Perth, Australia

The University of Western Australia is a research-intensive university in Perth, Australia that was established by an act of the Western Australian Parliament in February 1911, and began teaching students for the first time in 1913. It is the oldest university in the state of Western Australia and is colloquially known as a "sandstone university". It is also a member of the Group of Eight.UWA was established under and is governed by the University of Western Australia Act 1911. The Act provides for control and management by the university's Senate, and gives it the authority, amongst other things, to make statutes, regulations and by-laws, details of which are contained in the university Calendar.UWA is highly ranked internationally in various publications: the 2013/14 QS World University Rankings placed UWA at 84th internationally, and in August 2014 the The Academic Ranking of World Universities from Shanghai Jiao Tong University placed the university at 88th in the world. To date, the university has produced 100 Rhodes Scholars, 1 Nobel Prize laureate and 1 Australian Prime Minister graduated from UWA.UWA recently joined the Matariki Network of Universities as the youngest member, the only one established during the 20th century. Wikipedia.


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Patent
University of Western Australia | Date: 2014-09-12

An antisense oligonucleotide of 10 to 50 nucleotides comprising a targeting sequence complementary to a region near or within intron 6, intron 7, or exon 8 of the Survival Motor Neuron 2 (SMN2) gene pre-mRNA.


Patent
Proteomics International Pty Ltd and University of Western Australia | Date: 2017-04-05

The invention provides biomarkers for pre-Diabetes, Diabetes and/or a Diabetes related conditions, and methods of their use, including the biomarkers in Tables 1 and 2 such as peroxiredoxin-2, complement Clq subcomponent subunit B, sulfhydryl oxidase 1 and apolipoprotein A-IV.


Lyons Z.,University of Western Australia
Australasian Psychiatry | Year: 2017

Objective: There has been a growing interest in psychiatry enrichment programmes such as summer schools and institutes for medical students in the last 10 years. Evaluation of enrichment programmes shows that they can be an effective method of increasing students' interest in psychiatry as a career. However, despite initial enthusiasm and motivation within an academic department, establishing a programme can be a daunting task. The aim of this paper is to provide a background of how to establish and implement a psychiatry summer school or institute. The steps that can be taken to establish and implement a psychiatry enrichment programme such as a summer school or institute are described and discussed. This includes how to structure a programme, content to include, costs and budget, programme promotion, selection of students and programme evaluation. Conclusion: Establishing an enrichment programme can provide academic departments of psychiatry with the opportunity to demonstrate excellence and innovation in teaching and positively promote psychiatry to students and other non-medical academics involved in medical education. For students interested in psychiatry, enrichment programmes have the potential to extend interest and knowledge beyond the curriculum and encourage serious consideration of psychiatry as a career. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.


Jetter M.,University of Western Australia
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2017

This paper provides empirical evidence that suicide attacks systematically draw more media attention than non-suicide terrorist attacks. Analyzing 60,341 terrorist attack days in 189 countries from 1970 to 2012, I introduce a methodology to proxy for the media coverage each one of these attack days receives in the New York Times. Suicide attacks are associated with significantly more coverage. In the most complete regression, one suicide attack produces an additional 0.6 articles—a magnitude equivalent to the effect of 95 terrorism casualties. This link remains robust to including a comprehensive list of potentially confounding factors, fixed effects, and country-specific time trends. The effect is reproduced for alternative print and television outlets (BBC, Reuters, CNN, NBC, CBS), but remains weak for Google Trends (worldwide and in the U.S.), a more direct proxy for people’s interests, and is non-existent for C-SPAN, a television station dedicated to broadcasting political discussions directly. Thus, the media appears to cover suicide missions in an extraordinary fashion, which may in turn explain their prominence among terrorist organizations. © 2017 Taylor & Francis


Blakeney M.,University of Western Australia
AgBioForum | Year: 2016

This article looks at two 2014 cases concerning the threat to organic farming from genetically modified (GM) agriculture. The first, March v. Baxter in the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal of Western Australia, concerned a dispute between two neighboring farmers in which one claimed that the loss of his organic certification was attributed to the harvesting practices of his GMproducing neighbor. The second, Organic Seed Growers and Trade Association et al. v. Monsanto, concerned an unsuccessful application by a number of farmers' organizations in the United States seeking a declaration that, should their crops become contaminated by the adventitious presence of patented genetic material, they should not be sued for patent infringement. The Australian case, which was a world's first between neighboring farmers, made some useful comments on organic certification practices. The US decisions in the Southern District of New York and the Court of Appeals laid to rest some of the concerns that had been raised in the Canadian Schmeiser case about the liability of farmers for innocent patent infringement. © 2016 AgBioForum. All rights reserved.


Palmer D.J.,University of Western Australia
Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series | Year: 2017

As the prevalence of food allergies in many communities continues to rise, the question of when in infancy to introduce any solid foods, or specific 'more allergenic' foods, as a food allergy prevention strategy has been debated. Observational studies have found that introducing any solid foods prior to 4 months of age was associated with an increased risk of allergic disease. Hence, the current allergy prevention consensus recommendation is that the introduction of any solid foods should commence after 4 months of age. Over recent years, several randomized controlled trials have been conducted to investigate the 'ideal' timing of introduction of some specific 'more allergenic' foods (including peanuts and eggs) into infant diets. To date, the results from three of these trials have determined that there is no reason to delay the introduction of the 'more allergenic' foods into the infant's diet after solid foods have commenced. However, these trials have also highlighted the finding that some infants are sensitized to food allergens before any known ingestion of solid foods. Thus, future research needs to focus on strategies to prevent early-life food allergen sensitization prior to complementary feeding. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.


Waters M.T.,University of Western Australia
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2017

Karrikins are a family of compounds generated via the incomplete combustion of plant matter. Since their discovery as seed germination stimulants in 2004, a great deal has been learned about the chemistry and the biological mode of action of karrikins. Much interest and progress have stemmed from the structural similarity of karrikins to that of strigolactones - the shoot branching hormone. This review will provide a historical account of some of the more significant discoveries in this area of plant biology. It will discuss how the study of these abiotic signalling molecules, combined with advances in our understanding of strigolactones, has led us towards the discovery of new mechanisms that regulate plant growth and development.


Lamb T.D.,Australian National University | Hunt D.M.,University of Western Australia
Developmental Biology | Year: 2017

We examine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the activation steps of vertebrate phototransduction, for both agnathan and jawed vertebrate taxa. We expand the number of taxa analysed and we update the alignment and tree building methodology from a previous analysis. For each of the four primary components (the G-protein transducin alpha subunit, GαT, the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6, and the alpha and beta subunits of the cGMP-gated ion channel, CNGC), the phylogenies appear consistent with expansion from an ancestral proto-vertebrate cascade during two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by divergence of the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. In each case, we consider possible scenarios for the underlying gene duplications and losses, and we apply relevant constraints to the tree construction. From tests of the topology of the resulting trees, we obtain a scenario for the expansion of each component during 2R that accurately fits the observations. Similar analysis of the visual opsins indicates that the only expansion to have occurred during 2R was the formation of Rh1 and Rh2. Finally, we propose a hypothetical scenario for the conversion of an ancestral chordate cascade into the proto-vertebrate phototransduction cascade, prior to whole-genome duplication. Together, our models provide a plausible account for the origin and expansion of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Fogarty J.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Economic Surveys | Year: 2010

The demand for alcohol literature is vast and much conflicting information about the nature of the demand for alcoholic beverages has been published. This paper presents a survey of the literature, and then uses the technique of meta-regression analysis to establish insights into the nature of the demand for beer, wine and spirits. Unlike previous meta-studies of the demand for alcoholic beverages this study adjusts for the precision of each elasticity estimate. The analysis presented suggests reported elasticity estimates will be influenced by such factors as estimation technique, data frequency and time period under consideration. With respect to time, the findings suggest that the demand for alcoholic beverages has become less inelastic since the mid-1950s and that the income elasticity has been falling since the mid-1960s. The analysis also found support for the idea that alcohol as a commodity group is a necessity, and that consumers respond to price discounting with inventory behaviour rather than true substitution behaviour. Little support is found for the idea that the demand for alcoholic beverages varies fundamentally across most countries, although wine may be an exception.


Shen Z.,Tianjin University | Shen Z.,University of Western Australia | Feng X.,University of Western Australia | Gourvenec S.,University of Western Australia
Geotechnique | Year: 2017

The effect of soil–foundation interface condition on the undrained capacity of rectangular mudmat foundations under loading in six degrees of freedom is investigated. Undrained failure envelopes for mudmats with zero-tension interface have been derived from finite-element analyses, and compared with the solutions from traditional methods and established for an unlimited-tension interface condition. The zero-tension interface has minimal effect on failure envelopes in the absence of moment, but significantly reduces the load-carrying capacity of mudmats under all other load paths that include moment. The traditional method for predicting the capacity of shallow foundations under multidirectional loading generally predicts lower capacity under any combined loading condition in comparison with the finite-element results for mudmats with zero-tension interface. Algebraic expressions are proposed to describe failure envelopes for mudmats with zero-tension interface. The proposed expressions can be implemented in an automated calculation tool to enable essentially instantaneous generation of failure envelopes and optimisation of a foundation design as a function of foundation dimension or material factor. © 2017, ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.


Gruner R.L.,University of Western Australia | Power D.,University of Melbourne | Power D.,University of Groningen
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

For most firms, the development of sustainable supply chain practices remains challenging. Using a theory-building approach, we develop a theory of socio-ecological intergradation to provide managers with guidance in mimicking natural ecosystems to develop more local and thus sustainable supply chains. Socio-ecological intergradation refers to the gradual merging of social (organizational) and ecological (environmental) systems to shift a firm's focus from global supply chain optimization to building more regionally bound, socio-ecologically connected operations. Drawing on the natural and industrial ecology literature, the paper identifies five principles that mimic natural ecosystems and increase the environmental sustainability of supply chains, including the ecological systems they ultimately depend on. The paper further illustrates what these principles mean in both an environmental and a supply chain context and how, in concert, they can lead toward more sustainably designed and managed supply chains. In building a theory of socio-ecological intergradation, this research is one of the first attempts to apply ecological principles to supply chains, creating synergy and dialogue between the sustainable supply chain management, business ethics, and industrial ecology disciplines. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Chandler J.,University of Western Australia
Marine Policy | Year: 2017

This paper examines the role of stewardship in offshore petroleum licensing systems, comparing Australia, Norway and the United Kingdom. These countries face similar challenges such as ageing infrastructure as production areas reach maturity, but have taken different approaches to evolving their ideas of stewardship to deal with them. One such approach is the UK's recently introduced strategy of maximising economic recovery of UK petroleum, which is indicative of a profound change to the traditional concession model on which its system is based. That model focuses on production in an individual licence area rather than achieving maximum value for the nation. This paper explores how this and other innovative approaches to stewardship can produce improved outcomes for the management of offshore petroleum and other natural resources, and in doing so suggests a way forward for countries like Australia who have relied on the concession model. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Kingwell R.,University of Western Australia
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics | Year: 2017

This paper explores some of the important issues that influence the magnitude of receival site grain catchments in Australia. Changes in grain harvests, transport and grain handling technologies and costs; changes in farming systems, crop yields and harvesting capacity; investments in roads and on-farm storage and economies of size in grain receival infrastructure are shown in combination to affect the size of grain catchments in major grain-growing regions of Australia over the last 30 years. The size of grain catchments that minimise growers' costs of road transport of their harvested grain and their receival point charges in various time periods are determined. Differently shaped grain catchments are considered. The main finding is that the size of grain catchments that minimise farmers' grain transport, off-farm storage and handling costs since the mid-1980s has consistently increased, principally due to lessening real costs of road transport, more on-farm storage and economies of size in grain receival, despite higher grain yields and a greater intensity of cropping. These findings are consistent with the observed reduction in the number of receival sites in many grain-growing regions of Australia. Site rationalisation is less evident in states where the receival network is owned and operated by a grower cooperative. © 2017 Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Inc.


Fougerouse D.,University of Western Australia | Micklethwaite S.,University of Western Australia | Ulrich S.,AngloGold Ashanti | Miller J.,University of Western Australia | And 3 more authors.
Economic Geology | Year: 2017

The supergiant Obuasi gold deposit is the largest deposit in the Paleoproterozoic Birimian terranes of West Africa with 62 Moz of gold (past production + resources). The deposit is hosted in the Paleoproterozoic Kumasi Group sedimentary rocks composed of carbonaceous phyllites, slates, psammites, and volcaniclastic rocks intruded by different generations of felsic dikes and granites. A three-stage deformation history is defined for the district. The D1Ob stage is weakly recorded in the sedimentary rocks as a layer-parallel fabric and indicates that bedding parallel shearing occurred during the early stage of deformation at Obuasi. The D2Ob is the main deformation stage affecting the Obuasi district and corresponds to a NW-SE shortening. Tight to isoclinal folding, as well as intense subhorizontal stretching, occurred during D2Ob, parallel with the plane of a pervasive NE-striking subvertical foliation (S2Ob). Finally, a N-S shortening event (D3Ob) refolded previously formed structures and formed a distinct ENE-striking, variably dipping S3Ob cleavage that is domainal in nature throughout the deposit. Two economic styles of mineralization occur at Obuasi and contribute equally to the gold budget. These are (1) gold-bearing sulfides, dominantly arsenopyrite, mainly disseminated in metasedimentary rocks and (2) native gold hosted in quartz veins that are as much as 25 m wide. Microstructural evidence, such as strain shadows surrounding gold-bearing arsenopyrite parallel with S2Ob, but folded by S3Ob, indicates that the sulfides were formed during D2Ob. Concentrations of as much as 700 ppm Au are present in the epitaxial growth zones of the arsenopyrite grains. Although the large mineralized quartz veins are boudinaged and refolded (indicating their formation during D2Ob), field and microanalytical observations demonstrate that the gold in the veins is hosted in microcracks controlled by D3Ob, where the S3Ob cleavage crosscuts the quartz veins in the main ore zones. Thus, these observations constitute the first evidence for multiple stages of gold deposition at the Obuasi deposit. Futhermore, three-dimensional modeling of stratigraphy, structure, and gold orebodies highlights three major controls on oreshoot location, which are (1) contacts between volcaniclastic units and pre-D1 felsic dikes, (2) fault intersections, and (3) F3Ob fold hinges. The maximum age for the older disseminated gold event is given by the age of the granites at 2105 ± 2 Ma, which is within error of hydrothermal rutile in the granites of 2098 ± 7 Ma; the absolute age of the younger gold event is not known. © 2017 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.


Lebrun E.,University of Western Australia | Miller J.,University of Western Australia | Thebaud N.,University of Western Australia | Ulrich S.,AngloGold Ashanti | McCuaig T.C.,University of Western Australia
Economic Geology | Year: 2017

Orebodies in the Siguiri district, a world-class Paleoproterozoic orogenic gold camp located in the Birimian of northeastern Guinea, are typically represented by cryptic subvertical damage zones that host a high density of mineralized veins. Although no large regional fault system was recognized, observations from five representative deposits of the Siguiri district (Sanu Tinti, Bidini, Kami, Kosise, and Sintroko PB1) show that these orebodies are locally controlled by incipient structures and spread across three distinct structural and lithostratigraphic domains. Two shale-dominated peripheral domains adjoin a central domain whose lithostratigraphy is dominated by medium- to coarse-grained graywacke and this domain hosts the bulk of the gold endowment of the district. The three domains exhibit similar structural elements that can be described within a four-stage deformation scheme. The first deformation event (D1S) is poorly constrained and interpreted to have been an N-S compressional event. It included development of minor folds with W- to WNW-gently plunging fold axes without a clear axial planar cleavage. The main and second deformation event (D2S) is interpreted to have been associated with E-W to ENE-WSW-directed compression. The D2S event was responsible for forming the dominant N-trending structural grain of the district and creating interference patterns between F1S and F2S folds. The third event (D3S) developed progressively from D2S compression into an early-D3S E-W- to ENEWSW-directed transpression and a late-D3S NNW-SSE-directed-transtension responsible for most of the gold mineralization in the Siguiri district. The fourth and last event (D4S) was an NW-SE-oriented compressional event responsible for the localized overprinting of veining by a steep to shallowly dipping NNE-SSW ductile cleavage. Late-D3S gold-bearing mineral occurrences formed along subvertical N-S reverse faults, NE-trending dextral shear zones, WNW-trending sinistral faults, and E-trending normal relay faults developed or reactivated early-D3S. Mineralization is expressed as mineralized shear zones or subvertical damage zones, characterized by a 10- to 15-m-wide zone of dense quartz-carbonate-sulfide veining, or disseminated gold-bearing sulfides. The mineralized veins consistently strike ENE-WSW, are steeply dipping, and commonly have a conjugate geometry at the mesoscale. Finite strain analysis of deformation, including analysis of folds, faults, and conjugate mineralized vein sets, is consistent with a stress switch from a compressional (D2S) to transpressional deformation (termed early-D3S). Results of paleostress analysis on conjugate mineralized vein sets that formed late during D3S indicate that the stress field ranged from extensional to strike-slip, sometimes within the same vein locality. The late-D3S deformation is interpreted to have been a transtensional event. The first change in the orientation of the principal stress axes is related to a switch from a far field-dominated to a body force-dominated stress field reducing the deviatoric component on the stress tensor. The second change in the orientation of the principal stress axes, from early-D3S transpression to late-D3S transtension, suggests that ó1 and ó2 were similar in magnitude, which facilitated localized stress switches. In the Siguiri district, the early-D3S and late-D3S stress switches, which occurred at both a local and regional scale, enhanced the fracture permeability and were critical for the establishment of active fluid pathways leading to the formation of a world-class gold system. © 2017 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.


Feng X.,University of Western Australia | Randolph M.F.,University of Western Australia | Gourvenec S.,University of Western Australia
Geotechnique | Year: 2017

Rectangular mudmat foundations are frequently used for supporting subsea structures for offshore oil and gas developments. The self-weight of the subsea structure and mudmat often mobilise a relatively small proportion of the vertical bearing capacity and horizontal–torsional sliding generally represents the governing load case. However, the effect of torsion on mudmat capacity is not explicitly considered in current guidelines for geotechnical design of offshore foundations. In this paper, upper-bound plastic limit analysis is used to develop explicit expressions for the combined horizontal and torsional capacity of skirted mudmats. The results of the limit analyses are compared with results from finite-element analysis, and with other published solutions. A method is proposed for estimating the translational sliding resistance from the interaction diagram for biaxial horizontal loading and a unique expression is proposed to define the normalised H–T failure envelope. The effects of foundation aspect ratio, foundation embedment ratio, skirt–soil interface roughness, direction of horizontal loading and degree of soil strength heterogeneity are investigated systematically. © 2017, ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.


Hartmann B.T.,King Edward Memorial Hospital | Hartmann B.T.,University of Western Australia
Clinics in Perinatology | Year: 2017

The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors. These risks and benefits define the clinical responsibility of DHMBS and their social responsibility. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Boukpeti N.,University of Western Australia | Lehane B.M.,University of Western Australia
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation, ISC 2016 | Year: 2016

Design of geotechnical structures such as piles and offshore pipelines requires knowledge of the soil's sensitivity to account for the effect of remoulding on the soil's strength. This effect of remoulding is particularly significant for soils exhibiting post-depositional structure, such as carbonate fine-grained soils. This paper investigates laboratory measurement of sensitivity using three different methods: fall cone, hand vane and mini T-bar penetrometer. Tests were conducted on two carbonate soils from offshore Western Australia, with different grain size distributions. Additional T-bar tests were performed on two reconstituted specimens of one of the soils that was consolidated from a slurry, to evaluate the influence of the method of reconstitution on the soil structure and sensitivity. The results for the more fine grained soil show that the fall cone and T-bar measurements of sensitivity are similar, whereas the hand vane yields much lower values, in particular for deeper samples; the sensitivity of reconstituted samples of this soil is approximately half that of the intact soil. The hand vane and fall cone data for the sandier soil investigated show a significant amount of scatter, with the average value of sensitivity being similar. The results are analysed in the light of existing frameworks for clays, investigating how soil sensitivity can be related to liquidity index and soil structure. © 2016 Australian Geomechanics Society.


Randolph M.F.,University of Western Australia
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation, ISC 2016 | Year: 2016

The offshore environment provides a number of challenges for geotechnical site investigation, among which are the high costs associated with vessel day-rates and an associated need for equipment reliability. New oil and gas developments are increasingly remote, in terms of distance from land and water depths, and seabed conditions often comprise extremely soft sediments within the depth range relevant for infrastructure such as pipelines, subsea foundations and anchoring systems. These factors have combined to provide a gradual shift away from ship-based drilling tools towards seabed-based robotic equipment for drilling, sampling and in situ penetrometer testing. In parallel, a variety of free-fall samplers and penetrometers have been developed, particularly for preliminary investigations to characterise the seabed sediments. An important aspect of the soil response is the extent to which it may be considered drained or undrained during particular operational events. For example, design calculations for the stability and operational movements of pipelines are relatively sensitive to the consolidation response of the soil. Even interpretation of penetrometer data requires an assumption with respect to the degree of consolidation occurring during penetration. The paper provides an overview of recent developments in offshore site investigation equipment, and then focuses on evaluation of consolidation properties. © 2016 Australian Geomechanics Society.


Regli A.,University of Western Australia
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2017

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current evidence for the management of children with recent upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Furthermore, the review includes management guidelines for children with URTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Good history and clinical examination is sufficient in most children presenting with URTI. Testing for immune markers or preoperative nitric oxide measurement does not add any additional value. Preoperative bronchodilator administration, intravenous induction with propofol, and noninvasive airway management all reduce the occurrence of respiratory adverse events. SUMMARY: Most children can be safely anaesthetized even in the presence of an URTIs if the perioperative anaesthesia management is optimized. In this review article, we have included a management algorithm for children with URTI presenting for elective surgery. Copyright © 2017 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


OBJECTIVES:: Carotid artery reactivity (CAR%), involving carotid artery diameter responses to a cold pressor test (CPT), is a noninvasive measure of conduit artery function in humans. This study examined the impact of age and cardiovascular risk factors on the CAR% and the relationship between CAR% and coronary artery vasodilator responses to the CPT. METHODS:: Ultrasound was used to measure resting and peak carotid artery diameters during the CPT, with CAR% being calculated as the relative change from baseline (%). We compared CAR% between young (n?=?50, 24?±?3 years) and older participants (n?=?44, 61?±?8 years), and subsequently assessed relationships between CAR% and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 50 participants (44?±?21 years). Subsequently, we compared left anterior descending (LAD) artery velocity (using transthoracic Doppler) with carotid artery diameter (i.e. CAR%) during the CPT (n?=?33, 37?±?17 years). RESULTS:: A significantly larger CAR% was found in young versus older healthy participants (4.1?±?3.7 versus 1.8?±?2.6, P?


Cantoni A.,University of Western Australia
2016, 10th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) derives its name from the fact that a synthetic aperture is formed by exploiting the movement of the target with respect to radar rather than by the movement of the radar platform radar. In ISAR applications, the target motion is usually not known and the target is also considered non-cooperative. An objective of the signal processing in ISAR is to obtain 2D or even 3D 'image' of the target which represents the spatial distribution of various facets on the target that reflect electromagnetic waves when the target is illuminated by the radar. © 2016 IEEE.


Reid N.,University of Western Australia
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2017

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify trajectories of older adults’ television viewing (TV) time over 12 years; and, to examine their associations with performance-based measures of physical function. METHODS: Data on TV time (hours/week) and socio-demographic factors were collected at each assessment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study (1999/2000; 2004/2005; 2011/2012), with objective measures of physical function (2.44m timed-up-and-go [TUG, seconds] and knee extensor test [KES, kg]) collected at the final (2011/2012) assessment. Regression analyses examined predictors of trajectory membership and associations with TUG and KES in those aged 60+ years in 2011/2012. RESULTS: Six TV time trajectories were identified among the 1938 participants (aged 60-97, 54% female): consistently-low (9.7%); low-increasing (22.3%); moderate-decreasing (13.5%); moderate-increasing (30.3%); consistently-high (18.9%); and, high-increasing (5.2%). There were no statistically significant relationships with TUG (p>0.05). In the fully adjusted model, KES performance was significantly better in the consistently-low, low-increasing and consistently- high trajectories, compared to the moderate-increasing trajectory (P < 0.001, R = 0.33). CONCLUSION: 12-year trajectories of TV time were associated with muscle strength in older adults. These findings suggest that patterns of sedentary behavior can be a determinant of muscle strength in later life. © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine


Hart R.J.,University of Western Australia
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2017

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth hormone (GH) has been used as an adjunct in ovulation induction and IVF for 25 years, particularly as an adjunct to ovarian stimulation for women who had a previous poor response to stimulation in an IVF cycle. It does not have US Food and Drug Administration approval for this use. Unfortunately, due to the problems inherent with recruiting women who have undergone unsuccessful IVF treatment cycles and their inevitable low live birth rate per initiated cycle, many studies performed to date have been underpowered. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous meta-analyses of studies performed in populations of women with a poor response to ovarian stimulation, demonstrated an increase in the live birth rate for the use of GH. With the recent publication of three studies and the presentation of the Australian LIGHT study, we undertook an updated meta-analysis. SUMMARY: Meta-analysis demonstrated a benefit for the use of the adjunct GH, with a reduction in the duration of ovarian stimulation required for oocyte retrieval, the collection of a greater number of oocytes than placebo, and an improvement in many of the early clinical parameters; however, there was no evidence of an increased chance of a live birth for the use of GH. Copyright © 2017 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Stewart C.J.R.,University of Western Australia
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology | Year: 2017

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix occasionally demonstrates a deceptive growth pattern that mimics endocervical crypt involvement by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 (CIN 3). Such CIN 3–like SCCs may be misinterpreted as noninvasive or minimally invasive leading to delays in diagnosis. Little is known of the factors that influence the growth patterns of cervical SCC but we suggested recently that CIN 3–like tumors might demonstrate “collective cellular invasion,” which is characterized by a retained epithelial phenotype. This contrasts with the more overtly infiltrative growth of conventional SCC, which exhibits features suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In the current study we investigated podoplanin (PP) and SOX2 expression in normal squamous epithelium, in CIN 3 and in 16 CIN 3–like SCCs 11 of which also showed a conventional invasive component. Compared with normal epithelium, CIN 3 often showed a focal loss of basal PP staining and most cases showed increased, typically diffuse, SOX2 expression. Although the immunohistochemical findings were not uniform, they generally supported collective cellular invasion in CIN 3–like tumor areas as these were often PP positive and showed diffuse SOX2 expression. In contrast, most conventional SCCs showed only focal SOX2 staining and they were typically negative, or only focally positive, for PP. The staining patterns did not reliably distinguish CIN 3 from CIN 3–like SCC. Small infiltrative tumor nests around the margins of CIN 3 or deeply invasive CIN 3–like SCC often showed a localized reduction in SOX2 expression suggesting SOX2 downregulation during the transition to invasive growth. ©2017International Society of Gynecological Pathologists


Rogers A.A.,University of Western Australia | Burton M.P.,University of Western Australia
Conservation Biology | Year: 2017

Understanding the social acceptability of biodiversity offsets is important to the design of offset policy. We used a discrete choice experiment to quantify preferences of Australians for a migratory shorebird offset in the context of an oil and gas development project. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1371 respondents on their preferences for current and prospective offset-policy characteristics via an online questionnaire to inform policy design of the social dimensions related to offset acceptability. The majority of respondents accepted offsetting as a means to allow economic development; the option to reject development (and an offset) was selected in 13% of possible offset scenarios. Substituting protection of a species affected by the development with protection of a more endangered species was a desirable policy characteristic, as was having the offset implemented by a third party or the government rather than the company responsible for the development. Direct offset activities (e.g., improving degraded habitat) were preferred over indirect activities (e.g., a research program), and respondents were strongly against locating the offset at a site other than where the impact occurred. Positive and negative characteristics of offsets could be traded off by changing the number of birds protected by the offset. Our results show that Australians are likely to support increased flexibility in biodiversity-offset policies, particularly when undesirable policy characteristics are compensated for. © 2016, Society for Conservation Biology.


Waters F.,University of Western Australia | Waters F.,Graylands Hospital | Fernyhough C.,Durham University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2017

Hallucinations constitute one of the 5 symptom domains of psychotic disorders in DSM-5, suggesting diagnostic significance for that group of disorders. Although specific featural properties of hallucinations (negative voices, talking in the third person, and location in external space) are no longer highlighted in DSM, there is likely a residual assumption that hallucinations in schizophrenia can be identified based on these candidate features. We investigated whether certain featural properties of hallucinations are specifically indicative of schizophrenia by conducting a systematic review of studies showing direct comparisons of the featural and clinical characteristics of (auditory and visual) hallucinations among 2 or more population groups (one of which included schizophrenia). A total of 43 articles were reviewed, which included hallucinations in 4 major groups (nonclinical groups, drug- and alcohol-related conditions, medical and neurological conditions, and psychiatric disorders). The results showed that no single hallucination feature or characteristic uniquely indicated a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with the sole exception of an age of onset in late adolescence. Among the 21 features of hallucinations in schizophrenia considered here, 95% were shared with other psychiatric disorders, 85% with medical/neurological conditions, 66% with drugs and alcohol conditions, and 52% with the nonclinical groups. Additional differences rendered the nonclinical groups somewhat distinctive from clinical disorders. Overall, when considering hallucinations, it is inadvisable to give weight to the presence of any featural properties alone in making a schizophrenia diagnosis. It is more important to focus instead on the co-occurrence of other symptoms and the value of hallucinations as an indicator of vulnerability. © The Author 2016.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Addiction is one of the most prominent issues society faces and is a complex subject matter. In his new book, Albert Stuart Reece addresses this vast topic by bringing insights from his extensive medical experience in working with addicts. “Let My People Go: A Theology of Addiction” is an informative book, which addresses the underlying concepts of addiction while providing readers with scriptural guidance. Reece has a profound knowledge of the underlying science relating to addiction as he has conducted research in addiction for more than 20 years. “Addiction reflects who we are and it becomes who we are,” said Reece. “If we are ever to get a handle on the addictive tsunami's presently sweeping society we must come to grips with the profoundly spiritual nature of what is occurring.” The concepts discussed in the book have been extensively tested on patients over many years. “Let My People Go: A Theology of Addiction” has been endorsed by some of the leading anti-drug educators in Australia, and the leading physician on the interface between medical practice and religion internationally. “Much of our modern social behavior is addictive and religious or pseudo-religious,” said Reece. “Addictions can be broadly defined and include both chemical and behavioral. Salvation for the individual and the society requires recognition of the deeply religious nature of much modern behavior, and a true re-direction of our natural innate tendency to worship God.” By: Albert Stuart Reece “Let My People Go: A Theology of Addiction” ISBN: 978-1-5127-4467-5 (sc); 978-1-5127-4468-2 (hc); 978-1-5127-4466-8 (e) Available on WestBow Press, Amazon, and Barnes & Noble Dr. Reece has published over 80 pieces in peer-reviewed scientific publications and is an associate professor of medicine at the University of Western Australia. He is a pioneer in the Australian naltrexone implant treatment, an abstinence-based treatment for heroin, opiates, alcohol, and other drugs. Dr. Reece is a committed Christian and served as a missionary doctor in Papua New Guinea for most of 1984.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.cnet.com

After 13 years of valuable data collection around Saturn and its moons, NASA's Cassini spacecraft is almost out of fuel and ready for retirement. Before it makes its final magnificent fall into Saturn's mysterious depths, however, it's going to spend a few months going where no spacecraft has gone before. After its final flyby of Saturn's hazy moon Titan, Cassini took its first historic dive in the space between Saturn and its rings at 2 a.m. PDT on April 26, 2017, the first in the mission named, appropriately, Grand Finale. During this mission, Cassini will perform 22 such flybys in total, coming closer to Saturn than any spacecraft before it, just 64,000 kilometres (40,000 miles) from its centre. During these daring swoops, Cassini will make detailed maps of Saturn's gravity and magnetic fields, and take a much closer look at Saturn's rings, trying to determine their mass. It will also take photographs of Saturn from the most intimate vantage point yet. NASA doesn't currently have contact with Cassini as it performs this manoeuvre. It's expected that it will resume contact with Earth at 11:50 p.m. PDT at the earliest. In the meantime, we'll be waiting with bated breath -- Cassini could be knocked out of action by a piece of debris, as it flies close to the rings. "Cassini has taught us about the weird and wonderful hexagon-like structures at Saturn's poles, the prebiotic chemistry in the atmosphere of a dynamic Titan with rain, rivers and lakes, and with the Huygens probe, provided the first amazing close-up images of Titan's surface," said Luke Davies, John Stocker Fellow at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia. "One of its most impressive studies has been into Saturn's rings, showing them as dynamic systems which have changed and evolved over Cassini's 10 year mission -- even seeing the possible birth of a new moon," said Davies. "As Cassini begins its long multi-orbit decent to Saturn, it will study these rings in even greater detail before eventually giving us a fleeting, but invaluable, glimpse of the Saturnian atmosphere." This final flight will take place on September 15, 2017. The initial images from this first flyby between Saturn and its rings will start arriving no earlier than 12:30 a.m. PDT, April 27. You can keep an eye out for them on the Cassini Twitter account. Tech Enabled: CNET chronicles tech's role in providing new kinds of accessibility. Technically Literate: Original works of short fiction with unique perspectives on tech, exclusively on CNET.


