely substantially on fat to fuel migratory flights. The importance of the composition of those fat stores to flight performance is a field of recent interest. Here I review the evidence that dietary lipid fat composition affects exercise in birds. Seasonal changes in adipose composition and diet choice experiments have yet to provide strong evidence that fatty acid composition can affect flight performance. Direct manipulations of dietary fat, however, have been demonstrated to affect exercise performance in both avian and non-avian species. I also describe the major hypotheses for the mechanisms by which dietary fat affects exercise, focusing on the role of fatty acids as oxidative substrates and as structural components of membranes. Evidence is accumulating that fatty acids that are shorter or have more double bonds increase peak performance due to their higher transport rates en route to oxidation. Endurance and efficiency of flight may or may not be affected in similar ways. Other mechanisms requiring further investigation include membrane composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and eicosanoid-mediated inflammation. Finally, I develop a theoretical framework for studying the composition of fat stores in migrants, focusing on the tradeoffs between fatty acid transport rates, energy storage, and assimilation during stopover refueling. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Fisher W.A.,University of Western Ontario
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in Israel include Israel's relatively low incidence of cervical cancer; the religiously-based 80% circumcision rate in Israel, which is regarded as contributing to the lower incidence of HPV infection in the country; the fact that HPV vaccine provides immunity against only few virus types; the vaccine's high cost; and the perception that HPV transmission is associated with unacceptable sexual relations. A recent survey has demonstrated that, following media two campaigns, Israeli's level of awareness of the vaccine increased but the actual vaccination rate remained low, at approximately 10%. Survey findings also indicated that an enduring barrier to HPV vaccination is the vaccine's high cost. Recent research on a convenience sample of Israeli undergraduate women 21 to 24 years of age showed that intentions to receive HPV vaccination in the coming year were a function of women's attitudes towards getting vaccinated and their perceptions of social support for doing so. Undergraduate women who intended to be vaccinated perceived the prevention of cervical cancer, avoidance of personal health threat, and avoidance of HPV infection per se to be the advantages of undergoing HPV vaccination. Disadvantages of getting vaccinated included fear of vaccine side effects, cost of the vaccine, and newness of the vaccine, doubts about vaccines, time required to undergo multiple vaccinations, and dislike of injections. Friends', mothers' and physicians' recommendations influenced women's intentions to be vaccinated in the coming year as well. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in Israel" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 8, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Talluri S.,University of Western Ontario | Dick F.A.,University of Western Ontario
Cell Cycle | Year: 2012

Commitment to divide is one of the most crucial steps in the mammalian cell division cycle. It is critical for tissue and organismal homeostasis, and consequently is highly regulated. The vast majority of cancers evade proliferative control, further emphasizing the importance of the commitment step in cell cycle regulation. The Retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway regulates this decision-making step. Since being the subject of Knudson's 'two hit hypothesis', there has been considerable interest in understanding pRB's role in cancer. It is best known for repressing E2F dependent transcription of cell cycle genes. However, pRB's role in controlling chromatin structure is expanding and bringing it into new regulatory paradigms. In this review we discuss pRB function through protein-protein interactions, at the level of transcriptional regulation of individual promoters and in organizing higher order chromatin domains. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Goldberg A.S.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Context: Pregnancy-related hypertriglyceridemia is rare, but it can be life threatening in some patients with genetic susceptibility. Complications can include acute pancreatitis, hyperviscosity syndrome, and possibly preeclampsia. We present a case of successful management of recurrent gestational chylomicronemia due to compound heterozygous mutations in the LPL gene. Evidence Acquisition: To outline advances in clinical management of this condition, we searched English language publications in PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science (search terms: pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnan*, hyperlipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicrons, chylomicronemia) and reference lists of relevant published articles from 2002 to 2011.We identified eight case reports. Evidence Synthesis: Interventions reported in those cases are reviewed including: 1) low-fat diet; 2) nutritional supplements; 3) oral prescription medications; 4) parenteral heparin; 5) insulin infusion in the context of hyperglycemia; and 6) therapeutic plasma exchange. Conclusions: Overall, our recommendations are to monitor for pregnancy-related hypertriglyceridemia in those with prepregnancy fasting triglyceride level greater than 4 mmol/liter and to institute therapy when triglyceride level increases to more than 10 mmol/liter. Therapy should include a multidisciplinary team to address dietary fat restriction, appropriate supplements, and possible medications when needed. Admission to hospital is recommended in severe cases. We conclude that complications are preventable with appropriate and timely intervention. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Kuboki T.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Cellular Plastics | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the effects of cellulose content and processing conditions on the mechanical properties and foaming behavior of injection molded cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene composite foams. Composite foams were injection molded using an advanced structural foam molding machine with N2 as a physical blowing agent. Foamed specimens were prepared at different injection speeds and void fractions. The mechanical properties and foam morphologies of the specimens were evaluated. The results suggested that the specific flexural modulus was increased and the specific flexural strength and Izod impact strength were maintained by foaming, and that the strength, modulus, and notched Izod impact strength increased with the increase of cellulose content. Additionally, the results suggested that the cell morphology of the composite foams was improved by the increase of void fraction and the addition of cellulose fiber. © 2013 The Author(s).

Kuboki T.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Cellular Plastics | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the effect of polypropylene type and cellulose content on the foaming behavior of cellulose fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites in extrusion. Two types of polypropylene (linear and branched structures) were used as a polymer matrix. The thermal properties of the composites were characterized by a differential scanning calorimeter, and the viscosity of the composites was evaluated by a rotational rheometer. The foaming behavior of the composites was examined using an extrusion foaming system, in which carbon dioxide was used as a physical blowing agent for foams. The results suggested that the cell density increased with the increase of cellulose content. On the other hand, the void fraction decreased with the addition of cellulose, but the void fraction at the 40 wt% cellulose was higher than that at the 20 wt% cellulose. The results also indicated that the two types of polypropylene had a minimal effect on the foaming behaviors of the cellulose fiber composites. © 2013 The Author(s).

De Lasa H.,University of Western Ontario | Salaices E.,University of Western Ontario | Mazumder J.,University of Western Ontario | Lucky R.,University of Western Ontario
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The biomass steam gasification producing a synthesis gas with relatively higher hydrogen content is evolving significantly in recent year. Synthesis gas, produced from biomass, is required to be cleaned from trace amounts of H 2S, COS, CS 2, HCl, NH 3, and HCN at the ppb level. The products of biomass gasification depend on the various amounts of inorganic materials that yield ash during the gasification. Gasification of biomass with varying elemental compositions of organic matter can be assessed in a Van Krevelen's diagram in terms of hydrogen/carbon (H/C) and oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratios. Several pretreatments are performed in biomass gasification facilities in an effort to precondition the feedstock such as drying, size reduction, size fractionation, and leaching with water. The inorganic components of the biomass are usually converted into ash, which is removed from the bottom of the gasifier, or into fly ash, which leaves with the product gas during gasification.

Gray D.F.,University of Western Ontario
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2012

A series of 35 high-resolution spectra are used to measure the third-signature plot of the G8III star, ζCygni, which shows convective velocities only 8% larger than the Sun. Bisector mapping yields a flux deficit, a measure of granulation contrast, typical of other giants. The observations also give radial velocities with errors 30ms -1 and allow the orbit to be refined. Velocity excursions relative to the smooth orbital motion, possibly from the granulation, have values exceeding 200ms -1. Temperature variations were looked for using line-depth ratios, but none were found. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Chung J.K.,University of Western Ontario | Consta S.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

Ion-release processes in nanodroplets that contain excess charge are of central importance in atmospheric aerosols as well as in determining the charge state distributions of macroions that are detected in electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) experiments. We performed molecular simulations of systems of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) associated with various ions (Na+, Li+,Ca2+) in aqueous charged nanodroplets in order to investigate the manner that the macroion emerges from an aqueous nanodroplet as well as its final charge state. In the study we focused on a specific region of the parameter space with respect to charge and size of droplets that is close to the Rayleigh limit. We found that for sizes of droplets with linear dimensions of several nanometers and length of PEG up to 100 monomers, the PEG macroion emerges from the droplet following a three-step process: (i) phase separation, (ii) gradual extension of the macroion out of the droplet, and (iii) drying-out of the solvent or spontaneous detachment of the macroion from the droplet. The third step is determined by the ratio of charge on the macroion to the ions in the water portion of the droplet. The chemical transformation that is caused in PEG by the transfer of ions from the solvent into PEG determines its release mechanism. When the charge is carried by macroions, the charge-induced instability manifests by following one of the expected scenarios of Rayleigh instability; however, the assumptions of the Rayleigh model break down. We also examined the release of the macroion below the Rayleigh limit, and we found that the macroion emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. On balance of phenomenological evidence, we concluded that the ion-evaporation mechanism (IEM) in its most common meaning is not the followed mechanism for the parameter space of the systems that we studied. The final charge state of the macroion is in excellent agreement with the experimental data of Fenn and co-workers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Bailey D.G.,London Health Sciences Center | Bailey D.G.,University of Western Ontario
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume-effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. © 2010 The Author British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

Lahiry P.,University of Western Ontario | Torkamani A.,Scripps Research Institute | Schork N.J.,Scripps Research Institute | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2010

Protein kinases are one of the largest families of evolutionarily related proteins and comprise one of the most abundant gene families in humans. Here we survey kinase gene mutations from the perspective of human disease phenotypes and further analyse the structural features of mutant kinases, including mutational hotspots. Our evaluation of the genotype-phenotype relationship across 915 human kinase mutations that underlie 67 single-gene diseases, mainly inherited developmental and metabolic disorders and also certain cancers enhances our understanding of the role of kinases in development, kinase dysfunction in pathogenesis and kinases as potential targets for therapy. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Joy T.R.,University of Western Ontario | Monjed A.,PO Box 463 | Zou G.Y.,Robarts Clinical Trials | Hegele R.A.,Robarts Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Statin-related myalgia is difficult to distinguish from other conditions causing myalgia and may often lead to statin discontinuation. Objective: To compare the effect of statin rechallenge with placebo in patients with prior statin-related myalgia and to determine whether patients resumed statin therapy after evaluating the results. Design: N-of-1 trial with 3 double-blind, crossover comparisons separated by 3-week washout periods. ( NCT01259791) Setting: Tertiary care lipid clinic. Patients: Patients with prior statin-related myalgia with or without mild elevation of creatine kinase levels. Intervention: Rechallenge with the statin that was previously associated with myalgia within 3 weeks of open-label use versus matching placebo. Measurements: Weekly visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for myalgia and specific symptoms (VAS myalgia score and symptomspecific VAS score, respectively), pain interference scores, and pain severity scores were recorded during the 3-week periods when patients were receiving placebo or statin. The primary outcome was the VAS myalgia score (range, 0 to 100 mm). Results: Eight patients (mean age, 66 years [SD, 8 years]; 88% women, all with high 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk) participated in n-of-1 trials. Seven patients completed 3 treatment pairs, and 1 completed 2 treatment pairs. For each n-of-1 trial, no statistically significant differences were seen between statin and placebo in the VAS myalgia score, symptom-specific VAS score, pain interference score, and pain severity score. Five patients resumed open-label statin treatment, with a median posttrial follow-up of 10 months. Limitation: Results are limited by the small sample size and cannot be extended to patients with longer onset of myalgia after statin initiation. Conclusion: In selected patients with a history of statin-related myalgia whose symptoms are difficult to evaluate, n-of-1 trials may be a useful method for determining statin tolerability. © 2014 American College of Physicians.

