Perth, Australia

The University of Western Australia is a research-intensive university in Perth, Australia that was established by an act of the Western Australian Parliament in February 1911, and began teaching students for the first time in 1913. It is the oldest university in the state of Western Australia and is colloquially known as a "sandstone university". It is also a member of the Group of Eight.UWA was established under and is governed by the University of Western Australia Act 1911. The Act provides for control and management by the university's Senate, and gives it the authority, amongst other things, to make statutes, regulations and by-laws, details of which are contained in the university Calendar.UWA is highly ranked internationally in various publications: the 2013/14 QS World University Rankings placed UWA at 84th internationally, and in August 2014 the The Academic Ranking of World Universities from Shanghai Jiao Tong University placed the university at 88th in the world. To date, the university has produced 100 Rhodes Scholars, 1 Nobel Prize laureate and 1 Australian Prime Minister graduated from UWA.UWA recently joined the Matariki Network of Universities as the youngest member, the only one established during the 20th century. Wikipedia.

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University of Western Australia | Date: 2014-09-12

An antisense oligonucleotide of 10 to 50 nucleotides comprising a targeting sequence complementary to a region near or within intron 6, intron 7, or exon 8 of the Survival Motor Neuron 2 (SMN2) gene pre-mRNA.

Proteomics International Pty Ltd and University of Western Australia | Date: 2017-04-05

The invention provides biomarkers for pre-Diabetes, Diabetes and/or a Diabetes related conditions, and methods of their use, including the biomarkers in Tables 1 and 2 such as peroxiredoxin-2, complement Clq subcomponent subunit B, sulfhydryl oxidase 1 and apolipoprotein A-IV.

Barkan A.,University of Oregon | Small I.,University of Western Australia
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 10.41M | Year: 2017

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. European pregnancy and child cohort studies together offer an unique opportunity to identify a wide range of early life stressors linked with individual biological, developmental and health trajectory variations, and to the onset and evolution of non-communicable diseases. LIFECYCLE will establish the EuroCHILD Cohort Network, which brings together existing, successful pregnancy and child cohorts and biobanks, by developing a governance structure taking account of national and European ethical, legal and societal implications, a shared data-management platform and data-harmonization strategies. LIFECYCLE will enrich this EuroCHILD Cohort Network by generating new integrated data on early life stressors related to socio-economic, migration, urban environment and life-style determinants, and will capitalize on these data by performing hypothesis-driven research on early life stressors influencing cardio-metabolic, respiratory and mental health trajectories during the full lifecycle, and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. LIFECYCLE will translate these results into recommendations for targeted strategies and personalized prediction models to improve health trajectories for current and future Europeans generations by optimizing their earliest phase of life. To strengthen this long-term collaboration, LIFECYCLE will organize yearly international meetings open to pregnancy and child cohort researchers, introduce a Fellowship Training Programme for exchange of junior researchers between European pregnancy or child cohorts, and develop e-learning modules for researchers performing life-course health studies. Ultimately, LIFECYCLE will lead to a unique sustainable EuroCHILD Cohort Network, and provide recommendations for targeted prevention strategies by identification of novel markers of early life stressors related to health trajectories throughout the lifecycle.

Jablensky A.,University of Western Australia
World Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Despite historical assumptions to the contrary, there is little evidence that the majority of recognized mental disorders are separated by natural boundaries. Diagnostic categories defined by their clinical syndromes should be regarded as 'valid' only if they have been shown to be truly discrete entities. Most diagnostic concepts in psychiatry have not been demonstrated to be valid in this sense, though many possess 'utility' by virtue of the information they convey about presenting symptoms, outcome, treatment response and, in some instances, aetiology. While researchers in genetics, neurobiology and population epidemiology are increasingly more likely to adopt a continuum/dimensional view of the variation in symptomatology, clinicians prefer to hold on to the categorical approach embodied in current classifications such as ICD-10 and DSM-5. Both points of view have plausible justification in their respective contexts, but the way forward may be in their conceptual reconciliation.

Thomas M.L.,University of Western Australia
Biological Reviews | Year: 2011

Males of many species choose their mate according to the female's reproductive status, and there is now increasing evidence that male fitness can depend on this discrimination. However, females will also aim to regulate their mating activity so as to maximize their own fitness. As such, both sexes may attempt to dictate the frequency and timing of female mating, reflecting the potentially different costs of female signaling to both sexes. Here, I review evidence that chemical cues and signals are used widely by males to discriminate between mated and unmated females, and explore the mechanisms by which female odour changes post-mating. There is substantial empirical evidence that mated and unmated females differ in their chemical profile, and that this variation provides males with information on a female's mating status. Although there appears to be large variation among species regarding the mechanisms by which female odour is altered post-mating, the transfer of male substances to females during or subsequent to copulation appear to play a major role. This transfer of substances by males may be part of their strategy to suppress reproduction by competing males, particularly in species where females mate more than once. © 2010 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Corry B.,University of Western Australia
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