NOT FOR RELEASE, PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, IN OR INTO ANY JURISDICTION WHERE TO DO SO WOULD CONSTITUTE A VIOLATION OF THE RELEVANT LAWS OF SUCH JURISDICTION ·         The board of directors of Sandstorm and the Mariana Independent Directors are pleased to announce that they have reached an agreement on the terms of a recommended share and cash acquisition by which the entire issued and to be issued ordinary share capital of Mariana that Sandstorm does not already own will be acquired by Sandstorm (the "Combination"). It is intended that the Combination will be implemented by way of a court-sanctioned scheme of arrangement under Part VIII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law. ·         Sandstorm currently holds 8,980,243 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 7.0 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana, and Mariana Warrants over a further 4,490,122 Mariana Shares. ·         If successful, the Combination will result in Mariana Shareholders, together, owning approximately 19.0 per cent. of the ordinary share capital of the enlarged Sandstorm group (the "Combined Group"), calculated by reference to the fully diluted issued share capital of Mariana net of Sandstorm's interests in Mariana Shares and Mariana Warrants. ·         Under the terms of the Combination, Scheme Shareholders will receive 0.2573 New Sandstorm Shares and 28.75 pence in cash for each Scheme Share held at the Scheme Record Time. ·         Based on the closing price of US$4.04 per Sandstorm Share on NYSE MKT and a currency exchange rate of £0.7788 per US$, on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement), the terms of the Combination represent: ·                a value of approximately 109.71 pence per Mariana Share; ·                a value of approximately £166.85 million for Mariana's fully diluted ordinary share capital; ·                a premium of approximately 84.38 per cent. to the closing price of 59.5 pence per Mariana Share on AIM on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement); and ·                a premium of approximately 88.30 per cent. to the 20-day VWAP per Mariana Share of 62.84 pence on AIM to 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement), based on the 20-day VWAP per Sandstorm Share of 348.16 pence on NYSE MKT to the same date and utilising daily close composite exchange rates. ·         If, after the date of this Announcement, any dividend and/or other distribution is announced, declared or paid in respect of the Mariana Shares, Sandstorm reserves the right to reduce the Consideration by an amount up to the amount of such dividend and/or distribution so announced, declared or paid. ·         The Combination is expected to create a leading mid-tier stream and royalty company, delivering significant benefits to shareholders of Mariana and Sandstorm. ·         Stream and royalty finance involves making an upfront payment to a mining partner that is in need of capital to build their mine, refinance their obligations, complete an acquisition or for various other reasons. In exchange for that upfront payment, Sandstorm receives the right to purchase a percentage of the gold produced from the mine (in the case of a stream) or a portion of the revenue generated from the mine (in the case of a royalty). ·                A diversified portfolio of 155 streams and royalties including 20 producing, 23 development-stage, 26 advanced exploration-stage and 86 exploration-stage assets (the "Stream and Royalty Portfolio"). Of the projects that make up the Stream and Royalty Portfolio, 63% are located in North America, 19% in South America, 12% in Asia, 3% in Africa and 3% in Australia. ·                A 30% incorporated joint venture interest ("JV") in the high-grade, gold-copper, development-stage Hot Maden project in northeast Turkey ("Hot Maden") which is held by Mariana via the Turkish company Artmin Madencili Sanayive Tikaret AS. ·                At an appropriate stage post completion of the Combination, Sandstorm intends to move from the current position of equity participation in the JV to converting the Combined Group's interest in the JV into a gold stream, adding significant future cash flow growth potential to the Stream and Royalty Portfolio. This will require the Combined Group to identify a purchaser for the JV interest, with consideration of such sale being a newly created gold stream, resulting in an effective conversion of the JV interest into a gold stream. At present the Combined Group has not begun soliciting interest in a conversion transaction and intends to conduct such solicitation in the future after Hot Maden has undergone several de-risking and value creating milestones. ·                Hot Maden is expected to be a straightforward, low capital cost project with estimated initial construction capital requirements of US$169 million (approximately US$51 million attributed to the 30% JV interest). The high-grade nature of the orebody and its wide mineralized zones provide the potential for a low cost mining operation, with estimated all-in sustaining costs of less than US$400 per ounce gold-equivalent, which if achieved would lead to significant cash flow generation from the project. ·                Hot Maden will continue to be managed by Turkish company Lidya Madencilik Sanayive Ticaret A.S. ("Lidya"), the 70% JV partner at Hot Maden. Lidya is an experienced Turkish company and is part of Çalik Holding, a Turkish conglomerate with several business lines including energy, telecommunication, finance, construction, textiles and mining. Lidya is currently partnered with Alacer Gold Corp. on the producing Çöpler mine and the development-stage Gediktepe and Kartaltepe projects in Turkey. ·                An interest in the remaining exploration properties of Mariana with a focus on gold, silver  and associated metals in Côte d'Ivoire, Turkey and Argentina (the "Exploration Properties"). Following completion of the Combination, Sandstorm intends to spin-out the Exploration Properties into a separate company (the "SpinCo"), with the Combined Group retaining royalty interests over the Exploration Properties together with equity in the SpinCo. Sandstorm intends that the SpinCo would seek external investment, as required, to fund future exploration costs, with a goal of allowing shareholders of the Combined Group to maintain significant exposure to the Exploration Properties without exposure to further investment requirements. ·         Following the Combination, the Combined Group will maintain a strong balance sheet with significant available liquidity from its US$110 million revolving credit facility and strong cash flow from operations to fund Sandstorm's ongoing strategy of future stream and royalty acquisitions. The Combined Group will also have a portfolio of equity and debt investments in other mining companies which is intended to be monetized to support the Combined Group's ongoing acquisition strategy in due course. ·         Cash currently remaining in the Mariana Group of approximately US$5 million as at 25 April 2017, being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement, which is expected to be sufficient to fund Mariana's ongoing pro rata share of development programmes and cash calls for the Hot Maden JV until January 2018 as well as furthering exploration as prioritised in Mariana's area of focus. ·         Superior market liquidity for Mariana Shareholders. Over the last 15 months, the daily dollar trading volume of Sandstorm has averaged approximately US$10 million between the NYSE MKT and TSX. ·         Experienced management team which has completed more than US$2 billion in stream and royalty transactions. On completion of the Combination, Nolan Watson will be President and Chief Executive Officer of the Combined Group and Glen Parsons will continue to manage the Exploration Properties furthering the advancement up the development curve. Commenting on today's Announcement, John Horsburgh, Non-executive Chairman of Mariana said: "The Independent Directors recommend that Mariana Shareholders approve this Combination. The Combination with a company such as Sandstorm not only de-risks Mariana's exposure as a single development/production asset company but provides a stronger diverse platform and ability to finance the development of the 30% owned high grade gold-copper discovery at Hot Maden in Turkey. The terms of the Combination represent a significant and attractive premium to the market price of Mariana Shares. The Consideration includes a Cash Consideration Amount and a New Sandstorm Share Consideration Amount component that provides an opportunity for Mariana Shareholders to participate in the upside of Hot Maden, as it advances to production, as well as exposure to the existing Mariana Exploration Properties and the Combined Group's streaming and royalty portfolio.  The Independent Directors have also taken into account the high liquidity of Sandstorm Shares in arriving at this recommendation." Commenting on today's Announcement, Nolan Watson, President and Chief Executive Officer of Sandstorm said: "We believe that, by combining Mariana and Sandstorm and subsequently converting the Hot Maden JV interest into a gold stream, we can unlock the inherent value of Hot Maden and deliver the optimal outcome for shareholders without incurring further equity dilution to finance the interest in Hot Maden. We believe that Hot Maden is a unique asset with a robust cash flow profile and will be an anchor gold stream asset that has the potential to more than double Sandstorm's attributable gold equivalent production once in full operation. We are confident in Lidya as the operating partner at Hot Maden and we look forward to watching the project advance towards production and the mineralization expand through continued exploration. The Combination is expected to transform the Combined Group into a leading mid-tier streaming and royalty company and our focus will be growth by acquisition with the primary objective being to add streams and royalties on quality projects with exploration upside, with the balance of Mariana's exploration portfolio contributing to this. We believe that we are well positioned to continue to execute on our growth plans with significant available liquidity from our US$110 million revolving credit facility and a portfolio of equity and debt investments in other mining companies that we plan to monetize." Further details of the Combination ·         It is intended that the Combination will be implemented by means of a Court-sanctioned scheme of arrangement under Part VIII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law, further details of which are contained in the full text of this Announcement. However, Sandstorm reserves the right to implement the Combination by way of a takeover offer (which shall be an offer for the purposes of section 337 of the Companies (Guernsey) Law), subject to the Panel's consent and the terms of the Co-operation Agreement. ·         The Mariana Independent Directors, who have been so advised by RFC Ambrian Limited ("RFC Ambrian") as to the financial terms of the Combination, consider the terms of the Combination to be fair and reasonable. In providing their advice, RFC Ambrian have taken into account the commercial assessments of the Mariana Independent Directors. RFC Ambrian is providing independent financial advice to the Mariana Independent Directors for the purposes of Rule 3 of the Code. ·         The Mariana Independent Directors have also been advised by Raymond James Ltd. ("Raymond James") as to the financial terms and certain Canadian capital market aspects of the Combination. ·         Accordingly, the Mariana Independent Directors have unanimously approved the Combination and intend to recommend that Mariana Shareholders vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting as they have irrevocably undertaken to Sandstorm to do in respect of their own beneficial holdings of, in aggregate, 905,050 Mariana Shares representing approximately 0.71 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). ·         In addition to the irrevocable undertakings from the Mariana Independent Directors, Sandstorm has also received irrevocable undertakings from each of Australian Investors Pty Ltd and AngloGold Ashanti Holdings Plc to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting in respect of, in aggregate, 8,718,089 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 6.80 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). ·         Sandstorm has therefore received irrevocable undertakings to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting in respect of, in aggregate, 9,623,139 Mariana Shares representing, in aggregate, approximately 7.51 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). ·         Further details of these irrevocable undertakings, including the circumstances in which they cease to be binding, are set out in Appendix 3 to this Announcement. ·         Glen Parsons and Eric Roth have also irrevocably undertaken to Sandstorm to vote in favour of those resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting on which they are entitled to vote in respect of, in aggregate, 986,621 Mariana Shares representing approximately 0.77 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). As a consequence of the Retention Arrangements, Glen Parsons and Eric Roth will not vote on the resolution to approve the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting. ·         Neither of Ron Ho or Mustafa Aksoy has given an irrevocable undertaking to Sandstorm on the basis that: (i) Ron Ho is an employee of Sandstorm; and (ii) Mustafa Aksoy does not hold any Mariana Shares. ·         The Scheme Document, containing further information about the Combination and notices of the Guernsey Court Meeting and General Meeting, together with the Forms of Proxy, will be sent to Mariana Shareholders and (for information only) to principals in the Mariana Employee Equity Plans and holders of Mariana Warrants as soon as practicable and, in any event, within 28 days of the date of this Announcement (unless the Panel agrees otherwise). An expected timetable of principal events will be included in the Scheme Document. The Scheme Document will also be available for review on SEDAR under Mariana's profile at www.sedar.com. This summary should be read in conjunction with, and is subject to, the full text of the following Announcement (including its Appendices). The Combination will be subject to the Conditions and certain further terms set out in Appendix 1 and to the full terms and conditions to be set out in the Scheme Document. Appendix 2 contains the sources and bases of certain information contained in this summary and the following Announcement. Appendix 3 contains details of the irrevocable undertakings received by Sandstorm. Appendix 4 contains details of the Sandstorm Forecast. Appendix 5 contains the definitions of certain terms used in this summary and the following Announcement. A conference call will be held on 26 April 2017 starting at 8:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time) to further discuss the Combination. To participate in the conference call, use the following dial-in numbers and conference ID, or join the webcast using the link below: The technical and scientific information relating to Mariana and its assets contained in this Announcement has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, Mariana's Qualified Person as defined by NI 43-101 - Standards for Disclosure of Mineral Projects. Mr Roth is Mariana's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).  Mr Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. The person responsible for arranging for the release of this Announcement on behalf of Mariana is Glen Parsons, CEO. KPMG LLP, which is authorised and regulated in the UK by the FCA, is acting exclusively as financial adviser to Sandstorm in relation to the Combination, and is not acting for any other person in relation to such Combination. KPMG LLP will not be responsible to anyone other than Sandstorm for providing the protections afforded to its clients nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement or otherwise. RFC Ambrian Limited, which is authorised and regulated by the FCA, is acting exclusively for Mariana and no­one else in connection with the Combination and will not be responsible to anyone other than Mariana for providing the protections afforded to clients of RFC Ambrian Limited nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement. Raymond James Ltd. is acting exclusively as Canadian financial adviser to Mariana and to the Mariana Independent Directors, and no­one else in connection with the Combination and will not be responsible to anyone other than Mariana for providing the protections afforded to clients of Raymond James Ltd. nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement. This Announcement is not intended to and does not constitute, or form part of, an offer, invitation or the solicitation of an offer to purchase, otherwise acquire, subscribe for, sell or otherwise dispose of any securities, or the solicitation of any vote or approval in any jurisdiction, pursuant to the Combination or otherwise, nor shall there be any sale, issuance or transfer of securities of Mariana in any jurisdiction in contravention of applicable law. The Combination will be made solely by means of the Scheme Document, which will contain the full terms and conditions of the Combination including details of how to vote in respect of the Scheme. Any vote in respect of the Scheme or other response in relation to the Combination should be made only on the basis of the information contained in the Scheme Document. The availability of the Combination to Mariana Shareholders who are not resident in and citizens of the UK or Guernsey may be affected by the laws of the relevant jurisdictions in which they are located or of which they are citizens. Persons who are not resident in the UK or Guernsey should inform themselves of, and observe, any applicable legal or regulatory requirements of their jurisdictions. Relevant clearances have not been, and will not be, obtained from the securities commission or similar regulatory authority of any province or territory of Canada. Further details in relation to overseas shareholders will be contained in the Scheme Document and Mariana Shareholders are advised to read carefully the Scheme Document and related Forms of Proxy once these have been dispatched. The release, publication or distribution of this Announcement in or into jurisdictions other than the UK or Guernsey may be restricted by law and therefore any persons who are subject to the law of any jurisdiction other than the UK or Guernsey should inform themselves about, and observe, any applicable requirements. Any failure to comply with the applicable restrictions may constitute a violation of the securities laws of any such jurisdiction. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the companies and persons involved in the Combination disclaim any responsibility or liability for the violation of such restrictions by any person. This Announcement has been prepared for the purposes of complying with English law, Guernsey law, certain applicable Canadian securities laws, the AIM Rules, the rules of the London Stock Exchange and the Code and the information disclosed may not be the same as that which would have been disclosed if this Announcement had been prepared in accordance with the laws of jurisdictions outside of England or Guernsey. Copies of this Announcement and the formal documentation relating to the Scheme and the Combination will not be, and must not be, mailed or otherwise forwarded, distributed or sent in, into or from any Restricted Jurisdiction or any jurisdiction where to do so would violate the laws of that jurisdiction. Notice to US Holders, US Optionholders and US Warrantholders The Combination and the securities to be issued in connection with the Combination have not been approved or disapproved by the SEC or the securities regulatory authority of any state of the United States, nor has the SEC or any such state securities regulatory authority passed upon the fairness or merits of the Combination or upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Announcement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offence. The New Sandstorm Shares to be received by Mariana Shareholders in exchange for their Mariana Shares pursuant to the Combination have not been, and will not be, registered under the US Securities Act or the securities laws of any state, district or other jurisdiction of the United States, and such securities are intended to be issued in reliance upon the exemption from the registration requirements of the US Securities Act set forth in Section 3(a)(10) thereof on the basis of the approval of the Guernsey Court, which will be informed of the intention to rely upon such exemption, and similar exemptions under applicable state securities laws. Section 3(a)(10) of the US Securities Act, generally, exempts the issuance of securities issued in exchange for one or more bona fide outstanding securities, from the registration requirements of the US Securities Act where the terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange have been approved by a court of competent jurisdiction that is expressly authorized by law to grant such approval, after a hearing upon the fairness of the substantive and procedural terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange at which all persons to whom the securities will be issued have the right to appear and receive timely and adequate notice thereof, among other conditions and requirements. Mariana Options and Mariana Warrants will remain outstanding under their terms and any securities issuable upon exercise thereof have not been and will not be registered under the U.S. Securities Act or applicable state securities laws.  As a result, Mariana Options and Mariana Warrants may not be exercised in the United States or by or on behalf of a US Optionholder or US Warrantholder, as applicable, nor may any New Sandstorm Shares issued upon such exercise be offered or resold in the United States or to or for the account of such a US holder, except pursuant to the terms of such security and pursuant to a registration statement under the U.S. Securities Act or an exemption from applicable registration requirements or in a transaction not subject to the registration requirements of the U.S. Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. The New Sandstorm Shares to be received by Mariana Shareholders upon completion of the Combination may be resold without restriction under the US Securities Act, except in respect of resales by persons who are "affiliates" (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the US Securities Act) of Sandstorm at the time of the Section 3(a)(10) exchange or who have been affiliates of Sandstorm within 90 days before the Section 3(a)(10) exchange or who are affiliates of Sandstorm at the time of such resale or within the 90-day period prior to such resale. Persons who may be deemed to be "affiliates" of an issuer include individuals or entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with, the issuer, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise, and generally include executive officers and directors of the issuer as well as principal shareholders of the issuer (which includes, among others, 10% shareholders). The financial information on Sandstorm in this Announcement has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Sandstorm's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016 and the unaudited interim production results for the three-month period ending 31 March 2017, which are prepared in US Dollars. The financial information on Mariana in this Announcement has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Mariana's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016, which are prepared in British Pounds Sterling. In addition, such financial statements and other financial information included or incorporated by reference in this Announcement have been prepared in accordance with IFRS, which differs from US GAAP in certain material respects, and thus are not directly comparable to financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP. Information in this Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein concerning the properties and operations of Sandstorm and of Mariana has been prepared in accordance with requirements and standards under securities laws, which differ from the requirements of US securities laws. The terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" used in the Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein are mining terms as defined in accordance with NI 43-101 under guidelines set out in the Definition Standards for Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves adopted by the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum Council on 11 December 2005. While the terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" are recognized and required by securities laws other than the requirements of US securities laws, they are not recognized by the SEC. Disclosure of contained ounces are or may be permitted disclosure under regulations applicable to Mariana and Sandstorm; however, the SEC normally only permits issuers to report resources as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit of production measures. As such, certain information contained in the Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein concerning descriptions of mineralization and mineral resources under these standards may not be comparable to similar information made public by US companies subject to reporting and disclosure requirements of the SEC. US Holders should be aware that the Combination described in the Announcement may have tax consequences in the United States and should consult their own tax advisors to determine the particular United States tax consequences to them of the Combination in light of their particular situation, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any other relevant foreign, state, local, or other taxing jurisdiction. The enforcement by investors of civil liabilities under the United States federal and state securities laws may be affected adversely by the fact that Sandstorm and Mariana are incorporated or organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than the United States, that some or all of their officers and directors are and will be residents of countries other than the United States, that some or all of the experts named in the Announcement may be residents of countries other than the United States, and that all or a substantial portion of the assets of Sandstorm, Mariana and such persons are and will be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for US Holders  (including US Optionholders and US Warrantholders) to effect service of process within the United States upon Sandstorm or Mariana, as applicable, their respective officers or directors or the experts named herein, or to realize, against them, upon judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States. In addition, US Holders (including US Optionholders and US Warrantholders) should not assume that the courts of Guernsey: (a) would enforce judgments of United States courts obtained in actions against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States; or (b) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States. The enforcement by investors of civil liabilities under the Canadian securities laws may be affected adversely by the fact that Mariana is incorporated or organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than Canada, that some or all of Sandstorm's and Mariana's officers and directors are and will be residents of countries other than Canada, that some or all of the experts named in this Announcement may be residents of countries other than Canada, and that all or a substantial portion of the assets of Sandstorm, Mariana and such persons are and will be located outside Canada. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for Canadian Holders to effect service of process within Canada upon Mariana, Sandstorm's and Mariana's respective officers or directors or the experts named herein, or to realize, against them, upon judgments of courts of Canada predicated upon liabilities under Canadian securities laws. In addition, Canadian Holders should not assume that the courts of Guernsey: (a) would enforce judgments of Canadian courts obtained in actions against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under Canadian securities laws; or (b) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the Canadian securities laws. The New Sandstorm Shares to be issued pursuant to the Combination will be issued in reliance upon exemptions from the prospectus requirements of securities legislation in each province of Canada. Subject to certain disclosure and regulatory requirements and to customary restrictions applicable to distributions of shares that constitute "control distributions", New Sandstorm Shares may be resold in each province and territory in Canada, subject in certain circumstances, to the usual conditions that no unusual effort has been made to prepare the market or to create demand, no extraordinary commission or consideration is paid and, if the selling shareholder is an insider or officer of Sandstorm, such shareholder has no reasonable grounds to believe that Sandstorm is in default of securities legislation. Canadian Holders should be aware that the Combination described in this Announcement may have tax consequences in Canada and should consult their own tax advisors to determine the particular Canadian tax consequences to them of the Combination in light of their particular circumstances, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any other relevant foreign, state, local, or other taxing jurisdiction. This Announcement (including information incorporated by reference in this Announcement), oral statements made regarding the Combination, and other information published by Sandstorm and Mariana contain statements which are, or may be deemed to be, "forward­looking statements" or "forward-looking information" under applicable securities laws (collectively referred to as "forward-looking statements"). Forward­looking statements are prospective in nature and are not based on historical facts, but rather on current expectations and projections of the management of Sandstorm and Mariana about future events, and are therefore subject to risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from the future results expressed or implied by the forward­looking statements. The forward­looking statements contained in this Announcement include statements relating to the expected effects of the Combination on Sandstorm and Mariana, the expected timing and scope of the Combination, production forecasts, plans with respect to the JV interest, plans with respect to the Exploration Properties, estimates of mineral resources, statements with respect to the Hot Maden PEA and other statements other than historical facts. Often, but not always, forward­looking statements can be identified by the use of forward­looking words such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "is subject to", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", or "believes", or variations of such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "should", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved. Although Sandstorm and Mariana believe that the expectations reflected in such forward­looking statements are reasonable, Sandstorm and Mariana can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. By their nature, forward­looking statements involve risk and uncertainty because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward­looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to: the ability to consummate the Combination; the ability to obtain requisite shareholder and stock exchange approvals and the satisfaction of other Conditions on the proposed terms and schedule; the ability of Sandstorm and Mariana to successfully integrate their respective operations and retain key employees; the potential impact of the announcement or consummation of the Combination on relationships, including with employees, suppliers, customers and competitors; and changes in general economic, business and political conditions. Other unknown or unpredictable factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward­looking statements. Such forward­looking statements should therefore be construed in the light of such factors. Neither Sandstorm nor Mariana, nor any of their respective associates or directors, officers or advisers, provides any representation, assurance or guarantee that the occurrence of the events expressed or implied in any forward­looking statements in this Announcement will actually occur. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward­looking statements. Other than in accordance with their legal or regulatory obligations (including, but not limited to, the AIM Rules), neither Sandstorm nor Mariana is under any obligation, and Sandstorm and Mariana expressly disclaim any intention or obligation, to update or revise any forward­looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. With respect to statements on the Sandstorm Forecast, which is included for the purposes outlined herein, readers are cautioned that the information may not be appropriate for other purposes. No profit forecasts or estimates or quantified financial benefits statement Other than in respect of the Sandstorm Forecast, no statement in this Announcement is intended as a profit forecast, profit estimate or quantified financial benefits statement and no statement in this Announcement should be interpreted to mean that earnings per Mariana Share or Sandstorm Share for the current or future financial years would necessarily match or exceed the respective historical published earnings per Mariana Share or Sandstorm Share or to mean that the Combined Group's earnings in the first twelve months following the Combination, or in any subsequent period, following the Combination would necessarily match, or be greater than or be less than, those of Mariana and/or Sandstorm for the relevant preceding financial period or any other period. Under Rule 8.3(a) of the Code, any person who is interested in 1% or more of any class of relevant securities of an offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror (being any offeror other than an offeror in respect of which it has been announced that its offer is, or is likely to be, solely in cash) must make an Opening Position Disclosure following the commencement of the offer period and, if later, following the announcement in which any securities exchange offeror is first identified. An Opening Position Disclosure must contain details of the person's interests and short positions in, and rights to subscribe for, any relevant securities of each of (i) the offeree company and (ii) any securities exchange offeror(s). An Opening Position Disclosure by a person to whom Rule 8.3(a) applies must be made by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the 10th business day following the commencement of the offer period and, if appropriate, by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the 10th business day following the announcement in which any securities exchange offeror is first identified. Relevant persons who deal in the relevant securities of the offeree company or of a securities exchange offeror prior to the deadline for making an Opening Position Disclosure must instead make a Dealing Disclosure. Under Rule 8.3(b) of the Code, any person who is, or becomes, interested in 1% or more of any class of relevant securities of the offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror must make a Dealing Disclosure if the person deals in any relevant securities of the offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror. A Dealing Disclosure must contain details of the dealing concerned and of the person's interests and short positions in, and rights to subscribe for, any relevant securities of each of (i) the offeree company and (ii) any securities exchange offeror(s), save to the extent that these details have previously been disclosed under Rule 8. A Dealing Disclosure by a person to whom Rule 8.3(b) applies must be made by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the business day following the date of the relevant dealing. If two or more persons act together pursuant to an agreement or understanding, whether formal or informal, to acquire or control an interest in relevant securities of an offeree company or a securities exchange offeror, they will be deemed to be a single person for the purpose of Rule 8.3. Opening Position Disclosures must also be made by the offeree company and by any offeror and Dealing Disclosures must also be made by the offeree company, by any offeror and by any persons acting in concert with any of them (see Rules 8.1, 8.2 and 8.4). Details of the offeree and offeror companies in respect of whose relevant securities Opening Position Disclosures and Dealing Disclosures must be made can be found in the Disclosure Table on the Takeover Panel's website at www.thetakeoverpanel.org.uk, including details of the number of relevant securities in issue, when the offer period commenced and when any offeror was first identified. You should contact the Panel's Market Surveillance Unit on +44 (0)20 7638 0129 if you are in any doubt as to whether you are required to make an Opening Position Disclosure or a Dealing Disclosure. A copy of this Announcement will be made available, subject to certain restrictions relating to persons resident in Restricted Jurisdictions, on Sandstorm's website at http://www.sandstormgold.com and Mariana's website at http://www.marianaresources.com by no later than 12 noon (London time) on the Business Day following this Announcement. For the avoidance of doubt, the contents of these websites are not incorporated by reference and do not form part of this Announcement. This Announcement will also be available on SEDAR under Mariana's profile at www.sedar.com. In accordance with Rule 30.3 of the Code, a person so entitled may request a hard copy of this Announcement by contacting RFC Ambrian Limited during business hours on +44 (0)203 440 6800 or by submitting a request in writing to RFC Ambrian Limited at Level 5, Condor House, 10 St Paul's Churchyard, London, EC4M 8AL. For persons who receive a copy of this Announcement in electronic form or via a website notification, a hard copy of this Announcement will not be sent unless so requested. You may also request that all future documents, announcements and information to be sent to you in relation to the Combination should be in hard copy form. Please be aware that addresses, electronic addresses and certain other information provided by Mariana Shareholders, persons with information rights and other relevant persons for the receipt of communications from Mariana may be provided to Sandstorm during the offer period as required under Section 4 of Appendix 4 of the Code to comply with Rule 2.11(c). In accordance with Rule 2.9 of the Code: ·         Mariana confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on AIM and TSXV 126,231,768 ordinary shares of 0.1p each (save for 1,977,812 Mariana Shares which have been issued and are expected to be admitted to trading on AIM and TSXV on or around 27 April 2017). The ISIN of the ordinary shares is GG00BD3GC324. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX and NYSE MKT 151,994,269 common shares of no par value. The ISIN of the common shares is CA80013R2063. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX 5,002,500 common share purchase warrants with an exercise price of US$14.00 per common share that expire on 7 September 2017. The ISIN of the warrants is CA80013R1313. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX 5,043,900 common share purchase warrants with an exercise price of US$4.00 per common share that expire on 3 November 2020. The ISIN of the warrants is CA80013R1644. Certain figures included in this Announcement have been subjected to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown for the same category presented in different tables may vary slightly and figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of figures that precede them. Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. NOT FOR RELEASE, PUBLICATION OR DISTRIBUTION, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, IN OR INTO ANY JURISDICTION WHERE TO DO SO WOULD CONSTITUTE A VIOLATION OF THE RELEVANT LAWS OF SUCH JURISDICTION The board of directors of Sandstorm and the Mariana Independent Directors are pleased to announce that they have reached agreement on the terms of a recommended share and cash acquisition by which the entire issued and to be issued ordinary share capital of Mariana that Sandstorm does not already own will be acquired by Sandstorm. It is intended that the Combination will be implemented by way of a court-sanctioned scheme of arrangement under Part VIII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law. Sandstorm, together with its concert parties, is currently interested in 8,980,243 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 7.0 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana. If successful, the Combination will result in Mariana Shareholders, together, owning approximately 19.0 per cent. of the share capital of the Combined Group, calculated by reference to the fully diluted issued share capital of Mariana net of Sandstorm's interests in Mariana Shares and Mariana Warrants. Under the Scheme, which will be subject to the Conditions and further terms set out in Appendix 1 to this Announcement and to be set out in the Scheme Document, Scheme Shareholders will receive: Based on the closing price of US$4.04 per Sandstorm Share on NYSE MKT and a currency exchange rate of £0.7788 per US$, on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement), the terms of the Combination represent: If, after the date of this Announcement, any dividend and/or other distribution is announced, declared or paid in respect of the Mariana Shares, Sandstorm reserves the right to reduce the Consideration by an amount up to the amount of such dividend and/or distribution so announced, declared or paid. 3          Background to and reasons for the Combination The Boards of Mariana and Sandstorm believe that the Combination will create a leading mid-tier streaming and royalty company, delivering significant benefits to the shareholders of the Combined Group. Sandstorm brings a strong production base, a quality development pipeline with compelling cash flow growth potential, a base of exploration assets that provide long-term optionality, a healthy balance sheet for continued growth and an experienced management team. The Mariana assets will complement Sandstorm's established Stream and Royalty Portfolio. During the financial year ended 31 December 2016, Sandstorm reported sales of 49,731 attributable gold equivalent ounces from streams and royalties on 20 producing assets. The average cash cost per ounce of gold was US$258 during the period resulting in cash operating margins of US$996 per ounce. Based on Sandstorm's existing streams and royalties, attributable gold equivalent production for 2017 is forecasted to be between 45,000 and 55,000 attributable gold equivalent ounces from 20 producing assets, providing diversification benefits to shareholders. During the first quarter of 2017, Sandstorm sold approximately 15,500 attributable gold equivalent ounces, a record for the company. Sandstorm's production base is diverse by asset as well as geography, with an estimated breakdown of forecast gold equivalent production in 2019 by jurisdiction as follows: 46% North America, 44% South America, 10% Other. The addition of Hot Maden to the Combined Group is expected to improve the already high quality development pipeline in Sandstorm's Stream and Royalty Portfolio. Prior to completion of the Combination, the Stream and Royalty Portfolio includes 20 currently producing and 23 development-stage projects. Hot Maden would add an anchor asset to the development pipeline and transforms the potential future production growth for the Combined Group. Assuming completion of the Combination, the Combined Group is expected to realise attributable gold equivalent production by year as follows1: The attributable gold equivalent production of the Combined Group represents Sandstorm's estimates of gold equivalent production associated with the existing Stream and Royalty Portfolio plus the addition of gold equivalent production estimated from Hot Maden. In the case of the existing Stream and Royalty Portfolio, the figures represent estimated future production for each mine at which Sandstorm has a commodity stream or royalty based on public disclosure, technical reports and incorporating management estimates where appropriate. Information regarding the Hot Maden Project has been derived from the Hot Maden PEA and incorporating management estimates. The Hot Maden PEA is preliminary in nature as it includes inferred mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves.  Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability, and as such there is no certainty that the preliminary assessment and economics will be realised. Sandstorm believes that the addition of Hot Maden to the Combined Group will provide the potential to more than double attributable gold equivalent production once in full operation. It is estimated that full production may be achieved by 2022, with a half-year of production occurring as early as 2021 during the commissioning phase. Hot Maden is envisaged as a conventional underground mine and processing facility producing concentrates without the use of cyanide. The Hot Maden PEA released by Mariana (effective date of 1 March 2017) demonstrated robust estimated economics with an after-tax IRR in excess of 100% and all-in sustaining costs below US$400 per ounce on a gold-equivalent basis (as referred to in the Mariana press release dated 17 January 2017). The high-grade nature of the orebody and the wide intercepts of mineralisation provide the potential for low-cost mining methods. Furthermore, the drilling conducted to date has only covered a portion of the total project area, providing for the potential for exploration success in the future. At present there are three drill rigs on site with a plan to complete 20,000 metres of exploration and infill drilling during 2017. Sandstorm believes that converting the Hot Maden JV into a gold stream at the appropriate time would present the best opportunity to unlock the value of Mariana's minority incorporated JV interest for shareholders in the Combined Group. Gold stream and royalty companies typically trade at higher valuation multiples than mining companies, and the cash flow from Hot Maden would be expected to command a superior valuation as part of a diversified Stream and Royalty Portfolio within the Combined Group rather than within a junior mining company. The operator of Hot Maden, Lidya, is an experienced Turkish company and is part of Çalik Holding, a Turkish conglomerate with several business lines including energy, telecommunication, finance, construction, textiles and mining. In the half-year ended 30 June 2016, Çalik Holding reported net income of approximately US$228 million (665 million Turkish Lira converted at the average TRY/US$ exchange rate of 2.92 TRY/US$ during the six-month period ending 30 June 2016). Lidya is currently a joint-venture partner with Alacer Gold Corp. on the producing Çöpler mine (80% Alacer, 20% Lidya) and the development-stage Gediktepe and Kartaltepe projects (both 50% Alacer, 50% Lidya) in Turkey. Sandstorm's Stream and Royalty Portfolio includes 112 exploration stage assets and, among them, 26 are considered to be advanced-stage exploration projects. The royalties on the exploration properties provide shareholders of the Combined Group with meaningful optionality for future mineral discoveries. The addition of Mariana's Exploration Properties complements the exploration optionality in the Stream and Royalty Portfolio. The Combined Group will not be an active exploration company and, therefore, after the Combination, Sandstorm intends to spin-out the Exploration Properties into a separate SpinCo, with the Combined Group retaining its royalty interests over the Exploration Properties together with equity in the SpinCo. Sandstorm intends that the SpinCo would seek external investment, as required, to fund future exploration costs, with a goal of allowing shareholders in the Combined Group to retain an interest in the Exploration Properties without the Combined Group being required to fund exploration expenses. Sandstorm has a strong balance sheet with working capital of US$23.8 million and no bank debt as of 31 December 2016. In addition, Sandstorm has a portfolio of equity and debt investments in other mining companies and a US$110 million revolving line of credit. Sandstorm's investments and its access to the revolving line of credit, along with the free cash flow generated from the Stream and Royalty Portfolio, will be used along with Mariana's acquired cash balance to fund future stream and royalty acquisitions in order to continue growing and diversifying the Combined Group's asset base as well as funding its share of pro rata cash calls for the development of the Hot Maden asset. As a junior mining company, and as a function of the subdued investor appetite during the last  few years in the resource sector, Mariana has been unable to attract large institutional investors. Conversely, more than 50% of Sandstorm's investor base is made up of institutional investors and Sandstorm has averaged approximately US$10 million in daily US$ trading volume since January 2016. With the addition of the Mariana assets to the Stream and Royalty Portfolio, the Combined Group expects to see increased institutional investor interest, improved liquidity and the potential for a lower cost of capital. The Combined Group expects to realise cost saving synergies with elimination of ongoing listing fees associated with Mariana's listing on the TSXV and admission to trading on AIM. In addition, following any spin-out of the Exploration Properties, if the SpinCo were to be successful in raising external investment, the Combined Group would no longer be required to fund ongoing exploration costs associated with the Exploration Properties. The Mariana Independent Directors, who have been so advised by RFC Ambrian as to the financial terms of the Combination, consider the Combination to be fair and reasonable. In providing their advice, RFC Ambrian have taken into account the commercial assessments of the Mariana Independent Directors. RFC Ambrian is providing independent financial advice to the Mariana Independent Directors for the purposes of Rule 3 of the Code. The Mariana Independent Directors have also been advised by Raymond James Ltd. as to the financial terms and certain Canadian capital market aspects of the Combination. Accordingly, the Mariana Independent Directors have unanimously approved the Combination and intend to recommend that Mariana Shareholders vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting as they have irrevocably undertaken to do in respect of their own beneficial holdings of, in aggregate, 905,050 Mariana Shares representing approximately 0.71 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). In light of their ongoing participation in the Combined Group and the related remuneration and incentivisation arrangements referred to in paragraph 10 below, neither Glen Parsons nor Eric Roth, each of whom are Mariana Directors, have played any part in the consideration of the Combination or the recommendation of it by the Mariana Independent Directors. Ron Ho, who is both a director of Mariana and Vice President, Finance of Sandstorm, has played no part in the consideration of the Combination or the recommendation of it by the Mariana Independent Directors. Mustafa Aksoy, who is both a director of Mariana and a board member and managing director of Lidya, has played no part in the consideration of the Combination or the recommendation of it by the Mariana Independent Directors. 5          Background to and reasons for the recommendation of the Mariana Independent Directors The Independent Directors of Mariana intend to recommend the Combination of Sandstorm and Mariana as it de-risks the Mariana Shareholders' exposure to a single development/production asset, whilst allowing exposure to a wider diverse portfolio of assets, through the stock component of the Combination. Mariana Shareholders will still retain significant exposure to the upside potential of its current assets, which as a result of the Combination should reduce the financing risk of development given the size and financial strength of Sandstorm. The Consideration under the Combination is also at a premium to the current market price of Mariana Shares, as well as the recent historical performance. The liquidity of Sandstorm Shares provide an opportunity to realise the value of the New Sandstorm Share Consideration Amount and, if Mariana Shareholders so choose, to benefit from any potential upside to Sandstorm's market value. The Mariana Independent Directors have irrevocably undertaken to Sandstorm to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting in respect of, in aggregate, 905,050 Mariana Shares representing approximately 0.71 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). In addition to the irrevocable undertakings from the Mariana Independent Directors, Sandstorm has also received irrevocable undertakings from each of Australian Investors Pty Ltd and AngloGold Ashanti Holdings Plc to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting in respect of, in aggregate, 8,718,089 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 6.80 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). Sandstorm has therefore received irrevocable undertakings to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting in respect of, in aggregate, 9,623,139 Mariana Shares representing, in aggregate, approximately 7.51 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). Further details of these irrevocable undertakings are set out in Appendix 3 to this Announcement. If the Combination is subsequently structured as a takeover offer, all the above undertakings will take effect as irrevocable undertakings to accept such offer. Glen Parsons and Eric Roth have also irrevocably undertaken to Sandstorm to vote in favour of those resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting on which they are entitled to vote in respect of, in aggregate, 986,621 Mariana Shares representing approximately 0.77 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). As a consequence of the Retention Arrangements, Glen Parsons and Eric Roth will not vote on the resolution to approve the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting. Neither of Ron Ho or Mustafa Aksoy has given an irrevocable undertaking Sandstorm on the basis that: (i) Ron Ho is an employee of Sandstorm; and (ii) Mustafa Aksoy does not hold any Mariana Shares. Sandstorm is a public corporation incorporated under the laws of the province of British Columbia, Canada with its headquarters in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Sandstorm Shares are currently listed on the TSX (symbol: SSL) and the NYSE MKT (symbol: SAND). Sandstorm has two series of publicly traded warrants that are listed for trading on the TSX (symbols: SSL.WT.B and SSL.WT). Sandstorm has a basic market capitalization of approximately US$614.06 million based upon the closing price of US$4.04 for a Sandstorm Share on the NYSE MKT on 25 April 2017 (the last Business Day prior to the date of this Announcement). As at 31 December 2016, Sandstorm had total assets of US$534.9 million, including cash and cash equivalents of US$21.4 million, investments of US$61.3 million and loans receivable of US$23.4 million, shareholders' equity of US$527.3 million and Sandstorm had no outstanding third party debt (other than accounts payable in the ordinary course of business) with additional available liquidity from its US$110 million revolving credit facility. Sandstorm provides financing to mining companies through stream and royalty agreements. Stream and royalty finance involves Sandstorm making an upfront payment to a mining partner that is in need of capital to build their mine, refinance their obligations, complete an acquisition or for various other reasons. In exchange for that upfront payment, Sandstorm receives the right to purchase a percentage of the gold produced from the mine (in the case of a stream) or a portion of the revenue generated from the mine (in the case of a royalty). Since 2009, Sandstorm has compiled a portfolio of 155 streams and royalties, of which 20 of the underlying mines are currently producing. Sandstorm plans to continue growing the company through accretive acquisitions of gold streams and royalties. Sandstorm's attributable gold equivalent ounces sold during the 5-year period ending 31 December 2016 is shown below: The following table summarizes the ounces of gold sold and the respective revenue received by Sandstorm from each of its producing gold interests for the year ended 31 December 2016: During the year ending 31 December 2016, Sandstorm reported record attributable gold equivalent production during the fourth quarter and twelve months of 2016, translating to significant growth in revenue. Revenue for the full 2016 year was up 18% when compared to 2015 and revenue during the fourth quarter increased by 67% when compared to Q4, 2015. The marked increase in Q4 was a result of a 13% rise in the average realized selling price of gold and a 48% increase in attributable gold equivalent ounces sold. Contributions from the Yamana silver stream, Chapada copper stream, Teck Royalty Package and Karma gold stream were the main drivers of the growth in gold equivalent ounces, all of which were not part of the asset mix in 2015. Precious metal streams and royalties (including diamonds) accounted for 82% of Sandstorm's revenue during the year, with the other 18% coming primarily from base metal projects. During the first quarter of 2017 (three-month period ending 31 March 2017) Sandstorm sold approximately 15,500 attributable gold equivalent ounces, which is a quarterly record high for Sandstorm. Over the past two years (from April 2015), Sandstorm has completed acquisitions of 103 new streams and royalties as described below: Based on Sandstorm's existing gold streams and royalties, attributable gold equivalent production for 2017 is forecast to be between 45,000 and 55,000 attributable gold equivalent ounces. The Sandstorm Forecast in Appendix 4 of this Announcement sets out Sandstorm's operating cash flow after tax (and before corporate overhead) forecasts to 2021. Mariana is a non-cellular company incorporated under the laws of Guernsey with its registered office in Guernsey. Mariana is not regulated by the Guernsey Financial Services Commission. The Mariana Shares are currently admitted to trading on AIM (symbol: MARL) and the TSX-Venture (symbol: MARL). Mariana has a market capitalisation of approximately £76.28 million based upon the closing price of 59.5 pence per Mariana Share on AIM on 25 April 2017, being  the last Business Day before this Announcement. As at 31 December 2016, Mariana had total assets of £13.6 million, cash and cash equivalents of £5.2 million and shareholders' equity of £12.7 million. Mariana is an exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver, and copper projects in Turkey, South America and Côte d'Ivoire. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in northeast Turkey, which is a joint venture with Turkish partner Lidya Madencilik (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya). The JV holds 1 operating licence and 3 exploration licences comprising a total land area of 73.9 km2. On 17 January 2017, Mariana released the results of the Hot Maden PEA which demonstrated positive potential economics (after-tax NPV and IRR of US$1.37 billion and 153%, respectively) based on a development scenario incorporating a 1.0 Mtpa underground mining operation and processing facility for the production of two concentrates (a copper-gold concentrate and a gold-pyrite concentrate). The Hot Maden PEA was based on the June 2016 mineral resource estimate completed by RPM, which calculated resources (100% basis) by category of: Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. On 7 October 2016, Mariana announced the signing of a binding term sheet to acquire an indirect 80% interest in Côte d'Ivoire-focused private exploration company Awalé. Through the transaction Mariana will gain an immediate foothold in an established exploration portfolio with known gold mineralisation and artisanal gold workings, and which comprises i) 3 granted contiguous licences (1,191 km2) in the Bondoukou area, and ii) 4 licences under application (1,593 km2) in both the Bondoukou and Abengourou areas. The Boundoukou concessions lie along the southwestern extension of the Birimian Bole-Nangodi greenstone belt in adjacent Ghana, host to a number of high grade orogenic gold deposits including Namdini (owned by Cardinal Resources) and Youga (owned by MNG/Endeavor). In southern Argentina, Mariana's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), and Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 1,000+ km2 land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau gold project is a 280 km2 exploration concession located approximately 125 km SE of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. A total of 107 drill holes have been completed and reported on the Hot Maden project, a selection of drill results is presented below demonstrating the high-grade nature of the orebody and the large widths of intercepts: The Hot Maden PEA was prepared in accordance with NI 43-101 by independent mining consultant firm RPM and is available on Mariana's SEDAR profile at www.sedar.com. Readers should refer to the Hot Maden PEA for additional information, including data verification and exploration information. Note that the Hot Maden PEA is preliminary in nature as it includes inferred mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves. Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability, and as such there is no certainty that the preliminary assessment and economics will be realised. The JV will continue to work on the technical studies and optimisations required to complete the PFS, which is anticipated to be completed during Q4 2017. The PFS will provide higher confidence level mine designs, mineral processing scenarios, and costing estimates for the Hot Maden project. Therefore, the result could change over time based on the updated prices, resource and assumptions. Key parameters utilized in the Hot Maden PEA are indicated in the table below: The high grade gold-copper mineralisation at Hot Maden occurs within a N-NE-trending fault zone and is sub-vertical in nature. At least two styles of gold-copper mineralisation are evident within the Main Zone: i) the predominant, multiphase quartz-sulphide (pyrite-chalcopyrite) +/- hematite/jasperoid breccia bodies, and ii) semi-massive to massive sulphides (pyrite-chalcopyrite). Host rocks are dominantly andesites and andesitic breccias. Overall, the highest-grade gold mineralisation (typically >15 g/t Au but locally >100 g/t Au) at Hot Maden lies along the eastern margin of the Main Zone. Drilling is ongoing but the current dimensions of the Main Zone are a strike extent of 300m from north to south, a true width of between 40m and 70m, and a vertical extension from near surface to >300m depth. Stratabound Zn(-Pb) (sphalerite-galena) mineralisation also flanks the Main Zone to the east and locally to the west. In the new Southern Vein Field discovery, host rocks are dominantly dacitic breccias and gold-copper mineralisation is associated with quartz-sulphide-bearing veins and vein breccias. Initial exploration drilling has commenced in the old Russian mining area, south of the Southern Vein Field. The Hot Maden PEA was based on the June 2016 mineral resource estimate prepared by RPM, which used 52 diamond drill holes for a total of 14,862m (3,748m within wireframes) and included contributions from both the Main Zone and a new Southern Discovery, comprising (on a 100% basis): In the above resource tables Au Equivalence (AuEq) was calculated using a 100 day moving average of US$1,215/ounce for Au and US$2.13/pound for Cu as of 29 May 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. The formula used for Au equivalent grade is: AuEq g/t = Au + [(Cu% x 22.0462 x 2.13)/(1215/31.1035)] and is not adjusted for assumed metallurgical recovery. Au equivalent ounces are calculated by multiplying Mineral Resource tonnage by Au equivalent grade and converting for ounces. The formula used for Au equivalent ounces is: AuEq Oz = [Tonnage x AuEq grade (g/t)]/31.1035. Mariana's acquisition of an 80% interest in Awalé in October 2016 established a presence in Côte d'Ivoire in a region which hosts one of the largest known prospective underexplored greenstone belts in West Africa. The exploration portfolio targets the eastern border of the country and comprises: Mariana's initial focus will be on the Bondoukou Est concession, where high grade gold mineralization (up to 36 g/t Au from initial surface sampling) occurs within a sheeted quartz vein complex that is located at the contact between a zoned granitoid intrusion and the host meta-volcanic and meta-sedimentary rocks. Artisanal miners are currently active at Bondoukou Est and are undertaking shallow mining (generally up to 30m depth) from higher grade quartz veins that lie within a broadly NW-SE-trending mineralized corridor interpreted to have a strike extent of 18 km. Subsequent field activities will focus on other artisanal workings within the remainder of the Bondoukou Est concession, as well as workings in the Bondoukou Nord and Nord Est concessions. The 100% owned Ergama project licence in Balikesir province, western Turkey, covers an area of 21.6 km2, and is located 90km SE of Teck-Pilot Gold's Halilaga gold-copper project in the highly mineralised Biga Peninsula, and 230 km WNW of Eldorado Gold's Kisladag gold mine (2016 production of 211,000 oz gold). On 29 November 2016, Mariana commenced the drilling of an initial seven hole diamond drill program being undertaken by drill contractor Ortadogu Drilling. As at 14 February 2017, three of the seven proposed drill holes (ERD-01 to ERD-03, for a total of 1,522m) had been completed, with assays having now been received for the first two holes. Targets to be tested in this initial drill program include the northern margins of two porphyry gold-copper targets (the Main Porphyry Target and Porphyry Target B), in addition to a high grade, vein / fault-hosted epithermal gold-silver target. The drilling completed to date at Ergama appears to confirm a conceptual model of a porphyry-style gold-copper system underlying, and slightly offset from, an essentially barren quartz-alunite (+/-clay) "lithocap". Drill holes ERD-01 and ERD-02 are the first holes to test this model and, whilst initial results have been positive, both the observed hydrothermal alteration assemblages and general increase in gold-copper grades towards the south are suggesting that the key potassic zone (and likely the most metal-rich part of the system) is located to the south of current drilling. Permitting of drill holes in this area is currently in progress, with drilling expected to be undertaken as soon as the permits are granted. The Las Calandrias project is currently Mariana's most advanced exploration asset in Argentina. Initial exploration in 2008 led to the Calandria Sur discovery in 2009. The Calandria Sur deposit represents the first bulk tonnage epithermal (rhyolite dome hosted) gold-silver discovery in the Deseado Massif. High grade epithermal gold-silver mineralization has also been delineated in the Calandria Norte vein / breccia system. In 2011, Mariana reported the following maiden global mineral resource estimate for the Las Calandrias project: This maiden resource consisted of contributions from both the bulk tonnage / disseminated Calandria Sur deposit and the high grade Calandria Norte vein / breccia system (162,000 t grading 9.35 g/t gold). Ongoing field activities are focused on deep sensing geophysics and the evaluation of 4 high grade gold-silver vein / breccia systems located in the vicinity of the Calandria Norte vein (the La Morena, El Nido Norte, Las Calandrias Feeders, and Refugio target areas). The Sierra Blanca project is located in the western portion of the Deseado Massif. Mariana has been focused on the identification and delineation of high grade gold-silver shoots within the 22 km strike extent of the poorly explored, intermediate sulphidation epithermal vein system. Exploration to date has identified bonanza grade silver in the oxidized / supergene enriched central portion of the Chala vein, with assays from channel sampling attaining up to 7,600 g/t Ag and 25.7 g/t Au. An internal resource has been achieved with expansion potential. The Los Cisnes project is a prospect that was generated from Mariana's regional greenfield exploration in 2012 which was focused on rhyolite dome potential in the eastern Deseado Massif. The project is located approximately 120 km SSE of Las Calandrias and 75 km SW of Yamana's Cerro Moro project. The El Brio target is a 700m long vein / breccia zone up to 3m in width, with 9 surface samples returning grades between 31 and 3,849 g/t silver. The El Solar target is a Calandrias-style rhyolite dome hosted system with bulk tonnage potential, with float samples returning 0.5 - 3.4 g/t gold. The cash consideration payable under the terms of the Combination will be funded from existing cash resources available to Sandstorm, including funds which have been drawn down under Sandstorm's existing US$110 million revolving credit facility. KPMG is satisfied that sufficient resources are available to Sandstorm to satisfy in full the cash consideration payable to Scheme Shareholders under the terms of the Combination. Sandstorm recognizes the skills, technical ability and industry knowledge and experience of the Mariana Board, management and employees and in particular acknowledges the valuable work that each has performed to advance the Hot Maden project. Accordingly, Sandstorm expects that certain members of Mariana's management will continue with the development of the Combined Group. Following completion of the Combination, a thorough assessment of the available skill sets of Mariana's employees will be undertaken and where practical, and at management's discretion, employees will be incorporated into the enlarged Sandstorm team. To the extent this is not possible, this may result in redundancies for those employees not incorporated into the Combined Group. Sandstorm confirms that, following implementation of the Combination, the existing contractual and statutory employment rights of all Mariana employees will be safeguarded. On completion of the Combination, Nolan Watson will be the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Combined Group and Glen Parsons will be manager of the Exploration Properties. The Mariana Directors have agreed to resign from the Mariana Board subject to, and with effect from, the Scheme becoming Effective. The Mariana Directors will each receive accrued fees, payment for notice periods and expenses due under their respective letters of appointment, in each case in compensation for loss of office. In order to drive value from the Combination, Sandstorm has agreed to the following retention arrangements in respect of each of Glen Parsons and Eric Roth (the "Retention Arrangements"): provided in each case that he is still with the Combined Group at the relevant time; and provided in each case that he is still with the Combined Group at the relevant time. The Combination is subject to, among other things, the approval by the independent Mariana Shareholders of the Retention Arrangements. RFC Ambrian consider the Retention Arrangements to be fair and reasonable as far as the independent Mariana Shareholders are concerned. Sandstorm considers the Retention Arrangements to be critical to the success of the Combination and, therefore, if the independent Mariana Shareholders do not pass the relevant resolution at the General Meeting approving those arrangements, Sandstorm may (at its absolute discretion) seek to invoke Condition A6 (which appears in Appendix 1 to this Announcement), which, with the consent of the Panel, would result in the Combination being withdrawn. Other than as set out elsewhere in this Announcement, Sandstorm has no current plans to change the locations of Mariana's places of business or to redeploy any of Mariana's fixed assets. Participants in the Mariana Employee Equity Plans will be contacted separately regarding the effect of the Combination on their rights (if any) and appropriate proposals will be made to such participants in due course. Further details of these proposals will be set out in the Scheme Document and in separate letters to be sent to participants in the Mariana Employee Equity Plans. The right to vote in respect of the Scheme will extend to any Mariana Shares which are unconditionally issued before the Scheme Voting Record Time as a result of the exercise of any outstanding rights under the Mariana Employee Equity Plans. The right to vote in respect of the Scheme (and the entitlement to receive the Consideration under the Scheme) will extend to any Mariana Shares which are unconditionally issued before the Scheme Voting Record Time as a result of the valid exercise of any existing Mariana Warrants. If Mariana Warrant Holders validly exercise their subscription rights before the Scheme Record Time, they will be treated as Scheme Shareholders and receive cash and shares under the terms of the Scheme. Mariana will seek shareholder approval at the General Meeting for amendments to the Articles so that if holders of Mariana Warrants exercise their subscription rights after the Scheme Record Time, the Mariana Shares that would have been issued to them will automatically be acquired by Sandstorm and, in return, they would receive Sandstorm Shares, the number of which will be determined based on the relative values of the Consideration and the Sandstorm Shares as at the date of this Announcement, as set out in paragraph 2 (The Combination) of this Announcement. Holders of 2015 Warrants are reminded that the subscription period under the 2015 Warrants expires at 5pm UK time on 27 April 2017 and the 2015 Warrants will be incapable of exercise after that date. The subscription period under the 2016 Warrants expires on 4 May 2018. Mariana Warrant Holders will be contacted separately regarding the effect of the Combination on their rights under the Mariana Warrant Instruments. Further details will be set out in the Scheme Document. Mariana Warrant Holders needing advice should consult an independent financial adviser and/or independent legal adviser. The Mariana Independent Directors each hold 2015 Warrants over a combined total of 81,000 Mariana Shares. The Mariana Independent Directors intend to exercise such 2015 Warrants in full ahead of the expiry of the subscription period on 27 April 2017. To date, no dividends have been paid by Sandstorm on Sandstorm Shares and Sandstorm may not declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of Sandstorm's Board of Directors after taking into account many factors including Sandstorm's operating results, financial condition and current and anticipated cash needs. Sandstorm holds 8,980,243 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 7.0 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana, and 2016 Warrants over a further 4,490,122 Mariana Shares. The strike price of the 2016 Warrants held by Sandstorm is 25 pence and the subscription period expires on 6 May 2018. David De Witt (Non-Executive Chairman of Sandstorm), together with his spouse, holds 297,585 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 0.2 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana, and 2016 Warrants over a further 475,893 Mariana Shares. Family members of Nolan Watson (President and Chief Executive of Sandstorm) collectively hold 611,578 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 0.5 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana, and 2016 Warrants over a further 713,839 Mariana Shares. Dana Watson has undertaken to donate to charity an amount equivalent to the difference in the value of her Mariana Shares and 2016 Warrants before and after this Announcement, to be calculated by reference to the closing prices per Mariana Share on AIM on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement) and on the date of this Announcement. Mary Little (Independent Director of Sandstorm) holds 500 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 0.0004 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana. Sandstorm, together with its concert parties, is therefore interested in an aggregate of 9,889,906 Mariana Shares, representing approximately 7.71 per cent. of the issued ordinary share capital of Mariana and 2016 Warrants over a further 5,679,854 Mariana Shares. Save for those interests, neither Sandstorm, its concert parties nor, so far as Sandstorm or its directors are aware, any other person acting in concert with Sandstorm, has any interest in or right to subscribe for Mariana relevant securities. Appendix 1 to this Announcement sets out the Conditions and further terms to which the Combination will be subject, including details of requisite regulatory approvals. It is intended that the Combination will be implemented by way of a court-sanctioned scheme of arrangement between Mariana and the Scheme Shareholders under Part VIII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law (although Sandstorm reserves the right to elect to implement the Combination by way of an Offer, subject to Panel consent and to the terms of the Co-operation Agreement). The procedure involves an application by Mariana to the Guernsey Court to convene the Guernsey Court Meeting to approve the Scheme and upon approval an application to the Guernsey Court to sanction the Scheme and to confirm the transfer of all the Scheme Shares to Sandstorm, in consideration for which Scheme Shareholders who are on the register of members of Mariana at the Scheme Record Time will receive the Consideration (on the basis described in paragraph 2 above). For the purposes of qualifying for the exemption from the registration requirements of the US Securities Act afforded by Section 3(a)(10), Mariana will inform the Guernsey Court prior to the Scheme Court Hearing that its sanctioning of the Scheme will be relied upon by Sandstorm as an approval of the Scheme following a hearing on its substantive and procedural fairness to Mariana Shareholders with respect to the issuance of New Sandstorm Shares to US Holders. To become Effective, the Scheme requires, among other things, the approval of a majority in number of the Scheme Shareholders present and voting in person or by proxy at the Guernsey Court Meeting, representing not less than 75 per cent. in value of the Scheme Shares held by such Scheme Shareholders, together with the sanction of the Guernsey Court and the passing of any additional resolutions necessary to implement the Scheme at the General Meeting. In addition, the Scheme may require the approval of a majority of the minority outstanding Mariana Shares as required under Multilateral Instrument 61-101 - Protection of Minority Security Holders in Special Transactions. The Scheme will only become Effective if it is sanctioned by the Guernsey Court. The Scheme can only become Effective in accordance with its terms if all the Conditions have been satisfied or, where relevant, waived. Upon the Scheme becoming Effective, it will be binding on Mariana and all Scheme Shareholders irrespective of whether or not they attended or voted at the Guernsey Court Meeting or the General Meeting. The Combination will be conditional upon the Scheme becoming unconditional and becoming effective, subject to the provisions of the Code, by no later than the Long Stop Date or such later date (if any) as Sandstorm and Mariana may, with the consent of the Panel, agree and (if required) the Guernsey Court may allow. It is expected that the Scheme Document will be sent to Mariana Shareholders as soon as practicable and, in any event, within 28 days of this Announcement (unless the Panel agrees otherwise). It is intended that dealings in Mariana Shares will be suspended at 5.00 p.m. London time on the Business Day prior to the Effective Date. It is further intended that applications will be made to (i) cancel trading in Mariana Shares on AIM and (ii) delist the Mariana Shares from the TSXV such cancellations and delistings in each case to take effect on or as soon as practicable following the Effective Date. It is also expected that Mariana will make an application to certain Canadian securities commissions after the Effective Date to cease to be a reporting issuer in Canada. The timing of implementation of the Combination will be dependent upon a number of factors including availability of the Guernsey Court and receipt of regulatory approvals. It is expected that the Scheme Document, containing further information about the Combination and notices of the Court Meeting and General Meeting, together with the Forms of Proxy, will be published as soon as practicable and, in any event, within 28 days of this Announcement (unless the Panel agrees otherwise). An expected timetable of principal events will be included in the Scheme Document. Applications will be made to the TSX and the NYSE MKT for the New Sandstorm Shares to be listed for trading. The decision on such listings is at the sole discretion of the TSX and NYSE MKT respectively. It is expected that such listings will become effective and that dealings for normal settlement in the New Sandstorm Shares will commence shortly after the Scheme becomes Effective. The availability of New Sandstorm Shares under the Combination, and the distribution of this Announcement to persons who are not resident in the UK may be affected by the laws of the relevant jurisdiction in which they are located. Such persons should inform themselves of, and observe any applicable legal or regulatory requirements of, their jurisdiction. Mariana Shareholders who are in doubt regarding such matters should consult an appropriate independent professional adviser in the relevant jurisdiction without delay. None of the securities to be issued pursuant to the Scheme have been or will be registered under the US Securities Act or the securities laws of any state, district or other jurisdiction of the United States, and it is currently intended that the New Sandstorm Shares will be issued to US Holders pursuant to the exemption from registration under the US Securities Act of 1933, as amended, provided by Section 3(a)(10) under such Act. This Announcement does not constitute an offer for sale of any securities or an offer or an invitation to purchase any securities. Mariana Shareholders are advised to read carefully the Scheme Document and related Forms of Proxy once these have been dispatched. Mariana and Sandstorm have entered into the Co-operation Agreement dated 26 April 2017, pursuant to which Mariana and Sandstorm have agreed to undertake to work co-operatively with each other in order to procure the obtaining of any and all approvals, consents, clearances, permissions and waivers as may be necessary, and the making of all filings as may be necessary, from or under the law, regulations or practices applied by any regulatory authority in connection with the satisfaction of the conditions to the Combination as soon as practicable and to provide each other with such information and assistance as is reasonably necessary for that purpose. The Co-operation Agreement also contains provisions in relation to the Mariana Employee Equity Plans. Further details of these arrangements will be set out in the Scheme Document. On 28 March 2017, Sandstorm and Mariana entered into a confidentiality agreement in relation to the Combination, pursuant to which, amongst other things, Sandstorm undertook, subject to certain exceptions, to keep information relating to Mariana confidential and not to disclose it to third parties. Copies of the following documents will, by no later than 12.00 p.m. (London time) on the Business Day following the date of this Announcement, be published on Sandstorm's website at http://www.sandstormgold.com and Mariana's website at http://www.marianaresources.com, and will also be available under Mariana's profile on SEDAR at www.sedar.com, and will be made available until the end of the Offer Period: ·                the irrevocable undertakings referred to in paragraph 6 and set out in Appendix 3 to this Announcement; ·                the KPMG consent letter in relation to this Announcement dated 26 April 2017; ·                the RFC Ambrian consent letter in relation to this Announcement dated 26 April 2017; and ·                the Raymond James consent letter in relation to this Announcement dated 25 April 2017. Your attention is drawn to the further information contained in the Appendices which form part of, and should be read in conjunction with, this Announcement. KPMG has given and has not withdrawn its written consent to the issue of this Announcement with the inclusion of the references to its name in the form and context in which they appear. RFC Ambrian has given and has not withdrawn its written consent to the issue of this Announcement with the inclusion of the references to its name in the form and context in which they appear. Raymond James has given and has not withdrawn its written consent to the issue of this Announcement with the inclusion of the references to its name in the form and context in which they appear. The Combination will be subject to the Conditions and certain further terms set out in Appendix 1 and the further terms and conditions set out in the Scheme Document when issued. Appendix 2 contains the sources and bases of certain information contained in this Announcement. Appendix 3 contains details of the irrevocable undertakings received by Sandstorm. Appendix 4 contains details of the Sandstorm Forecast. Appendix 5 contains the definitions of certain terms used in this Announcement. KPMG LLP, which is authorised and regulated in the UK by the FCA, is acting exclusively as financial adviser to Sandstorm in relation to the Combination, and is not acting for any other person in relation to such Combination.  KPMG LLP will not be responsible to anyone other than Sandstorm for providing the protections afforded to its clients nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement or otherwise. RFC Ambrian Limited, which is authorised and regulated by the FCA, is acting exclusively for Mariana and no­one else in connection with the Combination and will not be responsible to anyone other than Mariana for providing the protections afforded to clients of RFC Ambrian Limited nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement. Raymond James Ltd. is acting exclusively as Canadian financial adviser to Mariana and to the Mariana Independent Directors, and no­-one else in connection with the Combination and will not be responsible to anyone other than Mariana for providing the protections afforded to clients of Raymond James Ltd. nor for providing advice in relation to the Combination or any other matters referred to in this Announcement. The technical and scientific information relating to Mariana and its assets contained in this Announcement has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, Mariana's Qualified Person as defined by NI 43-101. Mr Roth is Mariana's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).  Mr Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. This Announcement is not intended to and does not constitute, or form part of, an offer, invitation or the solicitation of an offer to purchase, otherwise acquire, subscribe for, sell or otherwise dispose of any securities, or the solicitation of any vote or approval in any jurisdiction, pursuant to the Combination or otherwise, nor shall there be any sale, issuance or transfer of securities of Mariana in any jurisdiction in contravention of applicable law. The Combination will be made solely by means of the Scheme Document, which will contain the full terms and conditions of the Combination including details of how to vote in respect of the Scheme. Any vote in respect of the Scheme or other response in relation to the Combination should be made only on the basis of the information contained in the Scheme Document. The availability of the Combination to Mariana Shareholders who are not resident in and citizens of the UK or Guernsey may be affected by the laws of the relevant jurisdictions in which they are located or of which they are citizens. Persons who are not resident in the UK or Guernsey should inform themselves of, and observe, any applicable legal or regulatory requirements of their jurisdictions. Relevant clearances have not been, and will not be, obtained from the securities commission or similar regulatory authority of any province or territory of Canada. Further details in relation to overseas shareholders will be contained in the Scheme Document and Mariana Shareholders are advised to read carefully the Scheme Document and related Forms of Proxy once these have been dispatched. The release, publication or distribution of this Announcement in or into jurisdictions other than the UK or Guernsey may be restricted by law and therefore any persons who are subject to the law of any jurisdiction other than the UK or Guernsey should inform themselves about, and observe, any applicable requirements. Any failure to comply with the applicable restrictions may constitute a violation of the securities laws of any such jurisdiction. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the companies and persons involved in the Combination disclaim any responsibility or liability for the violation of such restrictions by any person. This Announcement has been prepared for the purposes of complying with English law, Guernsey law, certain applicable Canadian securities laws, the AIM Rules, the rules of the London Stock Exchange and the Code and the information disclosed may not be the same as that which would have been disclosed if this Announcement had been prepared in accordance with the laws of jurisdictions outside of England or Guernsey. Copies of this Announcement and the formal documentation relating to the Scheme and the Combination will not be, and must not be, mailed or otherwise forwarded, distributed or sent in, into or from any Restricted Jurisdiction or any jurisdiction where to do so would violate the laws of that jurisdiction. Notice to US Holders, US Optionholders and US Warrantholders The Combination and the securities to be issued in connection with the Combination have not been approved or disapproved by the SEC or the securities regulatory authority of any state of the United States, nor has the SEC or any such state securities regulatory authority passed upon the fairness or merits of the Combination or upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Announcement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offence. The New Sandstorm Shares to be received by Mariana Shareholders in exchange for their Mariana Shares pursuant to the Combination have not been, and will not be, registered under the US Securities Act or the securities laws of any state, district or other jurisdiction of the United States, and such securities are intended to be issued in reliance upon the exemption from the registration requirements of the US Securities Act set forth in Section 3(a)(10) thereof on the basis of the approval of the Guernsey Court, which will be informed in advance of the intention to rely upon such exemption, and similar exemptions under applicable state securities laws. Section 3(a)(10) of the US Securities Act exempts the issuance of securities issued in exchange for one or more bona fide outstanding securities, from the registration requirements of the US Securities Act where, among other matters, the terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange have been approved by a court of competent jurisdiction that is expressly authorized by law to grant such approval, after a hearing upon the fairness of the substantive and procedural terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange at which all persons to whom the securities will be issued have the right to appear and receive timely and adequate notice thereof. The New Sandstorm Shares to be received by Mariana Shareholders upon completion of the Combination may be resold without restriction under the US Securities Act, except in respect of resales by persons who are "affiliates" (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the US Securities Act) of Sandstorm at the time of the Section 3(a)(10) exchange or who have been affiliates of Sandstorm within 90 days before the Section 3(a)(10) exchange or who are affiliates of Sandstorm at the time of such resale or within the 90-day period prior to such resale. Persons who may be deemed to be "affiliates" of an issuer include individuals or entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with, the issuer, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise, and generally include executive officers and directors of the issuer as well as principal shareholders of the issuer (which includes, among others, 10% shareholders). Mariana Options and Mariana Warrants will remain outstanding under their terms and any securities issuable upon exercise thereof have not been and will not be registered under the U.S. Securities Act or applicable state securities laws. As a result, Mariana Options and Mariana Warrants may not be exercised in the United States or by or on behalf of a US Optionholder or US Warrantholder, as applicable, nor may any New Sandstorm Shares issued upon such exercise be offered or resold in the United States or to or for the account of such a US holder, except pursuant to the terms of such security and pursuant to a registration statement under the U.S. Securities Act or an exemption from applicable registration requirements or in a transaction not subject to the registration requirements of the U.S. Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. The financial information on Sandstorm in this Announcement has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Sandstorm's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016 and the unaudited interim production results for the three-month period ending 31 March 2017, which are prepared in US Dollars. The financial information on Mariana in this Announcement has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Mariana's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016, which are prepared in British Pounds Sterling. In addition, such financial statements and other financial information included or incorporated by reference in this Announcement have been prepared in accordance with IFRS, which differs from US GAAP in certain material respects, and thus are not directly comparable to financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP. Information in this Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein concerning the properties and operations of Sandstorm and of Mariana has been prepared in accordance with requirements and standards under securities laws, which differ from the requirements of US securities laws. The terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" used in the Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein are mining terms as defined in accordance with NI 43-101 under guidelines set out in the Definition Standards for Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves adopted by the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum Council on 11 December 2005. While the terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" are recognized and required by securities laws other than the requirements of US securities laws, they are not recognized by the SEC. Disclosure of contained ounces are or may be permitted disclosure under regulations applicable to Mariana and Sandstorm; however, the SEC normally only permits issuers to report resources as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit of production measures. As such, certain information contained in the Announcement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein concerning descriptions of mineralization and mineral resources under these standards may not be comparable to similar information made public by US companies subject to reporting and disclosure requirements of the SEC. US Holders should be aware that the Combination described in the Announcement may have tax consequences in the United States and should consult their own tax advisors to determine the particular United States tax consequences to them of the Combination in light of their particular situation, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any other relevant foreign, state, local, or other taxing jurisdiction. The enforcement by investors of civil liabilities under the United States federal and state securities laws may be affected adversely by the fact that Sandstorm and Mariana are incorporated or organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than the United States, that some or all of their officers and directors are and will be residents of countries other than the United States, that some or all of the experts named in the Announcement may be residents of countries other than the United States, and that all or a substantial portion of the assets of Sandstorm, Mariana and such persons are and will be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for US Holders (including US Optionholders and US Warrantholders) to effect service of process within the United States upon Sandstorm or Mariana, as applicable, their respective officers or directors or the experts named herein, or to realize, against them, upon judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States. In addition, US Holders (including US Optionholders and US Warrantholders) should not assume that the courts of Guernsey: (a) would enforce judgments of United States courts obtained in actions against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States; or (b) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the federal securities laws of the United States or applicable securities laws of any state within the United States. The enforcement by investors of civil liabilities under the Canadian securities laws may be affected adversely by the fact that Mariana is incorporated or organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than Canada, that some or all of Sandstorm's and Mariana's officers and directors are and will be residents of countries other than Canada, that some or all of the experts named in this Announcement may be residents of countries other than Canada, and that all or a substantial portion of the assets of Sandstorm, Mariana and such persons are and will be located outside Canada. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for Canadian Holders to effect service of process within Canada upon Mariana, Sandstorm's and Mariana's respective officers or directors or the experts named herein, or to realize, against them, upon judgments of courts of Canada predicated upon liabilities under Canadian securities laws. In addition, Canadian Holders should not assume that the courts of Guernsey: (a) would enforce judgments of Canadian courts obtained in actions against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under Canadian securities laws; or (b) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against such persons predicated upon civil liabilities under the Canadian securities laws. The New Sandstorm Shares to be issued pursuant to the Combination will be issued in reliance upon exemptions from the prospectus requirements of securities legislation in each province of Canada. Subject to certain disclosure and regulatory requirements and to customary restrictions applicable to distributions of shares that constitute "control distributions", New Sandstorm Shares may be resold in each province and territory in Canada, subject in certain circumstances, to the usual conditions that no unusual effort has been made to prepare the market or to create demand, no extraordinary commission or consideration is paid and, if the selling shareholder is an insider or officer of Sandstorm, such shareholder has no reasonable grounds to believe that Sandstorm is in default of securities legislation. Canadian Holders should be aware that the Combination described in this Announcement may have tax consequences in Canada and should consult their own tax advisors to determine the particular Canadian tax consequences to them of the Combination in light of their particular circumstances, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any other relevant foreign, state, local, or other taxing jurisdiction. This Announcement (including information incorporated by reference in this Announcement), oral statements made regarding the Combination, and other information published by Sandstorm and Mariana contain statements which are, or may be deemed to be, "forward­looking statements" or "forward-looking information" under applicable securities laws (collectively referred to as "forward-looking statements"). Forward­looking statements are prospective in nature and are not based on historical facts, but rather on current expectations and projections of the management of Sandstorm and Mariana about future events, and are therefore subject to risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from the future results expressed or implied by the forward­looking statements. The forward­looking statements contained in this Announcement include statements relating to the expected effects of the Combination on Sandstorm and Mariana, the expected timing and scope of the Combination, production forecasts, plans with respect to the JV interest, plans with respect to the Exploration Properties, estimates of mineral resources, statements with respect to the Hot Maden PEA and other statements other than historical facts. Often, but not always, forward­looking statements can be identified by the use of forward­looking words such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "is subject to", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", or "believes", or variations of such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "should", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved. Although Sandstorm and Mariana believe that the expectations reflected in such forward­looking statements are reasonable, Sandstorm and Mariana can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. By their nature, forward­looking statements involve risk and uncertainty because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward­looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to: the ability to consummate the Combination; the ability to obtain requisite shareholder and stock exchange approvals and the satisfaction of other Conditions on the proposed terms and schedule; the ability of Sandstorm and Mariana to successfully integrate their respective operations and retain key employees; the potential impact of the announcement or consummation of the Combination on relationships, including with employees, suppliers, customers and competitors; and changes in general economic, business and political conditions. Other unknown or unpredictable factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward­looking statements. Such forward­looking statements should therefore be construed in the light of such factors. Neither Sandstorm nor Mariana, nor any of their respective associates or directors, officers or advisers, provides any representation, assurance or guarantee that the occurrence of the events expressed or implied in any forward­looking statements in this Announcement will actually occur. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward­looking statements. Other than in accordance with their legal or regulatory obligations (including, but not limited to, the AIM Rules), neither Sandstorm nor Mariana is under any obligation, and Sandstorm and Mariana expressly disclaim any intention or obligation, to update or revise any forward­looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. With respect to statements on the Sandstorm Forecast, which is included for the purposes outlined herein, readers are cautioned that the information may not be appropriate for other purposes. No profit forecasts or estimates or quantified financial benefits statement Other than in respect of the Sandstorm Forecast, no statement in this Announcement is intended as a profit forecast, profit estimate or quantified financial benefits statement and no statement in this Announcement should be interpreted to mean that earnings per Mariana Share or Sandstorm Share for the current or future financial years would necessarily match or exceed the respective historical published earnings per Mariana Share or Sandstorm Share or to mean that the Combined Group's earnings in the first twelve months following the Combination, or in any subsequent period, following the Combination would necessarily match, or be greater than or be less than, those of Mariana and/or Sandstorm for the relevant preceding financial period or any other period. Under Rule 8.3(a) of the Code, any person who is interested in 1% or more of any class of relevant securities of an offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror (being any offeror other than an offeror in respect of which it has been announced that its offer is, or is likely to be, solely in cash) must make an Opening Position Disclosure following the commencement of the offer period and, if later, following the announcement in which any securities exchange offeror is first identified. An Opening Position Disclosure must contain details of the person's interests and short positions in, and rights to subscribe for, any relevant securities of each of (i) the offeree company and (ii) any securities exchange offeror(s). An Opening Position Disclosure by a person to whom Rule 8.3(a) applies must be made by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the 10th business day following the commencement of the offer period and, if appropriate, by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the 10th business day following the announcement in which any securities exchange offeror is first identified. Relevant persons who deal in the relevant securities of the offeree company or of a securities exchange offeror prior to the deadline for making an Opening Position Disclosure must instead make a Dealing Disclosure. Under Rule 8.3(b) of the Code, any person who is, or becomes, interested in 1% or more of any class of relevant securities of the offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror must make a Dealing Disclosure if the person deals in any relevant securities of the offeree company or of any securities exchange offeror. A Dealing Disclosure must contain details of the dealing concerned and of the person's interests and short positions in, and rights to subscribe for, any relevant securities of each of (i) the offeree company and (ii) any securities exchange offeror(s), save to the extent that these details have previously been disclosed under Rule 8. A Dealing Disclosure by a person to whom Rule 8.3(b) applies must be made by no later than 3.30 pm (London time) on the business day following the date of the relevant dealing. If two or more persons act together pursuant to an agreement or understanding, whether formal or informal, to acquire or control an interest in relevant securities of an offeree company or a securities exchange offeror, they will be deemed to be a single person for the purpose of Rule 8.3. Opening Position Disclosures must also be made by the offeree company and by any offeror and Dealing Disclosures must also be made by the offeree company, by any offeror and by any persons acting in concert with any of them (see Rules 8.1, 8.2 and 8.4). Details of the offeree and offeror companies in respect of whose relevant securities Opening Position Disclosures and Dealing Disclosures must be made can be found in the Disclosure Table on the Takeover Panel's website at www.thetakeoverpanel.org.uk, including details of the number of relevant securities in issue, when the offer period commenced and when any offeror was first identified. You should contact the Panel's Market Surveillance Unit on +44 (0)20 7638 0129 if you are in any doubt as to whether you are required to make an Opening Position Disclosure or a Dealing Disclosure. A copy of this Announcement will be made available, subject to certain restrictions relating to persons resident in Restricted Jurisdictions, on Sandstorm's website at http://www.sandstormgold.com and Mariana's website at http://www.marianaresources.com by no later than 12 noon (London time) on the Business Day following this Announcement. For the avoidance of doubt, the contents of these websites are not incorporated by reference and do not form part of this Announcement. This Announcement will also be available on SEDAR under Mariana's profile at www.sedar.com. In accordance with Rule 30.3 of the Code, a person so entitled may request a hard copy of this Announcement by contacting RFC Ambrian Limited during business hours on +44 (0)203 440 6800 or by submitting a request in writing to RFC Ambrian Limited at Level 5, Condor House, 10 St Paul's Churchyard, London, EC4M 8AL. For persons who receive a copy of this Announcement in electronic form or via a website notification, a hard copy of this Announcement will not be sent unless so requested. You may also request that all future documents, announcements and information to be sent to you in relation to the Combination should be in hard copy form. Please be aware that addresses, electronic addresses and certain other information provided by Mariana Shareholders, persons with information rights and other relevant persons for the receipt of communications from Mariana may be provided to Sandstorm during the offer period as required under Section 4 of Appendix 4 of the Code to comply with Rule 2.11(c). In accordance with Rule 2.9 of the Code: ·         Mariana confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on AIM and TSXV 126,231,768 ordinary shares of 0.1p each (save for 1,977,812 Mariana Shares which have been issued and are expected to be admitted to trading on AIM and TSXV on or around 27 April 2017). The ISIN of the ordinary shares is GG00BD3GC324. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX and NYSE MKT 151,994,269 common shares of no par value. The ISIN of the common shares is CA80013R2063. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX 5,002,500 common share purchase warrants with an exercise price of US$14.00 per common share that expire on 7 September 2017. The ISIN of the warrants is CA80013R1313. ·         Sandstorm confirms that as at the date of this Announcement it has in issue and admitted to trading on TSX 5,043,900 common share purchase warrants with an exercise price of US$4.00 per common share that expire on 3 November 2020. The ISIN of the warrants is CA80013R1644. Certain figures included in this Announcement have been subjected to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown for the same category presented in different tables may vary slightly and figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of figures that precede them. Appendix 1 Conditions and Certain Further Terms of the Scheme and the Combination The Combination will be conditional upon the Scheme becoming unconditional and becoming Effective, subject to the provisions of the Code, by no later than the Long Stop Date or such later date (if any) as Sandstorm and Mariana may, with the consent of the Panel, agree and (if required) the Guernsey Court may allow. 1           The Scheme will be conditional upon: (a)        approval of the Scheme by a majority in number representing not less than 75 per cent. in value of the Scheme Shareholders (or the relevant class or classes thereof, if applicable) present and voting, either in person or by proxy, at the Guernsey Court Meeting and at any separate class meeting which may be required by the Guernsey Court or at any adjournment of any such meeting not later than the 22nd day after the date for which the Guernsey Court Meeting is originally convened (or such later date, if any, as Sandstorm and Mariana may agree and the Guernsey Court may allow); (b)        all resolutions necessary to approve and implement the Scheme and to approve certain related matters being duly passed by the requisite majority or majorities at the General Meeting or at any adjournment of that meeting not later than the 22nd day after the date for which the General Meeting is originally convened (or such later date, if any, as Sandstorm and Mariana may agree and the Guernsey Court may allow); and (c)        the sanction of the Scheme with or without modification (but subject to any such modification being acceptable to Sandstorm and Mariana) by the Guernsey Court and the Guernsey Court Meeting to sanction the Scheme being held on or before the 22nd day after the expected date of the Guernsey Court sanction hearing as set out in the Scheme Document (or such later date as Sandstorm and Mariana may agree and the Guernsey Court may allow). In addition, Sandstorm and Mariana have agreed that, subject as stated in Part B below, the Combination will be conditional upon the following matters and, accordingly, the necessary actions to make the Scheme Effective will not be taken unless such conditions (as amended, if appropriate) have been satisfied or, where relevant, waived: 2           The Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, acting through its relevant department or agency, either confirming, on terms reasonably satisfactory to Sandstorm, that no regulatory consents are required for the indirect change of control of Awalé Resources SARL and/or Srika Gold or, if any such consents are required, the Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, acting through its relevant department or agency, giving the relevant consents on terms reasonably satisfactory to Sandstorm. 3           Conditional approval or approval being granted for the New Sandstorm Shares to be listed and posted for trading on the TSX and the NYSE MKT. 4           Excluding any filings required for the purposes of the confirmation or consent referred to in paragraph 2 (to which only paragraph 2 shall apply), all necessary filings or applications, including stock exchange applications, having been made, all necessary  waiting and other time periods (including any extensions of such waiting and other time periods) under any applicable legislation or regulation of any relevant jurisdiction having expired, lapsed or been terminated (as appropriate) and all statutory or regulatory obligations in any relevant jurisdiction deemed required having been complied with, in each case in connection with the Combination or the acquisition by any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group of any shares or other securities in, or control of, any member of the Wider Mariana Group, where the direct consequence of a failure to make such a notification or filing or to wait for the expiry, lapse, or termination of any such waiting or time period would be unlawful in any relevant jurisdiction or which is material in the context of the Wider Sandstorm Group or the Wider Mariana Group, in each case, taken as a whole, or would be material in the context of the Combination. 5           All Authorisations, including stock exchange approvals, which are necessary or are reasonably considered necessary by Sandstorm in any relevant jurisdiction for or in respect of the Scheme or Combination or the acquisition or proposed acquisition of any shares or other securities in, or control or management of, Mariana or any other member of the Wider Mariana Group by any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or the carrying on by any member of the Wider Mariana Group of its business having been obtained, in terms and in a form reasonably satisfactory to Sandstorm, from all appropriate Third Parties or from any persons or bodies with whom any member of the Wider Mariana Group has entered into contractual arrangements, in each case where the absence of such Authorisation would or might reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Mariana Group taken as a whole and all such Authorisations remaining in full force and effect and there being no notice or intimation of any intention to revoke, suspend, restrict, modify or not to renew any of the same. 6           Any resolution or resolutions of the independent Mariana Shareholders required to approve and implement the Retention Arrangements being duly passed at the General Meeting in accordance with Rule 16 of the Code. 7           Excluding in relation to the confirmation or consent referred to in paragraph 2 (to which only paragraph 2 shall apply),  no Third Party having intervened (as defined below) and there not continuing to be outstanding any statute, regulation or order of any Third Party, in each case which would or might reasonably be expected to: (a)        make the Scheme or the Combination or, in each case, its implementation or the acquisition or proposed acquisition by Sandstorm or any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group of any shares or other securities in, or control or management of, Mariana or any member of the Wider Mariana Group void, illegal or unenforceable in any jurisdiction, or otherwise directly or indirectly materially restrain, prevent, prohibit, restrict or materially delay the same or impose additional conditions or obligations with respect to the Scheme or the Combination or such acquisition, or otherwise materially impede, challenge or interfere with the Scheme or Combination or such acquisition, or require amendment to the terms of the Scheme or Combination or the acquisition or proposed acquisition of any Mariana Shares or the acquisition of control or management of Mariana or the Wider Mariana Group by Sandstorm or any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group; (b)        materially limit or delay, or impose any material limitations on, the ability of any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or any member of the Wider Mariana Group to acquire or to hold or to exercise effectively, directly or indirectly, all or any rights of ownership in respect of shares or other securities in, or to exercise voting or management control over, any member of the Wider Mariana Group or any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group; (c)        require, prevent or materially delay the divestiture or materially alter the terms envisaged for any proposed divestiture by any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group of any shares or other securities in Mariana or of all or any portion of their respective businesses, assets or properties or materially limit the ability of any of them to conduct any of their respective businesses or to own or control any of their respective assets or properties or any part thereof; (d)        require any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or of the Wider Mariana Group to acquire, or to offer to acquire, any shares or other securities (or the equivalent) in any member of either group owned by any third party; (e)        materially limit the ability of any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or of the Wider Mariana Group to conduct or integrate or co-ordinate its business, or any part of it, with the businesses or any part of the businesses of any other member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or of the Wider Mariana Group; or (f)         otherwise materially adversely affect any or all of the business, assets, profits, financial or trading position of any member of the Wider Mariana Group or of the Wider Sandstorm Group. Certain matters arising as a result of any arrangement, agreement, etc. 8           Except as Disclosed, there being no provision of any arrangement, agreement, licence, permit, franchise or other instrument to which any member of the Wider Mariana Group is a party, or by or to which any such member or any of its assets is or are or may be bound, entitled or subject or any circumstance, which, in each case as a consequence of the Scheme or Combination or the acquisition or proposed acquisition of any shares or other securities in, or control of, Mariana or any other member of the Wider Mariana Group by any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or otherwise, would be expected to result in (in any case to an extent which would reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole): (a)        any monies borrowed by or any other indebtedness or liabilities (actual or contingent) of, or any grant available to, any member of the Wider Mariana Group being or becoming repayable or capable of being declared repayable immediately or prior to its stated maturity date or repayment date or the ability of any member of the Wider Mariana Group to borrow monies or incur any indebtedness being withdrawn or inhibited or becoming capable of being withdrawn or inhibited; (b)        the creation or enforcement of any mortgage, charge or other security interest over the whole or any part of the business, property, assets or interests of any member of the Wider Mariana Group or any such mortgage, charge or other security interest (wherever created, arising or having arisen) becoming enforceable; (c)        any such arrangement, agreement, licence, permit, franchise or instrument, or the rights, liabilities, obligations or interests of any member of the Wider Mariana Group thereunder, being, or becoming capable of being, terminated or adversely modified or affected or any adverse action being taken or any obligation or liability arising thereunder; (d)        any asset or interest of any member of the Wider Mariana Group being or falling to be disposed of or charged or ceasing to be available to any member of the Wider Mariana Group or any right arising under which any such asset or interest could be required to be disposed of or could cease to be available to any member of the Wider Mariana Group otherwise than in the ordinary course of business; (e)        the creation of any liabilities (actual or contingent) by any member of the Wider Mariana Group other than in the ordinary course of business; (f)         the rights, liabilities, obligations or interests of any member of the Wider Mariana Group under any such arrangement, agreement, licence, permit, franchise or other instrument or the interests or business of any such member in or with any other person, firm, company or body (or any arrangement or arrangements relating to any such interests or business) being terminated or adversely modified or affected; or (g)        the financial or trading position or the value of any member of the Wider Mariana Group being prejudiced or adversely affected, and no event having occurred which, under any provision of any such arrangement, agreement, licence, permit or other instrument, would or would reasonably be expected to result in any of the events or circumstances which are referred to in paragraphs (a) to (g) of this Condition 6 in any case to an extent which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole. 9           Except as Disclosed, no member of the Wider Mariana Group having, since 31 December 2016: (a)        issued or agreed to issue, or authorised the issue of, additional shares of any class, or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or rights, warrants or options to subscribe for or acquire, any such shares or convertible securities or transferred or sold any shares out of treasury, other than as between Mariana and wholly-owned subsidiaries of Mariana or any shares issued or shares transferred from treasury upon the exercise of any Mariana Warrants or of any Mariana Options; (b)        purchased or redeemed or repaid any of its own shares or other securities or reduced or made any other change to any part of its share capital; (c)        recommended, declared, paid or made any dividend or other distribution whether payable in cash or otherwise or made any bonus issue (other than to Mariana or a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mariana); (d)        save for intra-Mariana Group transactions, made or authorised any change in its loan capital; (e)        save for intra-Mariana Group transactions, entered into, implemented or authorised the entry into, any joint venture, asset or profit sharing arrangement, partnership or merged with, demerged or acquired any body corporate, partnership or business or acquired or disposed of or transferred, mortgaged, charged or created any security interest over any assets or any right, title or interest in any assets (including shares in any undertaking and trade investments) or authorised the same (in each case to an extent which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole); (f)         issued or authorised the issue of, or made any change in or to, any debentures or (save for intra-Mariana Group transactions) incurred or increased any indebtedness or liability (actual or contingent) which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (g)        entered into, varied, or authorised any material agreement, transaction, arrangement or commitment (whether in respect of capital expenditure or otherwise) which: (A)       is of a long term, onerous or unusual nature or magnitude or which is reasonably likely to involve an obligation of such nature or magnitude; or (B)       is likely to restrict the business of any member of the Wider Mariana Group; or (C)       is other than in the ordinary course of business, (ii)        and which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (i)         a conversion or transfer under Part V of the Companies (Guernsey) Law; (ii)        an amalgamation under Part VI of the Companies (Guernsey) Law; (iii)       a migration under Part VII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law; or (iv)       an arrangement or reconstruction (other than the Scheme) under Part VIII of the Companies (Guernsey) Law; (i)         taken any corporate action or had any legal proceedings instituted or threatened against it or petition presented or order made for its winding-up (voluntarily or otherwise), dissolution or reorganisation or for the appointment of a receiver, administrator, administrative receiver, trustee or similar officer of all or any material part of its assets and revenues or any analogous proceedings in any jurisdiction or appointed any analogous person in any jurisdiction which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (j)         been unable, or admitted in writing that it is unable, to pay its debts or having stopped or suspended (or threatened to stop or suspend) payment of its debts generally or ceased or threatened to cease carrying on all or a substantial part of its business; (k)        waived or compromised any claim otherwise than in the ordinary course of business which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (l)         made any alteration to its memorandum or articles of incorporation (in each case, other than in connection with the Scheme); (m)       entered into, terminated or varied the terms of or made any offer (which remains open for acceptance) to enter into or vary the terms of, any contract, agreement, commitment, transaction or arrangement with any person employed by any member of the Wider Mariana Group, including entering into any such arrangement which would result in any liability of any member of the Wider Mariana Group to make any severance, termination, bonus or other payments to any of its directors or other officers, which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Combination or which would or might reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the financial position of the Wider Mariana Group; (n)        proposed, agreed to provide or modified the terms of any share option scheme, incentive scheme or other benefit relating to the employment or termination of employment of any person employed by the Wider Mariana Group; or (o)        other than with the consent of Sandstorm, no action having been taken or proposed by any member of the Wider Mariana Group, or having been approved by Mariana Shareholders or consented to by the Panel, which falls or would fall within or under Rule 21.1 of the Code or which otherwise is or would be materially inconsistent with the implementation by Sandstorm of the Combination on the basis contemplated as at the date of this Announcement. 10        Except as Disclosed, since 31 December 2016: (a)        there having been no adverse change or deterioration in the business, assets, financial or trading positions or profit or prospects of any member of the Wider Mariana Group which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (b)        no contingent or other liability of any member of the Wider Mariana Group having arisen or become apparent or increased which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (c)        no litigation, arbitration proceedings, prosecution or other legal or regulatory proceedings to which any member of the Wider Mariana Group is or may become a party (whether as plaintiff, defendant or otherwise) and no investigation by any Third Party against or in respect of any member of the Wider Mariana Group having been threatened, announced, implemented or instituted by or against or remaining outstanding against or in respect of any member of the Wider Mariana Group which in any such case might reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (d)        no steps having been taken which are likely to result in the withdrawal, cancellation, termination or modification of any licence held by any member of the Wider Mariana Group which is necessary for the proper carrying on of its business and the withdrawal, cancellation, termination or modification of which might reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Wider Mariana Group taken as a whole; (e)        (other than as a result of the Combination) no enquiry or investigation by, or complaint or reference to, any Third Party having been threatened, announced, implemented, instituted by or against or remaining outstanding against or in respect of any member of the Wider Mariana Group which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; and (f)         no member of the Wider Mariana Group having conducted its business in breach of any applicable laws and regulations which in any case would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole. No discovery of certain matters 11        Except as Disclosed, Sandstorm not having discovered: (a)        that any financial or business or other information concerning the Wider Mariana Group disclosed at any time by or on behalf of any member of the Wider Mariana Group, whether publicly, to any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or to any of their advisers or otherwise, is misleading or contains any misrepresentation of fact or omits to state a fact necessary to make any information contained therein not misleading to an extent which might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (b)        that any member of the Wider Mariana Group is subject to any liability (actual or contingent) which would or might reasonably be expected to be material in the context of the Mariana Group taken as a whole; (c)        any past or present member of the Wider Mariana Group has not complied in all material respects with all applicable legislation, regulations or other requirements of any jurisdiction or any Authorisations relating to the use, treatment, storage, carriage, disposal, discharge, spillage, release, leak or emission of any waste or hazardous substance or any substance likely to impair the environment (including property) or harm human health or otherwise relating to environmental matters or the health and safety of any person, or that there has otherwise been any such use, treatment, handling, storage, transport, release, disposal, discharge, spillage, leak or emission (whether or not this constituted a non-compliance by any person with any legislation or regulations and wherever the same may have taken place), which non-compliance would be likely to give rise to any material liability including any penalty for non-compliance (whether actual or contingent) or cost on the part of any member of the Wider Mariana Group; (d)        there is or is likely to be any material liability (actual or contingent) to make good, repair, reinstate or clean up any property now or previously owned, occupied or made use of by any past or present member of the Wider Mariana Group under any environmental legislation, regulation, notice, circular or order of any government, governmental, quasi-governmental, state or local government, supranational, statutory or other regulatory body, agency, court, association or any other person or body in any jurisdiction; (e)        circumstances exist which would be reasonably likely to lead to any Third Party instituting, or whereby any member of the Wider Sandstorm Group or any present or past member of the Wider Mariana Group would be likely to be required to institute, an environmental audit or take any other steps which would in any such case be reasonably likely to result in any liability (whether actual or contingent) to improve, modify existing or install new plant, machinery or equipment or carry out changes in the processes currently carried out or make good, remediate, repair, re-instate or clean up any land or other asset currently or previously owned, occupied or made use of by any past or present member of the Wider Mariana Group or by any person for which a member of the Wider Mariana Group is or has been responsible or in which any such member may have or previously have had or be deemed to have had any interest which is material in the context of the Wider Mariana Group taken as a whole; or (f)         circumstances exist whereby a person would be likely to have any claim in respect of any product or process of manufacture or materials used therein currently or previously manufactured sold or carried out by any past or present member of the Wider Mariana Group which claim would be likely, materially and adversely, to affect any member of the Wider Mariana Group to an extent which is material in the context of the Wider Mariana Group taken as a whole. 12        Except as Disclosed, Sandstorm not having discovered that: (A)       past or present member, director, officer or employee of the Wider Mariana Group; or (B)       person that performs or has performed services on behalf of the Wider Mariana Group, has at any time engaged in an activity, practice or conduct which would constitute an offence under the UK Bribery Act 2010, the US Foreign Practices Act of 1977, The Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) 1998, the Prevention of Corruption (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2003 of or any other applicable anti-corruption legislation, including paid or agree to pay any bribe including any "inducement fee", given or agreed to give any similar gift or benefit or paid or agreed to pay a concealed bank account or fund to or for the account of, any customer, supplier, governmental official or employee, representative of a political party, or other person for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business; (b)        any asset of any member of the Wider Mariana Group constitutes criminal property as defined by section 340(3) of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (but disregarding paragraph (b) of that definition); (c)        any past or present member, director, officer or employee of the Wider Mariana Group, or any other person for whom any such person may be liable or responsible, has engaged in any business or made any investments in, or made any payments or assets available to or received any funds or asset from: (A)       any government, entity, or individual with which US or Canadian or European Union persons (or persons operating in those territories) are prohibited from engaging in activities, doing business or from receiving or making available funds or economic resources, by US, Canadian or European Union laws or regulations, including the economic sanctions administered by the United States Office of Foreign Assets Control or HM Treasury & Customs; or (B)       any government, entity or individual targeted by any of the economic sanctions of the United Nations, United States or the European Union or any of its member states; or (d)        a member of the Mariana Group has engaged in a transaction which would cause the Sandstorm Group to be in breach of any law or regulation on completion of the Combination, including the economic sanctions administered by the United States Office of Foreign Assets Control or HM Treasury & Customs, or any government, entity or individual targeted by any of the economic sanctions of the United Nations, United States or the European Union or any of its member states. 13        For the purpose of these Conditions: (b)        Third Party means any central bank, government, government department or governmental, quasi-governmental, supranational, statutory, regulatory, environmental or investigative body, authority (including any national or supranational anti-trust or merger control authority), court, trade agency, stock exchange, association, institution or professional or environmental body or any other person or body whatsoever in any relevant jurisdiction, including, for the avoidance of doubt, the Panel; and (c)        a Third Party shall be regarded as having "intervened" if it has given notice to take, institute, implement or threaten any action, proceeding, suit, investigation, enquiry or reference or made, proposed or enacted any statute, regulation, decision or order or taken any measures or other steps or required any action to be taken or information to be provided or otherwise having done anything and "intervene" shall be construed accordingly. B. Certain further terms of the Scheme and the Combination 1           Conditions 2 to 11 (inclusive) must be fulfilled, be determined by Sandstorm to be or remain satisfied or (if capable of waiver) be waived by 11.59 p.m. on the date immediately preceding the date of the Scheme Court Hearing, failing which the Scheme will lapse. 2           Notwithstanding the paragraph above and subject to the requirements of the Panel, Sandstorm reserves the right in its sole discretion to waive all or any of Conditions 2 to 11 inclusive, in whole or in part and to proceed with the Scheme Court Hearing prior to the fulfilment, satisfaction or waiver of any of the Conditions 2 to 11 inclusive. 3           Sandstorm shall be under no obligation to waive (if capable of waiver), to determine to be or remain satisfied or to treat as fulfilled any of Conditions 2 to 11 (inclusive) by a date earlier than the latest date specified above for the fulfilment of that condition, notwithstanding that the other Conditions may at such earlier date have been waived or fulfilled and that there are, at such earlier date, no circumstances indicating that any Condition may not be capable of fulfilment. 4           Fractions of New Sandstorm Shares will not be allotted or issued to holders of Mariana Shares. Fractional entitlements will be rounded down to the nearest whole number of New Sandstorm Shares. Fractional entitlements of pence payable to holders of Mariana Shares under the Cash Consideration Amount will be rounded down to the nearest whole number of pence. 5           Sandstorm reserves the right to elect to implement the Combination by way of a takeover offer in compliance with the Code (which shall be an offer for the purposes of section 337 of the Companies (Guernsey) Law), subject to the Panel's consent. In such event, such Offer will be implemented by Sandstorm or a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sandstorm on the same terms and conditions (subject to appropriate amendments, including (without limitation) an acceptance condition set at 90 per cent. (or such other percentage (being more than 50 per cent.) as Sandstorm may decide (subject to the Panel's consent) of the shares to which such Offer relates) so far as applicable, as those which would apply to the Scheme. 6           If the Panel requires Sandstorm to make an offer for Mariana Shares under the provisions of Rule 9 of the Code, Sandstorm may make such alterations to the Conditions as are necessary to comply with the provisions of that Rule. 7           The Combination will be subject, inter alia, to the Conditions and certain further terms which are set out in this Appendix 1 and those terms which will be set out in the Scheme Document and such further terms as may be required to comply with the provisions of the AIM Rules for Companies and the provisions of the Code. 8           Mariana Shares will be acquired by Sandstorm fully paid and free from all liens, equitable interests, charges, encumbrances and other third party rights of any nature whatsoever and together with all rights attaching to them, including the right to receive and retain all dividends and distributions (if any) declared, made or payable after the date of this Announcement.  If after the date of this Announcement and prior to the Effective Date, any dividend and/or other distribution and/or other return of value is declared, made or paid or becomes payable in respect of Mariana Shares, Sandstorm reserves the right (without prejudice to any right Sandstorm may have with the consent of the Panel, to invoke Condition 7(c) in Part A of this Appendix 1 to this Announcement) to reduce the amount of Consideration payable for such Mariana Shares under the terms of the Combination by an amount equivalent to such dividend, other distribution or return of value. 9           The Scheme will be governed by the laws of the Island of Guernsey and be subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts of Guernsey and to the conditions and further terms set out in this Announcement and in the Scheme Document. The Combination will be subject to the applicable requirements of the London Stock Exchange, the PRA, the Guernsey Financial Services Commission, FSMA, the Code, the TSXV, the TSX, applicable Canadian securities law and US federal securities law (except to the extent that exemptive relief has been granted by the SEC). 10        Any persons who are subject to the laws of any jurisdiction other than the United Kingdom should inform themselves about and observe any applicable requirements. Further information in relation to overseas shareholders will be contained in the Scheme Document. 11        Under Rule 13.5(a) of the Code, Sandstorm may not invoke a Condition so as to cause the Combination not to proceed, to lapse or to be withdrawn unless the circumstances which give rise to the right to invoke the Condition are of material significance to Sandstorm in the context of the Combination. The Conditions contained in paragraph 1 above and, if applicable, any acceptance condition if the Combination is implemented by means of an Offer, are not subject to this provision of the Code. 12        Each of the Conditions shall be regarded as a separate Condition and shall not be limited by reference to any other Condition. In this Announcement, unless otherwise stated, or the context otherwise requires, the following base and sources have been used: (a)        the financial information on Sandstorm has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Sandstorm's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016 and the unaudited interim production results for the three-month period ending 31 March 2017; (b)        the financial information on Mariana has been extracted or derived (without material adjustment) from Mariana's Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 December 2016. 2           As at the close of business on 25 April 2017 (being the last business day prior to the date of this Announcement), Mariana had in issue 128,209,580 Mariana Shares. The ISIN Number for Mariana Shares is GG00BD3GC324. 3           As at the close of business on 25 April 2017 (being the last business day prior to the date of this Announcement), Sandstorm had in issue 151,994,269 Sandstorm Shares. The ISIN Number for Sandstorm Shares is CA80013R2063. 4           The fully diluted share capital of Mariana as at 25 April 2017 (being 152,091,026 Mariana Shares) is calculated on the basis of: (a)        the number of Mariana Shares referred to in paragraph 2 above, which excludes 190,250 Mariana Shares held as treasury shares on 25 April 2017; and (b)        any further Mariana Shares which may be issued on or after the date of this Announcement: (i)         on the exercise of options with an exercise price lower than 109.71 pence granted under the Mariana Incentive Stock Option Plan, amounting to 7,717,500 Mariana Shares (which excludes the exercise of options with an exercise price greater than 109.71 pence granted under the Mariana Incentive Stock Option Plan, amounting to 180,000 Mariana Shares) as at 25 April 2017; and (ii)        on the exercise of Mariana Warrants, amounting to 15,263,946 Mariana Shares as at 25 April 2017; and (iii)       on the vesting of share bonus awards under the Mariana Share Bonus Awards, amounting to 900,000 Mariana Shares as at 25 April 2017. 5           The issued share capital of the Combined Group (being 187,661,365) has been calculated on the basis of: (a)        a total number of 151,994,269 Sandstorm Shares in issue on 25 April 2017; and (b)        a total number of 35,667,096 New Sandstorm Shares being required to be issued to Mariana Shareholders (excluding Sandstorm) to satisfy the New Sandstorm Share Consideration Amount payable under the terms of the Combination, calculated on the basis of the entire issued and to be issued share capital of Mariana referred to in paragraph 4 of this Appendix 2 less any Mariana Shares held by Sandstorm or in respect of which Sandstorm is interested by virtue of its holding of Mariana Warrants. 6           The value of the consideration to be paid by Sandstorm under the terms of the Combination to Mariana Shareholders (excluding Sandstorm) is £152.07 million (or US$195.27 million) has been calculated on the basis of: (a)        the fully diluted ordinary share capital of Mariana referred to in paragraph 4 of this Appendix 2 less any Mariana Shares held by Sandstorm or in respect of which Sandstorm is interested by virtue of its holding of Mariana Warrants, representing a net total of 138,620,661 Mariana Shares to be purchased by Sandstorm; (b)        total cash consideration (being £39.85 million or US$51.17 million) calculated by reference to the consideration cash component of 28.75 pence per Mariana Share; and (c)        total share consideration (being £112.22 million or US$144.10 million) calculated by reference to the consideration share component of 0.2573 New Sandstorm Shares per Mariana Share, based on the closing price of US$4.04 per Sandstorm Share on NYSE MKT and a currency exchange rate of £0.7788 per US$, on 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement). 7           As at 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement) there are 7,717,500 options outstanding under the Mariana Incentive Stock Option Plan with an exercise price lower than 109.71 pence. If all of these options are exercised, the aggregate cash consideration received from option holders upon exercise will amount to £4.8 million. 8           As at 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement) there are 1,454,251 2015 Warrants outstanding with an exercise price of 30 pence. If all of these warrants are exercised, the aggregate cash consideration paid by holders of 2015 Warrants will amount to £0.4 million. 9           As at 25 April 2017 (being the last Business Day before the date of this Announcement) there are 9,319,570 2016 Warrants outstanding that are not held by Sandstorm, with an exercise price of 25 pence. If all of these warrants are exercised, the aggregate cash consideration paid by holders of 2016 Warrants (excluding Sandstorm) will amount to £2.3 million. 10        The market prices of the Mariana Shares are the closing middle market quotations as derived from the Daily Official List. 11        The market prices of the Sandstorm Shares, unless otherwise stated, represent mid-market closing prices on the relevant date(s) on the NYSE MKT as derived from Proquote. 12        VWAP figures are sourced from Bloomberg and, where relevant, are translated from US$ to £ using the London close composite rate each day prior to averaging. 13        Certain figures included in this Announcement have been subject to rounding adjustments. 14        Unless otherwise stated, where amounts referred to in this Announcement have been translated from US$ to £, an exchange rate of 0.7788 has been used, as sourced from Bloomberg on 25 April 2017. 15        Under the heading "Strong production base" in section 3 ("Background and reasons for the Combination"), and throughout this Announcement, Sandstorm has included certain performance measures in this Announcement that do not have any standardized meaning prescribed by IFRS including average cash cost per ounce of gold and cash operating margin. Average cash cost per ounce of gold is calculated by dividing the total cost of sales, less depletion, by the ounces sold. In the precious metals mining industry, Sandstorm believes that this is a common performance measure but does not have any standardized meaning. Sandstorm believes that, in addition to conventional measures prepared in accordance with IFRS, certain investors use this information to evaluate Sandstorm's performance and ability to generate cash flow. Cash operating margin is calculated by subtracting the average cash cost per ounce of gold from the average realized selling price per ounce of gold. Sandstorm presents cash operating margin as it believes that certain investors use this information to evaluate Sandstorm's performance in comparison to other companies in the precious metals mining industry who present results on a similar basis. Sandstorm's royalty income is converted to an attributable gold equivalent ounce basis by dividing the royalty income for that period by the average realized gold price per ounce from Sandstorm's gold streams for the same respective period. These attributable gold equivalent ounces when combined with the gold ounces sold from Sandstorm gold streams equal total attributable gold equivalent ounces sold. The presentation of these non-IFRS measures is intended to provide additional information and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of performance prepared in accordance with IFRS. Other companies may calculate these non-IFRS measures differently. Please refer to Sandstorm management's discussion and analysis for the year ended 31 December 2016, available at www.sedar.com, for a reconciliation of non-IFRS measures. 16        Information regarding the Hot Maden Project has been derived from the Hot Maden PEA. The Hot Maden PEA is preliminary in nature as it includes inferred mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves.  Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability, and as such there is no certainty that the preliminary assessment and economics will be realized. Mr. Roth, a qualified person under NI 43-101, has reviewed the Hot Maden PEA on behalf of Sandstorm. To the best of Sandstorm's knowledge, information and belief, there is no new material scientific or technical information that would make disclosure of the mineral resource or Hot Maden PEA inaccurate or misleading. 17        Under the headings "Introduction" and "Geology and Mineral Resources" in Section 8 ("Information relating to Mariana"), gold equivalence (AuEq) was calculated using a 100 day moving average of US$1,215/ounce for gold and US$2.13/pound for copper as of 29 May 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for gold and copper, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. The formula used for Au equivalent grade is: AuEq g/t = Au + [(Cu% x 22.0462 x 2.13)/(1215/31.1035)] and is not adjusted for assumed metallurgical recovery. Au equivalent ounces are calculated by multiplying Mineral Resource tonnage by Au equivalent grade and converting for ounces. The formula used for Au equivalent ounces is: AuEq Oz = [Tonnage x AuEq grade (g/t)]/31.1035. The following holders of Mariana Shares have given irrevocable undertakings to vote in favour of the Scheme at the Guernsey Court Meeting and the resolutions to be proposed at the General Meeting which are necessary to implement the Combination and any related transactions (and to vote against any resolutions which may result in the Combination not being implemented) in relation to the following Mariana Shares, respectively: The undertakings referred to above will remain binding if a higher competing offer for Mariana is made. The undertakings will cease to be binding if: (i) the Announcement is not made by 5.00 p.m. (London time) on 26 April 2017 (or such later date as the Company and the Offeror may agree); or (ii) the Panel consents to Sandstorm not proceeding with the Combination; or (iii) the Scheme does not become Effective by 31 August 2017 (other than in circumstances where Sandstorm has elected to proceed by way of takeover offer and such offer has not lapsed or been withdrawn). The undertakings referred to above will remain binding if a higher competing offer for Mariana is made. The undertakings will cease to be binding if: (i) the Announcement is not released by 5.00 p.m. (London time) on 27 April 2017; or (ii) the Panel consents to Sandstorm not proceeding with the Combination; or (iii) the Scheme does not become Effective by 31 August 2017 (other than in circumstances where Sandstorm has elected to proceed by way of takeover offer and such offer has not lapsed or been withdrawn); or (iv) an offer is announced by a third party on terms which represent in the reasonable opinion of KPMG LLP (in the case of Australian Investors Pty Ltd) or RFC Ambrian Limited (in the case of AngloGold Ashanti Holdings PLC) an improvement of ten per cent or more on the value of the consideration offered under the Combination. The following information on Sandstorm's operating cash flow after tax (and before corporate overhead), which is included in the Sandstorm Investor Presentation is considered to be a profit forecast for the purposes of Rule 28 of the Takeover Code. The Panel has agreed that the Sandstorm Forecast should be treated as an ordinary course profit forecast, pursuant to Note 2(a) on Rule 28.1. The Sandstorm Forecast is a repetition of forecast for the periods set out above and included in the Sandstorm Investor Presentation. The Sandstorm Investor Presentation, and hence the Sandstorm Forecast, was prepared as at or around 1 April 2017 with production figures estimated at or around 1 January 2017. It reflects the Sandstorm estimates of expected future cash flows and cash costs associated with Sandstorm's commodity streams and royalties. Expected future cash flows reflect the estimated future production for each mine at which Sandstorm has a commodity stream or royalty based on public disclosure, technical reports and incorporating management estimates where appropriate. Expected future cash flows reflect metal price assumptions of US$1,200 per ounce of gold, US$17.00 per ounce of silver and US$2.50 per pound of copper.  It is also assumed that tax rates will remain materially unchanged from prevailing rates. Estimated future cash costs are at a fixed price per commodity unit or at variable price based on spot which is consistent with the underlying terms of the commodity stream or royalty. The Sandstorm Forecast does not include any general and administrative costs associated with Sandstorm which would otherwise be included in operating cash flows under IFRS. The cash flow amounts presented above do not have any standardised meaning prescribed by IFRS. The Sandstorm Directors have considered the Sandstorm Forecast and confirm that it remains valid as at the date of this Announcement, that it has been properly compiled on the basis of the assumptions set out above, and that the basis of the assessment is consistent with Sandstorm's prior forecasts. The following definitions apply throughout this Announcement unless the context requires otherwise. For the purposes of this Announcement, subsidiary, subsidiary undertaking, undertaking, associated undertaking have the meanings given by the Companies Act. References to an enactment include references to that enactment as amended, replaced, consolidated or re-enacted by or under any other enactment before or after the date of this Announcement. All references to time in this Announcement are to London time unless otherwise stated.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