Beier F.,University of Western Ontario | Loeser R.F.,Wake forest University
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Chondrocytes provide the framework for the developing skeleton and regulate long-bone growth through the activity of the growth plate. Chondrocytes in the articular cartilage, found at the ends of bones in diarthroidial joints, are responsible for maintenance of the tissue through synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The processes of growth, differentiation, cell death and matrix remodeling are regulated by a network of cell signaling pathways in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. These stimuli consist of soluble ligands, including growth factors and cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and mechanical factors that act in concert to regulate chondrocyte function through a variety of canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways. Key chondrocyte signaling pathways include, but are not limited to, the p38, JNK and ERK MAP kinases, the PI-3 kinase-Akt pathway, the Jak-STAT pathway, Rho GTPases and Wnt-β-catenin and Smad pathways. Modulation of the activity of any of these pathways has been associated with various pathological states in cartilage. This review focuses on the Rho GTPases, the PI-3 kinase-Akt pathway, and some selected aspects of MAP kinase signaling. Most studies to date have examined these pathways in isolation but it is becoming clear that there is significant cross-talk among the pathways and that the overall effects on chondrocyte function depend on the balance in activity of multiple signaling proteins. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Naus C.C.,University of British Columbia | Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2010

The idea that the gap junction family of proteins, connexins, are tumour suppressors has been widely supported through numerous cancer models. However, the paradigm that connexins and enhanced gap junctional intercellular communication is of universal benefit by restricting tumour growth has been challenged by more recent evidence that suggests a role for connexins in facilitating tumour progression and metastasis. Therefore, connexins might be better classified as conditional tumour suppressors that modulate cell proliferation, as well as adhesion and migration. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Liu X.,University of Western Ontario
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2016

We present a new strategy for systematic identification of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) by affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) using a Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain-derived pTyr superbinder as the affinity reagent. The superbinder allows for markedly deeper coverage of the Tyr phosphoproteome than anti-pTyr antibodies when an optimal amount is used. We identified ∼20,000 distinct phosphotyrosyl peptides and >10,000 pTyr sites, of which 36% were 'novel', from nine human cell lines using the superbinder approach. Tyrosine kinases, SH2 domains and phosphotyrosine phosphatases were preferably phosphorylated, suggesting that the toolkit of kinase signaling is subject to intensive regulation by phosphorylation. Cell-type-specific global kinase activation patterns inferred from label-free quantitation of Tyr phosphorylation guided the design of experiments to inhibit cancer cell proliferation by blocking the highly activated tyrosine kinases. Therefore, the superbinder is a highly efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional antibodies for systematic and quantitative characterization of the tyrosine phosphoproteome under normal or pathological conditions. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Dube J.B.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

The spring of 2012 marked the fifth anniversary of the widespread appearance in the biomedical literature of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of diseases of adulthood. Articles reporting GWAS results now regularly appear in dozens of general medicine and cardiology journals. As of August 2012, more than 1700 published GWAS have reported findings across a range of human diseases. Many of these reported new genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease and its risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Though GWAS reports follow a standard format, superficially they can appear intimidating to most nongeneticists, whom we suspect often skip over them. Considering the importance of GWAS in cardiovascular science and medicine, and because they show no signs of fading, it is important for cardiovascular medical personnel and scientists to understand GWAS fundamentals. In this article, we provide a roadmap for the nonexpert reader to navigate through GWAS of cardiovascular disease. We cover the basic essentials needed to understand GWAS: underlying theory, mechanics, analysis and display, interpretation, and relevance. Areas covered include the relationship between GWAS and standard epidemiologic study design, the concepts of DNA sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium, the particular statistical considerations in studies involving many independent variables and large sample sizes, the meaning and interpretation of Manhattan plots, and the biologic and clinical significance of GWAS-based discoveries. We conclude with comments about the limitations of GWAS and about what to look for in the"post-GWAS era.". © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.

Moayedi M.,University of Toronto | Moayedi M.,University of Western Ontario | Davis K.D.,University of Toronto | Davis K.D.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the physiological basis of pain, although none yet completely accounts for all aspects of pain perception. Here, we provide a historical overview of the major contributions, ideas, and competing theories of pain from ancient civilizations to Melzack and Wall's Gate Control Theory of Pain. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Savundranayagam M.Y.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective There is a growing body of literature on the rewards associated with caregiving and the utility of these rewards on buffering the negative consequences of caring for a family member with Alzheimer's disease. Many psychoeducational interventions aim to empower caregivers to seek and obtain help from their social support network, with the expectation that help will enable them to cope more effectively. Methods This study investigated the impact of changes in help and changes in satisfaction with help on positive aspects of caregiving for both spouse (N = 254) and adult-child (N = 208) caregivers who attended a psychoeducational intervention. Results Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that increases in amount of help and satisfaction with help were significantly linked with increases in caregiver rewards for adult-children. However, only increases in satisfaction with help were significantly related to increases in caregiver rewards for spouses. Conclusions These group differences suggest that the quality of support is critical for spouses, whereas both quality and receiving extra help are useful for adult-child caregivers. These findings are discussed in terms of the importance of understanding the differential needs of spouse and adult-child caregivers in practice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hubinette M.M.,University of Western Ontario
Academic Medicine | Year: 2016

Health advocacy is a prominent component of health professionals’ training internationally and is frequently discussed in the medical education literature. Despite this, it continues to be a problematic and challenging topic for medical educators, health professionals, and trainees alike. Borrowing from the field of systems engineering, the authors suggest a need to reconceptualize health advocacy using a systems mind-set rather than a physician-centric perspective. Conceptualizing health advocacy as a systemic, collective effort requires educators, practitioners, and trainees to challenge the assumption that the role of a competent physician health advocate can be fully defined without regard to the larger system or collective within which physicians function. Further, this implies a substantially more dynamic understanding of physicians’ and other participants’ parts in the collective activity.Of course, this new way of conceptualizing physicians’ practices is not limited to health advocacy. The current education paradigm trains physicians for individual competency but expects them to practice collectively. Defining physician competencies, or the competencies of any health care provider, in isolation from the particular system of which that individual is an integral part implicitly places that health care provider as the central focus of that system. Thus, academic medicine needs to move its educational and research efforts forward in a manner that recognizes that a systems engineering approach to health improvement will allow the various players to maximize their individual efforts to more effectively support the collective activity. © 2016 by the Association of American Medical Colleges

Zhou W.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping | Year: 2010

A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of a pipeline segment that contains multiple active corrosion defects and is subjected to stochastic internal pressure loading. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system with three distinctive failure modes due to corrosion, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The internal pressure is characterized as a simple discrete stochastic process that consists of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables each acting over a period of one year. The magnitude of a given sequence follows the annual maximum pressure distribution. The methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical example. Furthermore, the impact of the spatial variability of the pressure loading and pipe resistances associated with different defects on the system reliability is investigated. The analysis results suggest that the spatial variability of pipe properties has a negligible impact on the system reliability. On the other hand, the spatial variability of the internal pressure, initial defect sizes and defect growth rates can have a significant impact on the system reliability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cruse D.,University of Western Ontario
Neurology | Year: 2012

Functional neuroimaging has shown that the absence of externally observable signs of consciousness and cognition in severely brain-injured patients does not necessarily indicate the true absence of such abilities. However, relative to traumatic brain injury, nontraumatic injury is known to be associated with a reduced likelihood of regaining overtly measurable levels of consciousness. We investigated the relationships between etiology and both overt and covert cognitive abilities in a group of patients in the minimally conscious state (MCS). Twenty-three MCS patients (15 traumatic and 8 nontraumatic) completed a motor imagery EEG task in which they were required to imagine movements of their right-hand and toes to command. When successfully performed, these imagined movements appear as distinct sensorimotor modulations, which can be used to determine the presence of reliable command-following. The utility of this task has been demonstrated previously in a group of vegetative state patients. Consistent and robust responses to command were observed in the EEG of 22% of the MCS patients (5 of 23). Etiology had a significant impact on the ability to successfully complete this task, with 33% of traumatic patients (5 of 15) returning positive EEG outcomes compared with none of the nontraumatic patients (0 of 8). The overt behavioral signs of awareness (measured with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised) exhibited by nontraumatic MCS patients appear to be an accurate reflection of their covert cognitive abilities. In contrast, one-third of a group of traumatically injured patients in the MCS possess a range of high-level cognitive faculties that are not evident from their overt behavior.

House A.A.,University of Western Ontario
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Cardiorenal syndromes (CRSs) with bidirectional heart-kidney signaling are increasingly being recognized for their association with increased morbidity and mortality. In acute CRS, recognition of the importance of worsening kidney function complicating management of acute decompensated heart failure has led to the examination of this specific outcome in the context of acute heart failure clinical trials. In particular, the role of fluid overload and venous congestion has focused interest in the most effective use of diuretic therapy to relieve symptoms of heart failure while at the same time preserving kidney function. Additionally, many novel vasoactive therapies have been studied in recent years with the hopes of augmenting cardiac function, improving symptoms and patient outcomes, while maintaining or improving kidney function. Similarly, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic CRS have led to reanalysis of kidney outcomes in pivotal trials in chronic congestive heart failure, and newer trials are including changes in kidney function as well as kidney injury biomarkers as prospectively monitored and adjudicated outcomes. This paper provides an overview of some new developments in the pharmacologic management of acute and chronic CRS, examines several reports that illustrate a key management principle for each subtype, and discusses opportunities for future research. © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Haddara W.,University of Western Ontario | Lingard L.,University of Western Ontario
Academic Medicine | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) has become a dominant idea in both medical education and clinical care as reflected in its incorporation into competency-based educational frameworks and hospital accreditation models. This study examined the published literature to explore whether a shared IPC discourse underpins these current efforts. METHOD: Using a critical discourse analysis methodology informed by Michel Foucault's approach, the authors analyzed an archive of 188 texts published from 1960 through 2011. The authors identified the texts through a search of PubMed and CINAHL. RESULTS: The authors identified two major discourses in IPC: utilitarian and emancipatory. The utilitarian discourse is characterized by a positivist, experimental approach to the question of whether IPC is useful in patient care and, if so, what features best promote successful outcomes. This discourse uses the language of evidence and validity. The emancipatory discourse is characterized by a constructivist approach concerned primarily with equalizing power relations among health practitioners; its language includes power and dominance. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IPC is not a single, coherent idea in medical education and health care. At least two different IPC discourses exist, each with its own distinctive truths, objects, and language. The extent to which educators and health care practitioners may tacitly align with one discourse or the other may explain the tensions that have accompanied the conceptualization, implementation, and assessment of IPC. Explicit acknowledgment of and attention to these discourses could improve the coherence and impact of IPC efforts in educational and clinical settings.

