University of Western Brittany
Brest, France

The University of Western Brittany is a French university,located in Brest, in the Academy of Rennes. On a national scale, in terms of employability of graduate, the university oscillates between 18th and 53rd out of 69 universities depending on fields of study. On overall, the University is ranked 12th out of 76 universities in France. Wikipedia.

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University of Western Brittany and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2016-10-13

An electromagnetic system for exploring the seabed in a marine environment includes a current injection module with two electrodes spaced apart from one another, said injection electrodes being capable of injecting a current at a predetermined voltage into the marine environment close to the seabed, said injection electrodes having a contact surface with the marine environment. The system includes a data acquisition module with at least two measuring sensors for measuring electrical or magnetic data at least two points of the marine environment close to the seabed, and a power supply module for supplying power to the current injection module. Each electrode includes one or more separate conductive elements that are electrically connected to each other and arranged in such a way as to form a conductive network or a multilayer conductive assembly having a large contact surface with the marine environment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.

HarmonicSS vision is to create an International Network and Alliance of partners and cohorts, entrusted with the mission of addressing the unmet needs in primary Sjogren Syndrome; working together to create and maintain a platform with open standards and tools, designed to enable secure storage, governance, analytics, access control and controlled sharing of information at multiple levels along with methods to make results of analyses and outcomes comparable across centers and sustainable through Rheumatology associations. The overall idea of the HarmonicSS project is to bring together the largest well characterized regional, national and international longitudinal cohorts of patients with Primary Sjgrens Syndrome (pSS) including those participating in clinical trials, and after taking into consideration the ethical, legal, privacy and IPR issues for sharing data from different countries, to semantically interlink and harmonize them into an integrative pSS cohort structure on the cloud. Upon this harmonized cohort, services for big data mining, governance and visual analytics will be integrated, to address the identified clinical and health policy pSS unmet needs. In addition, tools for specific diagnostic procedures (e.g. ultrasonography image segmentation), patient selection for clinical trials and training will be also provided. The users of the HarmonicSS platform are researchers (basic/translational), clinicians, health policy makers and pharma companies. pSS is relevant not only due to its clinical impact but also as one of the few model diseases to link autoimmunity, cancer development (lymphoproliferation) and the pathogenetic role of infection. Thus, the study of pSS can facilitate research in many areas of medicine; for this reason, the possibility for sustainability and expandability of the platform is enhanced. Moreover, pSS has a significant impact on the healthcare systems, similar to that of rheumatoid arthritis.

The project will develop well-targeted and sound communication material that raises awareness on our (individual and collective) responsibility and interest in ensuring the sustainability of the ocean and of its ecosystems. The project builds on critical assessments of: (1) existing communication strategies, material and governance that focuses on the ocean; (2) the values, perceptions and understanding of the state, functioning and role of the ocean by different types of stakeholders and of the wider public; (3) the (scientific) knowledge that exist on the ocean-human relationship, in particular in terms of ecosystem services that can be delivered by ocean ecosystems and support (future) development opportunities and blue growth and of pressures that are imposed on the oceans. These critical assessments will help identifying priority target groups with key responsibilities and interests in the state of our oceans - today and in the future. Within a participatory process involving the stakeholders of the knowledge creation & sharing system from four European marine regions (Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Sea and Atlantic _ including in its transatlantic dimension), and building on the scientific knowledge-base established and on project-dedicated IT strucure/platform, the project will then develop and test under real conditions innovative communication tools. Key principles guiding this development will be interactivity, mutual learning, creativity and entertainment. Finally, specific activities will be performed for ensuring proposed communication tools are made accessible and available to their future users in Europe but also elswhere.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-09-2014 | Award Amount: 5.55M | Year: 2015