Hydrogelators, which have a stacked fibrous network structure, can potentially be used in bioengineering, pharmaceutical technologies, environmental remediation, catalytic processes and personal care products. In collaborative research published in Soft Matter earlier this year, a group of Australian investigators led by Curtin University and the University of Western Australia, also confirmed that the selection of electrolyte plays a key role in determining the strength of a hydrogel formed by calixerene (bound with the amino acid proline). Upon heating to 30° C, calixerene hydrogels formed with the electrolyte magnesium chloride increased in strength and maintained increased stiffness upon cooling. The compound exhibited significant hysteresis (a memory of the initial structure). The investigators pointed out that this unusual, reproducible behaviour did not result in a loss of water upon heating. Because the gel stiffness got smaller over repeated annealing, it suggested a dynamic rearrangement process was occurring. Atomic force microscopy imaging at the University of Western Australia revealed that new larger, straighter fibres formed at 25 – 30° C, possibly supporting the formation of a more robust gel while smaller fibres appeared to dissolve. Co-author Instrument scientist Chris Garvey authors confirmed the model of what was happening to the gel structure following annealing over the temperature range 10-30° C using SANS on QUOKKA. "SANS is the technique of choice for gelators because can determine how molecules behave in an ensemble while a parameter is changing," said Garvey. Scattering data indicated a change from uniform rod-like structures to a more complex system. "In this study, the SANS data was consistent with the structural model and scattering curve calculations," said Garvey. The authors report that in the MgCl hydrogel this represents a change from the initial configuration of long, flexible fibres to short, straight fibres upon heating, which become long, straight fibres when the system is cooled. The hydrogel formed with the electrolyte lithium chloride responded differently to annealing. "One of my co-authors is interested in tissue scaffolding as part of dementia research but there are a great many potential applications for low molecular weight gelators," said Garvey. "The study was undertaken because there are still aspects of their behaviour that need investigation, such as how gel structure evolve over time and how to ensure the stability of load bearing structures." Explore further: Better understanding of light harvesting may benefit agriculture More information: Emily C. Barker et al. Thermal annealing behaviour and gel to crystal transition of a low molecular weight hydrogelator, Soft Matter (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C6SM02431A