Mara T.G.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2010

High-rise construction projects commonly use a tower crane attached to the building by braced connections along its height. The presence of the tower crane modifies the aerodynamic cross section of the building and can alter the expected wind loading characteristics. Wind tunnel tests were carried out to examine the impact of the solidity ratio, and location of the tower crane, on the wind loading for the overall building-crane system. Tower cranes of two solidity ratios, 20 and 100%, were tested. A tower crane having one of the two solidity ratios tested was placed at one of three locations along the building face in order to define a quantitative range of increased wind loads. Increases in mean and fluctuating loading were observed for particular wind directions, and were more pronounced for the greater solidity ratio. The increase was the most significant for the torsion base moment. The impact of the tower crane was reduced as its location neared the center of the building face. Recommendations are made for the choice of tower crane location. © 2010 ASCE.

Swanick K.N.,University of Western Ontario | Ladouceur S.,Université de Sherbrooke | Zysman-Colman E.,Université de Sherbrooke | Ding Z.,University of Western Ontario
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of four bright iridium(iii) complexes containing aryltriazole cyclometallated ligands is reported. The ECL mechanisms, spectra and high efficiencies via annihilation and coreactant paths have been investigated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Vanderloo L.M.,University of Western Ontario
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Background: Screen-viewing is one of the most common sedentary behaviors among preschoolers. Despite the high prevalence of sedentary behaviors in childcare, little research exists on the context and/or type of activities that account for these particular behaviors. Accordingly, if the amount of screen-viewing accumulated by preschoolers in childcare is not considered, researchers may be underestimating total screen time among this population, as only a portion of their day is being captured (i.e., the home environment). This systematic review provides a synthesis of research on the levels of screen-viewing among preschool-aged children (2.5-5 years) attending childcare (i.e., centre- and home-based childcare). This review also examined the correlates of screen-viewing among preschoolers in this setting. To provide additional contextual information, availability of screen activities was used to help ameliorate the understanding of preschoolers' screen-viewing behaviors in childcare.Methods: Twelve electronic databases were searched to retrieve relevant articles for inclusion (dating from 2000 onwards). Additional studies were identified via manual searching techniques (i.e., hand searching and citation tracking). Only English, published peer-reviewed articles that examined preschoolers' screen-viewing behaviors in childcare (i.e., rates of screen-viewing and access to/opportunities for related activities) were included. No restrictions to study design were applied.Results: Seventeen international studies (4 experimental; 12 cross-sectional; 1 mixed-methods) published between 2004 and 2014 were examined. Of those, eight studies reported rates of screen-viewing and found that preschoolers spent approximately 0.1 to 1.3 hrs/day and 1.8 to 2.4 hrs/day engaged in this behavior in center- and home-based childcare, respectively. High staff education (negative association) and type of childcare arrangement (notably, home-based childcare in comparison to center-based childcare; positive association) were identified as two correlates in relation to preschoolers' screen-viewing in childcare. Nine studies spoke to the availability of screen-viewing activities in childcare, and found the childcare environment to be conducive to this behavior.Conclusions: Despite some variability, preschoolers appear to engage in somewhat high levels of screen-viewing while in childcare, particularly within home-based facilities. This paper also highlighted the conduciveness of the childcare environment with regard to screen-viewing among preschoolers. Additional exploration into the correlates of screen-viewing in childcare is required. (PROSPORO registration: CRD42013005552). © 2014 Vanderloo; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zhou W.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Infrastructure Systems | Year: 2012

A methodology is developed to evaluate the annual failure probabilities of a pressurized pipeline at an active metal-loss corrosion defect. The methodology takes into account three different failure modes at the defect (i.e., small leak, large leak, and rupture) and the time dependency of the pipe's internal pressure by modeling the pressure as a simple stochastic process consisting of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, each occupying a period of one year. The impact of periodic maintenance actions on the failure probabilities is incorporated in the methodology. Two numerical examples are used to illustrate the methodology. The sensitivity of the calculated failure probabilities with respect to the time dependency of the internal pressure is also investigated. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mackay F.E.,University of Western Ontario | Denniston C.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

We propose a new method for coupling both point and composite MD particles to a lattice-Boltzmann fluid. This coupling is implemented through the use of conservative forces, calculated by assuming elastic collisions between the particles and the fluid, thereby eliminating the need for any adjustable coupling constants. With the implementation of a mass and momentum conserving thermal lattice-Boltzmann method, the fluid acts as a heat bath for the MD particles without the need for external Langevin noise. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a variety of simple, well known flow problems. In addition, by studying the velocity autocorrelation function, we are able to validate the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the algorithm. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Classen S.,University of Western Ontario
Occupational Therapy in Health Care | Year: 2014

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder leading to motor and non-motor impairments, all of which can affect fitness to drive. The literature suggest that on-road and simulated driving performances are impaired in people with PD, as compared to healthy control drivers. Clear associations exist between impaired driving performance and contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Prior to this review and expert panel process, no evidence-based guidelines have existed to help occupational therapy practitioners determining fitness to drive in those with PD. Three consensus statements are presented in this work to enable occupational therapy practitioners and other driver rehabilitation specialists to make fitness to drive determinations in people with PD. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Moustafa M.M.A.R.,University of Western Ontario | Pagenkopf B.L.,University of Western Ontario
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) A new method for the synthesis of 5-azaindole derivatives is reported. A [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition between nitriles and a 3,4-cyclopropanopiperidine followed by SeO2 oxidation affords the target compounds in moderate to excellent yields. The divergent nature and cost effectiveness of this method makes it very suitable for combinatorial applications in the pharmaceutical industry. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Gobbo P.,University of Western Ontario | Workentin M.S.,University of Western Ontario
Langmuir | Year: 2012

Improved methodology to prepare maleimide-functionalized, water-soluble, small (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles using a retro-Diels-Alder strategy that we developed for similar organic-soluble AuNP's is described. Importantly, our results suggest that a recent paper by Zhu, Waengler, Lennox, and Schirrmacher describing a similar strategy gave results inconsistent with the formation of the titled maleimide-modified AuNP (Zhu, J.; Waengler, C.; Lennox, R. B.; Schirrmacher, R. Langmuir2012, 28, 5508) as the major product, but consistent with the major product being an adduct derived from the hydrolysis of maleimide formed under the conditions used for the required deprotection of the maleimide. Our methodology provides an efficient and accessible route to pure maleimide-modified small AuNP's that circumvents the formation of the hydrolysis product. The maleimide-modified small AuNP's are versatile because they are soluble in water and in a wide range of organic solvents and their reactivity can now be properly exploited as a reactive moiety in Michael addition for bioconjugation studies in aqueous solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Christou A.A.,Armagh Observatory | Wiegert P.,University of Western Ontario
Icarus | Year: 2012

We have carried out a search for Main Belt Asteroids (MBAs) co-orbiting with the large MBA Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. Through improving the search criteria used in Christou (Christou, A.A. [2000b]. Astron. Astrophys. 356, L71-L74) and numerical integrations of candidate coorbitals, we have identified approximately 51 (44) objects currently in co-orbital libration with Ceres (Vesta). We show that these form part of a larger population of transient coorbitals; 129 (94) MBAs undergo episodes of co-orbital libration with Ceres (Vesta) within a 2Myr interval centred on the present. The lifetime in the resonance is typically a few times ~105yr but can exceed 2×106yr. The variational properties of the orbits of several co-orbitals were examined. It was found that their present states with respect to the secondary are well determined but knowledge of it is lost typically after ~2×105yr. Objects initially deeper into the coorbital region maintain their coorbital state for longer. Using the model of Namouni et al. (Namouni, F., Christou, A.A., Murray, C.D. [1999]. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2506-2509) we show that their dynamics are similar to those of temporary coorbital NEAs of the Earth and Venus. As in that case, the lifetime of resonant libration is dictated by planetary secular perturbations, the inherent chaoticity of the orbits and close encounters with massive objects other than the secondary. In particular we present evidence that, while in the coorbital state, close encounters with the secondary are generally avoided and that Ceres affects the stability of tadpole librators of Vesta. Finally we demonstrate the existence of Quasi-Satellite orbiters of both Ceres and Vesta and conclude that decametre-sized objects detected in the vicinity of Vesta by the DAWN mission may, in fact, belong to this dynamical class rather than be bona-fide (i.e. Keplerian) satellites of Vesta. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Hesari M.,University of Western Ontario | Workentin M.S.,University of Western Ontario | Ding Z.,University of Western Ontario
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

The well-defined electrochemical features and optical properties of the negatively charged Au25 clusters (Au25 -) provide opportunities for a photoelectrochemical study by means of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique. Under annihilation conditions where the Au25 - is electrochemically pumped to its various oxidized and reduced forms showed no appreciable ECL light emission, due presumably to the short lifetime of the electrogenerated intermediates and their reactivity. Interestingly, in either Au25 -/tri-n- propylamine (TPrA) or Au25 -/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) co-reactant systems, the correspondingly highly reducing and oxidizing intermediates electrogenerated from TPrA and BPO lead to light emission at 950 and 890 nm in near-infrared (NIR) region. The ECL in the presence of various concentrations of TPrA (6.3, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM) and BPO (2.5, 5, 25 and 50 mM) was explicitly investigated. Along with the concentration dependence study, spooling ECL spectroscopy provided insight into the ECL mechanisms. Notably, while the Au25 -* is the main light emission source with BPO, ECL in the presence of TPrA is attributed to emissions from the Au25 -*, Au25 0* and Au25 +* that are tuneable by means of the applied potential and TPrA concentration. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Doey T.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2012

Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with unique pharmacological properties, used for a variety of indications, including psychotic and mood disorders in youth. Existing literature was reviewed to summarize experience with this agent in that population. Methods: A review of relevant literature using the key words aripiprazole, children, pediatric, all child, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and atypical antipsychotics was conducted. Results: A total of 140 articles and book chapters were identified, of which 7 reported double-blind controlled trials with aripiprazole, 5 were meta-analyses of pooled data, 11 were open label trials, 10 were chart reviews, and 17 were case reports or case series. Limitations: Although every effort was made to locate all available data, some information from posters or researchers was not available. Publication bias tends to report positive outcomes with a treatment, while negative studies are less likely to be reported. Most trials are of short duration. Conclusions: Treatment with aripiprazole is associated with significant reduction of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores in youth with schizophrenia, and reductions in items in the negative symptom scores at higher doses (30 mg/day). Significant reductions in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) have been demonstrated in youth with bipolar disorder. In mixed populations, reductions in the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-S) have also been demonstrated when compared with treatment with placebo. Head-to-head comparisons are fewer in number, and overall aripiprazole compares favorably with other atypical antipsychotics (ATAs) in the populations studied. Treatment with aripiprazole is reported to have a lower incidence of weight gain, and less elevation of prolactin. At higher doses, it appears more likely to result in extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tremor. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Morrow S.A.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2013

Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) often involves attentional deficits. The Stroop colour word test, a measure of attention, lacks current normative data for an english-speaking North american MS population. Further some authors suggest the Stroop actually measures processing speed. Objective: To generate normative data for the Stroop colour word test that can be used for a Canadian or North american MS population and to examine the relationship between processing speed tests-the Paced auditory Serial addition Test (PaSaT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)-and the Stroop. Results: Data from 146 healthy subjects aged 18-56 was collected. age was significantly although weakly correlated with general intelligence (r=0.168, p=0.043) assessed with the North american adult Reading Test (NaaRT), and education (r=-0.313, p<0.001). No demographic variables were associated with SDMT or PaSaT. age had a low-moderate negative correlation (r=-0.403, p<0.001) with Stroop scores. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) Stroop score was 45.4(10.4). The z-score can thus be calculated as [(X-45.4)/10.4]. if adjusted for age, Xadj = [X-(-0.47)(age-37.5)] and is substituted for X. in a comparison MS population consisting of 75 randomly selected patients from the MS Cognitive clinic, Stroop and PaSaT performance were not related. a relationship existed between Stroop and SDMT scores but only 12.2% of the Stroop score variance was explained by the SDMT. Therefore, the Stroop measures selective attention independently of processing speed. Conclusion: This data can be used to determine impaired attention in MS patients.