The use of semipermeable membranes containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that form continuous pores has been suggested as a way to reduce the cost of desalination via reverse osmosis. Example membranes containing aligned CNTs have been fabricated, but obtaining only the very narrow pores that are able to block the passage of ions while allowing a rapid flow of water remains a challenge and previous computational studies have focused on idealised tubes. Here molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine water and ion transport through functionalised CNTs with the aim of investigating whether such chemical modification allows the performance of CNT based membranes to be improved, or for larger diameter pores to be used. A range of different charged and polar functional groups were added to a 1.1 nm diameter (8,8) CNT that was previously found to be only moderately effective at rejecting ions. These CNTs were incorporated into membranes and simulations were conducted with a hydrostatic pressure difference to determine the ion rejection and flux of water passing through each as well as the energy barriers presented to ions and water molecules. The results show that the addition of charges at the entrance of the pore can help to prevent the passage of ions, however, any functionalisation also reduces the flow of water through the membrane due to increased electrostatic interactions between the water molecules and the CNT. Assuming pore densities that have previously been achieved, the performance of these membranes in the simulations is still many times better than existing technology and thus the inclusion of functionalised CNTs in desalination membranes may prove to be useful in achieving salt rejection and rapid water flow. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Holt P.G.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Developments over the last 5 to 10 years, principally from studies on comprehensively phenotyped prospective birth cohorts, have highlighted the important role of viral respiratory tract infections during infancy and early childhood, particularly those occurring against a background of pre-existing sensitization to perennial aeroallergens, in driving the development of early-onset atopic asthma. Although debate surrounding the mechanism or mechanisms governing this causal pathway remains intense, demonstration of the capacity of pretreatment with anti-IgE antibody to blunt seasonal virusassociated asthma exacerbations in children provides strong support for the underlying concept. However, emerging data appear set to further complicate this picture. Notably, a combination of culture-based studies and complementary population-wide bacterial metagenomic data suggests that parallel host-bacteria interactions during infancy might play an additional role in modulating this causal pathway, as well as contributing independently to pathogenesis. These and related issues surrounding development of immune competence during the crucial early postnatal period, when these pathways are maximally active, are discussed below. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Almeida O.P.,University of Western Australia
European heart journal | Year: 2012

It is unclear whether the cognitive dysfunction associated with heart failure (HF) is due to HF or comorbid conditions such as ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study aimed to determine whether, compared with controls with and without IHD, adults with systolic HF show evidence of cognitive impairment and cerebral grey matter (GM) loss. Cross-sectional study of 35 participants with HF, 56 with IHD, and 64 controls without either HF or IHD. Subjects were older than 45 years and free of overt cognitive impairment. We acquired magnetic resonance images and used SPM8 to determine regional differences in cerebral GM volume. Participants with HF had lower scores than controls without IHD on immediate memory, long delay recall and digit coding, whereas those with IHD had lower long delay recall scores than controls without IHD. Compared with controls without IHD, participants with HF showed evidence of GM loss in the left cingulate, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle and superior frontal gyri, the right middle temporal lobe, the right and left anterior cingulate, the right middle frontal gyrus, the inferior and pre-central frontal gyri, the right caudate, and occipital-parietal regions involving the left precuneus. The loss of GM followed a similar, less extensive, pattern when we compared participants with HF and IHD. Adults with HF have worse immediate and long-term memory and psychomotor speed than controls without IHD. Heart failure is associated with changes in brain regions that are important for demanding cognitive and emotional processing.

Vogel J.P.,University of Western Australia
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology | Year: 2014

We aimed to determine the prevalence and risks of late fetal deaths (LFDs) and early neonatal deaths (ENDs) in women with medical and obstetric complications. Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS). A total of 359 participating facilities in 29 countries. A total of 308 392 singleton deliveries. We reported on perinatal indicators and determined risks of perinatal death in the presence of severe maternal complications (haemorrhagic, infectious, and hypertensive disorders, and other medical conditions). Fresh and macerated LFDs (defined as stillbirths ≥ 1000 g and/or ≥28 weeks of gestation) and ENDs. The LFD rate was 17.7 per 1000 births; 64.8% were fresh stillbirths. The END rate was 8.4 per 1000 liveborns; 67.1% occurred by day 3 of life. Maternal complications were present in 85.6, 86.5, and 88.6% of macerated LFDs, fresh LFDs, and ENDs, respectively. The risks of all three perinatal mortality outcomes were significantly increased with placental abruption, ruptured uterus, systemic infections/sepsis, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and severe anaemia. Preventing intrapartum-related perinatal deaths requires a comprehensive approach to quality intrapartum care, beyond the provision of caesarean section. Early identification and management of women with complications could improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

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