Barkan A.,University of Oregon | Small I.,University of Western Australia
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.


Marschner P.,University of Adelaide | Crowley D.,University of California at Riverside | Rengel Z.,University of Western Australia
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Iron and phosphorus availability is low in many soils; hence, microorganisms and plants have evolved mechanisms to acquire these nutrients by altering the chemical conditions that affect their solubility. In plants, this includes exudation of organic acid anions and acidification of the rhizosphere by release of protons in response to iron and phosphorus deficiency. Grasses (family Poaceae) and microorganisms further respond to Fe deficiency by production and release of specific chelators (phytosiderophores and siderophores, respectively) that complex Fe to enhance its diffusion to the cell surface. In the rhizosphere, the mutual demand for Fe and P results in competition between plants and microorganisms with the latter being more competitive due to their ability to decompose plant-derived chelators and their proximity to the root surface; however microbial competitiveness is strongly affected by carbon availability. On the other hand, plants are able to avoid direct competition with microorganisms due to the spatial and temporal variability in the amount and composition of exudates they release into the rhizosphere. In this review, we present a model of the interactions that occur between microorganisms and roots along the root axis, and discuss advantages and limitations of methods that can be used to study these interactions at nanometre to centimetre scales. Our analysis suggests mechanisms such as increasing turnover of microbial biomass or enhanced nutrient uptake capacity of mature root zones that may enhance plant competitiveness could be used to develop plant genotypes with enhanced efficiency in nutrient acquisition. Our model of interactions between plants and microorganisms in the rhizosphere will be useful for understanding the biogeochemistry of P and Fe and for enhancing the effectiveness of fertilization. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Anderson W.K.,44 Albany Highway | Anderson W.K.,University of Western Australia
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Studies that compare the genotypic improvement of historical cultivars with yield progress in commercial crops provide evidence of the impact of past and current research in crops. The analysis of experiments designed to examine combinations of environment (E), management practices (M) and cultivars (G) also provides evidence of the relative importance of each of these factors for yield improvement. The evidence shows that variation due to E far outweighs the variation of grain yield that can be attributed to M or G, or the interactions between these factors, and between these factors and E. The major 'gap' between yields achieved on farms and the theoretical potential as estimated by seasonal rainfall or water use, is found where seasonal water supply is greater than about 250 mm and when management, not rainfall or cultivar is limiting productivity. This suggests that tactical (in season) management, including the choice of crop and cultivar, fertilizer amount and timing, weed, insect and disease control when combined with management of strategic factors (that have an effect for more than one season) such as soil acidity, compaction, low organic matter, non-wetting and water-logging will provide additive benefits that can address the variability imposed by the environment. In the semi-arid cropping regions of the world where inter-seasonal variability of rainfall is high, it is particularly important for farmers to maximize grain yields in seasons when the rainfall is adequate to produce profitable crops. Current technologies are already relatively efficient in the drier seasons so that the relative impact on farm productivity of research to improve yields in dry years is likely to be small. Field studies in Western Australia that have included a range of environments (sites × seasons) cultivars, and levels of management (sowing times, fertilizer treatments, seed rates) show that the main effect of E has accounted for about 80% of the variability in grain yield, M has accounted for about 6%, and G for about 3%. The G × M and G × E interactions were generally unimportant. This is confirmed by studies in similar rainfed environments elsewhere. Some studies that include M as part of the E term show apparently large G × E interactions, possibly due to either the selection of very different cultivars or environments, or both. The usefulness of such results at the farm level is doubtful due to the variable management inputs in the experiments and a lack of validity for farmers who may not be concerned with variability across widely separated locations. In studies that examine genetic responses to individual management practices differences are often very specific to the environmental conditions experienced in the experiments. The aim of the review is to discuss how management factors can contribute to closing the yield 'gap' between actual and potential grain yields in the variable environment experienced by rainfed crops. The impacts of tactical and strategic management practices appear to be independent and additive rather than co-dependent, allowing for adoption one at a time as resources permit. The use of strategic practices that ameliorate acidity or compaction for example, will lift the grain yield at all levels of tactical inputs such as fertilizer, thus reducing the seasonal variability of yield even though the response to fertilizer does not change. It is concluded that in principle, the best way to maintain productivity under conditions of seasonal variability is to use both tactical and strategic management to close the gap between actual and potential grain yields in the average and better seasons. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Ding J.,National University of Singapore | Kostylev M.,University of Western Australia | Adeyeye A.O.,National University of Singapore
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

We demonstrate functionality of magnetic logic based on a reconfigurable magnonic crystal in the form of a meander-type ferromagnetic nanowire. A ferromagnetic resonance method employing a microscopic coplanar waveguide has been used to detect the logic state of the structure coded in its magnetic ground state. Ferromagnetic resonance responses of anti-ferromagnetic and multi-cluster (mix of anti-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic) ground states can be switched by applying a DC current in the signal line of the coplanar waveguide. Experimental demonstrations of device functionality as XOR and NOT logic gates are supported by the magnetic force microscopy images and micromagnetic simulations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Bleby T.M.,University of Western Australia | Mcelrone A.J.,University of California at Davis | Jackson R.B.,Duke University
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2010

Deep water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) are important processes in many forests, savannas and shrublands. We investigated HR in a semi-arid woodland above a unique cave system in central Texas to understand how deep root systems facilitate HR. Sap flow was measured in 9 trunks, 47 shallow roots and 12 deep roots of Quercus, Bumelia and Prosopis trees over 12 months. HR was extensive and continuous, involving every tree and 83% of roots, with the total daily volume of HR over a 1 month period estimated to be approximately 22% of daily transpiration. During drought, deep roots at 20 m depth redistributed water to shallow roots (hydraulic lift), while after rain, shallow roots at 0-0.5 m depth redistributed water among other shallow roots (lateral HR). The main driver of HR appeared to be patchy, dry soil near the surface, although water may also have been redistributed to mid-level depths via deeper lateral roots. Deep roots contributed up to five times more water to transpiration and HR than shallow roots during drought but dramatically reduced their contribution after rain. Our results suggest that deep-rooted plants are important drivers of water cycling in dry ecosystems and that HR can significantly influence landscape hydrology. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Burtscher H.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Schuepp K.,University of Western Australia
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2012

Interest in ultrafine particles (UFP) has been increasing due to their specific physico-chemical characteristics. Ultrafine particles are those with an aerodynamic diameter of. <. 0.1. μm and are also commonly know as nanoparticles (0.1. μm. =. 100. nm). Due to their small size UFP contribute mostly to particle number concentrations and are therefore underestimated in actual pollution measurements, which commonly measure mass concentration. Children represent the most vulnerable group in regard to particulate exposure due to their developing status and different exposures compared to adults. This review discusses the sources of ultrafine particles as well as the specific exposures of children highlighting the importance and uniqueness of this age group. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Li N.,Peking University | Chen Y.-J.,Peking University | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | Pirajno F.,University of Western Australia
Gondwana Research | Year: 2015

The Qinling Orogen was formed from the closure of the northernmost paleo-Tethys sea and the tectonic suturing of the Yangtze and North China Cratons. The timing of this collision and the tectonic framework are debated. The widely developed Triassic granitoids in the western Qinling Orogen offer a key to understand the tectonic evolution of this region. Here we compile the geological, geochemical and geochronological data of the Triassic granitoids from the Qingling Orogen and conclude that the granitoids north of the Mian-Lue Suture were emplaced in an active continental margin related to the northward subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic plate during 248-200Ma. The granitoids can be classified into I- and S-types, with the former constituting the major variety. Northward from the Mian-Lue Fault, an S-type granite belt appears, followed by and locally overlapping with an I-type granite belt. The I-type granite belt can be subdivided into four sub-belts from south to north, with increasing contents of K2O, K2O+Na2O, SiO2, Th and U, and the ratios of K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr and (87Sr/86Sr)i, but decreasing contents of Na2O, Al2O3, Mg#, and εHf(t), except for the northernmost belt which occurs in the Huaxiong Block of the North China Craton. This geochemical polarity of I-type granitoids and the zoned distribution of S- and I-types granitoids cannot be explained through continental collision orogeny (including syn- to post-collision), but can be well interpreted by considering the progressive subduction of the northernmost branch of the paleo-Tethys, as represented by the Mian-Lue Ocean. Thus, the termination of the northernmost paleo-Tethys and the onset of the continental collision between the Yangtze and the North China plates are considered to have occurred at about 200Ma, during the transition from Triassic to Jurassic. Our model is also supported by the available data from other studies and provides a revised framework for the timing and tectonics of assembly of the Yangtze and the North China Cratons. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Bacchetti T.,Marche Polytechnic University | Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Sahebkar A.,University of Western Australia
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2015

Background Decreased activity of the enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) has been demonstrated in cardiovascular diseases. Statins, the forefront of pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia, have been shown to enhance PON1 activity but clinical findings have not been conclusive. Objective To systematically review the clinical findings on the impact of statin therapy on PON1 status (protein concentrations and activities of paraoxonase and arylesterase) and calculate an effect size for the mentioned effects through meta-analysis of available data. Methods Scopus and Medline databases were searched to identify clinical trials. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the one-study remove approach. Random-effects meta-regression was performed to assess the impact of potential confounders on the estimated effect sizes. Results Meta-analysis suggested that statin therapy is associated with a significant elevation of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, but not PON1 protein concentration. The PON1-enhancing effects of statins were robust in the sensitivity analyses and were independent of statin dose, treatment duration and changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Conclusion The increase of paraoxonase and arylesterase activities with statins is a pleiotropic lipid-independent clinical benefit that may partly explain the putative effects of statins in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Hart R.,University of Western Australia | Norman R.J.,University of Adelaide
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2013

Background: Several million children have been born from in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, but limited data exist regarding their health and development beyond the first year of life. It has been alleged that IVF may lead to long-term adverse consequences, in addition to the documented worse perinatal outcome and increased risk of congenital abnormalities in children born resulting from IVF treatment. methods: A search strategy restricted to studies relating to the medical condition of children of at least 1 year of age born as a result of IVF treatment was performed to include case series, data linkage and prospective studies published 1 January 2000-1 April 2012. results: Limited long-term follow-up data suggest that there is potentially an increase in the incidence of raised blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, increase in total body fat composition, advancement of bone age and potentially subclinical thyroid disorder in the IVF offspring. Whether these potential associations are related to the IVF treatment per se, the adverse obstetric outcomes associated with IVF treatment or are related to the genetic origin of the children is yet to be determined. conclusions: This review provides evidence to suggest that the short-term health outcome for children born from IVF treatment is positive. However, it is expected that the cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors found in childhood and tracking into adulthood could be worse in later life, and may be responsible for chronic cardiometabolic disease. These observations need to be addressed by further studies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.


Ding J.,National University of Singapore | Kostylev M.,University of Western Australia | Adeyeye A.O.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We show that periodic magnetic nanostructures represent a perfect system for studying excitations on disordered periodical lattices because of the possibility of controlled variation of the degree of disorder by varying the applied magnetic field. Magnetic force microscopy images and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) data collected inside minor hysteresis loops for a periodic array of Permalloy nanowires were used to demonstrate correlation between the type of FMR response and the degree of disorder of the magnetic ground state. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Chateigner-Boutin A.-L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Small I.,University of Western Australia
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2011

RNA editing is a term used for a number of mechanistically different processes that alter the nucleotide sequence of RNA molecules to differ from the gene sequence. RNA editing occurs in a wide variety of organisms and is particularly frequent in organelle transcripts of eukaryotes. The discontiguous phylogenetic distribution of mRNA editing, the mechanistic differences observed in different organisms, and the nonhomologous editing machinery described in different taxonomic groups all suggest that RNA editing has appeared independently several times. This raises questions about the selection pressures acting to maintain editing that are yet to be completely resolved. Editing tends to be frequent in organisms with atypical organelle genomes and acts to correct the effect of DNA mutations that would otherwise compromise the synthesis of functional proteins. Additional functions of editing in generating protein diversity or regulating gene expression have been proposed but so far lack widespread experimental evidence, at least in organelles. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Hallal P.C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Andersen L.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Andersen L.B.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Bull F.C.,University of Western Australia | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31.1% (95% CI 30.9-31.2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17.0% (16.8-17.2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80.3% (80.1-80.5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes to increase activity levels and to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases.


Bekki K.,University of Western Australia | Graham A.W.,Swinburne University of Technology
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2010

Giant elliptical galaxies, believed to be built from the merger of lesser galaxies, are known to house a massive black hole (MBH) at their center rather than a compact star cluster. If low- and intermediate-mass galaxies do indeed partake in the hierarchical merger scenario, then one needs to explain why their dense nuclear star clusters are not preserved in merger events. A valuable clue may be the recent revelation that nuclear star clusters and MBHs frequently co-exist in intermediate-mass bulges and elliptical galaxies. In an effort to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the disappearance of nuclear star clusters, we have numerically investigated the evolution of merging star clusters with seed BHs. Using BHs that are 1%-5% of their host nuclear cluster mass, we reveal how their binary coalescence during a merger dynamically heats the newly wed star cluster, expanding it, significantly lowering its central stellar density, and thus making it susceptible to tidal destruction during galaxy merging. Moreover, this mechanism provides a pathway to explain the observed reduction in the nucleus-to-galaxy stellar mass ratio as one proceeds from dwarf to giant elliptical galaxies. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Ralph A.P.,Royal Darwin Hospital | Carapetis J.R.,University of Western Australia
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2013

Group A streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes has been recognised as an important human pathogen since early days of modern microbiology, and it remains among the top ten causes of mortality from an infectious disease. Clinical manifestations attributable to this organism are perhaps the most diverse of any single human pathogen. These encompass invasive GAS infections, with high mortality rates despite effective antimicrobials, toxin-mediated diseases including scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, the autoimmune sequelae of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis with potential for long-term disability, and nuisance manifestations of superficial skin and pharyngeal infection, which continue to consume a sizable proportion of healthcare resources. Although an historical perspective indicates major overall reductions in GAS infection rates in the modern era, chiefly as a result of widespread improvements in socioeconomic circumstances, this pathogen remains as a leading infectious cause of global morbidity and mortality. More than 18 million people globally are estimated to suffer from serious GAS disease. This burden disproportionally affects least affluent populations, and is a major cause of illness and death among children and young adults, including pregnant women, in low-resource settings. We review GAS transmission characteristics and prevention strategies, historical and geographical trends and report on the estimated global burden disease attributable to GAS. The lack of systematic reporting makes accurate estimation of rates difficult. This highlights the need to support improved surveillance and epidemiological research in low-resource settings, in order to enable better assessment of national and global disease burdens, target control strategies appropriately and assess the success of control interventions. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.


Ding J.,National University of Singapore | Kostylev M.,University of Western Australia | Adeyeye A.O.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We systematically probed the dynamic behavior of homogenous and alternating width (AW) Ni80Fe20 nanowire (NW) arrays using broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy as a function of geometrical parameters such as wire width and interwire spacing. For homogenous width NWs, the FMR responses are markedly sensitive to wire widths and interwire spacing due to spatially varying demagnetizing field. The collective spin-wave mode profile for ferromagneticly and antiferromagneticly ordered ground state has been investigated by controlling the relative alignment of magnetization of neighboring NWs. We show that magnetic ground states of coupled AW NW arrays can be controlled by applying different magnetic field histories, and the collective spin-wave mode is very sensitive to the difference in the widths of wires constituting AW wire arrays. We have also mapped the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ground states magnetic configurations using magnetic force microscopy. Our experimental results are in good agreements with a simple analytical theory we suggest for phenomenological description of the collective oscillations. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Lake F.,University of Western Australia | Proudman S.,University of Adelaide
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation and, in a proportion of patients, extra-articular manifestations (EAM). Lung disease, either as an EAM of the disease, related to the drug therapy for RA, or related to comorbid conditions, is the second commonest cause of mortality. All areas of the lung including the pleura, airways, parenchyma, and vasculature may be involved, with interstitial and pleural disease and infection being the most common problems. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest forms the basis of investigation and when combined with clinical information and measures of physiology, a multidisciplinary team can frequently establish the diagnosis without the need for an invasive biopsy procedure. The most frequent patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), with some evidence for the prognosis being better than for the idiopathic equivalents. Risk factors depend on the type of disease but for ILD (mainly UIP and NSIP) include smoking, male gender, human leukocyte antigen haplotype, rheumatoid factor, and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Citrullination of proteins in the lung, frequently thought to be incited by smoking, and the subsequent development of ACPA appear to play an important role in the development of lung and possibly joint disease. The biologic and nonbiological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have had a substantial impact on morbidity and mortality from RA, and although there multiple reports of drug-related lung toxicity and possible exacerbation of underlying ILD, overall these reactions are rare and should only preclude the use of DMARDs in a minority of patients. Common scenarios facing pulmonologists and rheumatologists are addressed using the current best evidence; these include screening the new patient; monitoring and choosing RA treatment in the presence of subclinical disease; treating deteriorating ILD; and establishing a diagnosis in a patient with an acute respiratory presentation. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.


Hart R.,University of Western Australia | Norman R.J.,University of Adelaide
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist with regard to longer-term mental health and psychological functioning of children born from IVF treatment. With the known adverse perinatal outcome for children born from IVF treatment, it would be expected that there is a negative impact upon their mental development. METHODS: A search strategy restricted to studies relating to the medical condition of children of at least 1 year of age, born from IVF treatment was performed to include case series, data linkage and prospective studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 April 2012. RESULTS: Limited long-term follow-up data suggest that there is an increase in the incidence of cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental delay related to the confounders of prematurity and low birthweight. Previous reports of associations with autism and attention-deficit disorder are believed to be related to maternal and obstetric factors. There exists a potential increase in the prevalence of early adulthood clinical depression and binge drinking in the offspring of IVF, with the reassuring data of no changes with respect to cognitive development, school performance, social functioning and behaviour. Whether these potential associations are related to the IVF treatment, the adverse obstetric outcomes associated with IVF treatment, the genetic or subsequent environmental influences on the children is yet to be determined. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the longer-term mental and emotional health outcome for children born from IVF treatment is reassuring, and is very similar to that of naturally conceived children; however, further studies are required to explore any association with depression, and its causality in more detail. (c) The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.


Damon P.M.,University of Western Australia | Rose T.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Rengel Z.,University of Western Australia
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The phosphorus (P) content of crop residues and its availability to a subsequent crop can range from agronomically insignificant, to quantities in excess of crop P requirement. However, the contribution of crop residues to the P nutrition of subsequent crops has not been widely recognised, and simple predictive tools are lacking. By reviewing the published literature in which quantitative measurements of P transformations from plant residues applied to soil have been reported, we have evaluated the contribution of crop residue-derived P to the P nutrition of subsequent crops, assessed the key factors involved and summarised the knowledge as an empirical model. The contribution of crop residues to P availability is likely to be significant only under conditions where large amounts of crop residues of relatively high P concentration are applied to soil. Crop residues with low P concentration, such as cereal stubble (eg. due to re-translocation of a large proportion of stubble P into grain), will not make an agronomically significant contribution to soil P availability, but may reduce P availability due to assimilation in the microbial biomass. However, a productive green manure crop may release sufficient P to meet the requirements of a subsequent cash crop. The release of P from crop residues is significantly reduced in systems where the P-status of crops and soils is low, which reinforces the reliance on external P inputs for sustained crop productivity. The large variability in the potential contributions of plant residues to the P nutrition of subsequent crops suggests that there is a strong need to integrate model predictions of organically-cycled P with fertiliser management strategies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Gray B.,University of California at Riverside | Simmons L.W.,University of Western Australia
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2013

Sperm competition game theory predicts that males should respond to increasing sperm competition risk by increasing ejaculate expenditure. There is considerable support for this prediction from a diverse range of taxa. However, the cues males use to assess risk and the fitness returns for strategic ejaculation are less well understood. We explored the role of acoustic cues in the assessment of sperm competition risk by manipulating male experience of acoustically signaling conspecifics in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Compared with males reared in acoustic isolation, males reared in song-dense environments mimicking a high sperm competition risk produced ejaculates with a greater percentage of viable sperm. However, acoustic experience had only a weak and nonsignificant effect on competitive fertilization success. We argue that female influences on paternity are likely to have a strong moderating effect on male fitness returns from prudent allocation and call for more studies that address the consequences of strategic ejaculation for male fitness. © 2013 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.


Teakle N.L.,University of Western Australia | Tyerman S.D.,University of Adelaide
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2010

Mechanisms of Cl- transport in plants are poorly understood, despite the importance of minimizing Cl- toxicity for salt tolerance. This review summarizes Cl- transport processes in plants that contribute to genotypic differences in salt tolerance, identifying key traits from the cellular to whole-plant level. Key aspects of Cl- transport that contribute to salt tolerance in some species include reduced net xylem loading, intracellular compartmentation and greater efflux of Cl- from roots. We also provide an update on the biophysics of anion transport in plant cells and address issues of charge balance, selectivity and energy expenditure relevant to Cl- transport mechanisms. Examples are given of anion transport systems where electrophysiology has revealed possible interactions with salinity. Finally, candidate genes for anion transporters are identified that may be contributing to Cl- movement within plants during salinity. This review integrates current knowledge of Cl- transport mechanisms to identify future pathways for improving salt tolerance. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Bekki K.,University of Western Australia | Couch W.J.,Swinburne University of Technology
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2011

Recent observations have revealed that the time-evolution of the S0 number fraction at intermediate and high redshifts (0.2 < z < 0.8) is more dramatic in groups of galaxies than in clusters. In order to understand the origin of S0s in groups, we investigate numerically the morphological transformation of spirals into S0s through group-related physical processes. Our chemodynamical simulations show that spirals in group environments can be strongly influenced by repetitive slow encounters with group member galaxies so that those with thin discs and prominent spiral arm structures can be transformed into S0s with thick discs and without any prominent spiral arm structure. Such tidal interactions can also trigger repetitive starbursts within the bulges of spirals and consequently increase significantly the masses of their bulges. Owing to the rapid consumption of gas initially in spirals during the bulge growth, the S0s can become gas-poor. The S0s transformed from spirals in this way have young and metal-rich stellar populations in the inner regions of their bulges. The simulated S0s have lower maximum rotational velocities and flatter radial line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles in comparison to their progenitor spirals. The formation processes of S0s due to tidal interactions depend not only on the masses and orbits of the progenitor spirals, but also on the group mass. A significant fraction (10-30 per cent) of stars and gas can be stripped during this spiral to S0 morphological transformation so that intragroup stars and gas can be formed. Based on these results, we discuss structures, kinematics, chemical properties and the Tully-Fisher relation of S0s in groups. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.


Barrett-Lennard E.G.,University of Western Australia
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Salinity and waterlogging (root-zone hypoxia) are abiotic stresses that often occur together on saltland. It is widely recognised that these two factors interact to increase Na+ and/or Cl- concentrations in shoots, which can have adverse effects on plant growth and survival. This review expands on this understanding, providing evidence that the adverse effects of the interaction are also associated with a disturbance to plant K+ homeostasis. This conclusion is based on a comparative analysis of changes in ion concentrations and growth reported in the literature between species (glycophytes vs halophytes) and within a single species (Hordeum marinum L.). Comparisons between species show that hypoxia under saline conditions causes simultaneous increases in Na+ and Cl- concentrations and decreases in K+ concentrations in shoots and that these changes can all be related to changes in shoot dry mass. Comparisons between accessions of a single species (Hordeum maritima L.) strengthen the argument, with increases in Na+ and decreases in K+ being related to decreases in shoot relative growth rate. © CSIRO 2013.


MacLeod C.,University of Western Australia | Mathews A.,University of California at Davis | Mathews A.,King's College London
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

Clinical anxiety disorders and elevated levels of anxiety vulnerability are characterized by cognitive biases, and this processing selectivity has been implicated in theoretical accounts of these conditions. We review research that has sought to evaluate the causal contributions such biases make to anxiety dysfunction and to therapeutically alleviate anxiety using cognitive-bias modification (CBM) procedures. After considering the purpose and nature of CBM methodologies, we show that variants designed to modify selective attention (CBM-A) or interpretation (CBM-I) have proven capable of reducing anxiety vulnerability and ameliorating dysfunctional anxiety. In addition to supporting the causal role of cognitive bias in anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction and illuminating the mechanisms that underpin such bias, the findings suggest that CBM procedures may have therapeutic promise within clinical settings. We discuss key issues within this burgeoning field of research and suggest future directions CBM research should take to maximize its theoretical and applied value. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 31.38M | Year: 2014

Far from receding, the threats posed by infections with epidemic potential grow ever greater. Although Europe has amongst the best healthcare systems in the world, and also the worlds supreme researchers in this field, we lack co-ordination and linkage between networks that is required to respond fast to new threats. This consortium of consortia will streamline our response, using primary and secondary healthcare to detect cases with pandemic potential and to activate dynamic rapid investigation teams that will deploy shared resources across Europe to mitigate the impact of future pandemics on European health, infrastructure and economic integrity. If funded, PREPARE will transform Europes response to future severe epidemics or pandemics by providing infrastructure, co-ordination and integration of existing clinical research networks, both in community and hospital settings. It represents a new model of collaboration and will provide a one-stop shop for policy makers, public health agencies, regulators and funders of research into pathogens with epidemic potential. It will do this by mounting interepidemic (peace time) patient oriented clinical trials in children and in adults, investigations of the pathogenesis of relevant infectious diseases and facilitate the development of sophisticated state-of-the-art near-patient diagnostics. We will develop pre-emptive solutions to ethical, administrative, regulatory and logistical bottlenecks that prevent a rapid response in the face of new threats. We will provide education and training not only to the members of the network, but also to external opinion leaders, funders and policy makers thereby streamlining our future response. By strengthening and integrating interepidemic research networks, PREPARE will enable the rapid coordinated deployment of Europes elite clinical investigators, resulting in a highly effective response to future outbreaks based on solid scientific advances.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 10.41M | Year: 2017

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. European pregnancy and child cohort studies together offer an unique opportunity to identify a wide range of early life stressors linked with individual biological, developmental and health trajectory variations, and to the onset and evolution of non-communicable diseases. LIFECYCLE will establish the EuroCHILD Cohort Network, which brings together existing, successful pregnancy and child cohorts and biobanks, by developing a governance structure taking account of national and European ethical, legal and societal implications, a shared data-management platform and data-harmonization strategies. LIFECYCLE will enrich this EuroCHILD Cohort Network by generating new integrated data on early life stressors related to socio-economic, migration, urban environment and life-style determinants, and will capitalize on these data by performing hypothesis-driven research on early life stressors influencing cardio-metabolic, respiratory and mental health trajectories during the full lifecycle, and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. LIFECYCLE will translate these results into recommendations for targeted strategies and personalized prediction models to improve health trajectories for current and future Europeans generations by optimizing their earliest phase of life. To strengthen this long-term collaboration, LIFECYCLE will organize yearly international meetings open to pregnancy and child cohort researchers, introduce a Fellowship Training Programme for exchange of junior researchers between European pregnancy or child cohorts, and develop e-learning modules for researchers performing life-course health studies. Ultimately, LIFECYCLE will lead to a unique sustainable EuroCHILD Cohort Network, and provide recommendations for targeted prevention strategies by identification of novel markers of early life stressors related to health trajectories throughout the lifecycle.