Mitchell D.G.V.,University of Western Ontario | Greening S.G.,University of Western Ontario
Neuroscientist | Year: 2012

Emotional stimuli are thought to gain rapid and privileged access to processing resources in the brain. The structures involved in this enhanced access are thought to support subconscious, reflexive processes. Whether these pathways contribute to the phenomenological experience of emotional visual awareness (i.e., conscious perception) is unclear. In this review, it is argued that subcortical networks associated with the rapid detection of emotionally salient stimuli also play a key role in shaping awareness. This proposal is based on the idea that awareness of visual stimuli should be considered along a continuum, having intermediate levels, rather than as an all-or-none construct. It is also argued that awareness of emotional stimuli requires less input from frontoparietal structures that are often considered crucial for visual awareness. Evidence is also presented that implicates a region of the medial prefrontal cortex, involved in emotion regulation, in modulating amygdala output to determine awareness of emotional visual stimuli; when emotional stimuli are present, the conscious perception of alternative stimuli requires greater regulatory influences from cortical structures. Thus, emotional stimuli are privileged not only for neuronal representation and impact on subconscious processes, but also for awareness, allowing humans to deal flexibly rather than merely reflexively to biologically significant stimuli. © The Author(s) 2012.

Gaiduk A.P.,University of Western Ontario | Firaha D.S.,University of Western Ontario | Staroverov V.N.,University of Western Ontario
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We propose a general method for obtaining accurate valence and Rydberg excitation energies from standard density-functional approximations in adiabatic linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory. The method consists in modeling the sum of Hartree (Coulomb) and exchange-correlation potentials, v HXC(r), by the Hartree-exchange-correlation potential of the corresponding partially ionized system in which a fraction of electron charge (δ=0.15 to 0.30, depending on the functional) is removed from the highest occupied Kohn-Sham orbital level. The model potential is less repulsive and closer to exact in valence and near asymptotic regions, so it yields more accurate Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital eigenvalues. By applying this scheme to conventional local, semilocal, and hybrid density-functional approximations, we improve their accuracy for Rydberg excitations by almost an order of magnitude without sacrificing the already good performance for valence transitions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Beaton M.D.,University of Western Ontario
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of liver disease in western society. It is a cause of end-stage liver disease, with increased mortality secondary to cirrhosis and its complications. It is also recognized that cardiovascular disease is a significant cause of death in these patients. Significant work evaluating various treatments has been performed in recent years; however, to date, no ideal therapy exists. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management. The present article reviews the current status of various treatment modalities evaluated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ©2012 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Polihronov J.G.,University of Western Ontario | Straatman A.G.,University of Western Ontario
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The presented study examines the energetics of confined fluid flow in a rotating reference frame. Parallels are drawn to the corresponding scenario of rectilinear motion, where ejection of fluid results in linear propulsion of the frame. Absorption of flow energy into the frame motion leads to cooling of the ejected fluid. Relevance of the observed energetics to the temperature separation phenomenon in Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes is discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Elbeshbishy E.,University of Western Ontario | Nakhla G.,University of Western Ontario
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Five different mesophilic systems were evaluated in this study for the anaerobic treatment of food waste. Systems A and B were one stage methane with unsonicated and sonicated feeds, respectively, while, systems C and D were two-stage hydrogen and methane with unsonicated and sonicated feeds, respectively. System E comprised a novel sonicated biological hydrogen reactor (SBHR) followed by methane reactor. The results showed that sonication inside the reactor in the first stage (system E) showed superior results compared to all other systems. Overall VSS removal efficiencies of 67%, 59%, 51%, 44%, and 36% were achieved in systems E, D, C, B, and A, respectively. Volumetric hydrogen production rates of 4.8, 3.3, and 2.6L H2/Lreactord were achieved in the SBHR, CSTR with and without sonicated feed, respectively, while, methane production rates of 1.6, 2.1, 2.3, 2.6, and 3.2L CH4/Lreactord were achieved in systems A-E, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

MacDonald J.I.,University of Western Ontario | Dick F.A.,University of Western Ontario
Genes and Cancer | Year: 2012

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) plays an integral role in G1-S checkpoint control and consequently is a frequent target for inactivation in cancer. The RB protein can function as an adaptor, nucleating components such as E2Fs and chromatin regulating enzymes into the same complex. For this reason, pRB's regulation by posttranslational modifications is thought to be critical. pRB is phosphorylated by a number of different kinases such as cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks), p38 MAP kinase, Chk1/2, Abl, and Aurora b. Although phosphorylation of pRB by Cdks has been extensively studied, activities regulated through phosphorylation by other kinases are just starting to be understood. As well as being phosphorylated, pRB is acetylated, methylated, ubiquitylated, and SUMOylated. Acetylation, methylation, and SUMOylation play roles in pRB mediated gene silencing. Ubiquitinylation of pRB promotes its degradation and may be used to regulate apoptosis. Recent proteomic data have revealed that pRB is posttranslationally modified to a much greater extent than previously thought. This new information suggests that many unknown pathways affect pRB regulation. This review focuses on posttranslational modifications of pRB and how they influence its function. The final part of the review summarizes new phosphorylation sites from accumulated proteomic data and discusses the possibilities that might arise from this data. © The Author(s) 2013.

Stockmann T.J.,University of Western Ontario | Ding Z.,University of Western Ontario
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The formal transfer potentials of hydrophilic alkali metal ions Li +, Na +, K +, Rb +, and Cs + were determined at waterroom temperature ionic liquid (wRTIL) interfaces. A working curve for an interface held at the tip of a micropipette (25 μm in diameter) was developed through simulated cyclic voltammograms (CVs) via finite element analysis with Comsol Multiphysics software. This methodology takes advantage of the symmetric diffusion regime experienced at the wRTIL micropipette interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (micro-ITIES) which generates peak-shaped waves in the forward and reverse scans similar to those in CVs obtained at large (centimeter scale) ITIES. Through the simulation a profile of IT was generated in order to construct the working curve from which, in conjunction with experimentally obtained CVs, the formal transfer potentials were extrapolated. The unique characteristics of diffusion at an interface utilizing a pulled capillary make this approach possible. Additionally, within the simulation the geometry can be tailored to approximate closely the actual physical and experimental conditions. In this way the formal transfer potentials of Li +, Na +, K +, Rb +, and Cs + were found to be 0.565, 0.548, 0.521, 0.531, and 518 V, respectively, at the interface between water and our extremely hydrophobic ionic liquid, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate. The implications of these constants towards the evaluation of metal ion extractions will also be discussed. This journal is © the Owner Societies.

Vilos G.A.,University of Western Ontario | Rajakumar C.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology | Year: 2013

Electrosurgery is the most commonly used and misunderstood technology by all surgical and medical disciplines. A lack of basic knowledge or ignorance of principles of electrosurgery and equipment among obstetricians and gynecologists is reported. As a result, thermal injuries during laparoscopic electrosurgery occur, which frequently lead to significant morbidity and mortality and medicolegal actions. Surveys indicate that up to 90% of general surgeons and gynecologists use monopolar radiofrequency (RF) during laparoscopy, 18% have experienced visceral burns, and 13% admitted 1 or more ongoing cases of litigations associated with such burns. This article describes the basics of electrosurgery beginning with the generation of electrons and their physical characteristics and governing laws before their arrival in the operating room where they are fed to an electrosurgical unit (ESU) to boost their frequency with step-up transformers from 60 Hz to >500 000 Hz. This RF creates heat, resulting in dissection, desiccation, coagulation, and fulguration of tissues without neuromuscular stimulation, pain, or burn to the patient. The ESU delivers power (wattage = volts × amps) in monopolar or bipolar (1 vs 2 high-density electrodes) configuration. Because of RF, monopolar electrosurgery compared with other energy sources is associated with unique characteristics, inherent risks, and complications caused by the requirement of a return/dispersive electrode, inadvertent direct and/or capacitive coupling, or insulation failure of instruments. These dangers become particularly important with the popular and frequent use of monopolar electrodes (hook, needle, and scissors) during cholecystectomy; robot-assisted surgeries; and the re-emergence of single-port laparoscopy, which requires close proximity and crossing of multiple intraabdominal instruments outside the surgeon's field of view. Presently, we identify all these potential risks and complications associated with the use of electrosurgery and provide suggestions and solutions to mitigate/minimize these risks based on good clinical practice and sound biophysical principles. © 2013 AAGL.

Mirahmadi M.,University of Western Ontario | Shami A.,University of Western Ontario
Computer Networks | Year: 2012

Hybrid optical-wireless networks provide the inexpensive broadband bandwidth, vital for modern applications, as well as mobility, and scalability required for an access network. However, in order to provide satisfactory Quality of Service (QoS) on such a non-homogeneous network, innovative designs are required. This paper proposes a novel scheduling mechanism to significantly improve the delay guarantee, while maintaining high-level throughput, by predicting the incoming traffic to optical network units (ONU). The proposed scheduler managed to exploit the available information in hybrid optical-wireless networks, to enhance the ONU scheduler. This results in accurate prediction of incoming traffic, which leads to intelligent and traffic-aware, scheduling and dynamic bandwidth assignment (DBA). Based on the proposed architecture, two DBA algorithms are proposed and their performance is evaluated by extensive simulations. Moreover, the maximum throughput of such network is analyzed. The results show that by using the proposed algorithms, the delay bound of delay-sensitive traffic classes can be decreased by a factor of two, without any adverse effect on the throughput. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Delong A.,University of Western Ontario | Osokin A.,Moscow State University | Isack H.N.,University of Western Ontario | Boykov Y.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2012

The α-expansion algorithm has had a significant impact in computer vision due to its generality, effectiveness, and speed. It is commonly used to minimize energies that involve unary, pairwise, and specialized higher-order terms. Our main algorithmic contribution is an extension of α-expansion that also optimizes "label costs" with well-characterized optimality bounds. Label costs penalize a solution based on the set of labels that appear in it, for example by simply penalizing the number of labels in the solution. Our energy has a natural interpretation as minimizing description length (MDL) and sheds light on classical algorithms like K-means and expectation- maximization (EM). Label costs are useful for multi-model fitting and we demonstrate several such applications: homography detection, motion segmentation, image segmentation, and compression. Our C++ and MATLAB code is publicly available . © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ghoddami H.,University of Western Ontario | Yazdani A.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a single-stage three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system that features enhanced maximum power point tracking capability, and an improved energy yield under partial shading conditions. Further, the proposed PV system can effectively double the maximum permissible dc voltage of a grounded conventional single-stage PV system, with no need for insulators, fuses, disconnects, and switchgear of a higher voltage class, with respect to safety/insulation standards or common system integration practices exercised for conventional grounded single-stage PV systems. The proposed PV system is realized through the parallel connection of an auxiliary half-bridge converter to the dc link of a conventional single-stage PV system and, therefore, is also an option for retrofit applications. This paper presents the mathematical model, principles of operation, and the control loops of the proposed single-stage PV system. The performance of the proposed single-stage PV system is demonstrated by time-domain simulation studies conducted on a detailed switched model in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment. © 2010 IEEE.