The European Union has committed to the gradual elimination of discarding. DiscardLess will help provide the knowledge, tools and technologies as well as the involvement of the stakeholders to achieve this. These will be integrated into Discard Mitigation Strategies (DMS) proposing cost-effective solutions at all stages of the seafood supply chain. The first focus is on preventing the unwanted catches from ever being caught. This will promote changes in gear using existing and innovative selectivity technology, and changes in fishing tactics based on fishers and scientists knowledge. The second focus is on making best use of the unavoidable unwanted catch. We will detail technical and marketing innovations from the deck, through the supply chain to the final market, including monitoring, traceability and valorization components. DiscardLess will evaluate the impacts of discarding on the marine environment, on the economy, and across the wider society. We will evaluate these impacts before, during and after the implementation of the landing obligation, allowing comparison between intentions and outcomes. Eliminating discards is as much a societal challenge as a fishery management one, so we will also evaluate stakeholders perception of discards. DiscardLess will describe the changes in management and the associated governance structures needed to cement the process. We will propose approaches to managing discards in a range of case study fisheries across Europe, encompassing differences in specific discarding issues. All these innovations will be combined in integrated Internet based interactive programs (DMS toolbox) that will help fishers to evaluate the present and future situation and to take a more qualified decision of how to adjust to the new regime. Also, we will disseminate the outcome of the project and maximize knowledge transfer across Europe through an educational environment teaching the next generation as well as more conventional routes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.32M | Year: 2016

Transition metal catalysts are formidable tools towards greener chemistry, allowing for low-waste, energy-efficient, and selective reactions. However, the noble metals (Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt) that are currently most common in homogeneous catalysts suffer from high toxicity and environmental impact in addition to their scarcity and ensuing high cost. First-row metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) are emerging as environmentally benign alternatives, but to this day rarely equal the performance of their noble counterparts. The NoNoMeCat network aims at providing excellent and structured interdisciplinary training to a generation of young researchers in the field of Non-Noble Metal homogeneous Catalysis who will push the boundaries of the field in terms of catalyst stability, selectivity, mechanistic understanding, and scalability. These challenges are addressed in three areas of high fundamental and practical significance: the oxidation of hydrocarbons, the formation of new C-X bonds (C-C, C-N) bonds through cross-coupling reactions, and clean energy production. NoNoMeCat will enrol 14 Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) who will receive structured training in experimental and theoretical aspects of non-noble metal chemistry as well as transferable skills such as research integrity, scientific communication and public outreach. Tight integration of non-academic partners will expose all ESRs to aspects of both fundamental interdisciplinary research and industrial application, paving the way for long-standing intersectorial collaborations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-10-2014 | Award Amount: 5.21M | Year: 2015

SUCCESS is bringing together an integrated team of scientists from all fields of fisheries and aquaculture science with industry partners and key stakeholders to work on solutions which shall improve the competitiveness of the European fisheries and aquaculture sector. The supply-side of seafood markets is limited from both sea fisheries and aquaculture. At the same time demand for seafood products is increasing. In a globalised economy, the conjunction of these two trends should generate high opportunities for any seafood production activity. However, both fisheries and aquaculture companies are facing key challenges, which currently hinder them reaping the full benefits of seafood markets expansion, and even question their sustainability. As a whole, the EU fisheries sector remains at low levels of profitability and sustainability. The SUCCESS project will examine two strategies to improve the competitiveness of the sector: (i) increasing demand for EU seafood products, especially improving the awareness of the advantages of European production (including sustainability requirements and adjustment to market evolution); and (ii) cost reduction in certain production segments. For both strategies development on world markets as well as consumer preferences and awareness will be analysed. Additionally, SUCCESS will explore the different sectors along the value chain (from fisheries and aquaculture producers via processing companies, wholesalers, retailers to direct marketing to mobile fishmongers and restaurants) and their potential for improvements in competitiveness. These analyses also include long term predictions about the viability of certain production systems and will be considered in specific case studies on for example mussel production, shrimp fisheries, whitefish, traditional pond aquaculture and new aquaculture production systems.