Brook B.W.,University of Adelaide | Ellis E.C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Perring M.P.,University of Western Australia | Mackay A.W.,University College London | Blomqvist L.,Breakthrough Institute
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Tipping points - where systems shift radically and potentially irreversibly into a different state - have received considerable attention in ecology. Although there is convincing evidence that human drivers can cause regime shifts at local and regional scales, the increasingly invoked concept of planetary scale tipping points in the terrestrial biosphere remains unconfirmed. By evaluating potential mechanisms and drivers, we conclude that spatial heterogeneity in drivers and responses, and lack of strong continental interconnectivity, probably induce relatively smooth changes at the global scale, without an expectation of marked tipping patterns. This implies that identifying critical points along global continua of drivers might be unfeasible and that characterizing global biotic change with single aggregates is inapt. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Munns R.,University of Western Australia | Munns R.,CSIRO | Gilliham M.,University of Adelaide
New Phytologist | Year: 2015

Soil salinity reduces crop yield. The extent and severity of salt-affected agricultural land is predicted to worsen as a result of inadequate drainage of irrigated land, rising water tables and global warming. The growth and yield of most plant species are adversely affected by soil salinity, but varied adaptations can allow some crop cultivars to continue to grow and produce a harvestable yield under moderate soil salinity. Significant costs are associated with saline soils: the economic costs to the farming community and the energy costs of plant adaptations. We briefly consider mechanisms of adaptation and highlight recent research examples through a lens of their applicability to improving the energy efficiency of crops under saline field conditions. © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-11a-2014 | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2015

The AquaSpace project has the goal of providing increased space for aquaculture to allow increased production. Following the call, we will achieve this by identifying the key constraints experienced by aquaculture development in a wide range of contexts and aquaculture types, taking into account all relevant factors and advised by a Reference User Group. We will then map these constraints against a wide variety of tools/methods that have already been developed in national and EU projects for spatial planning purposes, including some that have been designed specifically for aquaculture. In the freshwater sector only, we will also consider ecosystem services provided by aquaculture that are relevant to integrated catchment planning and management. At 16 case study sites having a variety of scales, aquaculture at different trophic levels with different environmental interactions and most importantly with a range of key space-related development constraints as defined by local stakeholders, we will assess appropriate tools using a common process so as to facilitate synthesis and comparison. This case study approach will generate a large amount of information and is allocated about a third of the projects resources. The project will develop the outcomes leading to a set of evaluated tools for facilitating the aquaculture planning process by overcoming present constraints. This information will be presented on an interactive web-based platform with tailored entry points for specific user types (e.g. planners, farmers, public) to enable them to navigate to the tools most appropriate to their application. The knowledge and information gained during this process will be developed into an on-line module at Masters Level which will also be developed into a short CPD course aimed at aquaculture planning professionals. The public will be engaged by an innovative school video competition and a vehicle to ensure project legacy will be established.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-4.1-1 | Award Amount: 10.16M | Year: 2011

GREEN will study the current and future role of the EU in an emerging multi-polar world through a programme of stock-taking, multi-disciplinary research and complementary activities. It aims at an understanding of the prospective directions of the emerging global governance structures and Europes place in them. Analysis will focus on the extant actors from the 20th century, the 21st century rising powers, the increasingly influential non-state actors (from civil and non-civil society) and the new transnational regulatory networks of public and private policy makers and regional agencies. While multi-polarity, with Europe as a pole, is a possibility, alternative scenarios are also plausible. A shift from a trans-Atlantic to trans-Pacific locus of power, or the depolarization and fragmentation of authority are such alternatives; both could marginalize Europe. But these are questions to be researched; not assertions to be made. The project will have 5 components: i) conceptual analyses of an emerging multi-polar world and the theory and practice of international organisation and networks in that world; ii) evolving EU policy and practice; iii) the effects of regional leadership from Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Americas; iv) projects on the EU and multi-polarity within the fields of human rights and security, energy, resources and environment, trade and finance; v) a foresight study detailing scenarios for EU policy towards the emerging world order. The research will be theoretical, policy-oriented and with an interactive dissemination strategy to assure feedback from its target-publics. The work will be undertaken by a manageable consortium of partners (from Belgium, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Hungary, Spain, Italy and Norway with a strong track-record of collaboration on these issues) accompanied by leading institutes from the USA, Argentina, Singapore, China, Japan, Australia and South Africa to act as hub-and-spokes for their regions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2012

Sustainable offshore wave energy has the potential to make a real contribution towards the binding EU commitment to source 20% of its electricity requirements from renewable sources by 2020. The vast wave energy resource along Europes western seaboard is unparalleled anywhere in the world. Consequently the EU has an opportunity to become international industry leaders in what is becoming a rapidly evolving and dynamic marketplace. However technical and economical hurdles associated with anchoring wave energy devices to the seabed threatens to stall and limit the impact that renewable wave energy has the potential to deliver. Consequently the offshore renewable wave energy industry has collectively identified mooring and anchoring systems as a research topic of immediate relevance and priority. GeoWAVE aims to address this immediate research need by providing a structure whereby industry specified research will be conducted on a new generation of offshore anchors and mooring components deemed to have the highest economical and technical merit for mooring wave energy devices. In so doing GeoWAVE will remove the technical and economical hurdle of mooring wave energy converters to the seabed so that widespread deployment on a commercial scale becomes viable, thereby providing new business opportunities for the SMEs. This 2 year project brings together 3 SMEs, 3 RTD performers and 1 end-user group from 5 EU member states. The research approach adopted by the consortium involves using complementary methodologies in numerical, analytical and experimental modelling combined with field trials to increase the understanding of the combined response of the system and to develop economical and practical design solutions for the wave energy industry. The new knowledge generated by the project will be fully assigned to the SMEs, who will exploit the assigned intellectual property rights by maximising the market opportunity that is considered to open up by 2016.


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

The Turnbull government signed an agreement to make a $640,000 grant to Bjørn Lomborg’s Copenhagen Consensus Centre nine months after plans to establish the centre had been abandoned. The education department may have been under no legal obligation to make the grant, documents suggest. The funding was used to support the centre’s post-2015 UN development goals project that found limiting global temperature rises to 2C was a poor investment. A breakdown of costs released on Thursday shows that $482,000 of the Australian funding was spent on professional fees and services including research, “outreach” and forums. About $146,000 was spent on travel in an ambitious global project convening seminars to discuss the UN development goals in Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa and New York. The project formed the basis of Lomborg’s book The Nobel Laureates’ Guide to the Smartest Targets for the World, which is not widely available in Australian shops. Documents released under freedom of information show the department only entered a formal agreement to fund the project as late as 21 March 2016. Based on those documents and answers provided by the education department it appears the government did not have any ongoing commitment to the project when the Australian Consensus Centre was canned in June 2015. The government’s plan to establish the Australian Consensus Centre was put into effect in an agreement with the University of Western Australia (UWA) dated 24 March 2015. But on 26 June 2015 the government and UWA terminated the agreement by consent because the university rejected the funds after a public backlash. The agreement created an obligation for the government to pay UWA’s reasonable costs, but did not create obligations to the CCC. An education department spokeswoman told Guardian Australia no payments were made to UWA under the agreement. The $640,000 grant is disclosed in a log of education grants dated 2 July 2015 but the spokeswoman said it was only added after the grant agreement was signed with the CCC on 21 March 2016. In September 2015 it was referred to in an incoming ministerial brief to Turnbull’s pick for education minister, Simon Birmingham. “The department has negotiated a funding agreement which will provide a one-off payment to the CCC for a total of $640,000 to cover costs incurred in relation to the establishment of the Australian Consensus Centre prior to the decision to cancel this project,” it said. When Guardian Australia asked for a copy of the “funding agreement” with the CCC referred to in the briefing, the education department provided the 21 March 2016 agreement. An education department spokeswoman said “payments were undertaken in accordance with the government’s funding agreement with UWA and the memorandum of understanding between UWA and the CCC”. The department did not directly respond to questions about how an agreement between the government and UWA and a the memorandum between UWA and the CCC could create legal obligations between the department and the CCC. If there was another legal obligation to pay the CCC, such as an equitable duty, the education department did not identify it after detailed questions, nor identify its source. Neither the education department nor Birmingham explained why a new grant agreement was struck on 21 March 2016 if all or part of the $640,000 was owed by the commonwealth for some pre-existing legal obligation. Asked if the $640,000 was to pay for costs incurred, as described in the brief, the education department spokeswoman said: “The government’s decision to pay the grant was based on the merits of supporting further work to complete the project. “Costs for the project had been incurred. However, under the funding agreement, the department required additional work to be undertaken.” Labor’s innovation, industry, science and research shadow minister, Kim Carr, called on the government to provide a full explanation of the grant. “The government must explain how and why this grant was still awarded, even after it had terminated the agreement with the university for the Australian Consensus Centre following pressure from the opposition and the research community,” Carr said. “Malcolm Turnbull cannot hide behind a prior deal made by Tony Abbott – his government signed a fresh contract on 21 March 2016.” “This use of taxpayers’ money to promote an anti-science conservative agenda shows that Malcolm Turnbull is still beholden to the right wing of the Liberal party.” At Senate estimates on 20 October, Birmingham said the government had made a “special purpose” decision to allocate funding to the consensus centre, a process that was “terminated”. “Special purpose funding was allocated prior to [Christopher] Pyne deciding to terminate the process … It was commenced under Pyne’s tenure as well,” he said. “The decision to initiate it and also the decision to terminate it occurred prior to my appointment as minister. So you are trawling over some ancient history really.” Asked at estimates what the “special purpose” for the grant was, Birmingham said “obviously the government honoured the contractual obligations insofar as it was obliged to” at the time the centre was cancelled. A spokesman for Birmingham told Guardian Australia his answers to estimates were factual and not misleading but refused to explain what “contractual obligations” the commonwealth had to the CCC before striking the new agreement on 21 March 2016. A spokesman for the CCC referred Guardian Australia to the education department. UWA refused to comment.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

HOUSTON, Dec. 13, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Vinson & Elkins announces the promotion of eight lawyers to its partnership, effective January 1, 2017: Mark Brasher, Jason McIntosh, Becky Petereit, Bailey Pham, Simon Rootsey, Lande Spottswood, Thomas Zentner and Craig Zieminski. "Our new partners are outstanding attorneys who have shown tremendous dedication to the firm and its clients," said V&E Chairman Mark Kelly. "From the courtroom to the boardroom, each of these exceptional lawyers has demonstrated a high level of skill in their respective practice area. We are thrilled to call them partners." The new partners span six of the firm's key practice areas, including complex commercial litigation, energy transactions and projects, finance, mergers and acquisitions and capital markets, restructuring and reorganization and tax. "We are proud to welcome these talented and accomplished lawyers to the firm's partnership," said V&E Managing Partner Scott Wulfe. "We are grateful for the contributions these deserving attorneys have made to V&E and we look forward to their continued success." The following is a list of V&E's new partners by practice: Craig Zieminski, Dallas. Zieminski's practice focuses on representing companies and their directors in lawsuits brought by Delaware stockholders, master limited partnership (MLP) unitholders and deal partners. Zieminski has helped secure key victories for major energy clients. He played a significant role on the V&E team that represented Energy Transfer Equity in its successful defense of litigation concerning a $37.7 billion merger with The Williams Companies. Zieminski also helped win dismissal of a stockholder suit challenging C&J Energy's $2.9 billion merger with a unit of Nabors Industries. He has also helped companies defeat expedited lawsuits seeking to enjoin major transactions, such as a lawsuit that sought to enjoin Targa Resources' $6.7 billion merger with an affiliated entity and a lawsuit that attempted to enjoin Inergy's $2 billion merger with an affiliated partnership. Zieminski received his law degree from Stanford Law School in 2008 and graduated from Southern Methodist University in 2005 with degrees in economics and accounting. Mark Brasher, Houston. Brasher's practice focuses on project development and related business transactions concerning domestic and international energy and infrastructure projects. His clients include a wide range of participants in the oil and gas industry, renewable energy companies, power producers, infrastructure developers, banks and private equity funds. Brasher is the lead attorney advising Noble Energy on the project development aspects of its 20Tcf Leviathan natural gas project, offshore Israel. He counsels a number of Occidental Petroleum's business units in relation to projects in the United States and the Middle East. He is also an integral member of the V&E team representing Texas Central Partners in connection with the Dallas to Houston high-speed rail project. Recently, Brasher played a key role advising Riverstone in its acquisition from Kinder Morgan of a 50 percent interest in the Utopia Pipeline Project, a common carrier pipeline that will connect ethane gas sources from Ohio to Sarnia, Canada. Brasher received his LL.M. from the University of Texas at Austin in 2011 and his LL.B. from Monash University in Australia in 2006. Bailey Pham, Dallas. Pham's practice focuses on representing financial institutions, corporate lenders and businesses in all types of financing arrangements, including acquisition loans, asset-based loans and energy loans. She assists in the representation of both agent banks, including JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. and Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., and borrowers in domestic and international syndicated loan transactions, particularly in secured, leveraged credits covering various markets and industries, including retail, manufacturing and oilfield services. Pham has also advised on a number of high-stakes deals, including Holly Corporation's $7 billion merger with Frontier Oil Corporation, which created one of the largest independent refiners in the United States. Pham received her law degree from Southern Methodist University in 2008 and her bachelor's and master's degrees in accountancy from Wake Forest University in 2002. Simon Rootsey, London. Rootsey's practice focuses on cross-border M&A and private equity, advising on all aspects of private cross-border M&A, private equity transactions, joint ventures and public takeovers. His experience includes advising the Vitol Group on its recent sale of a 50% stake in the VTTI Group to Buckeye Partners for US$1.15 billion, and advising the Vitol Group and Helios Investment Partners in their US$1 billion acquisition of an 80 percent stake in the African downstream oil operations of Royal Dutch Shell plc, and acquisition of a 60 percent stake in the Nigerian downstream oil operations of Oando plc. On the private equity side, he advises leading private equity houses based in Europe and the United States investing in the U.K., Europe and Africa. Rootsey is a graduate of the University of Western Australia, where he received both his Bachelor of Laws (Honours) and his Bachelor of Commerce. Lande Spottswood, Houston. Spottswood advises public and private companies, including MLPs, private equity investors and their portfolio companies, in connection with mergers, acquisitions, dispositions, restructurings, spinoffs, joint ventures and other strategic transactions. She also advises on public company change-of-control transactions. Her experience also includes advising issuers in initial public offerings, as well as public and private offerings of equity and debt securities, and on general corporate matters. She has teamed on some of V&E's largest recent deals, including representing Sunoco Logistics in its pending $22 billion acquisition of Energy Transfer; Plains GP Holdings in its simplification transaction with Plains All American Pipeline for $7.2 billion; Nexeo Solution's $1.575 billion merger with WL Ross Holding Corp.; and Western Refining's $2.4 billion merger agreement with Northern Tier Energy LP. Spottswood received her law degree from Harvard Law School in 2008 and her bachelor's degree from Harvard College in 2005. Thomas Zentner, Houston. Zentner's practice focuses on corporate finance and securities law, including securities offerings, mergers and acquisitions and general corporate representation. His capital markets experience includes representation of both issuers and underwriters in initial public offerings, as well as public and private offerings of equity and debt securities. He also works with public and private companies, including private equity funds and their portfolio companies, in connection with mergers, acquisitions, dispositions and strategic investments. Zentner advised Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in its $2.1 billion public offering of common stock and in its $3 billion offering of senior notes. He also advised Targa Resources Corp. in its $360 million initial public offering and in its $6.7 billion acquisition of Targa Resources Partners in an all stock-for-unit transaction. Zentner received his law degree in 2008 and bachelor's degree in 2005, both from the University of Texas at Austin. Becky Petereit, Dallas. Petereit's practice focuses on all aspects of restructuring and reorganization work, including the representation of debtors, lenders, creditors, landlords and trustees. She represents clients in lawsuits, contested matters, adversary proceedings and other actions before federal district courts, state courts and bankruptcy courts with respect to all types of litigation arising from financially distressed situations. She has represented debtors in complex cross-border insolvency proceedings; tried several fraudulent transfer actions (both jury and bench trials); represented the administrative agent for syndicated secured lenders who were owed approximately $7 billion in a Chapter 11 case of one of the largest publishers of yellow pages directories in the United States; and represented the liquidating trustee of a bankrupt financial services firm in litigation against its former officers and directors. Petereit received her J.D. from University of California, Los Angeles School of Law in 2005 and her bachelor's degree from University of Delaware in 2002. Jason McIntosh, Houston. McIntosh focuses on tax planning with respect to complex international and domestic transactions. His experience spans a broad range of industries, including energy, banking and finance, power generation, petrochemicals, shipping and transport, aircraft leasing and sales, manufacturing and distribution of consumer products and real estate. Among his notable representations, McIntosh was part of the V&E team advising Riverstone Holdings in the formation and $525 million (aggregate) initial capitalization of Sierra Oil & Gas, Mexico's first independent exploration and production company. He recently represented Buckeye Partners in structuring its $1.15 billion acquisition of a 50% interest in VTTI BV, which operates one of the world's largest global energy terminal businesses. McIntosh received his law degree from the University of Virginia School of Law and his bachelor's degree from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Vinson & Elkins LLP is an international law firm with approximately 700 lawyers across 16 offices worldwide. For more information, please contact Carrie Dugas at +1.713.758.4330. This communication may be considered advertising under law regulating the use of e-mail. This communication is provided by Vinson & Elkins LLP for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended, nor should it be construed, as legal advice.


News Article | May 11, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Earth's ancient atmosphere was much thinner than what is found today at Mount Everest, a new research has suggested. Many believe that the Earth's atmosphere billions of years ago compensated for the weak sunlight by having a thicker atmosphere. However, researchers from the University of Washington (UW) who studied trapped bubbles inside old rocks found evidence that the Earth's atmosphere was actually thinner before. They also investigated the presence of gases and how the interplay of climate and biology affected the young Earth. UW Earth and space sciences professor and co-author Roger Buick said that trapped bubbles in cooling lava were used to determine the lava elevation from million years ago. Buick's team used a paleobarometer to measure the weight of ancient air. For the study to push through, the team had to look for a site with ancient lava formed at sea level. Co-author Tim Blake from the University of Western Australia pointed them to the Beasley River where 2.7 billion-year-old basalt lava sits exposed. As lava cools from top to bottom, trapped bubbles in the bottom become noticeably smaller than the top bubbles. The difference in size is due to the varying degrees of air pressure exerted on the lava as it cools. The research team bore through superimposing lava flows to measure the size of bubbles. Initial on-site estimates showed that early atmosphere was lightweight - a finding supported by more detailed x-ray scans from different lava flows. The bubbles showed that early atmospheric pressure was less than 50 percent of what the Earth has today. "We're still coming to grips with the magnitude of this," said Buick. "It's going to take us a while to digest all the possible consequences." The findings of their study complemented Buick's earlier finding that Earth's microbes were taking in most of the atmosphere's nitrogen. Researchers believe that this lighter atmosphere have several climate implications. The team already uncovered some evidence that suggests presence of liquid water. This means that the ancient atmosphere had many greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane, and only small amounts of nitrogen. "We are 95 percent sure that the pressure was between 0 and 0.5 atmospheres," said Blue Marble Space CEO and lead author Sanjoy Som. The finding represents information about the pressure at Mount Everest's elevation of 5,500 meters (3.4 miles). The layers of the stromatolite which the team studied also showed evidence of single-celled microbes that have thrived despite the early Earth's thin atmosphere. This suggests that the Earth's environment had the ability to sustain life on its surface even if the sun was dimmer and the tides were bigger. Life can thrive even in ancient atmospheric conditions, said Som, who is also an astrobiology researcher at NASA's Ames Research Center. A past study of ancient rocks revealed that photosynthesis occurred earlier than previously thought. How this correlates with the present study is not yet known. The team is now looking at studying other rocks to back up their finding and investigate further how atmospheric pressure changed over time. Their study will hopefully contribute to understanding other planets with thin atmospheres similar to the young Earth. The study was published in Nature Geoscience on May 9. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: en.prnasia.com

HONG KONG, Feb. 28, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- HKBN Ltd. ("HKBN" or the "Group"; SEHK stock code: 1310) announced today that with effect from 1 March 2017, Ni Quiaque Lai ("NiQ") will be named Chief Operating Officer ("COO"). Formerly the Group's Chief Talent & Financial Officer ("CT&FO"), NiQ, in this expanded new role, will lead the Group's sales and marketing operations for the residential market whilst he retains executive oversight of his previous CT&FO responsibilities in finance, legal as well as Talent engagement. NiQ's appointment leverages a multifunctional perspective to consolidate greater synergy between HKBN's various teams to drive sustainable growth for the Group's business and operations. Whilst NiQ will retain executive oversight in the respective areas of finance, Talent engagement and legal, Andrew Wong, Financial Controller, CY Chan, Associate Director -- Talent Management & Organization Development and Co-Owner, and Amy Tam, Head of Legal & Company Secretary and Co-Owner, will step up to take on more operational management responsibilities in their respective areas. As COO, NiQ will report directly to CEO and Co-Owner William Yeung. William Yeung said, "NiQ's strong leadership and deep understanding across many different aspects of our business means he is well positioned to unify our strengths and steer HKBN's growth via improved strategic thinking, efficiency and agility among teams." The Group also announces that its Chief Marketing Officer, Selina Chong, has decided to step down from her role with effect from 19 March 2017 to focus on new opportunities beyond HKBN. In her five years with the Group, Selina successfully strengthened the HKBN brand, making it a highly compelling choice for broadband, mobile, and OTT services as well as enterprise solutions. The Group thanks Selina for her tremendous contributions and wishes her all the best in her future endeavours. HKBN Ltd. (SEHK Stock Code: 1310, together with its subsidiaries, the "Group") is an investment holding company. The Group is Hong Kong's largest provider of residential high speed fibre broadband (symmetrical 100Mbps to 1,000Mbps) services by number of subscriptions, and a fast growing enterprise solutions provider. The Group offers a full range of telecommunications solutions for both the residential and enterprise markets, encompassing broadband and Wi-Fi network services, cloud solutions, data connectivity, data facilities, system integration, mobile services, entertainment and voice communications. HKBN owns an extensive fibre network in Hong Kong, which covers over 2.2 million residential homes passed, representing approximately 81% of Hong Kong's total residential units, and 2,300 commercial buildings. HKBN embraces "Make our Hong Kong a Better Place to Live" as its core purpose, and takes great pride in developing its Talents into a competitive advantage. The Group is managed by about 340 Co-Owners who have invested their own savings to buy HKBN shares, representing the majority of supervisory and management level Talents in the Group. NiQ Lai, Chief Operating Officer and Co-Owner, joined 2004. NiQ has over 24 years of experience in telecom, research and finance industries. Prior to joining the Group, NiQ was Director and Head of Asia Telecom Research at Credit Suisse. In 2016, NiQ was chosen Best CFO in Hong Kong in the FinanceAsia Survey. As one of the pioneers shaping HKBN's unique Talent culture into a competitive advantage, he was named a Champion of Human Resources by The Hong Kong HRM Awards in 2009. In his youth, NiQ aspired to be a professional tennis player but a lack of sporting talent diverted him into the corporate track instead. NiQ holds a Bachelor of Commerce Degree from the University of Western Australia, and an Executive Master of Business Administration Degree from Kellogg-HKUST, Hong Kong. NiQ is a Fellow member of the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants and CPA Australia. Andrew Wong, Financial Controller, joined 2006. Andrew joined the Group as Manager in 2006 and is now responsible for overall finance functions. During his 10 years with the Group, Andrew has been a key team member responsible for different capital projects such as the management buyout in 2012, the initial public offering in 2015, acquisition of New World Telecom in 2016 and several major refinancing projects between 2013 and 2016. Prior to joining HKBN, Andrew spent five years with KPMG in Hong Kong specializing in the telecommunications industry. He holds a Bachelor's Degree in Accounting and Law from the University of Manchester in the UK and an Executive Master of Business Administration Degree from the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is also a member of the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants. CY Chan, Associate Director -- Talent Management & Organization Development and Co-Owner, joined 2011. CY oversees HKBN's Talent management, organization development and performance improvement strategy and initiatives. He has over 15 years of experience in organizational change, HR and business development. As a business consultant and HR practitioner across different industries, CY has worked for Wilson Learning China, Dun & Bradstreet and Hutchison Global Communications, and was involved in large sized consultancy projects like partnership projects for MTR Corporation, raising commercial awareness of NGOs for the Social Welfare Department and leadership development programmes for over 60 organizations across the South China region. Believing that success starts with a clear purpose, he enjoys sharing his experience and hopes that he can be a catalyst for the career and life success of others. CY holds a Master of Science Degree in Strategic HRM from Hong Kong Baptist University and a Master of Social Science Degree in Applied Psychology from City University of Hong Kong. Amy Tam, Head of Legal & Company Secretary and Co-Owner, joined 2015. With over 20 years of experience in the legal field, Amy oversees the legal and regulatory aspects of the Group. Prior to joining HKBN, she worked in both private practice and as a Senior Legal Advisor for MTR Corporation Limited. Amy was admitted as a solicitor and practicing lawyer of Hong Kong by the High Court of Hong Kong in July 1991 and has been a member of the Law Society of Hong Kong since July 1991. In 1992, she was also admitted as a solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales. Amy's expertise covers general commercial work, property management, compliance and corporate governance, China business and general litigation. She believes that by committing to a high standard of corporate governance practices, the integrity of the Group's operations is safeguarded and stakeholder trust is also maintained.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

SALT LAKE CITY, UT (Oct. 2016) - Soft tissues such as hearts and muscles are very rarely preserved in the fossil record. For that reason, nearly all study of dinosaur soft tissue has to be reconstructed from fossil bones. However, researchers in the United Kingdom recently identified a genuine fossilized brain from a roughly 133 million-year-old dinosaur in Sussex, England. The brain likely belonged to a close relative of the Iguanodon, a spike-handed herbivorous dinosaur. According to the researchers, this is the first example of a natural endocast (in-filling) of the braincase that preserves fossilized brain tissue from any dinosaur. The unassuming small fossil was originally discovered in 2004 on a beach in the town of Bexhill, but without the rest of the skeleton to help identify it. Only recently was a team of researchers, including Dr David Norman of the University of Cambridge, able to determine it was a fossilized dinosaur brain. Martin Brasier, of the University of Oxford, led the early work on this fossil, before his untimely death in 2014. In order to visualize very small features of the fossil brain Professor Brasier brought in researchers from the University of Western Australia to obtain high resolution images of parts of the brain, revealing its outer layers (meninges) as well as remnants of capillaries (tiny blood vessels) within the cortex of the brain itself. The brain structure and in particular the arrangement of meninges, shows remarkable similarity to modern birds and crocodilians, and likely functioned in fairly similar ways. In regard to the truly rare preservation of the fossilized dinosaur brain, Dr Norman said "Brain tissues are incredibly fragile and it is quite incredible that the animal died in circumstances that uniquely led to their preservation - through a process of 'pickling' and then mineral replacement". Dr Norman continued, "What we think happened is that this particular dinosaur died in or near a body of stagnant water, and its head ended up partially buried in the sediment at the bottom. Since the water had so little oxygen and was so acidic, the soft tissues of the brain were likely preserved and cast before the rest of its body was buried in the sediment." Circumstances such as these are astonishingly rare in fossilization, meaning this discovery can provide unique insight into the mind of this 133 million-year-old dinosaur. Dr Norman and colleagues presented their research at the international meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in Salt Lake City, Utah. More details of their work will be released in an upcoming article to be published in a Special Publication of the Geological Society of London*. *Earth System Evolution and Early Life: a Celebration of the Work of Martin Brasier. Image 1: Surface scanned image of the unassuming 'pebble' recently revealed to be a roughly 133 million-year-old fossil dinosaur brain, discovered in Sussex, England. Image 2: High resolution magnifications of surface texture from the fossil dinosaur brain, showing the remarkable preservation of the fine network of blood vessels preserved. About the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Founded in 1940 by thirty-four paleontologists, the Society now has more than 2,300 members representing professionals, students, artists, preparators, and others interested in VP. It is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, with the object of advancing the science of vertebrate paleontology. The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) is the leading journal of professional vertebrate paleontology and the flagship publication of the Society. It was founded in 1980 by Dr. Jiri Zidek and publishes contributions on all aspects of vertebrate paleontology. David Norman (at the SVP in SLC 26-29 October) University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom dn102@cam.ac.uk OTHER EXPERTS NOT DIRECTLY INVOLVED WITH THE STUDY


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

MOUNT WAVERLEY, AUSTRALIA, December 01, 2016-- Thomas Spurling, Professor of the Swinburne Business School at the Swinburne University of Technology, has been recognized by Worldwide Branding for showing dedication, leadership and excellence in his profession.With four decades of educational experience, Dr. Spurling demonstrates expertise in physical chemistry, industrial technology and molecular science. He has been at Swinburne for 11 years, now serving as a research professor. He recently had left the Faculty of Life and Social Sciences department to move to the business school. He was then dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences from 2004-2005. In the future, Dr. Spurling plans to continue his areas of research and career around innovation enterprise. He says persistence has been the key to his sustained success.A former lecturer with the University of Tasmania, Dr. Spurling earned a Postdoctoral Fellow from the University of Maryland in 1967, which followed a Bachelor of Science, with first class honors, in 1962, and a Doctor of Philosophy in 1966, both in physical chemistry, from University of Western Australia.He has also worked outside the educational field. Dr. Spurling serves as a chairman of Advanced Molecular Technologies Pty., Ltd., and as a board member of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR). He is also a former scientist and research leader with CSIRO. He was the chief of CSIRO Chemicals and Polymers and then CSIRO Molecular Science from 1989 to 1998. He led the World Bank funded CSIRO-Indonesian Institute of Sciences Management Systems Strengthening Project in Jakarta from 1999 to 2001. He was the chief executive officer of the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) Wood Innovations from 2005 to 2008.Dr. Spurling was appointed as a member of the Order of Australia in June 2008 for services to chemical science through contributions to national innovation policies, strategies and research, and to the development of professional scientific relationships within the Asian region.He is a Fellow with the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the Federation of Asian Chemical Societies, and the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. He maintains affiliations with the Design Research Institute of RMIT University and the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL).In the past, Dr. Spurling was president of several groups: the Federation of Asian Chemical Societies (FACS), the Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI) and the Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies (FASTS). He was also a member of the Prime Minister's Science, Engineering and Innovation Council from 2005 to 2007.Throughout his career, Dr. Spurling has received numerous awards, including the FACS Award for Distinguished Contribution to Economic Development (2003), the Centenary Medal from the Australian Government (2003), the CSIRO Award for Business Excellence (2000), and the Leighton Memorial Medal (1994) and the Rennie Memorial Medal (1971), both from the Royal Australian Chemical Institute.In recognition of all of his achievements, Dr. Spurling was recently inducted into Worldwide Branding.About Worldwide BrandingFor more than 15 years, Worldwide Branding has been the leading, one-stop-shop, personal branding company, in the United States and abroad. From writing professional biographies and press releases, to creating and driving Internet traffic to personal websites, our team of branding experts tailor each product specifically for our clients' needs. From health care to finance to education and law, our constituents represent every major industry and occupation, at all career levels.For more information, please visit http://www.worldwidebranding.com


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.csmonitor.com

This photo, provided by Georgia Tech climate scientist Kim Cobb, shows her in November at the remote Pacific island of Kiritimati, finding a bit of hope and life amid what in April was a ghost town of dead coral. Cobb used bags and drills to examine the coral and take core samples. Yellow coral is healthy, white is not, and some of the other colors are actually algae over dead coral. Just last year, scientists conducting research dive off the coast of Kiritimati, a small island in the Pacific Ocean, found that 85 percent of the coral was dead, with another 10 percent ailing because of coral bleaching. Only 5 percent was alive and well. When the same scientists returned to the reef last month, however, they discovered a surprising change: 6 to 7 percent of the coral is alive. Many of the fish that rely on the coral component of the ecosystem have returned as the coral rebounds, showing its resilience in the face of environmental change – and challenging the dominant narrative that coral, one of climate change's prominent victims, are in irreversible decline. "We left with a sense of dread and came back with a renewed purpose because there are some corals that literally came back from the brink," Georgia Tech climate scientist Kim Cobb, who returned from the expedition earlier, told the Associated Press. "It's the best we could have hoped for." Coral bleaching can happen when ocean temperatures rise. Oceans are currently experiencing the longest stretch of coral bleaching on record, which is exacerbated by climate change, but ultimately driven by the naturally occurring El Niño event that warms the Pacific and disrupts weather patterns around the globe. Long durations of warm water can cause coral to release the symbiotic zooxanthellae algae that live inside them. Without the nutrients provided by the algae that give the coral its bright colors, the coral calcifies, turns white, and can eventually die if ocean temperatures do not stabilize and the algae does not return. Many scientists have reported that the 2015-2016 El Niño is one of the strongest ever recorded, effectively spelling a death sentence for the Pacific reefs. "But despite this mass mortality, there are a few small signs of hope," University of Victoria coral reef scientist Julia Baum, told the Associated Press from the island. "It's clear that coral reefs have great resilience and the coral here is trying to recover … there are coral babies that have settled on the reef sometime in the last year to year and half and these are the reef's best hope for recovery." The reef off Kiritimati is not the only reef to have rebounded.  The Coral Castles Reef was declared dead in 2003, but is now teaming with life, and in April, an entirely new reef was discovered at the mouth of the Amazon River. Scientists are currently studying these success stories to develop better conservation practices for those reefs that are still struggling, such as the world-famous Great Barrier Reef. “It’s critical that we understand what happened there [around the Phoenix Islands], because that would help us understand how corals might be able to cope with climate change in the long run,” Verena Schoepf, a coral expert at the University of Western Australia, told The New York Times, referring to the Coral Castles reef recovery. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has issued a statement, saying that saving the coral will require a shift in thought about the organism's conservation: calling for a local efforts and global initiatives to curb climate change and deal with the root problem, rather than its effects. But we must also rethink which areas need the most protecting. "Most conservation approaches aim to identify and protect places of high ecological integrity under minimal threat," Joshua Cinner, a researcher at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, wrote in a paper published in the journal Nature. "Yet, with escalating social and environmental drivers of change, conservation actions are also needed where people and nature coexist, especially where human effects are already severe." Material from the Associated Press contributed to this report.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new comprehensive study of Australian natural hazards paints a picture of increasing heatwaves and extreme bushfires as this century progresses, but with much more uncertainty about the future of storms and rainfall. Published today (Tuesday 8 November) in a special issue of the international journal Climatic Change, the study documents the historical record and projected change of seven natural hazards in Australia: flood; storms (including wind and hail); coastal extremes; drought; heatwave; bushfire; and frost. "Temperature-related hazards, particularly heatwaves and bushfires, are increasing, and projections show a high level of agreement that we will continue to see these hazards become more extreme into the 21st century," says special issue editor Associate Professor Seth Westra, Head of the Intelligent Water Decisions group at the University of Adelaide. "Other hazards, particularly those related to storms and rainfall, are more ambiguous. Cyclones are projected to occur less frequently but when they do occur they may well be more intense. In terms of rainfall-induced floods we have conflicting lines of evidence with some analyses pointing to an increase into the future and others pointing to a decrease. "One thing that became very clear is how much all these hazards are interconnected. For example drought leads to drying out of the land surface, which in turn can lead to increased risk of heat waves and bushfires, while also potentially leading to a decreased risk of flooding." The importance of interlinkages between climate extremes was also noted in the coastal extremes paper: "On the open coast, rising sea levels are increasing the flooding and erosion of storm-induced high waves and storm surges," says CSIRO's Dr Kathleen McInnes, the lead author of the coastal extremes paper. "However, in estuaries where considerable infrastructure resides, rainfall runoff adds to the complexity of extremes." This special issue represents a major collaboration of 47 scientists and eleven universities through the Australian Water and Energy Exchange Research Initiative, an Australian research community program. The report's many authors were from the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, the CSIRO, Bureau of Meteorology, Australian National University, Curtin University, Monash University, University of Melbourne, University of Western Australia, University of Adelaide, University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales, University of Tasmania, University of Western Australia and University of Wollongong. The analyses aim to disentangle the effects of climate variability and change on hazards from other factors such as deforestation, increased urbanisation, people living in more vulnerable areas, and higher values of infrastructure. "The study documents our current understanding of the relationship between historical and possible future climatic change with the frequency and severity of Australian natural hazards," says Associate Professor Westra. "These hazards cause multiple impacts on humans and the environment and collectively account for 93% of Australian insured losses, and that does not even include drought losses. "We need robust decision-making that considers the whole range of future scenarios and how our environment may evolve. The biggest risk from climate change is if we continue to plan as though there will be no change. One thing is certain: our environment will continue to change." Some of the key findings from the studies include: Associate Professor Seth Westra Special Issue Editor School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering University of Adelaide Phone: 61-8-8313-1538. Mobile: 61-0-414-997-406 seth.westra@adelaide.edu.au


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A new comprehensive study of Australian natural hazards paints a picture of increasing heatwaves and extreme bushfires as this century progresses, but with much more uncertainty about the future of storms and rainfall. Published in a special issue of the international journal Climatic Change, the study documents the historical record and projected change of seven natural hazards in Australia: flood; storms (including wind and hail); coastal extremes; drought; heatwave; bushfire; and frost. "Temperature-related hazards, particularly heatwaves and bushfires, are increasing, and projections show a high level of agreement that we will continue to see these hazards become more extreme into the 21st century," says special issue editor Associate Professor Seth Westra, Head of the Intelligent Water Decisions group at the University of Adelaide. "Other hazards, particularly those related to storms and rainfall, are more ambiguous. Cyclones are projected to occur less frequently but when they do occur they may well be more intense. In terms of rainfall-induced floods we have conflicting lines of evidence with some analyses pointing to an increase into the future and others pointing to a decrease. "One thing that became very clear is how much all these hazards are interconnected. For example drought leads to drying out of the land surface, which in turn can lead to increased risk of heat waves and bushfires, while also potentially leading to a decreased risk of flooding." The importance of interlinkages between climate extremes was also noted in the coastal extremes paper: "On the open coast, rising sea levels are increasing the flooding and erosion of storm-induced high waves and storm surges," says CSIRO's Dr Kathleen McInnes, the lead author of the coastal extremes paper. "However, in estuaries where considerable infrastructure resides, rainfall runoff adds to the complexity of extremes." This special issue represents a major collaboration of 47 scientists and eleven universities through the Australian Water and Energy Exchange Research Initiative (www.ozewex.org), an Australian research community program. The report's many authors were from the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, the CSIRO, Bureau of Meteorology, Australian National University, Curtin University, Monash University, University of Melbourne, University of Western Australia, University of Adelaide, University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales, University of Tasmania, University of Western Australia and University of Wollongong. The analyses aim to disentangle the effects of climate variability and change on hazards from other factors such as deforestation, increased urbanisation, people living in more vulnerable areas, and higher values of infrastructure. "The study documents our current understanding of the relationship between historical and possible future climatic change with the frequency and severity of Australian natural hazards," says Associate Professor Westra. "These hazards cause multiple impacts on humans and the environment and collectively account for 93% of Australian insured losses, and that does not even include drought losses. "We need robust decision-making that considers the whole range of future scenarios and how our environment may evolve. The biggest risk from climate change is if we continue to plan as though there will be no change. One thing is certain: our environment will continue to change." Some of the key findings from the studies include: • Historical information on the most extreme bushfires -- so-called "mega fires" -- suggests an increased occurrence in recent decades with strong potential for them to increase in frequency in the future. Over the past decade major bushfires at the margins of Sydney, Canberra, and Melbourne have burnt more than a million hectares of forests and woodlands and resulted in the loss of more than 200 lives and 4000 homes. • Heatwaves are Australia's most deadly natural hazard, causing 55% of all natural disaster related deaths and increasing trends in heatwave intensity, frequency and duration are projected to continue throughout the 21st century. • The costs of flooding have increased significantly in recent decades, but factors behind this increase include changes in reporting mechanisms, population, land-use, infrastructure as well as extreme rainfall events. The physical size of floods has either not changed at all, or even decreased in many parts of the country.


Busi R.,University of Western Australia | Neve P.,University of Warwick | Powles S.,University of Western Australia
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2013

The interaction between environment and genetic traits under selection is the basis of evolution. In this study, we have investigated the genetic basis of herbicide resistance in a highly characterized initially herbicide-susceptible Lolium rigidum population recurrently selected with low (below recommended label) doses of the herbicide diclofop-methyl. We report the variability in herbicide resistance levels observed in F1 families and the segregation of resistance observed in F2 and back-cross (BC) families. The selected herbicide resistance phenotypic trait(s) appear to be under complex polygenic control. The estimation of the effective minimum number of genes (NE), depending on the herbicide dose used, reveals at least three resistance genes had been enriched. A joint scaling test indicates that an additive-dominance model best explains gene interactions in parental, F1, F2 and BC families. The Mendelian study of six F2 and two BC segregating families confirmed involvement of more than one resistance gene. Cross-pollinated L. rigidum under selection at low herbicide dose can rapidly evolve polygenic broad-spectrum herbicide resistance by quantitative accumulation of additive genes of small effect. This can be minimized by using herbicides at the recommended dose which causes high mortality acting outside the normal range of phenotypic variation for herbicide susceptibility. Journal compilation © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd62 February 2013 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00282.x Original Article Original Articles © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.