Delghavi M.B.,University of Western Ontario | Yazdani A.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a voltage- and frequency-control strategy for the islanded operation of dispatchable electronically coupled distributed-resource units, based on a discrete-time mathematical model which is also valid for variable-frequency operation. The proposed control strategy utilizes a combination of deadbeat and repetitive control to enhance the performance of the control system under unbalanced and/or distorted load currents. Moreover, a new approach is proposed to maintain the effectiveness of the repetitive control under variable-frequency operational scenarios. Furthermore, the control strategy employs feedforward compensation techniques to mitigate the impact of load dynamics on the regulation process. The performance of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated for single- and multiunit islanded networks, through digital time-domain simulation studies in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment. © 2010 IEEE.

Delghavi M.B.,University of Western Ontario | Yazdani A.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

This paper proposes an adaptive feedforward compensation that alters the dynamic coupling between a distributed-resource unit and the host microgrid, so that the robustness of the system stability to droop coefficients and network dynamic uncertainties is enhanced. The proposed feedforward strategy preserves the steady-state effect that the conventional droop mechanism exhibits and, therefore, does not compromise the steady-state power sharing regime of the microgrid or the voltage/frequency regulation. The feedforward compensation is adaptive as it is modified periodically according to the system steady-state operating point which, in turn, is estimated through an online recursive least-square estimation technique. This paper presents a discrete-time mathematical model and analytical framework for the proposed feedforward compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed control is demonstrated through time-domain simulation studies, in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment, conducted on a detailed switched model of a sample two-unit microgrid. © 2011 IEEE.

Hackam D.G.,University of Western Ontario
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose: An increasing number of case reports link cannabis consumption to cerebrovascular events. Yet these case reports have not been scrutinized using criteria for causal inference. Methods: All case reports on cannabis and cerebrovascular events were retrieved. Four causality criteria were addressed: temporality, adequacy of stroke work-up, effects of rechallenge, and concomitant risk factors that could account for the cerebrovascular event. Results: There were 34 case reports on 64 patients. Most cases (81%) exhibited a temporal relationship between cannabis exposure and the index event. In 70%, the evaluation was sufficiently comprehensive to exclude other sources for stroke. About a quarter (22%) of patients had another stroke after subsequent re-exposure to cannabis. Finally, half of patients (50%) had concomitant stroke risk factors, most commonly tobacco (34%) and alcohol (11%) consumption. Conclusions: Many case reports support a causal link between cannabis and cerebrovascular events. This accords well with epidemiological and mechanistic research on the cerebrovascular effects of cannabis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Hajmohammad S.,University of Manitoba | Vachon S.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2016

This study takes a conceptual theory building approach to develop a framework for managing supplier sustainability risk-the adverse impact on a buying organization from a supplier's social or environmental misconduct. Using anecdotal evidence and the literature, we present four distinct risk management strategies that supply managers adopt: risk avoidance, monitoring-based risk mitigation, collaboration-based risk mitigation, and risk acceptance. Drawing on agency and resource dependence theories, we study how the interactions of two key risk management predictors-that is, the supply managers' perceived risk and the buyer-supplier dependence structure-affect supply managers' strategy choice. Specifically, we propose that a collaborative-based mitigation strategy, involving direct interaction and solution development with the suppliers, is selected by supply managers in a high perceived risk-buyer dominant context. In a low perceived risk-buyer dominant context, however, a monitoring-based mitigation strategy is preferred. When the buyer and the supplier are not dependent on each other and there is a low perceived risk, the supply managers accept the risk by taking no actions, whereas in a high perceived risk-independent context the supply managers would avoid the risk by terminating the relationship with the supplier. We conclude the study by describing the theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the study as well as the avenues for future research. © 2016 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.

Ahmadi P.,University of Western Ontario | Dincer I.,University of Western Ontario
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

The present study deals with a comprehensive thermodynamic and exergoeconomic modeling of a Gas Turbine (GT) power plant. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, the results are compared with one of the largest gas turbine power plants in Iran (known as Shahid Salimi Gas Turbine power plant). Moreover, a multi-objective optimization is performed to find the best design variables. The design parameters considered here are air compressor pressure ratio (rAC), compressor isentropic efficiency (ηAC), gas turbine isentropic efficiency (ηGT), combustion chamber inlet temperature (T3) and gas turbine inlet temperature (TIT). In the multi-objective optimization approach, certain exergetic, economic and environmental parameters are considered through two objective functions, including the gas turbine exergy efficiency, total cost rate of the system production including cost rate of environmental impact. In addition, fast and effective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied for the optimization purpose. The thermoenviroeconomic objective function is minimized while power plant exergy efficiency is maximized using a power full developed genetic algorithm. The results of optimal designs are obtained as a set of multiple optimum solutions, called 'the Pareto optimal solutions'. Moreover, the optimized results are compared with the working data from the case study. These show that by selecting the optimized data 50.50% reduction in environmental impacts is obtained. Finally, sensitivity analysis of change in objective functions, when the optimum design parameters vary, is performed and the degree of each parameter on conflicting objective functions has been determined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gerson A.R.,University of Western Ontario | Guglielmo C.G.,University of Western Ontario
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

Birds primarily rely on fat for energy during fasting and to fuel energetically demanding activities. Proteins are catabolized supplemental to fat, the function of which in birds remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that birds may increase the catabolism of body protein under dehydrating conditions as a means to maintain water balance, because catabolism of wet protein yields more total metabolic and bound water (0.155·H2O-1·kJ-1) than wet lipids (0.029 g·H2O-1·kJ-1). On the other hand, protein sparing should be important to maintain function of muscles and organs. We used quantitative magnetic resonance body composition analysis and hygrometry to investigate the effect of water restriction on fat and lean mass catabolism during short-term fasting at rest and in response to a metabolic challenge (4-h shivering) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Water loss at rest and during shivering was compared with water gains from the catabolism of tissue. At rest, water-restricted birds had significantly greater lean mass loss, higher plasma uric acid concentration, and plasma osmolality than control birds. Endogenous water gains from lean mass catabolism offset losses over the resting period. Water restriction had no effect on lean mass catabolism during shivering, as water gains from fat oxidation appeared sufficient to maintain water balance. These data provide direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that water stress can increase protein catabolism at rest, possibly as a metabolic strategy to offset high rates of evaporative water loss. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

Henry H.A.L.,University of Western Ontario
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Assays for extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) have become a common tool for studying soil microbial responses in climate change experiments. Nevertheless, measures of potential EEA, which are conducted under controlled conditions, often do not account for the direct effects of climate change on EEA that occur as a result of the temperature and moisture dependence of enzyme activity in situ. Likewise, the indirect effects of climate on EEA in the field, that occur via effects on microbial enzyme producers, must be assessed in the context of potential changes in plant and soil faunal communities. Here, EEA responses to warming and altered precipitation in field studies are reviewed, with the goal of evaluating the role of EEA in enhancing our understanding of soil and ecosystem responses to climate change. Seasonal and interannual variation in EEA responses to climate change treatments are examined, and potential interactions with elevated atmospheric CO2, increased atmospheric N deposition and changes in disturbance regimes are also explored. It is demonstrated that in general, soil moisture manipulations in field studies have had a much greater influence on potential EEA than warming treatments. However, these results may simply reflect the low magnitude of soil warming achieved in many field experiments. In addition, changes in plant species composition over the longer term in response to warming could strongly affect EEA. Future challenges involve extending studies of potential EEA to address EEA responses to climate change in situ, and gaining further insights into the mechanisms, such as enzyme production, stabilization and turnover, that underlie EEA responses. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Geremew A.M.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2013

The overall development of pore-water pressure in a deep, homogenous, and isotropic porous formation caused by wave-induced cyclic loading has been analyzed. A simplified equation for the estimation of the maximum possible liquefied soil (sediment) depth has been proposed for residual liquefaction in deep, homogenous, and isotropic soils with known soil parameters, water depth, and design wind-induced wave parameters ©2012 AmericanSociety of Civil Engineers.

Moharana A.,University of Western Ontario | Varma R.K.,University of Western Ontario
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2011

Integration of large wind farms may get constrained owing to the available transfer capacity of existing transmission networks. This transmission capacity may be enhanced by incorporating series compensation. However, series capacitors are known to cause subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillations in synchronous generators. In this study, the potential of SSR is investigated with series-compensated lines connected to wind farms based on single-cage self-excited induction generators. A small-signal mathematical model is developed for the prediction of SSR oscillations in such a wind farm for a study system similar to the IEEE First SSR benchmark system. Eigenvalue analysis is performed through MATLAB at various operating points. This is validated by detailed time-domain simulation through electromagnetic transient simulation software EMTDC/PSCAD for a three-phase-to-ground (LLLG) fault at the remote end of the compensated line. An equivalent circuit analysis is performed to examine the impact of a similar fault at the terminals of the wind farm. It is shown from detailed non-linear simulation that even at a realistic level of series compensation a three-phase fault at generator terminals for low levels of wind farm power generation may subject the generator shafts to potentially dangerous magnitudes. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Spence J.D.,University of Western Ontario | Hackam D.G.,University of Western Ontario
Stroke | Year: 2010

Background and Purpose: Until recently, atherosclerosis was thought to be inexorably progressive. Beginning in 2001 and implemented in our vascular prevention clinics by 2003, we have been treating arteries rather than risk factors. We studied the proportion of patients with plaque progression vs regression before and after this change in paradigm. Methods: Carotid total plaque area was measured by ultrasound at baseline and during follow-up. Before 2003, patients were treated according to consensus guidelines. After 2003, patients with plaque progression were treated more intensively, with the explicit goal of halting plaque progression or achieving regression. RESULTS: Four thousand three-hundred seventy-eight patients had serial plaque measurements in a given year between 1997 and 2007; 47% were female. Mean age at time of referral was 60 (SD, 15); this increased steeply (from age 50 to 62 years over the first 5 years) as we focused on stroke prevention. The annual rate of plaque progression increased steeply as the clinic populations aged but then abruptly decreased after implementation of the new approach to therapy. Before 2003, approximately half the patients had plaque progression and ≈25% had regression; by 2005, this had reversed. Changes in plasma lipids show that the differences were attributable to plaque measurement, not simply more intensive therapy for all patients. By 2007, patients with progression had lower levels of low-density lipoprotein than those with regression. Conclusions: Treating arteries without measuring plaque would be like treating hypertension without measuring blood pressure. A clinical trial to test this approach is being designed. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Leask A.,University of Western Ontario
Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair | Year: 2010