Treguer P.J.,University of Western Brittany | De La Rocha C.L.,University of Western Brittany
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2013

Over the past few decades, we have realized that the silica cycle is strongly intertwined with other major biogeochemical cycles, like those of carbon and nitrogen, and as such is intimately related to marine primary production, the efficiency of carbon export to the deep sea, and the inventory of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. For nearly 20 years, the marine silica budget compiled by Tréguer et al. (1995), with its exploration of reservoirs, processes, sources, and sinks in the silica cycle, has provided context and information fundamental to study of the silica cycle. Today, the budget needs revisiting to incorporate advances that have notably changed estimates of river and groundwater inputs to the ocean of dissolved silicon and easily dissolvable amorphous silica, inputs from the dissolution of terrestrial lithogenic silica in ocean margin sediments, reverse weathering removal fluxes, and outputs of biogenic silica (especially on ocean margins and in the form of nondiatomaceous biogenic silica). The resulting budget recognizes significantly higher input and output fluxes and notes that the recycling of silicon occurs mostly at the sediment-water interface and not during the sinking of silica particles through deep waters. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 432.00K | Year: 2016

The main objective of ERROR is to develop a new software tool, which will offer to the clinician the possibility to assess alternative imaging and therapeutic protocols, in real time, in silico, in order to minimize patient dose, while maintaining image quality of therapeutic effect. This tool will be designed, implemented and evaluated with specific focus on pediatric patients, since this is a rather sensitive target group, where dose considerations are high and no standard protocols and solutions exist. The project will exploit the new generation of computational anthropomorphic phantoms, in combination with well validated Monte Carlo simulations and Machine Learning Tools. In this way, it is envisaged that advanced, yet mature technologies will be integrated, to provide a novel tool, which can lead to a final product. The ERROR project brings together a multidisciplinary consortium of specialists in different areas of medical physics, biomedical engineering, physicians and computer engineers, who will join forces in order to design, implement and clinically assess a novel software tools, which initial focus in the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic protocols for pediatric exams. Two new SMEs will provide their expertise, as well as investigate the ways to exploit project outcome. A well planned exchange program among academic and industrial partners will facilitate knowledge sharing, maximize collaborative work and finally achievement of project objectives. The consortium, being aware of the scientific and social importance of pediatric clinical applications, has planned a series of dissemination and training activities, aiming at making project knowledge and outcomes available to the scientific community and society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2015-EF | Award Amount: 185.08K | Year: 2016

Atmospheric anoxia prevailed throughout the majority of Earth history, making oxygen and the animal life it supports relative newcomers to our planet. O2 accumulated in Earths atmosphere during two dramatic oxygenation events at ~2400 and ~600 million years ago (Ma). Both of these events were accompanied by profound biological and geochemical revolution, including the origin of animal life, making them amongst the most important events the Earth system has ever witnessed. Because the composition of Earths ancient atmosphere cannot be measured directly, its history must be examined using models constrained by geochemical proxies. The disappearance of sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) from the sedimentary record ca. 2320 Ma is considered the smoking gun evidence for the permanent oxygenation of Earths atmosphere. However, it was recently suggested that weathering of older S-MIF bearing sediments resulted in a prolonged S-MIF memory effect that lasted ~200 Ma or more, thus obscuring the true history of atmospheric oxygenation. Here I propose new hypotheses to test, for the first time, the importance of the S-MIF memory effect at the onset of atmospheric oxygenation. I will evaluate specific sulfur, strontium, and oxygen isotope signals from exciting new samples obtained through a recent French drilling program to help resolve this fundamental problem in Earth system evolution. As an American Experienced Researcher, this Marie Curie project, ANOXIA-MEM, is designed to harmonize my unique isotope geochemistry skills with the knowledge, resources, and training capacity of two renowned French isotope laboratories for the maximum benefit of all parties. This project promises new tools and analyses that are uniquely poised to upset the prevailing paradigm for Earths atmospheric oxygenation.

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