Barrow N.J.,University of Western Australia | Debnath A.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aims: Enormous quantities of phosphate have been applied to world soils, yet we know little about effects of phosphate status on sorption properties. Methods: We measured sorption and desorption of phosphate on soils from fertilized tea plantations from northern India and compared them with unfertilized soils. We also incubated phosphate at high temperature with a previously unfertilized soil and measured the effects. Results: Sorption of phosphate was less marked on soils of high phosphate status whether derived from inherent fertility or fertilizer application. This occurred because high phosphate status made the surface charge on the reacting surfaces more negative. Phosphate status also affected desorption. The higher the phosphate status, the smaller the difference between sorption and desorption curves. This occurred because on soils of high phosphate status the pathways by which adsorbed anions diffuse were saturated and the slow reaction that follows adsorption was stopped. Conclusions: When low-phosphate soils are first fertilized, it is necessary to supply more phosphate than is removed in produce. However, after long-term phosphate fertilization, it is sufficient to only replace phosphate lost in produce. We need to find how much phosphorus it takes to reach this state and how many of the world's soils have already reached it. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Guelfi K.J.,University of Western Australia | Donges C.E.,Charles Sturt University | Duffield R.,Charles Sturt University
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic (AER) compared with resistance training (RES) on perceived hunger and fullness, together with appetite-related hormones in both the fasted state and postprandially. Methods: Thirty-three inactive, overweight and obese men (age 49 ± 7 years; BMI 30.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2) were allocated to either AER exercise (n = 12), RES exercise (n = 13) or a control group (CON; n = 8). AER and RES completed 12 weeks of training (3 sessions per week), while CON continued their sedentary routine. Perceived hunger and fullness, together with appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)) were assessed pre and post-intervention in the fasted state and in response to oral glucose consumption (1284 kJ; 75 g carbohydrate). Results: Both AER and RES training elicited a decrease in fat mass (p < 0.05), while CON did not. There was no difference in perceived hunger either in the fasted state (p > 0.05) or in response to caloric consumption (p > 0.05) following the intervention in any group. In contrast, both fasting and postprandial perceived fullness was higher following AER exercise (p < 0.05), but not RES exercise or CON. These observations were not associated with alterations in fasting or postprandial active ghrelin, PP or PYY, although fasting and postprandial leptin was reduced following both AER and RES training (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training is associated with an increase in satiety, while an equivalent period of resistance training is not. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Farrugia A.,Annapolis flyer cab | Farrugia A.,University of Western Australia
Transfusion Medicine Reviews | Year: 2010

Plasma protein therapies have been sheltered historically from the scrutiny of evidence-based medicine. Thus, a number of albumin solutions became part of the established therapeutic armamentarium with a very modest evidence base. As evidence-based medicine has turned its focus on plasma protein therapies, albumin's appropriate use has become increasingly questioned. Concurrently, interest in other colloid plasma expanders has increased as efforts to address their side-effects have resulted in new products. The decade-old meta-analysis from the Cochrane collaboration linking albumin with increased mortality, although currently disproven, has resulted in ongoing scrutiny of albumin's safety and has led to a large randomized clinical trial which, while demonstrating equivalent safety with saline, has also shown equivalent mortality in the patient population assessed. Albumin's manufacture yields products which vary between different brands, as well as occasionally between batches from the same brand. These changes affect albumin's physiologic properties and may contribute to the different therapeutic effects observed in clinical practice. More clinical investigations of albumin's therapeutic role are needed before its unique biological features can be shown to result in therapeutically useful drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Long J.A.,Flinders University | Long J.A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Long J.A.,Natural History Museum in London | Long J.A.,Australian National University | And 3 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Reproduction in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) involves either external or internal fertilization. It is commonly argued that internal fertilization can evolve from external, but not the reverse. Male copulatory claspers are present in certain placoderms, fossil jawed vertebrates retrieved as a paraphyletic segment of the gnathostome stem group in recent studies. This suggests that internal fertilization could be primitive for gnathostomes, but such a conclusion depends on demonstrating that copulation was not just a specialized feature of certain placoderm subgroups. The reproductive biology of antiarchs, consistently identified as the least crownward placoderms and thus of great interest in this context, has until now remained unknown. Here we show that certain antiarchs possessed dermal claspers in the males, while females bore paired dermal plates inferred to have facilitated copulation. These structures are not associated with pelvic fins. The clasper morphology resembles that of ptyctodonts, a more crownward placoderm group, suggesting that all placoderm claspers are homologous and that internal fertilization characterized all placoderms. This implies that external fertilization and spawning, which characterize most extant aquatic gnathostomes, must be derived from internal fertilization, even though this transformation has been thought implausible. Alternatively, the substantial morphological evidence for placoderm paraphyly must be rejected.


Waters F.,University of Western Australia | Woods A.,Durham University | Fernyhough C.,Durham University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. © 2013 The Author.


Mitchell A.J.,Leicestershire Partnership Trust | Mitchell A.J.,Royal Infirmary | Lawrence D.,University of Western Australia
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: High levels of comorbid physical illness and excess mortality rates have been previously documented in people with severe mental illness, but outcomes following myocardial infarction and other acute coronary syndromes are less clear. Aims: To examine inequalities in the provision of invasive coronary procedures (revascularisation, angiography, angioplasty and bypass grafting) and subsequent mortality in people with mental illness and in those with schizophrenia, compared with those without mental ill health. Method: Systematic search and random effects meta-analysis were used according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies of mental health and cardiovascular procedures following cardiac events were eligible but we required a minimum of three independent studies to warrant pooling by procedure type. We searched Medline/PubMed and EMBASE abstract databases and ScienceDirect, Ingenta Select, SpringerLink and Online Wiley Library full text databases. Results: We identified 22 analyses of possible inequalities in coronary procedures in those with defined mental disorder, of which 10 also reported results in schizophrenia or related psychosis. All studies following acute coronary syndrome originated in the USA. The total sample size was 825 754 individuals. Those with mental disorders received 0.86 (relative risk, RR: 95% CI 0.80-0.92, P<0.0001) of comparable procedures with significantly lower receipt of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG; RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.00), cardiac catheterisation (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.95) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PTCA/PCI; RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.72-1.05). People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia received only 0.53 (95% CI 0.44-0.64, P<0.0001) of the usual procedure rate with significantly lower receipt of CABG (RR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.85) and PTCA/PCI (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.75). We identified 6 related studies examining mortality following cardiac events: for those with mental illness there was a 1.11 relative risk of mortality up to 1 year (95% CI 1.00-1.24, P = 0.05) but there was insufficient evidence to examine mortality rates in schizophrenia alone. Conclusions: Following cardiac events, individuals with mental illness experience a 14% lower rate of invasive coronary interventions (47% in the case of schizophrenia) and they have an 11% increased mortality rate. Further work is required to explore whether these factors are causally linked and whether improvements in medical care might improve survival in those with mental ill health. © 2011 The Royal College of Psychiatrists.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-1-B | Award Amount: 16.85M | Year: 2012

Neurodegenerative (ND) and neuromuscular (NM) disease is one of the most frequent classes of rare diseases, affecting life and mobility of 500,000 patients in Europe and millions of their caregivers, family members and employers. This NEUROMICS project brings together the leading research groups in Europe, five highly innovative SMEs and relevant oversea experts using the most sophisticated Omics technologies to revolutionize diagnostics and to develop pathomechanism-based treatment for ten major ND and NM diseases. Specifically we aim to: (i) use next generation WES to increase the number of known gene loci for the most heterogeneous disease groups from about 50% to 80%, (ii) increase patient cohorts by large scale genotyping by enriched gene variant panels and NGS of so far unclassified patients and subsequent phenotyping, (iii) develop biomarkers for clinical application with a strong emphasis on presymptomatic utility and cohort stratification, (iv) combine -omics approaches to better understand pathophysiology and identify therapeutic targets, (v) identify disease modifiers in disease subgroups cohorts with extreme age of onset (vi) develop targeted therapies (to groups or personalized) using antisense oligos and histone deacetylase inhibitors, translating the consortiums expertise in clinical development from ongoing trials toward other disease groups, notably the PolyQ diseases and other NMD. To warrant that advances affect a large fraction of patients we limited the selection to a number of major categories, some of which are in a promising stage of etiological and therapeutic research while some others are in great need of further classification. The efforts will be connected through a NEUROMICS platform for impact, communication and innovation that will provide tools and procedures for ensuring trial-readiness, WP performance, sustainability, interaction with the chosen Support IRDiRC and RD-Connect project and involvement of stakeholders in the NDD/NMD field.


Beckett C.T.S.,University of Western Australia | Augarde C.E.,Durham University
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2013

Several models have been suggested to link a soil's pore-size distribution to its retention properties. This paper presents a method that builds on previous techniques by incorporating porosity and particles of different sizes, shapes, and separation distances to predict soil water retention properties. Mechanisms are suggested for the determination of both the main drying and wetting paths, which incorporate an adsorbed water phase and retention hysteresis. Predicted results are then compared with measured retention data to validate the model and to provide a foundation for discussing the validity and limitations of using pore-size distributions to predict retention properties.


Byrne P.G.,University of Wollongong | Roberts J.D.,University of Western Australia
Biological Reviews | Year: 2012

Among anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), there are two types of polyandry: simultaneous polyandry, where sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize eggs, and sequential polyandry, where eggs from a single female are fertilized by multiple males in a series of temporally separate mating events, and sperm competition is absent. Here we review the occurrence of sequential polyandry in anuran amphibians, outline theoretical explanations for the evolution of this mating system and discuss potential evolutionary implications. Sequential polyandry has been reported in a limited number of anurans, but its widespread taxonomic and geographic distribution suggests it may be common. There have been no empirical studies that have explicitly investigated the evolutionary consequences of sequential polyandry in anurans, but species with this mating pattern share an array of behavioural, morphological and physiological characteristics, suggesting that there has been common sexual selection on their reproductive system. Sequential polyandry may have a number of adaptive benefits, including spreading the risk of brood failure in unpredictable environments, insuring against male infertility, or providing genetic benefits, either through good genes, intrinsic compatibility or genetic diversity effects. Anurans with sequential polyandry provide untapped opportunities for innovative research approaches that will contribute significantly to understanding anuran evolution and also, more broadly, to the development of sexual-selection and life-history theory. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists are one step closer to understanding the link between different diet strategies and gut health, with new research presenting the first general principles for how diet impacts the microbiota. Researchers from the University of Sydney have found that the availability of intestinal nitrogen to microbes in the gut plays a key role in regulating interactions between gut microbes and their host animal. The study is published today in Cell Metabolism and led by researchers at the University of Sydney's Charles Perkins Centre. "There are many different diet strategies that claim to promote gut health, and until now it has been very difficult to establish clear causality between various types of diet and their effect on the host's microbiome. This is because there are many complex factors at play, including food composition, eating pattern and genetic background," said lead author Associate Professor Andrew Holmes, from the Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences. "This research really lays the groundwork for future modelling by setting out the rules for a general model of how diet shapes the gut ecosystem. The simple explanation is that when we eat in a way that encourages cooperation between ourselves and bacteria we achieve a good microbiome, but when we eat in a way that doesn't require cooperation this lets bacteria do whatever they want - and mischief can ensue." The balance of gut bacteria in the microbiome plays a key role in such functions as immune regulation and digestive wellbeing, and has been linked to other health outcomes like obesity. Past studies have identified several patterns for how diet influences the microbiome, yet this has not led to a workable model that explains microbial response across many different types of diets. This new research is the latest in a series stemming from a seminal study in which 25 different diets comprised of different amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fat were systematically varied in 858 mice. Despite the huge diversity of gut bacteria, two main response patterns emerged in the study - microbe species either increased or decreased in their abundance depending on the animal's protein and carbohydrate intake. "The largest nutrient requirements for our gut bacteria are carbon and nitrogen in the foods we eat. As carbohydrates contain no nitrogen but protein does, the bacterial community response to the host animal's diet is strongly affected by this diets' protein-carbohydrate ratio," said Associate Professor Holmes. "The fact that this same pattern was seen across almost all groups of gut bacteria indicates that the makeup of the microbial ecosystem is fundamentally shaped by a need to access nitrogen in the intestinal environment." The researchers' new model suggests that while high-carbohydrate diets were the most likely to support positive interactions in the microbiome, such benefits were relative to the protein intake of the host animal. Researchers hope the new findings will lay the foundations for more accurate computer simulations to test hundreds of different diet variants, helping to better predict which dietary combinations lead to optimal gut health. "There are many ways to achieve a good diet, and the same diet won't work in the same way in each person," said co-author Professor Stephen Simpson, Academic Director of the Charles Perkins Centre. "The next step will be to more rapidly characterise which dietary combinations promote the best outcomes for each of our gut microbiomes, and to this end we are developing a computer simulation for how this might work in practice." The research was a collaboration between researchers at the University of Sydney, the University of Western Australia, Concord Hospital, ANZAC Research Institute and EWOS Innovation, Norway.


News Article | October 25, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Scientists from the London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) have engineered a new way to kill bacteria, and subsequently visualized in real time how the bacteria under attack were stripped of their protective membranes and died. These findings could provide a physical basis for designing more-effective antibiotics. In the search for alternative antimicrobial strategies, the scientists exploited a core advantage of our own immune system — speed. Our immune system uses peptides that recognize and destroy the membranes of harmful bacteria. These peptides are produced in large numbers at sites of inflammation and form groups to quickly and indiscriminately attack any bacteria they encounter.  However, if the groups are small or dispersed, bacteria can escape and multiply, at which point doctors have to turn to antibiotics. Based on the architecture of these natural peptides, the team predicted and engineered a peptide that, instead of making holes in bacterial cells, would thin and exfoliate their membranes. They validated the process by visualizing it at nanometer length scale. The resulting images revealed so-called monolayer poration, in which the peptides nibble a bacterial membrane to expose its oily part to water. This rapidly leads to irreparable ulcers and invariably to the death of the bacteria. This research was carried out in collaboration with researchers the University of Oxford, the University of Edinburgh, the University of Western Australia, the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, and the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and published in the journal Chemical Science. It is now being explored as a way to enhance our defenses against the growing threat of increasingly sophisticated bacteria.


Further Exceptional Gold-Copper Intercepts Reported from both Infill and Extension Drilling at the Hot Maden Project, North East Turkey. GUERNSEY, United Kingdom, Oct. 26, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Mariana Resources Limited ('Mariana' or 'the Company'), the AIM ("MARL") and TSXV ("MRA") listed exploration and development company with projects in Turkey, South America, and Ivory Coast, is pleased to provide the following update on the ongoing diamond drill program at the high grade Hot Maden gold-copper project in north east Turkey. Results are reported for a total of 13 infill and extension drill holes (HTD-63 to HTD-74 and HTD-76), with drill log data provided for a further 7 holes (HTD-75 and HTD-77 to HTD-82) for which assays are pending. The infill drilling in the Main Zone resource area has been focused on two new section lines (4,542,225N and 4,542,125N), and forms part of a program designed to uniformally reduce drill hole spacings to 25m x 25m and to provide detailed geotechnical data for mine development studies. New resource drilling focused on both the "Ridge" area (southern limit of the Main Zone resource) and the southern veinfield discovery (Figures 1 & 2). Infill Section 4,542,125N HTD-71:                69.6 m @ 62.7 g/t Au + 2.68% Cu from 210m downhole. This mineralised zone includes the following subintervals: 210-217m: 7m @ 526 g/t Au + 3.28% Cu ("Ultra high grade zone") 217-231m: 14m @ 27.7 g/t Au + 3.38% Cu ("High grade zone") 231-279.6m: 48.6m @ 1.7 g/t Au + 2.39% ("Low grade zone") HTD-77:                Step forward hole to HTD-72 which intersected 43.5m of massive sulphide mineralisation from 96.0m downhole and 41.5m of multiphase suphide-bearing breccia from 139.5m downhole. Assays are pending. * Note - all intersections quoted are as metres downhole. "Exceptionally positive results continue to be generated from the ongoing drilling at Hot Maden. "Infill drilling in the Main Zone has once again delivered Hot Maden's best hole to date, with the significant bonanza grades in HTD-71 of 69.6 m @ 62.7 g/t Au + 2.68% Cu from 210m downhole, including an impressive initial 7m at 526 g/t Au and 3.28% Cu, which  further highlights the continuity of the ultra high grade gold-copper zone.  These infill holes are effectively spaced on 25 m centres and have been designed to both increase confidence in the reported mineral resource estimate, as well as for the acquisition of geotechnical data for the ongoing mine development studies. "Encouragingly, drilling at the current southern limit of the Main Zone resource area has also intercepted what appears to be either a deep extension or an offset to the Main Zone. The importance of this discovery is that we now see the potential to extend the Main Zone mineral resource to the south. "Further exploration drilling in the Southern Discovery Zone, located immediately to the north of the Old Russian Mining Zone, has also delivered strong mineralisation from sulphide quartz veins and breccias which will ultimately add to the current initial inferred resource for this area. Exploration drilling successfully continues to work closer to, and into, the known mineralised Russian Zone further to the south. "Technical studies related to mine development are ongoing, and the work completed will be incorporated into both the Preliminary Economic Assessment ("PEA") and Pre-Feasibility Studies ("PFS") accordingly. "I look forward to updating the market on the anticipated PEA results which are now expected around the end of November, along with the further pending assays and ongoing drilling activities." Recent drilling activities at the Hot Maden project have dominantly focused on: Drilling commenced on 25-m centres along two infill cross sections, 4,542,125N and 4,542,225N, within the Main Zone resource area, with the program being designed to confirm the internal continuity of the high grade gold-copper mineralisation. On section 4,542,125N (Figure 4), exceptionally high grade gold-copper mineralisation was intersected in hole HTD-71 (69.6 m @ 62.7 g/t Au + 2.68% Cu from 210m downhole), with the "Ultra high grade" and "High grade" zones along the eastern margin of the mineralised zone returning impressive values of 7m @ 526 g/t Au + 3.28% Cu and 14m @ 3.38% Cu, respectively. Mineralisation is hosted within multiphase, chalcopyrite-pyrite-hematite-jasper-bearing breccias.  A step-back hole to HTD-71 (HTD-82) has also just been completed and has also intersected significant intervals of multiphase, sulphide-bearing breccia; however, results are pending. Four drill holes were also completed along infill section 4,542,225N (Figure 3), with results having been received for two of these holes, 63m @ 8.3 g/t Au + 1.65% Cu from 218m downhole in HTD-70, and 34.5m @ 19.4 g/t Au + 1.31% Cu from 180.5m downhole in HTD-72. The high grade gold-copper mineralisation is associated with multiphase, chalcopyrite-pyrite-hematite-jasper-bearing breccias. A step-forward hole (HTD-77) successfully intersected both 43.5m of massive sulphide (pyrite-chalcopyrite from 96m downhole) and 41.5m of multiphase sulphide-bearing breccia (from 139.5m downhole), whilst the step back hole to HTD-70 (HTD-75) also intersected significant intervals of multiphase, sulphide bearing breccia; results for both of these holes are pending. Two new drill holes were completed in the "Ridge" area, located at the southern limit of the Main Zone resource; Figure 5), and successfullly intersected high grade gold(-copper) mineralisation at depth in brecciated andesites that lie immediately to the east of the dominant dacitic breccias. Significant results include:  7m @ 19.7 g/t Au + 2.1% Cu from 351m downhole in HTD-69, and 33m @ 1.4 g/t Au + 0.99% Cu from 357m downhole and 11m @ 6.1 g/t Au + 0.97% Cu from 443m downhole in HTD-76. The high grade mineralisation in both HTD-69 and HTD-76 is andesite-hosted and is associated with multiphase, sulphide-bearing breccias (similar to that of the Main Zone resource), and thereby differs greatly from the shallow, dacite-hosted mineralisation drilled to date in the Ridge area. These intercepts have raised the possibility of encountering a block of fault offset, Main Zone-type mineralisation to the east of the existing drilling, and this hypothesis will be tested as a priority in future drilling. Scout drilling continues in the Southern target area (the northern extension of the area mined by Russian interests prior to 1923) with encouraging values continuing to be returned from quartz-sulphide veinlet/breccia zones hosted in dacitic breccias and volcanic rocks. Highlights from the current drilling include: 2m @ 29.2 g/t Au + 0.40% Cu in HTD-73 (110-112m), 1m @ 13.8 g/t Au + 0.90% Cu and 15.5m @ 4.6 g/t Au + 0.42% Cu in HTD-63 (13-14m and 78-93.5m, respectively), and 7.5m @ 4.6 g/t Au in HTD-66 (115-122.5m). Assays results from the current reporting period were delayed as a result of the detailed geotechnical logging of holes required for the Hot Maden development (PEA and PFS) studies. Exploration activities were also temporarily suspended during the periods July 1-11 and September 9-19 in observance of the national Ramadan and Bayram holidays. Table 1: Summary of assays for drill holes HTD-63 to HTD-74 and HTD-76, plus sulphide-bearing intercepts in drill holes HTD-75 and HTD-77 to HTD-82 (Cross Sections listed from North to South) Mineralised intervals presented in Table 1 are drill intersection widths and may not represent true widths of mineralisation. Drill core obtained from the diamond drill program was dominantly HQ-sized core with the remainder being PQ-sized core. All drill core was photographed and quick logged prior to sampling. Standard sampling protocol involved the halving of all drill core and sampling over generally 1m intervals (in clearly mineralised sections) or 2 m intervals (elsewhere), with one half of the core being placed in a sealed sample bag and dispatched to the analytical laboratory for analysis. Samples have been analysed at ALS Laboratories' facility in Izmir, western Turkey. All samples have been analysed for gold using a 30g Fire Assay with AAS finish (or Screen Fire Assay for higher grade samples), in addition to a 32 element ICP-AES analysis of an aqua regia digest.  Samples in which ICP analyses returned greater than the maximum detection limit for the elements Ag (10 ppm), Cu (10,000 ppm), Fe (15%), Pb (10,000 ppm), and Zn (10,000 ppm) were reanalysed using the AAS analytical technique, Standards and blanks were inserted in to the analytical sequence on the basis of one standard for every 20 samples, 2 blanks in every batch, and one duplicate every 40 samples. No HSE incidents have been reported during the current diamond drill program. Technical data relating to Hot Maden drill holes HTD-63 to HTD-82 are given in the following tables. **ENDS** Qualified Person                                                                                                                         The technical and scientific information contained in this news release has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, the Company's Qualified Person as defined by National Instrument 43-101. Mr Roth is the Company's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).  Mr Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. For further information please visit website at www.marianaresources.com or contact the following. About Mariana Resources Mariana Resources Ltd is an AIM (MARL) and TSXV (MRA) quoted exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver and copper projects in South America and Turkey. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in north east Turkey, which is a joint venture with its Turkish JV partner Lidya (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya) and rapidly advancing to development.  An updated mineral resource estimate (detailed table below) of 3.43 Moz gold Equivalent (Indicated Category) and 0.09 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the main resource zone as well as a maiden 351,000 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the new southern discovery zone was reported for Hot Maden on July 25, 2015. Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. In southern Argentina, the Company's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 160,000+ Ha land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau Gold Project is a 28,000 Ha exploration concession located approximately 125 km south east of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. In Peru and Chile, Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. *Au Equivalence (AuEq) calculated using a 100 day moving average of $US1,215/ounce for Au and $US2.13/pound for Cu as of May 29, 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. Safe Harbour This press release contains certain statements which may be deemed to be forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are made as at the date of this press release and include, without limitation, statements regarding discussions of future plans, the realization, cost, timing and extent of mineral resource estimates, estimated future exploration expenditures, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, and requirements for additional capital.  The words "plans", "expects", "budget", "scheduled", "estimate", "forecasts", "intend", "anticipate", "believe", "may", "will", or similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to: the effects of general economic conditions; the price of gold, silver and copper; misjudgements in the course of preparing forward-looking statements; risks associated with international operations; the need for additional financing; risks inherent in exploration results; conclusions of economic evaluations; changes in project parameters; currency and commodity price fluctuations; title matters; environmental liability claims; unanticipated operational risks; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or in the completion of development or construction activities; political risk; and other risks and uncertainties described in the Company's annual financial statements for the most recently completed financial year which is available on the Company's website at www.marianaresources.com .  Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions and have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended.  There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements.  Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


News Article | November 18, 2015
Site: phys.org

The study offers important clues as to which coral species are most likely to withstand repeated bouts of heat stress, called "bleaching," as climate change warms world oceans. In the Nov. 18 issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, the researchers report that the same fat-storing coral species that showed the most resilience in a 2014 bleaching study has recovered more fully in the year since, compared to other species that stored less fat. Lead study author Verena Schoepf, a former doctoral student in the School of Earth Sciences at The Ohio State University and now a research associate at the University of Western Australia, said that tropical corals are extremely sensitive to heat stress. "Three global bleaching events have already occurred since the 1980s, and will likely occur annually starting later this century," she said. "Therefore, it has become more urgent than ever to know how coral can survive annual bleaching—one of the major threats to coral reefs today." Corals are animals that live in symbiosis with algae, and when stressed, they flush the algae from their cells and take on a pale, or "bleached," appearance. Bleached coral are more susceptible to storm damage and disease. Andréa Grottoli, professor in the School of Earth Sciences at Ohio State and principal investigator of the study, said that repeated bleaching will ultimately lead to less diversity in coral reefs, where all the different sizes and shapes of coral provide specialized habitats for fish and other creatures. "Bleaching will significantly change the future of coral reefs, with heat-sensitive coral unable to recover," Grottoli said. Interactions among coral hosts and their endosymbiontic algae, as well as predators and prey would then change in a domino effect. "Already, bleaching events have resulted in significant amounts of coral dying and causing impact to ocean ecosystems, but up until now it was largely unknown whether coral could recover between annual bleaching events," Schoepf added. In fact, evidence that fat is a key component to coral survival has been building in recent years. In 2014, Grottoli, Schoepf and their colleagues exposed three different coral species to two rounds of annual bleaching, then tested them six weeks later to see how well they had recovered. At that time, finger coral (Porites divaricata), the species which kept the largest fat reserves, had fared the best. Boulder coral (Orbicella faveolata), which kept less fat reserves, had recovered to a lesser extent. Mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides), which stored the least fat, had recovered the least. Now, one year later, the researchers have revisited the corals and discovered that both the finger coral and boulder coral have recovered, while the mustard hill coral has not yet recovered, and likely never will if bleaching frequency remains high. Surprisingly, all three species appear to be healthy at first glance. The symbiotic algae had returned to their cells, so the corals' normal color had returned. But further analyses of the corals' bodies tell a different story. "They all look healthy on the outside, but they're not all healthy on the inside," Grottoli said. Healthy corals get their day-to-day energy from sugar that the algae make through photosynthesis. For growth, healing and reproduction, they eat a diet that includes zooplankton. During bleaching, their nutritional state is thrown out of balance. "When coral is bleached, it no longer gets enough food energy and so it starts slowing down in growth and loses its fat and other energy reserves - just like humans do during times of hardship," Schoepf said. When corals photosynthesis slows down during bleaching, they start consuming their own bodies, as human bodies do when severely malnourished. And while all the corals in the study were able to eat zooplankton, the ones who had more fat to burn had less healing to do after the repeat bleaching subsided, and were able to resume a normal status within a year. The ones with less fat to burn sustained more damage, and so—even a year later—they are still in the process of healing. "Our research will help with predicting the persistence of coral reefs, because knowledge of their capacity to recover from annual bleaching is critical information for these models," Grottoli said. Explore further: For corals adapting to climate change, it's survival of the fattest—and most flexible More information: Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of corals, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rspb.2015.1887


News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Australia’s early settlers hit the ground running, or least walking with swift determination. After arriving on the continent’s northwest coast by around 50,000 years ago, humans reached Australia’s southeastern interior within a thousand years or so, researchers find. This ancient trip covered more than 2,000 kilometers through terrain that, although stark and dry today, featured enough lakes and rivers at the time of Australia’s colonization to support long-distance treks, say archaeologist Giles Hamm of La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues. Excavations at Warratyi rock-shelter indicate that it took only a few millennia for Australia’s early colonists to forge a distinctive Aboriginal culture that continued to develop over the next 40,000 years, Hamm’s team reports online November 2 in Nature. “Archaeological finds at Warratyi are surprisingly old and significant, especially coming from an excavation of only a meter of sediment,” Hamm says. These new discoveries are “remarkable and atypical” for Australia, says archaeologist Peter Hiscock of the University of Sydney. But the finds’ ages and significance for understanding Aboriginal culture will be debated, he predicts. Until now, the oldest human sites in Australia’s huge, arid interior dated to no more than 44,000 years ago in the continent’s northwest, not far from where the first settlers presumably arrived. Lake Mungo, now a dry lake bed in southeastern Australia, has yielded artifacts from about 50,000 years ago. Unlike artifacts at Warratyi that represent human activity over a long time span, it’s not known if Lake Mungo finds come from a group that made an isolated foray into the region before dying out within a few generations. Hamm’s group unearthed evidence of an intermittent human presence at Warratyi that lasted from around 49,000 to 10,000 years ago. People were largely absent between around 35,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the climate became substantially colder and drier, Hamm says. Finds at Warratyi dating to between 49,000 and 46,000 years ago include stone tools and a piece of reddish pigment. Bones from 16 mammal species and one reptile species were unearthed from various layers of sediment. Of particular interest were a partial leg bone from an extinct, rhino-sized marsupial and eggshells from a large, flightless bird. These animals died out not long after humans reached Australia, but it hasn’t been clear whether humans contributed to the extinctions via hunting or other actions (SN: 1/20/07, p. 38). Warratyi probably won’t resolve that issue. No butchery marks from stone tools appear on the marsupial fossil, although people may still have hunted the creature. Possibly burned areas appear on some eggshell fragments. Recent evidence from other Australian sites indicates that people were cooking this extinct bird’s eggs between 54,000 and 43,000 years ago. Other discoveries at Warratyi indicate Aboriginal people there made a variety of tools up to 10,000 years before similar tool types were known to have occurred elsewhere in Australia or in Southeast Asia, the scientists say. For instance, a 4-centimeter-long bone point that dates to more than 38,000 years ago is Australia’s earliest known bone tool. Comparably ancient discoveries include fragments of resin, which was probably used to glue stone tools to handles of some type. Tool handles probably came into use even earlier than that Down Under, argues archaeologist Sandra Bowdler of the University of Western Australia in Crawley. Researchers generally agree that, in Australia, stone cutting implements with ground, beveled edges were once attached to handles, Bowdler explains. A team led by Hiscock recently dated a ground-edge tool found in northwest Australia to between 49,000 and 44,000 years ago. That means handle use started there before it appeared at Warratyi, Bowdler holds. Tools displaying sharpened edges along one side appear at Warratyi between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. While Hamm’s team regards these as the oldest such implements in Australia, Bowdler awaits more thorough dating of Warratyi sediment layers before accepting that conclusion. To date artifacts, Hamm’s group calculated the time since buried sediment was last exposed to sunlight and conducted radiocarbon analyses of charcoal from ancient hearths and of eggshell fragments. Questions remain about the age of the oldest Warratyi discoveries, says geochronologist Richard Roberts of the University of Wollongong in Australia. Two samples of the deepest artifact-bearing sediment were dated to around 44,000 to 43,000 years ago, whereas three radiocarbon dates of eggshells from the same sediment ranged in age from possibly more than 50,000 years to perhaps more than 45,000 years, in Roberts’ view. If the younger age is the correct one, then Warratyi finds are no older than those previously discovered at Riwi rock-shelter, another site in Australia’s arid interior. If older than 50,000 years, Roberts says, “the Warratyi artifacts would be among the oldest on the continent.” Editor's note: This article was updated on November 9, 2016,  to correct the layers in which animal bones were found at Warratyi, the age of ground-edge tools found in northwest Australia, and the number and types of samples dated in the deepest artifact-bearing layer at Warratyi.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The first available dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV (Dengvaxia), is estimated to reduce the burden of dengue and be potentially cost effective in settings where infections with dengue are common, according to a study published by Stefan Flasche from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK and an international consortium of dengue experts, in PLOS Medicine. The researchers used dynamical models informed by the results of efficacy trials combined with assumptions on vaccine mechanisms, to estimate the impact and cost-effectiveness of CYD-TDV over a 30-y post-vaccination period in a variety of epidemiological settings. In settings with moderate to high dengue transmission intensity, i.e. where at least 50% of children get infected with dengue before they are nine years old, they estimated that a routine vaccination policy involving a three-dose schedule in 9-y-old children at 80% coverage would reduce the burden of dengue disease for the population by 6%-25% and that vaccination would be potentially cost-effective if priced competitively. However, in settings where dengue infections are uncommon, they identified a risk of potential increase in hospitalizations for dengue disease. These findings were an important contribution to the evidence base that led the WHO to recommend countries to consider the use of CYD-TDV only in settings with a high burden of dengue disease. The authors say: "Our results can guide countries on the general suitability of Dengvaxia introduction; however, local factors related to treatment costs, intensity of dengue transmission and age groups particularly exposed to dengue will need to be considered." In a linked Perspective, Jacqueline Deen from the University of the Philippines, Manila, discusses challenges in balancing the individual and population risks and benefits for CYD-TDV. SF and MJ received funding from WHO and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to conduct this work. LC is a paid employee at Sanofi Pasteur. GM and JK were funded by the University of Western Australia, with computing resources provided by the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre, which is funded by the Australian Government and the Government of Western Australia. MR is funded by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship. NF, ID and DJL received research funding from the UK Medical Research Council, the UK NIHR under the Health Protection Research Unit initiative, NIGMS under the MIDAS initiative, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. IRB and DATC were funded by MIDAS Center Grant NIH/NIGMS U54-GM088491 and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. DATC was also supported by NIH/NIAID R01-AI114703. TJH, IL, and CABP were funded by a Dengue Vaccine Initiative Grant to IL, NIH/NIAID R37 AI32042. THJ, IL, and KK were funded by MIDAS Center Grant NIH/NIGMS 1135 U54 GM111274. All other authors have received no specific funding to conduct this work. The funders had no role in the study design, data analyses, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: LC is employed by Sanofi Pasteur. KV is a staff member of the World Health Organization. TAP and GE receive support from GlaxoSmithKline for unrelated work on dengue vaccine modelling. IL, TJH, and CABP have received travel support from Sanofi Pasteur to present other work on dengue vaccine modelling. Sanofi Pasteur has not funded any of their research and was not involved in any research decisions related to their work presented. NF gave advice to Sanofi-Pasteur and the World Health Organization on the efficacy profile and potential public health impact of Dengvaxia. He is also collaborating with Sanofi-Pasteur on secondary analyses of Dengvaxia clinical trial data. He has received no remuneration, grant income, expense payments or in-kind benefit from Sanofi-Pasteur. DATC and IRB have advised WHO on the use of the Sanofi vaccine in a number of meetings and as part of a consortium of modelers who estimated the potential impact of the vaccine. On occasion they received travel expenses for visits to WHO. They have also advised Sanofi Pasteur Ltd. on the implications their work has for use of their vaccine. They have not received any financial or in-kind payment from Sanofi. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Flasche S, Jit M, Rodríguez-Barraquer I, Coudeville L, Recker M, Koelle K, et al. (2016) The Long-Term Safety, Public Health Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Vaccination with a Recombinant, Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine (Dengvaxia): A Model Comparison Study. PLoS Med 13(11): e1002181. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002181 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America Sanofi Pasteur, Brussels, Belgium University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia University of Florida, Gainesville, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland IN YOUR COVERAGE PLEASE USE THIS URL TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE FREELY AVAILABLE PAPER:http://journals. No funding was received for this work. I have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: I was an unpaid external consultant in the "Extended Study Group for dengue vaccine effectiveness evaluation studies in Asia" from 6 April 2015 to 31 August 2015 convened by Sanofi Pasteur. I was a WHO temporary adviser in a meeting entitled "Targeting Vaccination and Post-licensure Studies for the Licensed Dengue Vaccine" in Geneva from 14 to 15 June 2016 convened by the WHO. I am an unpaid co-investigator of a study entitled "Effectiveness of the tetravalent dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV (Dengvaxia) in the Philippines" currently in preparation, sponsored by the University of the Philippines-Manila and funded by Sanofi Pasteur. Deen J (2016) The Dengue Vaccine Dilemma: Balancing the Individual and Population Risks and Benefits. PLoS Med 13(11): e1002182. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002182 Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines IN YOUR COVERAGE PLEASE USE THIS URL TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE FREELY AVAILABLE PAPER:http://journals.


Nidorf S.M.,Heart Care Western Australia | Eikelboom J.W.,McMaster University | Budgeon C.A.,University of Western Australia | Thompson P.L.,Western Research Institute
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether colchicine 0.5 mg/day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with clinically stable coronary disease. Background: The presence of activated neutrophils in culprit atherosclerotic plaques of patients with unstable coronary disease raises the possibility that inhibition of neutrophil function with colchicine may reduce the risk of plaque instability and thereby improve clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary disease. Methods: In a clinical trial with a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded endpoint design, 532 patients with stable coronary disease receiving aspirin and/or clopidogrel (93%) and statins (95%) were randomly assigned colchicine 0.5 mg/day or no colchicine and followed for a median of 3 years. The primary outcome was the composite incidence of acute coronary syndrome, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, or noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results: The primary outcome occurred in 15 of 282 patients (5.3%) who received colchicine and 40 of 250 patients (16.0%) assigned no colchicine (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.59; p < 0.001; number needed to treat: 11). In a pre-specified secondary on-treatment analysis that excluded 32 patients (11%) assigned to colchicine who withdrew within 30 days due to intestinal intolerance and a further 7 patients (2%) who did not start treatment, the primary outcome occurred in 4.5% versus 16.0% (hazard ratio: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.56; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Colchicine 0.5 mg/day administered in addition to statins and other standard secondary prevention therapies appeared effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary disease. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Flicker L.,Western Research Institute | Flicker L.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors.


Reese P.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Boudville N.,University of Western Australia | Garg A.X.,University of Western Ontario
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Since the first living-donor kidney transplantation in 1954, more than half a million living kidney donations have occurred and research has advanced knowledge about long-term donor outcomes. Donors in developed countries have a similar life expectancy and quality of life as healthy non-donors. Living kidney donation is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, although this outcome is uncommon (<0·5% increase in incidence at 15 years). Kidney donation seems to elevate the risks of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Many donors incur financial expenses due to factors such as lost wages, need for sick days, and travel expenses. Yet, most donors have no regrets about donation. Living kidney donation is practised ethically when informed consent incorporates information about risks, uncertainty about outcomes is acknowledged when it exists, and a donor's risks are proportional to benefits for the donor and recipient. Future research should determine whether outcomes are similar for donors from developing countries and donors with pre-existing conditions such as obesity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Majumder M.,Monash University | Corry B.,University of Western Australia
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

Carbon nanotube membranes have been shown to rapidly transport liquids; but progressive hydrophilic modification - contrary to expectations - induces a drastic reduction of water flow. Enhanced electrostatic interaction and the disruption of the mechanically smooth graphitic walls is the determinant of this behavior. These results have critical implications in the design of nanofluidic devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Morahan G.,Western Research Institute | Morahan G.,University of Western Australia
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2012

Purpose of review Recent identification of over 60 loci contributing to the susceptibility of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) provides a timely opportunity to assess what is currently known of the genetics of T1D, and what these discoveries may tell us about the disease itself. Recent findings The major findings will be discussed under five main themes: T1D risk gene identification, molecular mechanisms of susceptibility, shared genetic cause with other diseases, development of novel analytical methods, and understanding disease heterogeneity. Summary The plethora of T1D risk genes that have been identified risk overwhelming clinicians with lists of gene names and symbols that have little bearing on management, and provide a challenge for researchers to place the genetics of T1D in a more amenable clinical context. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Dowling D.K.,Monash University | Simmons L.W.,University of Western Australia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Trade-offs between investment into male sexual traits and immune function provide the foundation for some of the most prominent models of sexual selection. Post-copulatory sexual selection on the male ejaculate is intense, and therefore trade-offs should occur between investment into the ejaculate and the immune system. Examples of such trade-offs exist, including that between sperm quality and immunity in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Here, we explore the dynamics of this trade-off, examining the effects that increased levels of sexual interaction have on the viability of a male's sperm across time, and the concomitant effects on immune function. Males were assigned to a treatment, whereby they cohabited with females that were sexually immature, sexually mature but incapable of copulation, or sexually mature and capable of copulation. Sperm viability of each male was then assessed at two time points: six and 13 days into the treatment, and immune function at day 13. Sperm viability decreased across the time points, but only for males exposed to treatment classes involving sexually mature females. This decrease was similar in magnitude across both sexually mature classes, indicating that costs to the expression of high sperm viability are incurred largely through levels of pre-copulatory investment. Males exposed to immature females produced sperm of low viability at both time points. Although we confirmed a weak negative association between sperm viability and lytic activity (a measure of immune response to bacterial infection) at day 13, this relationship was not altered across the mating treatment. Our results highlight that sperm viability is a labile trait, costly to produce, and subject to strategic allocation in these crickets. © 2012 Dowling, Simmons.


Almbro M.,University of Western Australia | Dowling D.K.,Monash University | Simmons L.W.,University of Western Australia
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Sperm are particularly prone to oxidative damage because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), have a high polyunsaturated fat content and a reduced capacity to repair DNA damage. The dietary compounds vitamin E and beta-carotene are argued to have antioxidant properties that help to counter the damaging effects of excess ROS. Here in, we tested the post-copulatory consequences for male crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) of dietary intake of these two candidate antioxidants. During competitive fertilisation trials, vitamin E, but not beta-carotene, singularly enhanced sperm competitiveness. However, the diet combining a high vitamin E dose and beta-carotene produced males with the most competitive ejaculates, possibly due to the known ability of beta-carotene to recycle vitamin E. Our results provide support for the idea that these two common dietary compounds have interactive antioxidant properties in vivo, by affecting the outcomes of male reproductive success under competitive conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.


Aitken A.R.A.,Monash University | Aitken A.R.A.,University of Western Australia
Geology | Year: 2011

The Tien Shan in Central Asia are the pre-eminent example of intraplate mountain building, and are typically considered an indirect result of the India-Eurasia collision, via the northward indentation of the relatively strong Precambrian lithosphere of the Tarim plate into the relatively weak Paleozoic lithosphere of the Tien Shan region. This hypothesis fails to fully explain the concentration of Tien Shan mountain building along a Tibet-parallel axis, located 500-700 km from Tibet, and also fails to explain the close synchronization of Tien Shan mountain-building events with mountain building in Tibet. I suggest that bending stresses from lithospheric flexure in Central Asia exerted a critical influence on the locus and evolution of the Tien Shan. Models of Paleogene to Middle Miocene flexure indicate that the growth of northeast Tibet may have superimposed a strong bending stress field on the regional stress field. The resultant stress field is characterized by strong topography-normal tensile stress in the Tarim Basin, and an ~15% increase in compressive stress in the vicinity of the Tien Shan. This stress field severely reduces the likelihood of mountain building south of the Tien Shan, and increases the likelihood of mountain building within the Tien Shan. This result suggests that the generation of bending stresses from lithospheric flexure is a viable and important mechanism for the propagation of stress, and hence deformation, into continental interiors. © 2011 Geological Society of America.