Background: In response to normal tissue injury, fibroblasts migrate into the wound where they synthesize and remodel new extracellular matrix. The fibroblast responsible for this process is called the myofibroblast, which expresses the highly contractile protein α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). In normal tissue repair, the myofibroblast disappears. Conversely, abnormal myofibroblast persistence is a key feature of fibrotic dieases, including scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc). Myofibroblasts can be derived from differentiation of local resident fibroblasts or by recruitment of microvascular pericytes.Clinical problem addressed: Controlling myofibroblast differentiation and persistence is crucial for developing anti-fibrotic therapies targeting SSc.Basic science advances: Insights have been recently generated into how the proteins transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), endothelin-1 (ET-1), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) contribute to myofibroblast differentiation and pericyte recruitment in general and to the persistent myofibroblast phenotype of lesional SSc fibroblast, specifically.Relevance to clinical care: This minireview summarizes recent findings pertinent to the origin of myofibroblasts in SSc and how this knowledge might be used to control the fibrosis in this disease.Conclusions: TGFβ, ET-1, CCN2 and PDGF are likely to cooperate in driving tissue repair and fibrogenic responses in fibroblasts. TGFβ, ET-1 and CCN2 appear to contribute to myofibroblast differentiation; PDGF appears to be involved with pericyte recruitment. Thus, different therapeutic strategies may exist for targeting the multisystem fibrotic disorder SSc. © 2010 Leask; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Paterson D.H.,University of Western Ontario | Warburton D.E.R.,University of British Columbia
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2010

Background: The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence.Methods: Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic database search strategies were used to identify citations which were screened (title and abstract) for inclusion. Included articles were reviewed to complete standardized data extraction tables, and assess study quality. An established system of assessing the level and grade of evidence for recommendations was employed.Results: Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria for the relationship between physical activity and functional independence, and 34 were included with a cognitive function outcome. Greater physical activity of an aerobic nature (categorized by a variety of methods) was associated with higher functional status (expressed by a host of outcome measures) in older age. For functional independence, moderate (and high) levels of physical activity appeared effective in conferring a reduced risk (odds ratio ~0.5) of functional limitations or disability. Limitation in higher level performance outcomes was reduced (odds ratio ~0.5) with vigorous (or high) activity with an apparent dose-response of moderate through to high activity. Exercise training interventions (including aerobic and resistance) of older adults showed improvement in physiological and functional measures, and suggestion of longer-term reduction in incidence of mobility disability. A relatively high level of physical activity was related to better cognitive function and reduced risk of developing dementia; however, there were mixed results of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function indices.Conclusions: There is a consistency of findings across studies and a range of outcome measures related to functional independence; regular aerobic activity and short-term exercise programmes confer a reduced risk of functional limitations and disability in older age. Although a precise characterization of a minimal or effective physical activity dose to maintain functional independence is difficult, it appears moderate to higher levels of activity are effective and there may be a threshold of at least moderate activity for significant outcomes. © 2010 Paterson and Warburton; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

McBean G.A.,University of Western Ontario
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2012

Our planet is under stress from the impacts of hazards, like earthquakes, floods and storms. These have major impacts on vulnerable, generally less-developed societies and make achieving sustainable development exceedingly difficult. A relatively new international research program, Integrated Research on Disaster Risk is now underway towards meeting its legacy of an enhanced capacity around the world to address hazards and make informed decisions on actions to reduce their impacts leading to societies shifting their focus from response-recovery towards prevention-mitigation, building resilience and reducing risks, learning from experience and avoiding past mistakes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Wahl L.M.,University of Western Ontario
Genetics | Year: 2011

In this commentary, GENETICS' Associate Editor Lindi Wahl examines R. A. Fisher's 1922 paper "On the dominance ratio" in light of two modern responses to the question of allele fixation probabilities. The two articles that Wahl discusses are published in this month's GENETICS. © 2011 by the Genetics Society of America.

Leask A.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2012

Scleroderma, an autoimmune disorder characterized by skin and organ fibrosis, has no treatment. Although over the past decade valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying scleroderma have been generated, results in clinical trials have been disappointing. This issue is likely to arise due to the heterogeneity of scleroderma. Molecular insights into the heterogeneity of this disease have been provided by genome-wide expression profiling. In a recent paper, Bhattacharyya and colleagues (PLOS One 6:e23082, 2011b) to show that the overexpression of a range of "fibroproliferative" genes in diffuse cutaneous scleroderma patients are likely to be caused by the overexpression of transcription factor Early growth response (Egr)-1. Only a minority of Egr-1-regulated genes were also found to be regulated by TGF-β. Moreover, Greenblatt and colleagues (Am J Pathol., 2012) have shown that the over-expression of "inflammatory" genes overexpressed in "localized" scleroderma and a small subset of limited and diffuse scleroderma patients is likely to be due to the activity of interleukin-13 (IL-13). Intriguingly, at a gene expression level, murine sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (sclGVHD) approximates this inflammatory subset of scleroderma. These data suggest that targeting Egr-1 expression/activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy to control fibrosis in a subset of diffuse scleroderma patients, and further emphasize that notion that elevated canonical TGFβ signaling is insufficient to explain the fibrosis observed in scleroderma. Moreover, targeting IL-13 expression/activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy to target the inflammation leading to "localized" scleroderma. © The International CCN Society 2012.

Cook B.W.,University of Western Ontario | Shaw G.S.,University of Western Ontario
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2012

E2 conjugating enzymes are the central enzymes in the ubiquitination pathway and are responsible for the transfer of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins on to target substrates. The secondary structural elements of the catalytic domain of these enzymes is highly conserved, including the sequence conservation of a three-residue HPN (His-Pro-Asn)motif located upstream of the active-site cysteine residue used for ubiquitin conjugation. Despite the vast structural knowledge of E2 enzymes, the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes remains poorly understood, in large part due to variation in the arrangements of the residues in the HPN motif in existing E2 structures. In the present study, we used the E2 enzyme HIP2 to probe the structures of the HPN motif in several other E2 enzymes. A combination of chemical-shift analysis, determination of the histidine protonation states and amide temperature coefficients were used to determine the orientation of the histidine ring and hydrogen-bonding arrangements within the HPN motif. Unlike many three-dimensional structures, we found that a conserved hydrogen bond between the histidine imidazole ring and the asparagine backbone amide proton, a common histidine protonation state, and a common histidine orientation exists for all E2 enzymes examined. These results indicate that the histidine within the HPN motif is orientated to structurally stabilize a tight turn motif in all E2 enzymes and is not orientated to interact with the asparagine side chain as proposed in some mechanisms. These results suggest that a common catalysis mechanism probably exists for all E2 conjugating enzymes to facilitate ubiquitin transfer. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society.

Kanabar M.G.,University of Western Ontario | Sidhu T.S.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard 61850 proposes the Ethernet-based communication networks for protection and automation within the power substation. Major manufacturers are currently developing products for the process bus in compliance with IEC 61850 part 9-2. For the successful implementation of the IEC 61850-9-2 process bus, it is important to analyze the performance of time-critical messages for the substation protection and control functions. This paper presents the performance evaluation of the IEC 61850-9-2 process bus for a typical 345 kV/230 kV substation by studying the time-critical sampled value messages delay and loss by using the OPNET simulation tool in the first part of this paper. In the second part, this paper presents a corrective measure to address the issues with the several sampled value messages lost and/or delayed by proposing the sampled value estimation algorithm for any digital substation relaying. Finally, the proposed sampled value estimation algorithm has been examined for various power system scenarios with the help of PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB simulation tools. © 2010 IEEE.

Lobo N.,University of Western Ontario | Millar J.S.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2013

Pulsed resources have significant effects on population and community dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Mast seeding is an important resource pulse in deciduous forests; these boom and bust cycles of seed production generate strong lagged population responses by post-dispersal seed predators such as rodents, which then cascade through multiple trophic levels and regulate population dynamics of their predators and prey. However, similar interactions in another major pulsed system, coniferous forests, are inconsistent, and the effects of interannual variation in conifer seed production on many consumer populations are largely unknown. We used large-scale manipulation and intensive monitoring to examine the population dynamics of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in relation to fall seed production by two northern conifers, white spruce (Picea glauca) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Previous studies have shown that spruce seeds are a preferred food source of mice, while fir seeds are generally avoided if other foods are available. Therefore, we expected that there would be a positive relationship between mouse demography and previous spruce seed production, but no effect of fir mast seeding. Supplementation of a mouse population using spruce seeds indicated that increased fall spruce seed availability can enhance overwinter survival and population densities in the following spring, summer, and fall. However, long-term population monitoring indicated that mouse demography was not positively affected by spruce mast seeding, likely due to strong interspecific competition with the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudoniscus), a dominant pre-dispersal spruce seed predator. Conversely, we observed an unexpected delayed effect of fir mast seeding, where increased fall fir seed production did not influence overwinter or spring mouse demography, but instead enhanced summer survival, body masses and pregnancy rates of overwintered adults. This led to increased summer population densities and may have been mediated by population responses of invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators to increased fir seed availability. Our results indicate that rodent responses to resource pulses in coniferous forests are more complex than in deciduous environments and reveal previously unobserved direct and indirect consumer-resource dynamics that require further examination. This system is ideal for the large-scale, integrative ecosystem studies that ecologists are encouraged to pursue. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Ciuffi A.,University of Lausanne | Barr S.D.,University of Western Ontario
Methods | Year: 2011

The integration of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genetic information into the host genome is fundamental for its replication and long-term persistence in the host. Isolating and characterizing the integration sites can be useful for obtaining data such as identifying the specific genomic location of integration or understanding the forces dictating HIV integration site selection. The methods outlined in this article describe a highly efficient and precise technique for identifying HIV integration sites in the host genome on a small scale using molecular cloning techniques and standard sequencing or on a massive scale using 454 pyrosequencing. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Adams P.C.,University of Western Ontario
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2015

Hemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease in northern European populations. Body iron stores progressively increase in most patients, which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, heart failure, arthritis, and pigmentation. Simple blood tests such as the serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are useful to suggest the diagnosis which can be confirmed in most cases with a simple genetic test for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. However, these blood tests are often misinterpreted and there are rare patients with iron overload without HFE mutations. A diagnostic approach is presented based on a large referral practice and a population-based study (HEIRS) which screened for iron overload in 101 168 participants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fenton M.B.,University of Western Ontario
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2013

In their 1960 paper about bats using echolocation to find and track flying insects, Donald R. Griffin, Fredric A. Webster and Charles R. Michael (Animal Behaviour, 8, 141-154) changed the face of research on this behaviour. They moved the field of echolocation from documenting that this animal or that one could echolocate to demonstrating an adaptive value of echolocation. They used experiments with captive bats, fruit flies, mosquitoes and crane flies to illustrate how bats used a 'feeding buzz' as they closed with their prey. The topic remains current today, and one of the first papers in Nature in 2013 (Jacobsen et al., 493, 93-96) presented more information about feeding buzzes building on the platform that Griffin et al. had established. In the intervening period, literally thousands of papers have been published about echolocation, demonstrating how curious minds, technological advances and basic information about natural history can result in diversification of a field of research. We have learned that bats can use echolocation to recognize water surfaces and to find insect prey on spider webs. The continuum between orientation and social functions of echolocation means that this behaviour not only influences foraging and negotiating obstacle paths, but is also a cue that brings individuals together. Acoustic wars between bats and potential insect prey have further enriched the discipline by identifying acoustic measures and countermeasures used by the players. Parallel studies with toothed whales have provided further examples of the enrichment that echolocation brings to the lives of animals and those who study them. © 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Dube J.B.,University of Western Ontario | Johansen C.T.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
BioEssays | Year: 2011

The concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) in plasma is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease risk and human genetic studies have long endeavoured to elucidate the pathways that regulate LDL metabolism. Massive genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of common genetic variation associated with LDL-C in the population have implicated SORT1 in LDL metabolism. Using experimental paradigms and standards appropriate for understanding the mechanisms by which common variants alter phenotypic expression, three recent publications have presented divergent and even contradictory findings. Interestingly, although these reports each linked SORT1 to LDL metabolism, they did not agree on a mechanism to explain the association. Here, we review recent mechanistic studies of SORT1 - the first gene identified by GWAS as a determinant of plasma LDL-C to be evaluated mechanistically. © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

McGavin M.J.,University of Western Ontario
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2012

Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex CC30 has caused infectious epidemics for more than 60 years, and, therefore, provides a model system to evaluate how evolution has influenced the disease potential of closely related strains. In previous multiple genome comparisons, phylogenetic analyses established three major branches that evolved from a common ancestor. Clade 1, comprised of historic pandemic phage type 80/81 methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and Clade 2 comprised of contemporary community acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) were hyper-virulent in murine infection models. Conversely, Clade 3 strains comprised of contemporary hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and clinical MSSA exhibited attenuated virulence, due to common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) that abrogate production of α-hemolysin Hla, and interfere with signaling of the accessory gene regulator agr. We have now completed additional in silico genome comparisons of 15 additional CC30 genomes in the public domain, to assess the hypothesis that Clade 3 has evolved to favor niche adaptation. In addition to SNP's that influence agr and hla, other common traits of Clade 3 include tryptophan auxotrophy due to a di-nucleotide deletion within trpD, a premature stop codon within isdH encoding an immunogenic cell surface protein involved in iron acquisition, loss of a genomic toxin-antitoxin (TA) addiction module, acquisition of S. aureus pathogenicity islands SaPI4, and SaPI2 encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin tst, and increased copy number of insertion sequence ISSau2, which appears to target transcription terminators. Compared to other Clade 3 MSSA, S. aureus MN8, which is associated with Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, exhibited a unique ISSau2 insertion, and enhanced production of toxic shock syndrome toxin encoded by SaPI2. Cumulatively, our data support the notion that Clade 3 strains are following an evolutionary blueprint toward niche-adaptation.

Ware W.R.,University of Western Ontario
Dermato-Endocrinology | Year: 2010

There is growing evidence that vitamin D deficiency significantly increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular events and that a vitamin D status representing sufficiency or optimum is protective. Unfortunately, in clinical trials that address interventions for reducing risk of adverse cardiovascular events, vitamin D status is not generally measured. Failure to do this has now assumed greater importance with the report of a study that found rosuvastatin at doses at the level used in a recent large randomized lipid lowering trial (JUPITER) had a large and significant impact on vitamin D levels as measured by the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The statin alone appears to have increased this marker such that the participants on average went from deficient to sufficient in two months. The difference in cardiovascular risk between those deficient and sufficient in vitamin D in observational studies was similar to the risk reduction found in JUPITER. Thus it appears that this pleiotropic effect of rosuvastatin may be responsible for part of its unusual effectiveness in reducing the risk of various cardiovascular endpoints found in JUPITER and calls into question the interpretation based only on LDL cholesterol and CRP changes. In addition, vitamin D status is a cardiovascular risk factor which up until now has not been considered in adjusting study results or in multivariate analysis, and even statistical analysis using only baseline values may be inadequate. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Tan J.,University of Western Ontario | Berg M.,Uppsala University
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes - rationalization and standardization - universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. © 2013 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.

Golbon N.,University of Western Ontario | Moschopoulos G.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

A new low-power single-stage ac-dc converter is proposed in the paper. The outstanding feature of the converter is that it can operate with a sinusoidal input current and a low primary-side dc bus voltage that is much less variable than that found in other single-stage converters. The operation of the converter is discussed in the paper and its various modes of operation are explained in detail. An analysis of the converters steady-state characteristics is performed and the results are used in the design of the converter. Experimental results obtained from a prototype converter are also presented. © 2012 IEEE.

Yu X.,University of Western Ontario | Jiang J.,University of Western Ontario
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology | Year: 2012

A model to represent loss of control effectiveness in an aircraft is developed by analyzing physical faults in the hydraulically-driven control surfaces. A hybrid fault-tolerant control system (FTCS) that combines the merits of passive and active FTCSs is proposed to accommodate this kind of partial actuator failures. The hybrid FTCS is able to first slow down the rate of fault induced system deterioration with minimal fault information so that the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) schemes can have additional time to achieve more accurate fault diagnosis. Once the correct fault information is obtained, the hybrid FTCS can counteract the faults effectively through an optimal reconfigurable controller. Depending on the availability of actuator redundancies, the passive FTCS and the reconfigurable controller are designed in the framework of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Case studies of an aircraft subject to different degree of loss of control effectiveness have been carried out to prove the effectiveness of this new approach to FTCS. © 2011 IEEE.

Dufault B.,University of Manitoba | Klar N.,University of Western Ontario
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

The ecologic study design is routinely used by epidemiologists in spite of its limitations. It is presently unknown how well the challenges of the design are dealt with in epidemiologic research. The purpose of this bibliometric review was to critically evaluate the characteristics, statistical methods, and reporting of results of modern cross-sectional ecologic papers. A search through 6 major epidemiology journals identified all cross-sectional ecologic studies published since January 1, 2000. A total of 125 articles met the inclusion requirements and were assessed via common evaluative criteria. It was found that a considerable number of cross-sectional ecologic studies use unreliable methods or contain statistical oversights; most investigators who adjusted their outcomes for age or sex did so improperly (64%), statistical validity was a potential issue for 20% of regression models, and simple linear regression was the most common analytic approach (31%). Many authors omitted important information when discussing the ecologic nature of their study (31%), the choice of study design (58%), and the susceptibility of their research to the ecological fallacy (49%). These results suggest that there is a need for an international set of guidelines that standardizes reporting on ecologic studies. Additionally, greater attention should be given to the relevant biostatistical literature. © 2011 The Author.

With the advent of new oral anticoagulants, the place of warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation needs re-evaluation. Warfarin is difficult to use, because of large individual differences in response and metabolism, many significant interactions with drugs and foods, and fluctuations in vitamin K absorption. It requires frequent blood testing and dose adjustments, so with good reason patients and physicians are eager for the newer agents that are easier to use. However, the purchase price of the new anticoagulants is so high that warfarin will remain in widespread use. It is important therefore for physicians to know how to use it well. Anticoagulants work much better for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation than do antiplatelet agents; physicians need to understand the concept of red thrombus (for which anticoagulants are required) versus white thrombus - platelet aggregates - which are the target of antiplatelet agents. Stroke from atrial fibrillation increases steeply with age, and the elderly benefit disproportionately from anticoagulation. It is still necessary for physicians to know how to use warfarin, and to use it better than it has been used in the past. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Donner A.,University of Western Ontario | Zou G.Y.,University of Western Ontario
Statistical Methods in Medical Research | Year: 2012

Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences. © The Author(s) 2010 Reprints and permissions:

Guaiana G.,University of Western Ontario
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic long-term psychiatric disorder, particularly frequent in primary care. There are several treatment options available, both non-pharmacological (i.e. cognitive behavioral therapy) and pharmacological. Among the pharmacological interventions, antidepressants, buspirone and benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been studied in GAD. Hydroxyzine is an anti-histamine medication which has been used in the treatment of anxiety. 1. To determine the efficacy of hydroxyzine in comparison with placebo or any other active agent in alleviating the acute symptoms of GAD. 2. To review acceptability of treatment with hydroxyzine in comparison with placebo or any other active agent. 3. To investigate the adverse effects of hydroxyzine in comparison with other active agents. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's controlled trial registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) were searched on 1 March 2010. The author team ran complementary searches on MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO and checked reference lists of included studies, previous systematic reviews and major textbooks of anxiety disorders. Personal communication with pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field was also undertaken. Randomised controlled trials allocating patients with GAD to hydroxyzine versus placebo and/or any other anxiolytic agent. Two authors independently extracted data. Information extracted included study characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention details and outcome measures in terms of efficacy (such as the number of patients who responded to treatment or remitted), acceptability (the number of patients who failed to complete the study) and tolerability (side effect profile). The search yielded 39 studies. We included five studies in the review with a total of 884 participants. We excluded 31 studies and designated three as awaiting assessment. The data from the included studies provide some evidence that hydroxyzine is more effective than placebo for GAD (odds ratio (OR) 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.58) and that it is also acceptable/tolerable (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.58) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40). Compared to other anxiolytic agents (benzodiazepines and buspirone), hydroxyzine was equivalent in terms of efficacy, acceptability and tolerability (hydroxyzine vs chloridiazepoxide: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.62; hydroxyzine vs buspirone efficacy OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.42). In terms of side effects, hydroxyzine was associated with a higher rate of sleepiness/drowsiness than the active comparators (OR 1.74, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.53). There was, however, a high risk of bias in the included studies. The included studies did not report on all the outcomes that were pre-specified in the protocol for this review. Even though more effective than placebo, due to the high risk of bias of the included studies, the small number of studies and the overall small sample size, it is not possible to recommend hydroxyzine as a reliable first-line treatment in GAD.

Moreau J.M.,University of Western Ontario | Ciriello J.,University of Western Ontario
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

This study was done to investigate the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) on metabolic factors associated with energy balance and body weight, and on hypothalamic satiety-inducing pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 8. h IH or normoxic control conditions. Food intake, locomotion and body weights were examined after IH. Additionally, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose were measured following exposure to IH. Furthermore, adipose tissue was removed and analyzed for leptin and adiponectin content. Finally, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) was assessed for alterations in protein signaling associated with satiety. IH reduced body weight, food intake and active cycle locomotion without altering adipose tissue mass. Leptin protein content was reduced while adiponectin content was elevated in adipose tissue after IH. Plasma concentration of leptin was significantly increased while adiponectin decreased after IH. No changes were found in plasma corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose. In ARC, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression were elevated. In addition, POMC-expressing neurons were activated as determined by immediate early gene FRA-1/2 expression. Finally, ERK1/2 and its phosphorylation were reduced in response to IH. These data suggest that IH induces significant alterations to body energy balance through changes in the secretion of leptin which exert effects on satiety-inducing pathways within the hypothalamus. © 2013 IBRO.