Colombo M.,University of Milan Bicocca | Carregal-Romero S.,University of Marburg | Casula M.F.,University of Cagliari | Gutierrez L.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

In this review an overview about biological applications of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles will be given, which comprises their synthesis, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo applications. The potential future role of magnetic nanoparticles compared to other functional nanoparticles will be discussed by highlighting the possibility of integration with other nanostructures and with existing biotechnology as well as by pointing out the specific properties of magnetic colloids. Current limitations in the fabrication process and issues related with the outcome of the particles in the body will be also pointed out in order to address the remaining challenges for an extended application of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Further High Grade Gold-Copper Intercepts Reported from both Infill and Extension Drilling at the Hot Maden Project, north east Turkey Mariana Resources Limited ('Mariana' or 'the Company'), the TSX.V and AIM (MARL) listed exploration and development company with projects in Turkey, South America, and Ivory Coast, is pleased to provide the following update on the ongoing diamond drill program at the high grade Hot Maden gold-copper project in NE Turkey. Results are reported for a total of 12 infill and extension drill holes (HTD-75 and HTD-77 to HTD-87), with drill log data provided for a further 6 holes (HTD-88 to HTD-93) for which assays are pending.  The infill drilling in the Main Zone resource area is focused on section lines 4,542,225N, 4,542,175N, and 4,542,125N.  This forms part of a program designed to uniformally reduce drill hole spacings to 25m x 25m and to provide both detailed geotechnical data and metallurgical samples for mine development studies. Only limited drilling was completed in the "Ridge" area (southern limit of the Main Zone resource) and the New  Southern Vein Field discovery (Figures 1 & 2) during this reporting period. Infill Section 4,542,125N HTD-85*:             60.6 m @ 82.2 g/t Au + 1.44% Cu from 209.4m downhole**. This mineralised zone (approximate true width 35m) is the best intersection to date and includes the following subintervals: 209.4-229m: 19.6m @ 248 g/t Au + 1.90% Cu ("Ultra high grade zone") 229-248m: 19m @ 3.4 g/t Au + 1.21% Cu ("Medium grade") 248-270m: 22m @ 1.6 g/t Au + 1.19% ("Low grade zone") HTD-82                 31m @ 17.0 g/t Au + 1.70% Cu from 266m downhole.                                 And 37.5m @ 2.1 g/t Au + 1.49% Cu from 317m downhole.                                 (approximate true width of Au-Cu zone 38m) Infill Section 4,542,175N HTD-78:                79.0m @ 14.3 g/t Au +1.59% Cu from 294m downhole.                                 Including 18.0m @ 55.1 g/t Au + 1.58% Cu from 296m downhole. (approximate true width of Au-Cu zone 30m) Infill Section 4,542,225N HTD-77:                90m @ 22.6 g/t Au + 4.39% Cu from 96m downhole.                                 Including 11m @ 30.9 g/t Au + 6.30% Cu from 99m downhole. (approximate true width of Au-Cu zone 76m) HTD-75:                62m @ 11.7 g/t Au + 1.43% Cu from 276m downhole. Including 2.0m @ 250 g/t Au + 6.50% Cu from 282m downhole. And 44.0m @ 1.05 g/t Au +1.46% Cu from 334m downhole. (approximate true width of Au-Cu zone 40m) * Twin of HTD-71 ** Note - all intersections quoted are as metres downhole. "The continuity of these additional drill results at Hot Maden add further confidence in the main zone, with the 25m infill holes further support continuity of the high grade gold and copper mineralisation.  These results all build into the Preliminary Feasibility Study model which is due for completion around mid next year, ultimately paving the way for mine development. "Encouragingly the growth potential for the further extension to the main zone in of the offset block to the south as well as further interesting intercepts in the Sourthern Vein Field discovery area continues to be enhanced. "Planned budgeted drilling for 2017 of 20,000m will be focussed on the areas that have  been delivering to date, as well as the untested area to the south, the "Russian Mining  area". "The much anticipated PEA, although slightly delayed, is nearing completion and is expected to be delivered early in the New Year. I  look forward to updating the market as soon as it is available." Approximately 18,500 m of diamond drilling has been completed at the Hot Maden Project during 2016 (Figure 1 and 2).  Recent drilling activities have dominantly focused on: - No significant work has yet been undertaken in the area of the former Russian mines (Figure 1). Drilling advanced on 25m centres along infill cross sections 4,542,125N, 4,542,175N and 4,542,225N, within the Main Zone resource area, with the program being designed to confirm internal continuity of the high-grade Au-Cu mineralisation. Certain holes were also selected for further geotechnical logging and metallurgical sampling. On section 4,542,225N (Figure 3), HTD-77 returned high grade Au-Cu mineralisation (90m @ 22.6 g/t Au + 4.39% Cu from 96m downhole), from an upper massive sulphide (pyrite-chalcopyrite) zone and lower multiphase, chalcopyrite-pyrite-hematite-jasper-bearing breccia. The deeper hole HTD-75 returned two mineralised intervals (62m @ 11.7 g/t Au + 1.43% Cu from 276m downhole and 44m @ 1.0 g/t Au + 1.46% Cu from 344m downhole), both intercepts in multiphase, chalcopyrite-pyrite-hematite-jasper-bearing breccias. On section 4,542,175N, drill hole HTD-78 also intersected an impressive 79m @ 14.3 g/t Au +1.59% Cu from 294m downhole, with mineralisation being associated with multiphase, sulphide-bearing breccias. Initial drilling along infill section 4,542,125N (Figure 4) included holes HTD-82 and HTD-85. Exceptional Au-Cu grades were returned from HTD-85, which intersected 60.6m of 82.2 g/t Au + 1.44% Cu from 209.4m downhole in multiphase, chalcopyrite-pyrite-hematite-jasper-bearing breccias. This mineralised interval includes an "Ultra high grade zone" of 19.6m @ 248.3 g/t Au + 1.90% Cu from 209.4m downhole, a "Medium grade" zone of 19m @ 3.4 g/t Au + 1.21% Cu for 229m downhole, and a "Low grade zone" of 22.0m @ 1.6 g/t Au + 1.19% Cu from 248m downhole.  This was drilled as a twin of HTD-71 for metallurgical sampling.  Drill hole HTD-82 intersected two main mineralised intervals: 31m @ 17.0 g/t Au + 1.70% Cu from 266m downhole and 37.5m @ 2.1 g/t Au + 1.49% Cu from 317m downhole. Two new drill holes (HTD-80 and HTD-86) were completed in the "Ridge" area, located at the southern limit of the Main Zone resource); HTD-80 successfully intersected high grade Au-Cu mineralization at depth whereas HTD-86 remained in the adjacent zinc zone. High grade Au-Cu intervals returned from HTD-80 include: 4.5m @ 16.3 g/t Au + 1.90% Cu (177.5-182m), 1m @ 6.4 g/t Au + 0.30% Cu (189-190m), and 5m @ 8.4 g/t Au + 1.30% Cu (194-199m). The target here continues to be a block of fault offset, Main Zone-type mineralisation located to the east of the existing drilling, and this hypothesis will be tested as a priority in future drilling. Only two drill holes were completed in the Southern target area (the northern extension of the area mined by Russian interests prior to 1923) during this reporting period, with encouraging values continuing to be returned from quartz-sulphide veinlet/breccia zones hosted in dacitic breccias and volcanic rocks. Highlights from the current drilling include: 3m @ 9.6 g/t Au + 1.73% Cu (144-147m) and 9m @ 3.6 g/t Au + 0.77% Cu (185-194m) in HTD-79, and 2m @ 5.4 g/t Au (128-130m) and 10.5m @ 4.9 g/t Au + 1.90% Cu (184.5-195m) in HTD-81. Table 1: Summary of assays for drill holes HTD-75 and HTD-77 to HTD-86, plus sulphide-bearing intercepts in drill holes HTD-88 to HTD-93 (Cross Sections listed from North to South) Mineralised intervals presented in Table 1 are drill intersection widths and may not represent true widths of mineralisation. Drill core obtained from the diamond drill program was dominantly HQ-sized core with the remainder being PQ-sized core. All drill core was photographed and quick logged prior to sampling. Standard sampling protocol involved the halving of all drill core and sampling over generally 1 m intervals (in clearly mineralised sections) or 2 m intervals (elsewhere), with one half of the core being placed in a sealed sample bag and dispatched to the analytical laboratory for analysis. Samples have been analysed at ALS Laboratories' facility in Izmir, western Turkey. All samples have been analysed for gold using a 30g Fire Assay with AAS finish (or Screen Fire Assay for higher grade samples), in addition to a 32 element ICP-AES analysis of an aqua regia digest.  Samples in which ICP analyses returned greater than the maximum detection limit for the elements Ag (10 ppm), Cu (10,000 ppm), Fe (15%), Pb (10,000 ppm), and Zn (10,000 ppm) were reanalysed using the AAS analytical technique, Standards and blanks were inserted in to the analytical sequence on the basis of one standard for every 20 samples, two blanks in every batch, and one duplicate every 40 samples. No HSE incidents have been reported during the current diamond drill program. Technical data relating to Hot Maden diamond drill holes HTD-75 and HTD-77 to HTD-93 are given in the following tables. **ENDS** Qualified Person                                                                                                                         The technical and scientific information contained in this news release has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, the Company's Qualified Person as defined by National Instrument 43-101. Mr Roth is the Company's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).  Mr Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. For further information please visit website at www.marianaresources.com or contact the following. About Mariana Resources Mariana Resources Ltd is an AIM (MARL) and TSXV (MRA) quoted exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver and copper projects in South America and Turkey. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in north east Turkey, which is a joint venture with its Turkish JV partner Lidya (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya) and rapidly advancing to development.  An updated mineral resource estimate (detailed table below) of 3.43 Moz gold Equivalent (Indicated Category) and 0.09 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the main resource zone as well as a maiden 351,000 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the new southern discovery zone was reported for Hot Maden on July 25, 2015. Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. In southern Argentina, the Company's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 160,000+ Ha land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau Gold Project is a 28,000 Ha exploration concession located approximately 125 km south east of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. In Peru and Chile, Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. *Au Equivalence (AuEq) calculated using a 100 day moving average of $US1,215/ounce for Au and $US2.13/pound for Cu as of May 29, 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. Safe Harbour This press release contains certain statements which may be deemed to be forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are made as at the date of this press release and include, without limitation, statements regarding discussions of future plans, the realization, cost, timing and extent of mineral resource estimates, estimated future exploration expenditures, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, and requirements for additional capital.  The words "plans", "expects", "budget", "scheduled", "estimate", "forecasts", "intend", "anticipate", "believe", "may", "will", or similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to: the effects of general economic conditions; the price of gold, silver and copper; misjudgements in the course of preparing forward-looking statements; risks associated with international operations; the need for additional financing; risks inherent in exploration results; conclusions of economic evaluations; changes in project parameters; currency and commodity price fluctuations; title matters; environmental liability claims; unanticipated operational risks; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or in the completion of development or construction activities; political risk; and other risks and uncertainties described in the Company's annual financial statements for the most recently completed financial year which is available on the Company's website at www.marianaresources.com .  Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions and have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended.  There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements.  Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


News Article | March 7, 2016
Site: phys.org

Scientists have been researching this very question since 2009, when WA farmers were granted an exemption to the moratorium on the planting of GM canola. According to University of Western Australia (UWA) plant biologists Dr Roberto Busi and Professor Stephen Powles the simple answer is no. Results from their four-year study investigating the demographics of transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola have quashed concerns that GM canola is competitive enough to survive in a natural bushland environment. In fact, it only took three years for the displaced canola to become extinct, Dr Busi says. The study tracked the survival of canola seeds that had blown from paddock windrows into nearby remnant bushland in WA's central Wheatbelt. After the first year of plant establishment in the remnant bushland Dr Busi counted up to 30,000 seeds that all could have germinated in the following year. However, after three years, no canola plants were visible. "We believe the inability of the canola to survive in the long term was a combination of factors including attacks by insects, such as aphids and ants, attacks by vertebrate herbivores, such as rabbits, and fungal disease," he says "Also drought conditions, and competition from other weeds such as ryegrass and brome grass played a part in the extinction of the plant. "Our conclusion is that the study clearly shows there is no risk of transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola becoming a biodiversity risk." The study also investigated GM canola plant survival rates on metropolitan road verges, particularly around grain delivery sites. Where road verges were maintained using only glyphosate to control weeds, transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola obviously flourished, Dr Busi says. "We surveyed a three kilometre strip near Co-operative Bulk Handling's Metro Grain Centre in Forrestfield, and because of grain spillages in the area, there were many weeds on the verges," he says. "Because glyphosate is used on roadsides to control weeds, it had removed every other weed apart from canola volunteers and allowed those plants to survive and reproduce." Dr Busi says the findings from the study would be used to encourage Main Roads WA and local governments to use other herbicide groups to maintain road verges to combat volunteer transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola and other weeds. The study was funded by the Grains Research and Development Corporation. Explore further: Researcher to Study Gene Flow 'Hot Spots' in Canola


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Ariana Resources plc ("Ariana" or "the Company"), the exploration and development company operating in Turkey, is pleased to announce the completion of resource-focused target generation for the Tavsan Project* ("Tavsan" or "the Project").  Tavsan is part of the Red Rabbit Joint Venture with Proccea Construction Co. and is 50% owned by Ariana. "The Tavsan Project comprises significant scope for further resource growth and the development of an extremely attractive low-cost and high-margin mining opportunity.  Based on the existing scoping study, the project has already demonstrated considerable potential, though further resource upside could enhance this substantially.  Our management resource target at Tavsan is 300,000 oz gold of which at least 200,000 oz gold is targeted to be accessible via open pit mining methods.  This would result in an increase in potential mine life by a further c.3 years to a total life of c.7 years, producing at a rate of approximately 30,000 oz gold per annum. At this stage we envisage Tavsan as a semi-autonomous satellite operation to the Kiziltepe Mine within the context of the broader Red Rabbit Joint Venture with Proccea Construction Co.  Tavsan would share much of the management and operational infrastructure as Kiziltepe yet be developed as a heap-leach operation with possibly only the carbon elution and regeneration, electro-winning and gold room being shared between the two operations.  This would require limited additional capital expenditure at Kiziltepe, though substantially less than developing such facilities independently at Tavsan. More work is required at Tavsan before we can refine our models and operational plans, but it is certainly a project deserving of our efforts due to the significant potential uplift in company value that it represents to our shareholders." * All figures relating to Mineral Resources, including the financial model, are quoted gross with respect to the Joint Venture; Ariana holds 50% of the project through its JV company. This announcement contains inside information for the purposes of Article 7 of EU Regulation 596/2014. Figure 1 http://hugin.info/138153/R/2080629/783522.pdf : Map of the Tavsan project area showing the location of outcropping mineralised jasperoid (in red) and currently designed open-pits (dark blue outlines).  Most of the exploration targets lie along NW- and NE-trending axes associated with a thrust-fault and its subsidiary structures.  Target numbers correspond to those shown in Table 1. The location of the trial mining pit is also shown within the Main Zone resource area. Following the completion of the Tavsan Scoping Study (released 10 November 2016), the Ariana Exploration Team have finalised a comprehensive review of all surface geochemical, drilling and geological databases across the project area.  A total of sixteen significant targets have been generated for immediate follow-up (Table 1).  Seven of the targets demonstrate significant potential to expand the current Tavsan resource following limited infill drilling and other resource test work. Table 1:  Targets generated for follow-up during 2017, in numerical order.  Several targets have been ranked as very high priority and warrant further drill testing. Mineralisation at Tavsan largely occurs on two dominant structural trends, with the majority of mineralisation located along the gently dipping and undulating plane of a NE-SE trending thrust-fault. The second, subsidiary trend for mineralisation is controlled dominantly by a unit of neritic limestone and a series of NW-SE linkage faults, trending at about 90 degrees to the primary fault plane. The Tavsan resource currently stands at approximately 215,000oz gold equivalent (Table 2) across four main areas.  Trial mining at the Main Zone has produced a stockpile of c.28,000 tonnes to date (Figure 2) at an average grade of 1.41 g/t gold, which is consistent with the estimated grade of the resource (Table 2). Table 2: JORC 2004 classified resource estimate for Tavsan, completed in 2008 by SRK Consulting (UK) Ltd. Database evaluations and target generation was initiated in January 2017 following a thorough review of all drilling completed at Tavsan. Isolated anomalous intercepts on the southwest flank of the Main Zone indicates significant potential to expand the current resource. Drill holes ODX53 (6m @ 3.37g/t Au + 3.67g/t Ag) and OR3 (9m @ 1.30g/t Au + 4.32g/t Ag) display potential for a fifth mineralised area to occur between Main Zone and Western Zone, with mineralisation proven from surface (OR3) to a depth of 22 metres (ODX53), where drilling ended in mineralisation (1m @ 0.32g/t Au). Figure 2 http://hugin.info/138153/R/2080629/783523.pdf : Photograph of the trial mining area at the Tavsan Project, with stockpile area in the foreground.  In aggregate, c.28,000 tonnes of material grading 1.41 g/t Au is stockpiled at Tavsan. One kilometre north of Main Zone, another significant drill intercept (ODX99A) 11m @ 5.11 g/t Au + 6.83g/t Ag, outlines additional potential for immediate near surface resource growth. As a result, Whittle pits generated for the purposes of the 2016 scoping study, located NE and SW of ODX99A, may have the potential to expand along an 800 metre gap between the planned pits.  Highly anomalous trench results and rock-chip samples have also been defined in this area indicating that such an expansion of the pits, especially near surface, is a distinct possibility. Historic trenching, based on composite rock-chip sampling at systematic but non-uniform intervals, has outlined excellent potential for near surface resource expansion.  Trenches (T4) 170m @ 1.04g/t Au + 4.1g/t Ag, (T5) 140m @ 1.11g/t Au + 5.2g/t Ag and (T1) 60m @ 1.30g/t Au + 4.34g/t Ag, suggest that several outcropping jasperoid and associated subcrop areas, demonstrate potential to become additional near surface resources.  Historic trenching, notably T4 and T6, also highlight significant potential for immediate growth of the planned open-pits at the Main Zone. In order to cost-effectively follow-up all sixteen target areas, the Ariana team have scheduled a 5,000 sample portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) soil sampling programme to commence in March.  The 25m x 25m gridded programme will generate a high-resolution surface geochemical dataset, covering five square kilometres over the entire project area and will significantly help to define the potential of near-surface resource target areas.  This will assist in refining targets for a second phase of trenching work, which will improve confidence and continuity of the historic work and ultimately assist in targeting for further resource drilling. Dr Kerim Sener, BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD, is the Managing Director of Ariana Resources plc.  A graduate of the University of Southampton in Geology, he also holds a Master's degree from the Royal School of Mines (Imperial College, London) in Mineral Exploration and a doctorate from the University of Western Australia.  He is a Fellow of The Geological Society of London and has worked in geological research and mineral consultancy in Africa, Australia and Europe.  He has read and approved the technical disclosure in this regulatory announcement. Ariana is an exploration and development company focused on epithermal gold-silver and porphyry copper-gold deposits in Turkey.  The Company is developing a portfolio of prospective licences originally selected on the basis of its in-house geological and remote-sensing database. The Company's flagship assets are its Kiziltepe and Tavsan gold projects which form the Red Rabbit Gold Project.  Both contain a series of prospects, within two prolific mineralised districts in the Western Anatolian Volcanic and Extensional (WAVE) Province in western Turkey.  This Province hosts the largest operating gold mines in Turkey and remains highly prospective for new porphyry and epithermal deposits.  These core projects, which are separated by a distance of 75km, form part of a 50:50 Joint Venture with Proccea Construction Co.  The Kiziltepe Sector of the Red Rabbit Project is fully-permitted and is currently in construction.  The total resource inventory at the Red Rabbit Project and wider project area stands at c. 525,000 ounces of gold equivalent.  At Kiziltepe a Net Smelter Return ("NSR") royalty of up to 2.5% on future production is payable to Franco-Nevada Corporation.  At Tavsan an NSR royalty of up to 2% on future production is payable to Sandstorm Gold. In north-eastern Turkey, Ariana owns 100% of the Salinbas Gold Project, comprising the Salinbas gold-silver deposit and the Ardala copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry among other prospects.  The total resource inventory of the Salinbas project area is c. 1 million ounces of gold equivalent.  A NSR royalty of up to 2% on future production is payable to Eldorado Gold Corporation. Beaufort Securities Limited and Panmure Gordon (UK) Limited are joint brokers to the Company and Beaumont Cornish Limited is the Company's Nominated Adviser. For further information on Ariana you are invited to visit the Company's website at www.arianaresources.com. "Indicated resource" a part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed; "Inferred resource" a part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and has assumed, but not verified, geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability; "Whittle" computer software that uses the Lerch-Grossman algorithm, which is a 3-D algorithm that can be applied to the optimisation of open-pit mine designs.  The purpose of optimisation is to produce the most cost effective and most profitable open-pit design from a resource block model.


Mariana Update on the Highly Prospective Gold Projects Recently Acquired in Côte d'Ivoire GUERNSEY, UK, Nov. 2, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Mariana Resources Ltd ("Mariana" or the "Company"), the AIM ("MARL") and TSXV ("MRA") listed exploration and development company with projects in Turkey, Côte d'Ivoire and South America, is pleased to provide the following update on the Bondoukou gold projects following the acquisition of Awalé Resources SARL ("Awalé"; see News Release dated October 7, 2016). Awalé is a private exploration company focused on high grade gold projects in Côte d'Ivoire (Figure 1), a country which hosts some of the most prospective yet underexplored Birimian greenstone belts in West Africa. World-class orogenic gold deposits hosted within the Birimian include Anglogold Ashanti's Obuasi mine in Ghana, Resolute Mining's Syama mine in Burkina Faso, and Iamgold/Anglogold Ashanti's Sadiola mine in Mali (Figures 1 & 2). Mariana is an active precious metals exploration company with a diversified portfolio of assets at various stages on the project development curve.  The Company is continually looking to leverage its experience and ability in generating exciting projects in jurisdictions that offer both scale and a high degree of prospectivity.  Côte d'Ivoire is a jurisdiction that hosts some 35% of West Africa's known greenstone belts yet remains largely underexplored in comparison to neighbouring Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Mali (Figure 3). The acquisition of Awalé has given Mariana a foothold into the country with 3 granted exploration licences at Bondoukou (totalling 1,191.5 square kilometres; Figure 4) and a further 4 licences in the application stage.  In addition, the Company will retain Awalé's experienced in-country team, which will provide a strong platform on which to build a successful regional gold exploration and development company. Mariana's initial focus will be on the three granted Bondoukou concessions (Bondoukou Est, Bondoukou Nord Est, and Bondoukou Nord; Table 1 and Figure 4), all of which are located near the the town of Bondoukou and close to the Ghanaian border. The Bondoukou concessions lie along the southwestern extension of the Birimian Bole-Nangodi greenstone belt, which is known to host a number of high grade gold deposits in adjacent Ghana.  Artisinal miners are currently extracting high grade, vein-style gold mineralisation from within the saprolite profile and colluvium at various locations within all three concessions (although particularly in Bondoukou Est and Nord Est). Prior to Mariana's acquisition of Awalé (an 80% interest), Awale's exploration team had been undertaking reconnaissance exploration over the three granted claim blocks. Work completed during this initial phase of mapping and sampling resulted in the identification of three priority prospect areas within the Bondoukou Est and Bondoukou Nord Est Permits, the details of which are given below. The Bahile-Fako-Elisabeth target areas lie within a 15 km-long, WNW-ESE striking corridor of artisanal gold workings which are located on, or close to, the contact between a granitic intrusive complex and Biriminan volcano-sedimentary rocks. Individual workings are typically spaced between 50m and 300m apart and are focused on the extraction of gold from both saprolite and colluvium, although some workings in the Elisabeth prospect have reached "hard rock" where pyrite-silica-sericite alteration is evident. The primary target type is gold-bearing quartz-pyrite veins, with miners in deeper saprolite and "hard rock" pits at both Fako and Elisabeth suggesting that the mineralised veins are either stacked or sheeted.  Given the highly-developed artisanal gold mining activities in the Bahile-Fako-Elisabeth trend, this area is currently considered to be one of our highest priority target areas.             The Ngouan-Djoumani prospect contains three large areas of artisanal mine workings, with the individual workings focused on structures oriented 090 to 120N. The Djoumani workings have a larger colluvial footprint of approximately 1km2. The Ngouan workings are typically around 50 metres deep and waste dumps in the area show pyrite-silica-sericite wall rock alteration within a stockwork vein system. The perseverance of the miners here in the hard rock and the pyrite alteration system makes this prospect of particular interest, as the extraction method for the gold is through gravity sluicing. The Yanti prospect consists of a set of three, north-south striking workings contained within an overall northwest trend (and therefore potentially representing en-echelon vein sets).  Each of the workings containing a single quartz vein approximately 0.5m wide and dipping at about 50 degrees to the west. The Yanti prospect is located at the southeastern end of the Bolgatanga Belt, which continues through Ghana into southeastern Burkina Faso. Country rock in the Yanti area consists dominantly of well foliated quartz rich wackes and sandstones, whilst in and around the workings there are finer grained sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Sheared felsic rock with 'quartz eyes' are also evident. Visible gold within panned miner's concentrates have been reported at all three prospects. Other artisanal workings continue to be located during the ongoing reconnaissance work. A first-pass "screening" of the extensive Bondoukou claim blocks is currently being undertaken through cost-effective regional silt, soil, and rock chip sampling programs. The primary objective of these geochemical programs is to identify those areas with the highest potential for the discovery of new / blind gold deposits. Work completed to date includes: A total of 374 regional silt samples have been collected on the basis of each sample covering a drainage catchment area of approximately 5km2. An initial batch of 151 samples, essentially covering broader 10km2 catchment areas, has been sent for analysis (with the remaining infill samples to be submitted for those areas in which significant gold anomalies are detected). All samples will be analysed for gold and trace elements at Intertek Perth using both a static and agitated BLEG method with ultra-low detection limits (0.01 ppb).             1,601 outcrop/subcrop mapping/sampling sites have so far been visited on the three Bondoukou claims, and 525 rock chip samples have been selected for both gold analysis by fire assay and multi-element analysis. These results will be compiled and incorporated into an updated regional geological map over the three Bondoukou claims.             Initial soil orientation surveys have also commenced, with 182 samples having been collected to date over the Bahile and Elisabeth prospects. First observations indicate that the depth of transported cover in the Elisabeth - Fako area is too deep for conventional soil sampling and auger drilling will be required. While the Bahile area is within a residual soil terrain and differing mesh size fractions will be analysed to determine the most practical sampling method for this regolith type.               Results are currently pending for all geochemical samples. Rock chip and grab sampling has historically also been undertaken by Awalé in the vicinity of known surface workings at Bondoukou Est and Bondoukou Nord Est.  A total of twenty-one rock chip samples have returned gold assays exceeding 5 g/t; ten samples have returned between 5. 4 g/t Au and 9.9 g/t Au, six samples between 10.7 g/t Au and 16.7 g/t Au, and a further five samples between 23.3 g/t Au and 36.7 g/t Au. In most cases, gold mineralization is associated with weathered quartz-pyrite vein assemblages derived from mineralised fault / shear zones. The main objective of the Q4, 2016 and H1, 2017 field exploration programs at Bondoukou will be to define and prioritize targets for RC drill testing during H2, 2017. These drill targets will be defined through a combination of cost effective geological mapping, infill soil sampling, auger drilling, and geophysics as appropriate.  The Company will keep the market updated with results from these field programs as they come to hand. The technical and scientific information contained in this news release has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, the Company's qualified person as defined by National Instrument 43-101.  Mr. Roth is the Company's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG). Mr. Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. For further information please visit website at www.marianaresources.com or contact the following. About Mariana Resources Mariana Resources Ltd is an AIM (MARL) and TSXV (MRA) quoted exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver and copper projects in South America and Turkey. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in north east Turkey, which is a joint venture with its Turkish JV partner Lidya (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya) and rapidly advancing to development.  An updated mineral resource estimate (detailed table below) of 3.43 Moz gold Equivalent (Indicated Category) and 0.09 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the main resource zone as well as a maiden 351,000 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the new southern discovery zone was reported for Hot Maden on July 25, 2015. Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. In southern Argentina, the Company's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 160,000+ Ha land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau Gold Project is a 28,000 Ha exploration concession located approximately 125 km south east of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. In Peru and Chile, Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. *Au Equivalence (AuEq) calculated using a 100 day moving average of $US1,215/ounce for Au and $US2.13/pound for Cu as of May 29, 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. Safe Harbour This press release contains certain statements which may be deemed to be forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are made as at the date of this press release and include, without limitation, statements regarding discussions of future plans, the realization, cost, timing and extent of mineral resource estimates, estimated future exploration expenditures, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, and requirements for additional capital.  The words "plans", "expects", "budget", "scheduled", "estimate", "forecasts", "intend", "anticipate", "believe", "may", "will", or similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to: the effects of general economic conditions; the price of gold, silver and copper; misjudgements in the course of preparing forward-looking statements; risks associated with international operations; the need for additional financing; risks inherent in exploration results; conclusions of economic evaluations; changes in project parameters; currency and commodity price fluctuations; title matters; environmental liability claims; unanticipated operational risks; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or in the completion of development or construction activities; political risk; and other risks and uncertainties described in the Company's annual financial statements for the most recently completed financial year which is available on the Company's website at www.marianaresources.com .  Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions and have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended.  There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements.  Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


Mariana Resources Limited ('Mariana' or 'the Company'), the TSX.V and AIM (MARL) listed exploration and development company with projects in Turkey, South America, and Côte d'Ivoire, is pleased to provide the following update on the maiden diamond drill program currently underway at its 100%-owned Ergama gold-copper project in Balikesir province, western Turkey (Figure 1). To date, three of the seven proposed drill holes (ERD-01 to ERD-03, for a total meterage of 1,522m) have been completed, with assays having now been received for the first two holes (Figures 2-4). Targets to be tested in this initial drill program include the northern margins of two porphyry gold-copper ("Au-Cu") targets (the Main Porphyry Target and Porphyry Target B), in addition to a high grade, vein / fault-hosted epithermal gold-silver target. The Ergama project licence covers an area of 2,168 Ha (21.6 km2), and is located 90km SE of Teck-Pilot Gold's Halilaga Au-Cu project in the highly mineralised Biga Peninsula, and 230 km west north west of Eldorado Gold's Kisladag gold mine (2016 production of 211,000 oz gold). "The first two holes of the initial scout drilling program at our 100% Ergama Project in Western Turkey are encouraging and indicate the presence of a mineralised gold-copper porphyry system. "The positive results from holes 1 and, particularly, 2 show strong stockworking on the margin in the phyllic zone with grades increasing at depth to the south and potentially closer to the main potassic zone.  This main zone appears to be further south and close to the centre of the 1km2 chargeability anomaly as shown in Figure 2.  Drill permitting is currently in process to allow testing of this main zone to the south as can be seen in Figure 3. "What is encouraging are the initial grades from our first two holes on the margin of the system are similar to reported resource grades for other projects in the area and we still have yet to test the main zone. "I look forward to updating the market with assays pending for hole 3 and the high grade gold silver vein targets currently being drilled, as well as further updates from Hot Maden and our portfolio in general." The drilling completed to date at Ergama appears to confirm our conceptual model of a porphyry-style gold-copper system underlying, and slightly offset from, an essentially barren quartz-alunite(+/-clay) "lithocap". Drill holes ERD-01 and ERD-02 are the first holes to test this model and, whilst initial results have been positive, both the observed hydrothermal alteration assemblages and general increase in Au-Cu grades towards the south are suggesting that the key potassic zone (and likely the most metal-rich part of the system) is located to the south of current drilling. Permitting of drill holes in this area is currently in progress, with drilling expected to be undertaken as soon as the permits are granted. Previous drilling at the Ergama project by Newmont in 2004 was restricted to a short (1,140m in 8 holes) Reverse Circulation (RC) drill program. This RC program focused on the low temperature chalcedonic silica "caps" found on topographic highs within the northern part of the Ergama project, and only returned low level gold values (note that these "caps" form part of the barren "lithocap"). Newmont's only "deep" drill hole (244m total depth) was drilled in unmineralised volcanic rocks lying between our Main Porphyry Target and Porphyry Target B, leaving Mariana's 2017 drill program to be the first to test the porphyry gold-copper concept. Note- due to the nature of the samples true widths cannot be determined. Mineralised intervals presented in Table 1 are drill intersection widths and may not represent true widths of mineralisation. Drill core obtained from the diamond drill program is dominantly HQ-sized core with the remainder being PQ-sized core. All drill core was photographed and quick logged prior to sampling. Standard sampling protocol involved the halving of all drill core and sampling over generally 2 m intervals, with one half of the core being placed in a sealed sample bag and dispatched to the analytical laboratory for analysis and the other half remaining on site in core trays. Samples were analysed at ALS Laboratories' facility in Izmir, western Turkey. All samples have been analysed for gold using a 30g Fire Assay with AAS finish, in addition to a 35 element ICP-AES analysis of an aqua regia digest.  Samples in which ICP analyses returned greater than the maximum detection limit for the elements Ag (10 ppm), Cu (10,000 ppm), Fe (15%), Pb (10,000 ppm), and Zn (10,000 ppm) are reanalysed using the AAS analytical technique, Standards and blanks were inserted in to the analytical sequence on the basis of one standard or blank for every 20 samples and one duplicate sample approximately every 50 samples. Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) No HSE incidents have been reported during the current diamond drill program. Table 2: Technical data relating to the completed diamond drill holes ERD-01 to ERD-03 and proposed drill holes ERD-04 to ERD-07. Datum is UTM ED50 35S. Qualified Person The technical and scientific information contained in this news release has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, the Company's Qualified Person as defined by National Instrument 43-101 and for the purposes of AIM rules.  Mr Roth is the Company's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).  Dr Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. About Mariana Resources Mariana Resources Ltd is a TSX.V and AIM (MARL) quoted exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver, and copper projects in South America, Turkey, and Ivory Coast. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in northeast Turkey, which is a joint venture with Turkish partner Lidya Madencilik (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya) and which is rapidly advancing to development.  On January 17, 2017, Mariana released the results of a Preliminary Economic Study ("PEA") which demonstrated exceptional potential economics for the Hot Maden Project (after-tax NPV and IRR of USD 1.37B and 153%, respectively) based on a development scenario incorporating a 1Mtpa underground mining / processing operation and the production of two saleable concentrates (a copper-gold concentrate and a gold-pyrite concentrate). This PEA was based on the updated (July 25, 2016) mineral resource estimate of 3.43 Moz gold equivalent (Indicated Category) and 0.09 Moz gold equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the Main Zone, as well as a maiden 351,000 Moz gold equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) resource in the New Southern Discovery. Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. On October 7, 2016, Mariana announced the signing of a binding Term Sheet to acquire an indirect 80% interest in Ivory Coast-focused private exploration company Awalé Resources SARL ("Awalé").  Through the transaction Mariana will gain an immediate foothold in an established exploration portfolio with known gold mineralisation and artisanal gold workings, and which comprises i) 3 granted contiguous licenses (1,191 km2) in the Bondoukou area, and ii) 4 licenses under application (1,593 km2) in both the Bondoukou and Abengourou areas. The Boundoukou concessions lie along the southwestern extension of the Birimian Bole-Nangodi greenstone belt in adjacent Ghana, host to a number of high grade orogenic gold deposits. In southern Argentina, the Company's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), and Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 100,000+ Ha land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau Gold Project is a 28,000 Ha exploration concession located approximately 125 km south east of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. In Peru and Chile, Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. *Au Equivalence (AuEq) calculated using a 100 day moving average of $US1,215/ounce for Au and $US2.13/pound for Cu as of May 29, 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. Safe Harbour This press release contains certain statements which may be deemed to be forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are made as at the date of this press release and include, without limitation, statements regarding discussions of future plans, the realization, cost, timing and extent of mineral resource estimates, estimated future exploration expenditures, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, and requirements for additional capital.  The words "plans", "expects", "budget", "scheduled", "estimate", "forecasts", "intend", "anticipate", "believe", "may", "will", or similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to: the effects of general economic conditions; the price of gold, silver and copper; misjudgements in the course of preparing forward-looking statements; risks associated with international operations; the need for additional financing; risks inherent in exploration results; conclusions of economic evaluations; changes in project parameters; currency and commodity price fluctuations; title matters; environmental liability claims; unanticipated operational risks; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or in the completion of development or construction activities; political risk; and other risks and uncertainties described in the Company's annual financial statements for the most recently completed financial year which is available on the Company's website at www.marianaresources.com .  Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions and have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended.  There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements.  Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: globenewswire.com

Guernsey, UK, Nov. 29, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Mariana Resources Ltd ("Mariana" or the "Company"), the TSX.V and AIM listed ("MARL") exploration and development company with projects in Turkey, Côte d'Ivoire and South America, is pleased to announce that it has commenced the drilling of an initial 7-hole diamond drill program at its 100% owned Ergama copper-gold project in Balikesir Province, western Turkey (Figure 1). The diamond drilling is being undertaken by drill contractor Ortadogu Drilling, and is expected to be completed by early-January, 2017 (with assay results expected Q1, 2017). The main targets to be tested include near-surface, porphyry-style copper-gold mineralisation within the central portion of the Ergama claim block, in addition to peripheral high grade vein / fault-hosted gold-silver mineralisation. "Whilst the high grade gold and copper Hot Maden project advances to development, Mariana continues to work its diversified portfolio of advanced and early stage exploration projects.  Ergama is a 100% owned, prospective, copper-gold porphyry target in a region that hosts a number of key discoveries, development projects and mines and Turkey's largest gold mine Kisladag operated by Eldorado Gold. "Mariana's objective is to confirm mineralisation and geological model being a mineralised copper gold porphyry system as well as high grade gold and silver epithermal mineralisation and, if successful, will lead to the next stage of drilling at Ergama. "I look forward to updating the market on Hot Maden soon and further news from Ergama in the New Year." About the Ergama Project The Ergama Project licence covers an area of 2,168 Ha (21.6 km2), and is located in western Turkey between the well mineralized Biga Pensinsula and Eldorado Gold's Kisladag gold mine (currently Turkey's largest gold mine with gold production of 280,000 oz in 2015). Geological mapping at Ergama has identified extensive zones of both porphyry- and epithermal-style hydrothermal alteration assemblages - dominated by low temperature chalcedonic silica on hilltops and advanced argillic alteration assemblages ("lithocap") elsewhere - within Oligocene- to Miocene-age volcanic rocks. Ground geophysics completed in 2012 confirmed the presence of two strong, near surface IP chargeability anomalies, with the largest measuring 1km x 1km and interpreted to represent sulphides associated with a "blind" porphyry copper-gold deposit; (Figure 2). Geochemical sampling on surface has also returned high gold values (up to 16 g/t Au) in vein / fault-hosted systems that lie on the periphery of the main porphyry target.  The geological model proposed for Ergama is that of a surface "lithocap" overlying a buried porphyry copper-gold system, with secondary targets including peripheral high grade gold-silver targets (Figure 3). Mariana is the 100% beneficial owner of the Ergama property, with Sandstorm Gold Ltd ("Sandstorm") owning a 2% NSR on future production (the Ergama NSR was part of a package of 55 royalties acquired by Sandstorm from Teck Resources in January, 2016). For further information on the Ergama Project, please visit Mariana's website at   http://www.marianaresources.com/exploration The technical and scientific information contained in this news release has been reviewed and approved for release by Eric Roth, the Company's qualified person as defined by National Instrument 43-101.  Mr. Roth is the Company's Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director and holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geology from the University of Western Australia, is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and is a Fellow of the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG). Mr. Roth has 25 years of experience in international minerals exploration and mining project evaluation. For further information please visit website at www.marianaresources.com or contact the following. About Mariana Resources Mariana Resources Ltd is an AIM and TSX.V (MARL) quoted exploration and development company with an extensive portfolio of gold, silver and copper projects in Turkey, South America and Cote d'Ivoire. Mariana's most advanced asset is the Hot Maden gold-copper project in north east Turkey, which is a joint venture with its Turkish JV partner Lidya (30% Mariana and 70% Lidya) and rapidly advancing to development.  An updated mineral resource estimate (detailed table below) of 3.43 Moz gold Equivalent (Indicated Category) and 0.09 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the main resource zone as well as a maiden 351,000 Moz gold Equivalent (Inferred Category) (100% basis) in the new southern discovery zone was reported for Hot Maden on July 25, 2015. Elsewhere in Turkey, Mariana holds a 100% interest in the Ergama gold-copper project. In southern Argentina, the Company's core gold-silver projects are Las Calandrias (100%), Sierra Blanca (100%), Los Cisnes (100%), Bozal (100%). These projects are part of a 160,000+ Ha land package in the Deseado Massif epithermal gold-silver district in mining-friendly Santa Cruz Province. On October 7, 2016, Mariana announced the signing of a binding Term Sheet to acquire an indirect 80% interest in Ivory Coast-focused private exploration company Awalé Resources SARL ("Awalé").  Through the transaction Mariana will gain an immediate foothold in an established exploration portfolio with known gold mineralisation and artisanal gold workings, and which comprises i) 3 granted contiguous licenses (1,191 km2) in the Bondoukou area, and ii) 4 licenses under application (1,593 km2) in both the Bondoukou and Abengourou areas. The Boundoukou concessions lie along the southwestern extension of the Birimian Bole-Nangodi greenstone belt in adjacent Ghana, host to a number of high grade orogenic gold deposits. In Suriname, Mariana has a direct holding of 10.2% of the Nassau Gold project. The Nassau Gold Project is a 28,000 Ha exploration concession located approximately 125 km south east of the capital Paramaribo and immediately adjacent to Newmont Mining's 4.2Moz gold Merian project. In Peru and Chile, Mariana is focusing on acquiring new opportunities which complement its current portfolio. *Au Equivalence (AuEq) calculated using a 100 day moving average of $US1,215/ounce for Au and $US2.13/pound for Cu as of May 29, 2016. No adjustment has been made for metallurgical recovery or net smelter return as these remain uncertain at this time. Based on grades and contained metal for Au and Cu, it is assumed that both commodities have reasonable potential to be economically extractable. Safe Harbour This press release contains certain statements which may be deemed to be forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are made as at the date of this press release and include, without limitation, statements regarding discussions of future plans, the realization, cost, timing and extent of mineral resource estimates, estimated future exploration expenditures, costs and timing of the development of new deposits, success of exploration activities, permitting time lines, and requirements for additional capital.  The words "plans", "expects", "budget", "scheduled", "estimate", "forecasts", "intend", "anticipate", "believe", "may", "will", or similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to: the effects of general economic conditions; the price of gold, silver and copper; misjudgements in the course of preparing forward-looking statements; risks associated with international operations; the need for additional financing; risks inherent in exploration results; conclusions of economic evaluations; changes in project parameters; currency and commodity price fluctuations; title matters; environmental liability claims; unanticipated operational risks; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or in the completion of development or construction activities; political risk; and other risks and uncertainties described in the Company's annual financial statements for the most recently completed financial year which is available on the Company's website at www.marianaresources.com .  Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions and have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended.  There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements.  Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


Forrester J.V.,University of Aberdeen | Xu H.,University of Aberdeen | Kuffova L.,University of Aberdeen | Dick A.D.,University of Bristol | McMenamin P.G.,University of Western Australia
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2010

The eye and the brain are immunologically privileged sites, a property previously attributed to the lack of a lymphatic circulation. However, recent tracking studies confirm that these organs have good communication through classical site-specific lymph nodes, as well as direct connection through the blood circulation with the spleen. In addition, like all tissues, they contain resident myeloid cell populations that play important roles in tissue homeostasis and the response to foreign antigens. Most of the macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) populations in the eye are restricted to the supporting connective tissues, including the cornea, while the neural tissue (the retina) contains almost no DCs, occasional macrophages (perivascularly distributed), and a specialized myeloid cell type, the microglial cell. Resident microglial cells are normally programmed for immunological tolerance. The privileged status of the eye, however, is relative, as it is susceptible to immune-mediated inflammatory disease, both infectious and autoimmune. Intraocular inflammation (uveitis and uveoretinitis) and corneal graft rejection constitute two of the more common inflammatory conditions affecting the eye leading to considerable morbidity (blindness). As corneal graft rejection occurs almost exclusively by indirect allorecognition, host DCs play a major role in this process and are likely to be modified in their behavior by the ocular microenvironment. Ocular surface disease, including allergy and atopy, also comprise a significant group of immune-mediated eye disorders in which DCs participate, while infectious disease such as herpes simplex keratitis is thought to be initiated via corneal DCs. Intriguingly, some more common conditions previously thought to be degenerative (e.g. age-related macular degeneration) may have an autoimmune component in which ocular DCs and macrophages are critically involved. Recently, the possibility of harnessing the tolerizing potential of DCs has been applied to experimental models of autoimmune uveoretinitis with good effect. This approach has considerable potential for use in translational clinical therapy to prevent sight-threatening disease caused by ocular inflammation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Tsujimoto T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Bekki K.,University of Western Australia
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Results of recent observations of the Galactic bulge demand that we discard a simple picture of its formation, suggesting the presence of two stellar populations represented by two peaks of stellar metallicity distribution (MDF) in the bulge. To assess this issue, we construct Galactic chemical evolution models that have been updated in two respects: first, the delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) recently revealed by extensive SNIa surveys is incorporated into the models. Second, the nucleosynthesis clock, the s-processing in asymptotic giant branch stars, is carefully considered in this study. This novel model first shows that the Galaxy feature tagged by the key elements, Mg, Fe, and Ba, for the bulge as well as thin and thick disks is compatible with a short-delay SNIa. We present a successful modeling of a two-component bulge including the MDF and the evolutions of [Mg/Fe] and [Ba/Mg], and reveal its origin as follows. A metal-poor component (〈[Fe/H]〉 ∼ -0.5) is formed with a relatively short timescale of 1Gyr. These properties are identical to the thick disk's characteristics in the solar vicinity. Subsequently from its remaining gas mixed with a gas flow from the disk outside the bulge, a metal-rich component (〈[Fe/H]〉 ∼ +0.3) is formed with a longer timescale (∼4Gyr) together with a top-heavy initial mass function that might be identified with the thin disk component within the bulge. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Varshney R.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Varshney R.K.,University of Western Australia | Terauchi R.,Iwate Biotechnology Research Center | McCouch S.R.,Cornell University
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are being used to generate whole genome sequences for a wide range of crop species. When combined with precise phenotyping methods, these technologies provide a powerful and rapid tool for identifying the genetic basis of agriculturally important traits and for predicting the breeding value of individuals in a plant breeding population. Here we summarize current trends and future prospects for utilizing NGS-based technologies to develop crops with improved trait performance and increase the efficiency of modern plant breeding. It is our hope that the application of NGS technologies to plant breeding will help us to meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population. © 2014 Varshney et al.