Myrvold W.C.,University of Western Ontario
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

One finds, in Maxwell's writings on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a conception of the nature of these subjects that differs in interesting ways from the way they are usually conceived. In particular, though-in agreement with the currently accepted view-Maxwell maintains that the second law of thermodynamics, as originally conceived, cannot be strictly true, the replacement he proposes is different from the version accepted by most physicists today. The modification of the second law accepted by most physicists is a probabilistic one: although statistical fluctuations will result in occasional spontaneous differences in temperature or pressure, there is no way to predictably and reliably harness these to produce large violations of the original version of the second law. Maxwell advocates a version of the second law that is strictly weaker; the validity of even this probabilistic version is of limited scope, limited to situations in which we are dealing with large numbers of molecules en masse and have no ability to manipulate individual molecules. Connected with this is his conception of the thermodynamic concepts of heat, work, and entropy; on the Maxwellian view, these are concept that must be relativized to the means we have available for gathering information about and manipulating physical systems. The Maxwellian view is one that deserves serious consideration in discussions of the foundation of statistical mechanics. It has relevance for the project of recovering thermodynamics from statistical mechanics because, in such a project, it matters which version of the second law we are trying to recover. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Strong M.J.,Robarts Research Institute | Strong M.J.,University of Western Ontario
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

In this review, the role of aberrant RNA metabolism in ALS is examined, including the evidence that a majority of the genetic mutations observed in familial ALS (including mutations in TDP-43, FUS/TLS, SOD1, angiogenin (ANG) and senataxin (SETX)) can impact directly on either gene transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, ribonucleoprotein complex formation, transport, RNA translation or degradation. The evidence that perturbed expression or function of RNA binding proteins is causally related to the selective suppression of the low molecular weight subunit protein (NFL) steady state mRNA levels in degenerating motor neurons in ALS is examined. The discovery that mtSOD1, TDP-43 and 14-3-3 proteins, all of which form cytosolic aggregates in ALS, can each modulate the stability of NFL mRNA, suggests that a fundamental alteration in the interaction of mRNA species with key trans-acting binding factors has occurred in ALS. These observations lead directly to the hypothesis that ALS can be viewed as a disorder of RNA metabolism, thus providing a novel pathway for the development of molecular pharmacotherapies. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The gap junctions (GJs) formed by Cx40 and Cx43 provide a low resistance passage allowing for rapid propagation of action potentials. Sporadic somatic mutations in GJA5 (encoding Cx40) have been identified in lone atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. More recently germline autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in GJA5 have been found in early onset lone AF patients in several families over generations. Characterizations of these AF-linked Cx40 mutants in model cells and in patient tissues revealed that some of the mutants reduced GJ channel function due to an impaired trafficking or channel formation. While others showed a gain-of-function in hemichannels. These functional alterations in GJs or hemichannel may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF in the mutant carriers. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dehkordi S.E.,University of Western Ontario | Schincariol R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2014

Ground-source geothermal systems are drawing increasing attention and popularity due to their efficiency, sustainability and being implementable worldwide. Consequently, design software and regulatory guidelines have been developed. Interaction with the subsurface significantly affects the thermal performance, sustainability, and impacts of such systems. Reviewing the related guidelines and the design software, room for improvement is evident, especially in regards to interaction with groundwater movement. In order to accurately evaluate the thermal effect of system and hydrogeological properties on a borehole heat exchanger, a fully discretized finite-element model is used. Sensitivity of the loop outlet temperatures and heat exchange rates to hydrogeological, system and meteorological factors (i.e. groundwater flux, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of solids, porosity, thermal dispersivity, grout thermal conductivity, background and inlet temperatures) are analyzed over 6-month and 25-year operation periods. Furthermore, thermal recovery during 25 years after system decommissioning has been modeled. The thermal plume development, transport and dissipation are also assessed. This study shows the importance of subsurface thermal conductivity, groundwater flow (flux>10-7 m/s), and background and inlet temperature on system performance and impact. It also shows the importance of groundwaterflow (flux>10-8 m/s) on thermal recovery of the ground over other factors. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Lee P.,University of Western Ontario | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2013

Introduction: Reduction of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration with statins reduces adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, lack of efficacy and intolerance of statins in many patients requires alternative treatments. Currently available non-statin alternatives include bile acid sequestrants, the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, niacin-based preparations and fibrates; however, each of these has limitations. Newer agents for LDL cholesterol reduction include the cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors, the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide, the apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and several molecules that inhibit or interfere with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9). Areas covered: Among the various PCSK9 inhibitors, human data are available for monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 of which the two most advanced are alirocumab (SAR236553/REGN727) and AMG 145. Phase II studies of these agents as monotherapy or in combination with statins have shown reductions of LDL cholesterol by > 70%, with acceptable safety and tolerability so far. Expert opinion: Despite their biochemical efficacy, clinical efficacy, reflected by reduction of cardiovascular end points, remains to be shown for two leading monoclonal antibodies against PSCK9. Other issues to be evaluated with these agents over the longer term include development of rare adverse effects and potential attenuation of efficacy. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Moreau J.M.,University of Western Ontario | Ciriello J.,University of Western Ontario
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2013

Nesfatin-1 (Nes-1), an 82-amino acid protein cleaved from nucleobindin-2, has been suggested to play a role in ingestive behaviors. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of Nes-1 reduce water intake, although the sites of action for this effect are not known. Two series of experiments were done to identify potential sites of action of Nes-1 in drinking behavior. In the first series, icv injections of Nes-1 were made in urethane-anesthetized rats to investigate the distribution of neurons containing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) within the forebrain. Circumventricular organs, including subfornical organ (SFO), were found to contain neurons expressing Fos-ir. Additionally, several hypothalamic, thalamic and limbic nuclei also contained Fos-labeled neurons. As SFO is a pivotal central site in the regulation of water intake, a second series of experiments was done to investigate the role of direct injections of Nes-1 into SFO on water intake in conscious, freely moving rats. Nes-1 (2. pmol) injections into SFO induced an increase in water intake compared to vehicle injections. However, when food was made available for ingestion after the Nes-1 injection, the dipsogenic effects of Nes-1 were attenuated. Additionally, the drinking response to Nes-1 was found to be more potent than that observed after injections of ANG II into SFO. Neither simultaneous injections ANG II nor the ANG II type-1 receptor blocker losartan affected the Nes-1 dipsogenic response. Taken together, these results suggest that Nes-1 is a potent dipsogenic agent in SFO, and that Nes-1 may act independently of the SFO angiotensinergic system to elicit the dipsogenic effect. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Ives C.T.,University of Western Ontario | Doherty T.J.,University of Western Ontario
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Objective: To collect normative data and assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative MU analysis obtained using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) in the upper trapezius (UT). Methods: In 10 control subjects, the experimental protocol was performed twice by the same examiner, and once by a second examiner. Results: Mean MUNE values were 339 ± 121 (rater 1a), 320 ± 131 (rater 1b), and 262 ± 115 (rater 2) MUs. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was good for maximum CMAP (ICC = 0.77 and 0.79, respectively) and moderate for MUNE (ICC = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively), with poor inter-rater reliability for mean S-MUP (ICC = 0.42). Significant differences between rater 1a and 2 were found for mean S-MUP (p= 0.014) and MUNE (p= 0.002), and moderate to good levels of reliability found for quantitative needle-detected MUP parameters. Conclusions: Various components of the protocol may have contributed to mean S-MUP variability, and may require particular attention in a large, proximal muscle like the UT. Significance: This study has established preliminary data using DQEMG in a novel muscle which may be relevant to study in patients with ALS. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Determining sediment transport direction in ancient mudrocks is difficult. In order to determine both process and direction of mud transport, a portion of a well-mapped Cretaceous delta system was studied. Oriented samples from outcrop represent prodelta environments from ca 10 to 120 km offshore. Oriented thin sections of mudstone, cut in three planes, allowed bed microstructure and palaeoflow directions to be determined. Clay mineral platelets are packaged in equant, face-face aggregates 2 to 5 μm in diameter that have a random orientation; these aggregates may have formed through flocculation in fluid mud. Cohesive mud was eroded by storms to make intraclastic aggregates 5 to 20 μm in diameter. Mudstone beds are millimetre-scale, and four microfacies are recognized: Well-sorted siltstone forms millimetre-scale combined-flow ripples overlying scoured surfaces; deposition was from turbulent combined flow. Silt-streaked claystone comprises parallel, sub-millimetre laminae of siliceous silt and clay aggregates sorted by shear in the boundary layer beneath a wave-supported gravity flow of fluid mud. Silty claystone comprises fine siliceous silt grains floating in a matrix of clay and was deposited by vertical settling as fluid mud gelled under minimal current shear. Homogeneous clay-rich mudstone has little silt and may represent late-stage settling of fluid mud, or settling from wave-dissipated fluid mud. It is difficult or impossible to correlate millimetre-scale beds between thin sections from the same sample, spaced only ca 20 mm apart, due to lateral facies change and localized scour and fill. Combined-flow ripples in siltstone show strong preferred migration directly down the regional prodelta slope, estimated at ca 1 : 1000. Ripple migration was effected by drag exerted by an overlying layer of downslope-flowing, wave-supported fluid mud. In the upper part of the studied section, centimetre-scale interbeds of very fine to fine-grained sandstone show wave ripple crests trending shore normal, whereas combined-flow ripples migrated obliquely alongshore and offshore. Storm winds blowing from the north-east drove shore-oblique geostrophic sand transport whereas simultaneously, wave-supported flows of fluid mud travelled downslope under the influence of gravity. Effective wave base for sand, estimated at ca 40 m, intersected the prodelta surface ca 80 km offshore whereas wave base for mud was at ca 70 m and lay ca 120 km offshore. Small-scale bioturbation of mud beds co-occurs with interbedded sandstone but stratigraphically lower, sand-free mudstone has few or no signs of benthic fauna. It is likely that a combination of soupground substrate, frequent storm emplacement of fluid mud, low nutrient availability and possibly reduced bottom-water oxygen content collectively inhibited benthic fauna in the distal prodelta. © 2013 International Association of Sedimentologists.

The semi-exponential basis set of radial functions [A.M. Frolov, Phys. Lett. A 374, 2361 (2010)] is used for variational computations of bound states in three-electron atomic systems. It appears that the semi-exponential basis set has a substantially greater potential for accurate variational computations of bound states in three-electron atomic systems than was originally anticipated. In particular, the 40-term Larson's wave function improved with the use of semi-exponential radial basis functions now produces the total energy -7.4780581457 a.u. for the ground 1 2S-state in the ∞ Li atom (only one spin function χ 1=αβ α -.αβ α was used in these calculations). This variational energy is very close to the exact ground state energy of the ∞ atom and is substantially lower than the total energy obtained with the original Larson's 40-term wave function (-7.477944869 a.u.). © 2011 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Matejko A.A.,University of Western Ontario | Ansari D.,University of Western Ontario
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2015

In this review we examine white matter tracts that may support numerical and mathematical abilities and whether abnormalities in these pathways are associated with deficits in numerical and mathematical abilities. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) yields indices of white matter integrity and can provide information about the axonal organization of the brain. A growing body of research is using DTI to investigate how individual differences in brain microstructures relate to different numerical and mathematical abilities. Several tracts have been associated with numerical and mathematical abilities such as the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior segment of the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corona radiata, and the corticospinal tract. Impairments in mathematics tend to be associated with atypical white matter structures within similar regions, especially in inferior parietal and temporal tracts. This systematic review summarizes and critically examines the current literature on white matter correlates of numerical and mathematical abilities, and provides directions for future research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Buchel A.,University of Western Ontario | Buchel A.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2011

N=1 supersymmetric SU(K+P)×SU(K) cascading gauge theory of Klebanov et al. (Klebanov and Tseytlin (2000) [1], Klebanov and Strassler (2000) [2]) undergoes a first-order finite temperature confinement/deconfinement phase transition at T c=0.6141111(3)Λ, where Λ is the strong coupling scale of the theory. The deconfined phase of the theory, with the unbroken chiral symmetry, extends down to T u=0.8749(0)T c, where it becomes perturbatively unstable due to the condensation of the hydrodynamic (sound) modes. We show that at T χSB=0.882503(0)T c>T u the deconfined phase of the cascading plasma is perturbatively unstable towards development of the chiral symmetry breaking ( χSB) condensates. We present evidence that the ground state of the cascading plasma for T