Bekki K.,University of Western Australia | Tsujimoto T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We adopt a new chemical evolution model for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and thereby investigate its past star formation and chemical enrichment histories. The delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae recently revealed by Type Ia supernova surveys is incorporated self-consistently into the new model. The principle results are summarized as follows. The present gas mass fraction and stellar metallicity as well as the higher [Ba/Fe] in metal-poor stars at [Fe/H] < -1.5 can be more self-consistently explained by models with steeper initial mass functions. The observed higher [Mg/Fe] (≥0.3) at [Fe/H] ∼ -0.6 and higher [Ba/Fe] (>0.5) at [Fe/H] ∼ -0.3 could be due to significantly enhanced star formation about 2 Gyr ago. The observed overall [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation and remarkably low [Ca/Fe] (< - 0.2) at [Fe/H] > -0.6 are consistent with models with short-delay supernova Ia and with the more efficient loss of Ca possibly caused by an explosion mechanism of Type II supernovae. Although the metallicity distribution functions do not show double peaks in the models with a starburst about 2 Gyr ago, they show characteristic double peaks in the models with double starbursts ∼200 Myr and ∼2 Gyr ago. The observed apparent dip of [Fe/H] around ∼1.5 Gyr ago in the age-metallicity relation can be reproduced by models in which a large amount (∼109 M⊙) of metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) gas can be accreted onto the LMC. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Forrester J.V.,University of Aberdeen | Forrester J.V.,University of Western Australia
Eye (Basingstoke) | Year: 2013

Inflammation, in the pathogenesis of many diseases previously thought to be strictly genetic, degenerative, metabolic, or endocrinologic in aetiology, has gradually entered the framework of a general mechanism of disease. This is exemplified by conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and the more recently described Metabolic Syndrome. Chronic inflammatory processes have a significant, if not primary role, in ophthalmic diseases, particularly in retinal degenerative diseases. However, inflammation itself is not easy to define, and some aspects of inflammation may be beneficial, in a process described as 'para-inflammation' by Medhzitov. In contrast, the damaging effects of inflammation, mediated by pro-inflammatory macrophages through activation of the intracellular protein-signalling complexes, termed inflammasomes, are well recognised and are important therapeutic targets. In this review, the range of inflammatory processes in the eye is evaluated in the context of how these processes impact upon retinal degenerative disease, particularly diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Bekki K.,University of Western Australia | Tsujimoto T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2011

Recent observational studies have revealed that the Galactic bulge has cylindrical rotation and a steeper vertical metallicity gradient. We adopt two representative models for the bulge formation and thereby investigate whether the two models can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient in a self-consistent manner. One is the 'pure disc scenario' (PDS) in which the bulge is formed from a pure thin stellar disc through spontaneous bar instability. The other is the 'two-component disc scenario' (TCDS) in which the bulge is formed from a disc composed of thin and thick discs through bar instability. Our numerical simulations show that although the PDS can reproduce the cylindrical rotation, it shows a rather flatter vertical metallicity gradient that is inconsistent with observations. The derived flatter metallicity gradient is due to the vertical mixing of stars with different initial metallicities by the stellar bar. This result implies that the bulge cannot be simply formed from a pure thin stellar disc. On the other hand, the bulge formed from the two-component disc in the TCDS can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient of the Galactic bulge reasonably well. In the TCDS, more metal-poor stars at higher |z| (vertical distance), which originate from the already dynamically hotter thick disc, cannot be strongly influenced by vertical mixing of the bar so that they can stayin situfor longer time-scales and thus keep the lower metallicity at higher |z|. Consequently, the vertical metallicity gradient of the bulge composed of initially thin and thick disc stars cannot be so flattened, even if the gradient of the thin disc can be flattened significantly by the bar in the TCDS. We therefore suggest that a significant fraction of the present Galactic bulge is composed of stars initially in the inner part of the thick disc and thus that these bulge stars and the thick disc have a common origin. We also suggest that the Galaxy might well have experienced some merger events that could dynamically heat up its inner regions until ~10 Gyr ago. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.


Attwood P.V.,University of Western Australia | Wieland T.,University of Heidelberg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Like phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in many organisms, reversible histidine phosphorylation is a well-known regulatory signal in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. In vertebrates, phosphohistidine has been mainly described as a phosphorylated intermediate in enzymatic reactions, and it was believed that regulatory histidine phosphorylation is of minor importance. During the last decade, it became evident however, that nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), an ubiquitously expressed enzyme required for nucleotide homeostasis, can additionally act as a protein histidine kinase. Especially for the isoform NDPK B, at least three defined substrates, the β subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gβ), the intermediate conductance potassium channel KCa3.1, and the Ca2+-conducting TRP channel family member, TRPV5, have been identified. In all three proteins, the phosphorylation of a specific histidine residue is of regulatory importance for protein function, and these phosphohistidines are cleaved by a counteracting 14 kDa phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHP). This article will therefore give an overview of our current knowledge on protein histidine phosphorylation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes and compare it with the regulatory phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of histidine residues in vertebrates by NDPK and PHP, respectively. © Springer-Verlag 2014.


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Dimmitt S.B.,University of Western Australia
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Introduction: In 2008, the US FDA required all new glucose-lowering therapies to show cardiovascular safety, and this applies to the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors ('gliptins'). Areas covered: The cardiovascular safety trials of saxagliptin and alogliptin have recently been published and are the subject of this evaluation. Expert opinion: The Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53 trial and Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin versus Standard of Care were both multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase IV clinical trials. These trials showed that saxagliptin and alogliptin did not increase the primary end point, which was a composite of cardiovascular outcomes that did not include hospitalisations for heart failure. However, saxagliptin significantly increased hospitalisation for heart failure, which was a component of the secondary end point. The effect of alogliptin on hospitalisations for heart failure has not been reported. Neither agent improved cardiovascular outcomes. As there is no published evidence of improved outcomes with gliptins, it is unclear to us why these agents are so widely available for use. We suggest that the use of gliptins be restricted to Phase IV clinical trials until such time as cardiovascular safety and benefits/superiority are clearly established. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: STFC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 1.32M | Year: 2012

Doctoral Training Partnerships: a range of postgraduate training is funded by the Research Councils. For information on current funding routes, see the common terminology at www.rcuk.ac.uk/StudentshipTerminology. Training grants may be to one organisation or to a consortia of research organisations. This portal will show the lead organisation only.


News Article | October 30, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

Proposals to allow increased fishing in Australian waters would generate minuscule economic benefits to only a handful of licence holders, according to a new analysis. The Ocean Science Council of Australia, an independent group of researchers, has criticised a government review that recommended significant cuts to marine reserves. The group says the review would expand the use of destructive fishing practices. The group has written to the federal environment minister, Josh Frydenberg, asking him to reject the report’s recommendations and instead expand marine protections in line with recent moves by the US, UK, New Zealand and the international community. In 2012 the Labor government announced a network of 42 marine reserves around Australia. But when the Coalition took power in 2013, the then prime minister, Tony Abbott, suspended their implementation, saying he did not want to “lock up our oceans”, and announced another long review process. The review was completed this year and released in September. It recommended large reductions in areas categorised as “marine national park zones” which ban all fishing as well as many other degraded environmental protections. It recommended an overall expansion of areas with some level of protection, but Jessica Meeuwig, from the University of Western Australia, a signatory on the letter, said that was just “smoke and mirrors” since most lower-protection areas had relatively little conservation value. Hardest hit was the Coral Sea, where 15,000 sq km was set to lose its highest-protection status, and fishing practices known to be incompatible with conservation values were set to be expanded. In the detailed analysis commissioned by the Save Our Marine Life Alliance, researchers found many of the erosions of protections resulted in tiny economic benefits to very small numbers of fishers. The review recommended doubling the area open to gillnet fishing around the Northern Territory, which would benefit the whole industry by just $300 a year. That would represent an average of $41 for each licence holder. South of the Great Barrier Reef, the review recommended allowing the expansion of pelagic longline fishing (long fishing lines that sit near the surface). That would benefit just 92 fishers to the tune of just $335 a year each. “The review has succumbed to narrow sectoral interests for marginal economic benefits,” said Meeuwig. The entire reduction of no-take zones in the Coral Sea, which amounts to a reduction twice the size of Tasmania, would mostly benefit the eastern tuna and billfish fishery, most of whose operation is outside the marine reserve. The researchers found the reduction in no-take zones would increase their catch by just 10%, which is less than the normal year-to-year fluctuation in the fishery. In the letter the scientists said: “Fragmenting Australia’s largest highly protected area to allow marginal commercial fishing is clearly at odds with supporting conservation outcomes.” The analysis also found the review was internally inconsistent, with many of its own scientific recommendations being ignored. The “expert science panel” in the report found that some forms of fishing – including pelagic longline fishing – were inconsistent with the conservation values of marine reserves. But regardless, the review recommended it be allowed in many areas, including a near doubling of the area in the Coral Sea where the practice is allowed. The scientific part of the report also found that no-take zones should be included in every reserve, as well as in each provincial bioregion. Despite that finding, the recommendations include a dozen reserves with no no-take zones. “What the minister needs to do is, rather than accepting recommendations from Abbott’s review that erode protections, is take the opportunity to expand it,” said Meeuwig. “There’s no uncertainty about this – that’s actually what needs to be done.”


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.sciencenews.org

WASHINGTON — In the short-term, ways to beat the heat are cool. But for desert birds, even simple panting or flying into the shade have some sneaky long-term costs. When male southern yellow-billed hornbills pant, they’re less able to snap up food, Susan Cunningham reported August 18 at the North American Ornithological Conference. The hornbills are the third bird species that Cunningham, of the University of Cape Town in South Africa, and various colleagues have shown face hidden costs of trying not to overheat. Birds certainly have ways to ease the immediate dangers of heat. But determining the full consequences of all those small accommodations becomes more urgent as the climate changes. Yellow-billed hornbills (Tockus leucomelas) could be especially vulnerable to hidden costs of heat because males become the sole provisioners of their families during breeding season. A female walls herself and her eggs into a cavity (or a research nest box), leaving open a hole big enough only for her mate to poke food through. In southern Africa’s Kalahari region, a female may stay walled in the cavity for a month or more, leaving the male to scour hot, dry land for her food, his own and eventually, the chicks’. During bouts of panting, males caught less food than they did in minutes before or after while not panting, Cunningham’s student Tanja van de Ven has found. A specially rigged perch on nest boxes registered a male’s weight every time he landed on it. When the temperature rose above 36.5° Celsius, males typically failed to maintain weight, raising concerns about their ability to care not only for themselves, but for dependents, too. Cunningham had already seen costs of chronic panting in another Kalahari species, the southern pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). A population of these social birds had become blasé about nearby scientists taking notes thanks to patient effort by Amanda Ridley of the University of Western Australia in Crawley. The birds even hopped onto a portable scale, allowing weight monitoring in the field. Ridley, Cunningham and other babbler chroniclers found that on hot days, the birds persevered in foraging but caught less for their effort. As temperatures rose above 35.5° C, the scales showed that birds were struggling to maintain body weight. Typically they lost more weight overnight than they could make up during a day, the team reported in 2012 Even a cooling strategy as simple as taking shelter in the shade can cut into a bird’s ability to collect resources in arid lands. Southern fiscals (Lanius collaris), chunky predators with fierce bills, prefer high, sunny perches from which to scan for the rodents and insects they attack in lightning-bolt dives. As the Kalahari’s temperatures rose, these birds spent more and more time on shady perches, usually lower to the ground. The birds didn’t catch as much from such spots, the researchers found, and growth slowed among younger chicks when parents had to hunt from substandard posts. Each day with a temperature above 35° C kept chicks in the nests a half day longer. That’s perilous, Cunningham and colleagues argued in a 2013 report on fiscals. The risk that predators will scavenge a nest, or it will fail in some other way, increases 4 percent for every day the chicks remain in it. Uncovering the downsides of such simple behaviors “is pretty cool,” said Blair Wolf of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. Birds can’t sweat, he pointed out, and the many species that pant as a cooldown technique have to compensate for the water lost in the process. Birds let their body temperatures rise to heights that would cook a human, and Wolf’s work has shown that this tolerance lessens water loss. Whether there are some hidden costs to this heat-fighting measure, as there are to panting and shade-seeking, remains to be seen. Editor’s note: This story was updated August 26, 2016, to correct the description of the predation risk faced by the fiscals.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Learning how termites extract and synthesize a specific sound/vibration signal amidst a cacophony of other sounds could lead to advances in technologies based on acoustic signatures Termites and ants are mortal enemies, their predator-prey relationship dating back into the Miocene. Both armies, if they come into contact, will fight to the death. Yet termites, despite being sightless, carry out their work within millimetres of ant nests thanks to an incredible talent. University of New South Wales (Canberra) researchers Sebastian Oberst (now Senior Lecturer at the newly founded Centre for Audio, Acoustic & Vibration at the University of Technology, Sydney) and Professor Joseph Lai (UNSW Canberra), with colleagues Dr Glen Bann (Australian National University) and Associate Professor Theo Evans (University of Western Australia), have discovered termites' astonishing ability to detect predatory ants and dodge them based on substrate vibrations of their footsteps. Experiments in the lab and in the field showed that termites eavesdrop on the micro-vibrations made when ants move around, rather than on chemical signals. According to Dr Oberst, termites are up to 100 times 'quieter' than their predators, almost tiptoeing while trotting along. The signals of walking ants seem more like 'stomps'. "Termites eavesdrop in order to keep track of exactly where ants are and what they are doing," says Dr Oberst who, during the project, was a Research Associate at UNSW Canberra. "We knew they were spying on the ants' chemical or acoustic signals, but we didn't know which, until now." Dr Oberst conducted experiments in the labs of CSIRO Black Mountain in Canberra before designing a highly sensitive vibration setup within the anechoic chamber at UNSW Canberra to record sounds of ants and termites walking. "Our task was to measure miniscule vibrations caused by the footsteps of insects with a weight of only a few milligrams. I had to enter an anechoic room which absorbed all sound reflections and that was decoupled from the building, but still we picked up vibrations from people in the building," he explains. "We had to decouple the equipment within the room. The vibration of some termite species are so tiny that you wouldn't feel them walking on your skin." "We discovered termites are quieter than ants, although there is one specific type of ant that hunts on its own, therefore has to be quiet. It is almost as silent as termites. Interestingly, another termite species that specialises in stealing food of other termites is also much quieter than its host." Why is this knowledge important? Learning how termites extract and synthesise a specific sound/vibration signal amidst a cacophony of other sounds could lead to advances in technologies based on acoustic signatures, Dr Oberst says. Termites are highly cryptic masters of surveillance and concealment. Those in defence and counter-espionage could learn from their unique skills, the researchers say. The pest control industry could be turned on its head if this knowledge can be commercialised. Chemical-based, toxic pest control methods could become a thing of the past if ant and termite acoustic signatures could be understood and used to control infestations. Further research must be conducted to crack the secret code of termites. The research, published in Ecology Letters, was supported by the Australian Research Council.


Armstrong M.J.,University of Birmingham | Adams L.A.,University of Western Australia | Canbay A.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Syn W.-K.,Institute of Hepatology | Syn W.-K.,Barts Health NHS Trust
Hepatology | Year: 2014

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. In the last decade, it has become apparent that the clinical burden of NAFLD is not restricted to liver-related morbidity or mortality, and the majority of deaths in NAFLD patients are related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. These findings have fuelled concerns that NAFLD may be a new, and added risk factor for extrahepatic diseases such as CVD, chronic kidney disease (CKD), colorectal cancer, endocrinopathies (including type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] and thyroid dysfunction), and osteoporosis. In this review we critically appraise key studies on NAFLD-associated extrahepatic disease. There was marked heterogeneity between studies in study design (cross-sectional versus prospective; sample size; presence/absence of well-defined controls), population (ethnic diversity; community-based versus hospital-based cohorts), and method of NAFLD diagnosis (liver enzymes versus imaging versus biopsy). Taking this into account, the cumulative evidence to date suggests that individuals with NAFLD (specifically, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) harbor an increased and independent risk of developing CVD, T2DM, CKD, and colorectal neoplasms. We propose future studies are necessary to better understand these risks, and suggest an example of a screening strategy. (Hepatology 2014;59:1174-1197) © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Pirajno F.,University of Western Australia | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

The formation and disruption of supercontinents exert major influence on mantle dynamics and have important bearing on continental dynamics and mineral systems. Here we evaluate the role of mantle plumes in the rifting and breakup of supercontinents with specific examples involving Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. We attempt to trace the formation of associated rift systems and the making of mineral deposits in the processes from failed rifts (aulacogens) to successful rifts. Models on the rifting and breakup of supercontinents through mantle upwellings range from 'thermal blanket' effect and supercontinent self-destruction through plumes rising from the mantle transition zone at the 410-660. km boundary layer to superplumes generated at the core-mantle boundary with subducted slabs acting as the fuel. Intracontinental rifts are potential sites of giant ore systems, such as sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), stratiform, stratabound and Fe oxide-Cu-Au-U (IOCG) deposits. The age span of these ore systems (~1.6-0.8. Ga) broadly corresponds with the assembly and dispersal of the Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia, followed by the amalgamation of the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and its subsequent breakup. The Phanerozoic Pangea supercontinent at 260. Ma had two main components, Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south, separated by the Palaeotethys Ocean. We focus on the rifting of Gondwana, which led to the formation of present day Atlantic and Indian oceans. Thus, rift systems effectively act as major conduits for both magmas and hydrothermal fluids. Intracontinental rifts host magmatic and hydrothermal mineral deposits including Ni-Cu and Ti-Fe±V and Cu-Ni±PGE deposits in mantle-sourced mafic-ultramafic rocks, U-REE-Nb-Cu sourced from metasomatised subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and hydrothermal Sn-W, among other types. Upwelling plumes and their migration beneath trans-crustal faults or lithospheric discontinuities drive hydrothermal factories channelling heat and fluids and generating economic ore deposits. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Marano R.J.,Ear Science Institute Australia | Marano R.J.,University of Western Australia | Ben-Jonathan N.,University of Cincinnati
Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Prolactin (PRL) is an important hormone with many diverse functions. Although it is predominantly produced by lactrotrophs of the pituitary there are a number of other organs, cells, and tissues in which PRL is expressed and secreted. The impact of this extrapituitary PRL (ePRL) on localized metabolism and cellular functions is gaining widespread attention. In 1996, a comprehensive review on ePRL was published. However, since this time, there have been a number of advancements in ePRL research. This includes a greater understanding of the components of the control elements located within the superdistal promoter of the ePRL gene. Furthermore, several new sites of ePRL have been discovered, each under unique control by a range of transcription factors and elements. The functional role of ePRL at each of the expression sites also varies widely leading to gender and site bias. This review aims to provide an update to the research conducted on ePRL since the 1996 review. The focus is on new data concerning the sites of ePRL expression, its regulation, and its function within the organs in which it is expressed. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.


Van Aken O.,University of Western Australia | Van Breusegem F.,Ghent University
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial in plant organogenesis and survival. In this review the involvement of mitochondria and chloroplasts in PCD execution is critically assessed. Recent findings support a central role for mitochondria in PCD, with newly identified components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), FOF1 ATP synthase, cardiolipins, and ATPase AtOM66. While chloroplasts received less attention, their contribution to PCD is well supported, suggesting that they possibly contribute by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of light or even contribute through cytochrome f release. Finally we discuss two working models where mitochondria and chloroplasts could cooperatively execute PCD: mitochondria initiate the commitment steps and recruit chloroplasts for swift execution or, alternatively, mitochondria and chloroplasts could operate in parallel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Rouse G.W.,University of California at San Diego | Wilson N.G.,University of California at San Diego | Wilson N.G.,University of Western Australia | Carvajal J.I.,University of California at San Diego | Vrijenhoek R.C.,Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Nature | Year: 2016

The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey. They were then considered deuterostomes. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs (=Xenacoelomorpha) as sister to all other Bilateria (=Nephrozoa), or placed Xenacoelomorpha inside Deuterostomia with Ambulacraria (Hemichordata + Echinodermata). Here we describe four new species of Xenoturbella and reassess those hypotheses. A large species (>20 cm long) was found at cold-water hydrocarbon seeps at 2,890 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California (Mexico). A second large species (∼10 cm long) also occurred at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California. The third large species (∼15 cm long) was found at ∼3,700 m depth near a newly discovered carbonate-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Gulf of California. Finally, a small species (∼2.5 cm long), found near a whale carcass at 631 m depth in Monterey Submarine Canyon (California), resembles the two nominal species from Sweden. Analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes places the three larger species as a sister clade to the smaller Atlantic and Pacific species. Phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomic sequences support placement of Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa or Protostomia. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Kuzenko S.M.,University of Western Australia | Sorokin D.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

With the motivation to develop superconformal field theory on S3, we introduce a 2n-extended supersphere S3|4n, with n = 1, 2, …, as a homogeneous space of the three-dimensional Euclidean superconformal group OSp(2n|2, 2) such that its bosonic body is S3. Supertwistor and bi-supertwistor realizations of S3|4n are derived. We study in detail the n = 1 case, which is unique in the sense that the R-symmetry subgroup SO*(2n) of the superconformal group is compact only for n = 1. In particular, we show that the OSp(2|2, 2) transformations preserve the chiral subspace of S3|4. Several supercoset realizations of S3|4n are presented. Harmonic/projective extensions of the supersphere by auxiliary bosonic fibre directions are sketched. © The Authors.


Asseng S.,University of Florida | Asseng S.,CSIRO | Pannell D.J.,University of Western Australia
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

The Western Australian wheat-belt has experienced more rainfall decline than any other wheat-cropping region in Australia. Future climate change scenarios suggest that the Western Australian wheat-belt is likely to see greater future reductions in rainfall than other regions, together with a further increase in temperatures. While these changes appear adverse for water-limited rain-fed agriculture, a close analysis of the changes and their impacts reveals a more complex story. Twentieth century changes in rainfall, temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration have had little or no overall impact on wheat yields. Changes in agricultural technology and farming systems have had much larger impacts. Contrary to some claims, there is no scientific or economic justification for any immediate actions by farmers to adapt to long-term climate change in the Western Australian wheat-belt, beyond normal responses to short-term variations in weather. Rather than promoting current change, the most important policy response is research and development to enable farmers to facilitate future adaptation to climate change. Research priorities are proposed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tonts M.,University of Western Australia | Taylor M.,University of Birmingham
Urban Studies | Year: 2010

The paper examines the geography of corporate headquarters in the Australian urban system, giving consideration to their location, control of capital and performance. The paper argues that, while considerable recent attention has been given to global cities in the networks of corporate power, the spatial organisation of company headquarters remains important within national urban systems. In the case of Australia, Sydney and Melbourne dominate the corporate landscape, although the smaller cities of Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth occupy important niches. The paper demonstrates that there are clear variations in the relative performance of companies across the Australian urban system. There is also a pattern of sectoral specialisation within Australia's cities which, in part, helps to explain the different development trajectories and relative levels of corporate performance. The paper concludes by exploring some of the implications of the study for the understanding of urban systems. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.


Pirajno F.,University of Western Australia | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2014

The central-east Eurasia region comprising the Siberian Craton, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Tarim and Sino-Korean cratonic blocks bordered by the Phanerozoic Tethysides, Qinling and SE Asian orogenic belts preserve important imprints of geodynamic processes associated with the formation of continental crust and associated mineral deposits, as well as the assembly and dispersal of supercontinents. From a comprehensive overview of the geologic, geochronologic and metallogenic history of Central-East Eurasia, as well as the recent conceptual models on plate and plume tectonics, we demonstrate that intraplate tectonics, particularly those driven by plumes, exerted an important control on mantle dynamics, magmatic pulses, and the formation of a variety of mineral systems of economic significance. Models of mantle dynamics that attempt to explain intraplate magmatism invoke mantle plumes, various forms of lithospheric delamination, slab roll-back, stagnant slab subduction and hot trans-lithospheric strike-slip fault zones. We confirm that many of the features previously ascribed to subduction-related systems could be well explained by post-collisional intracontinental and extensional settings suggesting that intraplate tectonics played a key role in the secular evolution of the magmatic and metallogenic systems in the Eurasian region.In this contribution, we provide an overview of the general geology and tectonic framework of central-east Eurasia, including the Siberian Craton, the western-Siberian Lowlands, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and the Tarim-North China cratonic blocks. This is followed by a discussion and brief description of the rift systems and associated intraplate magmatism of central-east Eurasia, culminating with the giant Siberian rifts and large igneous province Lake Baikal rift system.We then describe a selection of mineral systems that are unquestionably attributed to intraplate tectono-magmatic processes. These mineral systems include: the Ni-Cu-PGE deposits of Noril'sk-Talnakh, Jinchuan, and those associated with zoned mafic-ultramafic intrusions in NW China, and alkaline-peralkaline complexes, carbonatites and kimberlites in Siberia. In the last part of the paper, we provide an overview of mantle dynamics, for which we consider mantle plumes arising from the core-mantle boundary, asthenospheric mantle upwellings due to delamination, lithospheric thinning and/or subduction slab break-off, asthenospheric upwellings due to flat slab settings and those related to translithospheric strike-slip tectonics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Graham N.A.J.,James Cook University | Jennings S.,Center for Environment | Jennings S.,University of East Anglia | MacNeil M.A.,James Cook University | And 5 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Climate-induced coral bleaching is among the greatest current threats to coral reefs, causing widespread loss of live coral cover. Conditions under which reefs bounce back from bleaching events or shift from coral to algal dominance are unknown, making it difficult to predict and plan for differing reef responses under climate change. Here we document and predict long-term reef responses to a major climate-induced coral bleaching event that caused unprecedented region-wide mortality of Indo-Pacific corals. Following loss of >90% live coral cover, 12 of 21 reefs recovered towards pre-disturbance live coral states, while nine reefs underwent regime shifts to fleshy macroalgae. Functional diversity of associated reef fish communities shifted substantially following bleaching, returning towards pre-disturbance structure on recovering reefs, while becoming progressively altered on regime shifting reefs. We identified threshold values for a range of factors that accurately predicted ecosystem response to the bleaching event. Recovery was favoured when reefs were structurally complex and in deeper water, when density of juvenile corals and herbivorous fishes was relatively high and when nutrient loads were low. Whether reefs were inside no-take marine reserves had no bearing on ecosystem trajectory. Although conditions governing regime shift or recovery dynamics were diverse, pre-disturbance quantification of simple factors such as structural complexity and water depth accurately predicted ecosystem trajectories. These findings foreshadow the likely divergent but predictable outcomes for reef ecosystems in response to climate change, thus guiding improved management and adaptation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Bel E.H.,University of Amsterdam | Wenzel S.E.,University of Pittsburgh | Thompson P.J.,Lung Institute of Western Australia | Thompson P.J.,University of Western Australia | And 5 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Many patients with severe asthma require regular treatment with oral glucocorticoids despite the use of high-dose inhaled therapy. However, the regular use of systemic glucocorticoids can result in serious and often irreversible adverse effects. Mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates interleukin-5, has been shown to reduce asthma exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial involving 135 patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, we compared the glucocorticoid-sparing effect of mepolizumab (at a dose of 100 mg) with that of placebo administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 20 weeks. The primary outcome was the degree of reduction in the glucocorticoid dose (90 to 100% reduction, 75 to less than 90% reduction, 50 to less than 75% reduction, more than 0 to less than 50% reduction, or no decrease in oral glucocorticoid dose, a lack of asthma control during weeks 20 to 24, or withdrawal from treatment). Other outcomes included the rate of asthma exacerbations, asthma control, and safety. Results: The likelihood of a reduction in the glucocorticoid-dose stratum was 2.39 times greater in the mepolizumab group than in the placebo group (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.56; P = 0.008). The median percentage reduction from baseline in the glucocorticoid dose was 50% in the mepolizumab group, as compared with no reduction in the placebo group (P = 0.007). Despite receiving a reduced glucocorticoid dose, patients in the mepolizumab group, as compared with those in the placebo group, had a relative reduction of 32% in the annualized rate of exacerbations (1.44 vs. 2.12, P = 0.04) and a reduction of 0.52 points with respect to asthma symptoms (P = 0.004), as measured on the Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 (in which the minimal clinically important difference is 0.5 points). The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that of placebo. Conclusions: In patients requiring daily oral glucocorticoid therapy to maintain asthma control, mepolizumab had a significant glucocorticoid-sparing effect, reduced exacerbations, and improved control of asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Blair E.M.,University of Western Australia | Nelson K.B.,Childrens National Medical Center | Nelson K.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2015

Objective The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of etiological paths to cerebral palsy (CP) that include fetal growth restriction by examining factors associated with growth restriction that modify CP risk. Study Design In a total population of singletons born at or after 35 weeks, there were 493 children with CP and 508 matched controls for whom appropriateness of fetal growth could be estimated. Fetal growth was considered markedly restricted if birthweight was more than 2 SD below optimal for gender, gestation, maternal height, and parity. We examined maternal blood pressure in pregnancy, smoking, birth asphyxia, and major birth defects recognized by age 6 years as potential modifiers of CP risk in growth-restricted births. Results More than 80% of term and late preterm markedly growth-restricted singletons were born following a normotensive pregnancy and were at statistically significantly increased risk of CP (odds ratio, 4.81; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-8.5), whereas growth-restricted births following a hypertensive pregnancy were not. Neither a clinical diagnosis of birth asphyxia nor potentially asphyxiating birth events occurred more frequently among growth-restricted than among appropriately grown infants with CP. Major birth defects, particularly cerebral defects, occurred in an increasing proportion of CP with increasing growth deficit. The factor most predictive of CP in growth-restricted singletons was a major birth defect, present in 53% of markedly growth-restricted neonates with later CP. Defects observed in CP were similar whether growth restricted or not, except for an excess of isolated congenital microcephaly in those born growth restricted. The highest observed CP risk was in infants with both growth restriction and a major birth defect (8.9% of total CP in this gestational age group, 0.4% of controls: odds ratio, 30.9; 95% confidence interval, 7.0-136). Conclusion The risk of CP was increased in antenatally growth-restricted singletons born at or near term to normotensive mothers. In growth-restricted singletons, a major birth defect was the dominant predictor, associated with a 30-fold increase in odds of CP. Identification of birth defects in the growth-restricted fetus or neonate may provide significant prognostic information. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Usadel K.D.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Stamps R.L.,University of Western Australia
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

The effect of interface magnetic dilution on exchange bias is studied with extensive Monte Carlo simulations for a model system consisting of a ferromagnetic layer exchange coupled to a diluted antiferromagnet. The dependence of the exchange bias fields on properties of the ferromagnetic interface layer are identified with particular emphasis on magnetic dilution and bond distribution effects across the interface. It is shown that some dilution of the ferromagnetic interface layer can lead to an increase in the bias field magnitude, even though the net exchange interaction across the interface is reduced. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Patent
University of British Columbia, University of Western Australia and Forest Products Commission | Date: 2015-02-20

An isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a terpene synthase and is selected from among: a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising the sequence of nucleotides set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3 or SEQ ID NO: 5; b) a nucleic acid molecule that is a fragment of (a); c) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a sequence of nucleotides that is complementary to (a) or (b); and d) a nucleic acid molecule that encodes a terpene synthase having at least or at least about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identity to any one of (a)-(c); wherein the nucleic acid molecule encodes a terpene synthase.


Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid al Maktoum Award for Medical Sciences recently announced in Dubai that Dr. Graham Forward from Australia, is a winner of the Hamdan Award for Volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services. The Patron of the Award, H.H. Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid al Maktoum, Deputy Ruler of Dubai, and the UAE Minister of Finance, will honor Dr. Forward in a grand ceremony to be held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on 14 December, alongside with 14 personalities and organizations from USA, UK, France, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Morocco. "In 2005, and in response to the emergency medical requirements resulting from the 2004 tsunami, Dr. Graham Forward established the "Australian Doctors for Africa" organization (ADFA). The organization provides volunteering orthopaedic medical teams to furnish medical assistance and support to communities in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Tulear (Madagascar) and Hargeisa in Somaliland", according to the report that was recently issued by Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid al Maktoum Award for Medical Sciences. "To this initial specialty service, Gastroenterology, Urology, Paediatrics and Cardiology services have now been added to the activities of his organization", the report mentioned. Notably, Dr. Graham Forward completed his medical training at the University of Western Australia in 1986 and pursued his postgraduate studies in orthopedics. He has been a practicing orthopaedic surgeon in Western Australia in both the private and the public sectors, which involved working with indigenous communities in Broome, Derby and Christmas Islands. Beside Dr. Graham Forward, the Hamdan Award for Volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services has been bestowed upon two other winners namely; the Emirates Airlines Foundation from the United Arab Emirates, and the MSF foundation, France. Throughout the various terms of Hamdan Medical Award, the Hamdan International Award for Volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services has been awarded, with a total value of AED 300,000 per term, to personalities or organizations, doctors or others, who provide important humanitarian services. This type of the Awards is dedicated to those who significantly contribute to alleviating the suffering of a large number of human beings subjected to exceptional circumstances such as epidemics, famine, wars and natural disasters. Since its establishment till now, the Hamdan International Award for Volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services has been awarded to 28 personalities and organizations from all over the world.


News Article | August 22, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

Travel abroad as a graduate student, postdoc or visiting researcher can be daunting. You may be blindsided by cultural values and behavioural protocols that are vastly different from those of your home country, and snags may arise over tacit conventions on what to say and how to act, both in and out of the workplace. Preparation is key if you want to avoid gaffes and missteps. So before you leave, consult websites and books such as the Culture Shock! series (published by Marshall Cavendish). That way, you'll be able to familiarize yourself with the mores of your host nation and learn, for example, how people greet one another (see 'Proper introductions'), manage conflict and share lab resources. Once abroad, chat often with colleagues and others, both in the lab and outside, and socialize whenever possible. This will help your colleagues warm to you. It can also help you to distinguish individual personality traits from broad cultural tendencies. Whatever your approach, making an effort to respect your host country's culture builds goodwill. “They don't mind if you make mistakes,” says Adrian Moore, a British team leader at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) in Saitama, Japan. “There's one rule for foreigners and another for the Japanese.” Many nations, particularly those in northern Europe, use direct communication styles, which can feel jarring to people from other cultures. Amanda Henry, a physical anthropologist from the United States, was taken aback by frank comments from German colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. Technicians in her lab told her candidly about the 30 or more attempts they had already made to identify an experimental contaminant. “It was, 'We tried this and it didn't work. We tried this and it didn't work,' over and over, without trying to sugarcoat it or focus on fixing it, as Americans would do,” Henry says. Her words of encouragement were met with stiffened bodies and a reply that they weren't upset. “I had totally read an emotional response into something that was entirely rote for them,” she says. “Now I try to hear what is there, rather than interpret — and I usually ask for feedback.” Seeking the opinions of others becomes especially important in cultures where people tend to communicate indirectly in the lab. Despina Goniotaki, a neuroscience PhD student from Greece, learnt that she had to deliberately reach out to Swiss colleagues at the University Hospital Zurich for advice. They were hesitant to give potentially negative yet possibly crucial feedback. “I presented my first cell-surface biotinylation study during an official lab meeting, but I had to arrange a meeting afterwards with a postdoc about what else to try.” Direct communication is one thing; expression of emotion is another. Lisandra Zepeda, a bioinformatics graduate student at the University of Copenhagen who is from Mexico, recalls her surprise when a Dane who had lost essential computer data merely frowned and said: “OK, I'll think about what to do next.” “Somebody in Mexico would scream 'Ah!', but she just kept quiet,” Zepeda says. Reserved cultures can seem unfriendly to researchers from countries where people wear their feelings on their sleeves. Goniotaki, who is finishing her fifth year in Switzerland, says the lack of reaction when she grumbled or talked excitedly about experiments during breaks has meant that she speaks up less nowadays. “I would get indirect comments about how sometimes I would overreact about things that lab mates considered not so important,” she says. She has developed friendships with Swiss people, but prefers to use exercise or playing the piano when she feels the need to vent frustrations. Finding the right outlet to meet personal and professional needs also helps when dealing with challenges that relate to hierarchy. Developmental neuroscientist Douglas Campbell at the RIKEN BSI recalls that a graduate student's practice talk for a thesis defence livened up after the principal investigator left. Until that point, his colleagues had felt inhibited because of Japan's emphasis on seniority. “The lab members then shared their opinions for several hours,” says Campbell, who is now a visiting scientist at the Technical University of Munich. Other potential stumbling blocks include expectations about boundaries — both literal and figurative — between personal and professional life. Kelsey Glennon, a US population geneticist at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, found that she had to ask her students not to stand so close to her. “They're good at accommodating for my American sense of personal space and laugh about this,” she says. Shira Raveh-Rubin, an Israeli postdoc at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, was taken aback when she mentioned her children to lab mates and an awkward silence ensued. She eventually found some Swiss colleagues who were more receptive to family-oriented conversations, and who shared their own stories when she mentioned family matters. “I found that if I don't open up, then I become depressed,” she says. “You have to respect others, but still really be yourself.” Cultural differences may be much less obvious, and awkward, in a large international lab: expectations for newcomers may be looser, and colleagues more accommodating, than is often the case in a lab where most people belong to the same culture. Dulce Vargas Landín, a Mexico City native and PhD student at the University of Western Australia in Perth, is now on her third overseas venture; her current lab mates hail from Croatia, India, Vietnam, Italy and Brazil, among other places. She says that their diverse approaches balance out individual differences, such as those relating to the expression of strong feelings. “It's a good result when the lab is heterogeneous,” she says. “Not too much drama and you get work done.” Junior scientists can evaluate potential labs through study-abroad programmes such as EuroScholars, or through summer programmes or internships at institutions such as the RIKEN BSI and the Technion Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa. Graduate students, postdocs and visiting researchers can also find out beforehand whether their prospective principal investigator has worked abroad — a plus. “[Those who have] learn how to deal with different personalities and cultural backgrounds,” Vargas Landín says. For instance, during a lab presentation, her Australian leader redirected questions from a German colleague that Vargas Landín suspects were becoming too narrowly focused. Once you're in your new country, it can be useful to have a cultural adviser, such as a language coach, who can help you to understand what sorts of issues could affect your relationships, and what people are likely to expect of you. Your institution may set you up with such an adviser in your host nation. You should also aim to befriend a local colleague who can fill that role. But if you find yourself clashing with someone, it's best to speak first with the person directly concerned instead of turning to other people. That's the advice of Anne Copeland, a clinical psychologist in Boston, Massachusetts, who helps those who live and work in unfamiliar cultures. “We jump to blaming a person's character,” she says. “That's too bad, because often it's a learned cultural difference.” Socializing with colleagues outside the lab can often provide insight into how people interact and help you to understand how, and when, to recalibrate your behaviour. For example, you might join in at the tea breaks that serve as social glue at many research institutions in the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. Jonah Choiniere, a palaeontologist from the United States who is a faculty member at the University of the Witwatersrand, initially struggled with the idea of stopping work for morning teas. But he has come to appreciate them in the past four years. “It is an effective way to disseminate information and remain on good footing with your colleagues,” he says. Shared lunch hours and breaks are commonplace in France, Australia and elsewhere, and after-hours gatherings occur regularly in Asian and other nations that favour formal work relationships. “You break the ice by going out drinking and to dinner,” says Moore, in Japan. “That's where they test you to find out who you really are.” He says that colleagues and senior researchers are more likely to tell you in these settings if there is something they are unhappy with you about — but that none of this should be discussed back at the lab. The reward for putting up with cultural friction away from home can be a more accepting approach to others when you return. These experiences can strengthen interpersonal and leadership skills. “Before I started travelling, I would have just gotten mad whenever there was a lab conflict,” Vargas Landín says. “Now, if someone is from a different culture and thinks there's a better way to do an experiment, I can give it a try. And maybe we'll discover a new way to do things in the end.”


Leffler J.,Lund University | Leffler J.,University of Western Australia | Bengtsson A.A.,Skåne University Hospital | Blom A.M.,Lund University
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

The complement system plays a major role in the autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the role of complement in SLE is complex since it may both prevent and exacerbate the disease. In this review, we explore the latest findings in complement-focused research in SLE. C1q deficiency is the strongest genetic risk factor for SLE, although such deficiency is very rare. Various recently discovered genetic associations include mutations in the complement receptors 2 and 3 as well as complement inhibitors, the latter related to earlier onset of nephritis. Further, autoantibodies are a distinct feature of SLE that are produced as the result of an adaptive immune response and how complement can affect that response is also being reviewed. SLE generates numerous disease manifestations involving contributions from complement such as glomerulonephritis and the increased risk of thrombosis. Furthermore, since most of the complement system is present in plasma, complement is very accessible and may be suitable as biomarker for diagnosis or monitoring of disease activity. This review highlights the many roles of complement for SLE pathogenesis and how research has progressed during recent years.


Urmee T.,Murdoch University | Harries D.,University of Western Australia
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

Large numbers of households in rural areas in Bangladesh have no access to electricity. Providing these households with electricity by extending the country's already overloaded grids is neither an economically nor a technically feasible option. Rural electrification strategies therefore, by necessity, need to rely on stand-alone generation systems. One of these is solar home systems (SHS) and the SHS program developed and implemented in Bangladesh has been highly successful, with very large numbers of rural households now participating in the program. What makes the program's success most remarkable is the fact that it targets households with very low incomes using a purely market-based approach. Those participating in the program pay the full, unsubsidised cost of their SHS using a micro-credit loan facility and are charged high interest rates. Understanding the reasons behind the success of the Bangladeshi program therefore holds potentially valuable lessons for SHS programs being implemented in other developing countries. A comprehensive qualitative and quantitative survey was used to find those factors perceived by program stakeholders as being most critical to the program's success to date and the factors considered most likely to impact on its future success. The two primary reasons for the program's success were perceived to be its strong focus on meeting householders' needs and on its ability to make the solar home systems as affordable as possible. The continued success of the program was considered likely to be determined by a variety of factors, including the ability of program implementers to control increases in the cost of SHS, to maintain the quality of SHS and components and to increase program loan recovery rates, the degree to which the program is integrated into national, energy policy, and the degree to which local banks become involved in the program. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lopresti A.L.,Murdoch University | Hood S.D.,University of Western Australia | Drummond P.D.,Murdoch University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Research on major depression has confirmed that it is caused by an array of biopsychosocial and lifestyle factors. Diet, exercise and sleep are three such influences that play a significant mediating role in the development, progression and treatment of this condition. This review summarises animal- and human-based studies on the relationship between these three lifestyle factors and major depressive disorder, and their influence on dysregulated pathways associated with depression: namely neurotransmitter processes, immuno-inflammatory pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems, neuroprogression, and mitochondrial disturbances. Increased attention in future clinical studies on the influence of diet, sleep and exercise on major depressive disorder and investigations of their effect on physiological processes will help to expand our understanding and treatment of major depressive disorder. Mental health interventions, taking into account the bidirectional relationship between these lifestyle factors and major depression are also likely to enhance the efficacy of interventions associated with this disorder. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Watson H.J.,Center for Clinical Interventions | Watson H.J.,Princess Margaret Hospital for Children | Watson H.J.,University of Western Australia | Bulik C.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Anorexia nervosa is a potentially deadly psychiatric illness that develops predominantly in females around puberty but is increasingly being recognized as also affecting boys and men and women across the lifespan. The aim of this environmental scan is to provide an overview of best practices in anorexia nervosa treatment across the age spectrum. Method A triangulation approach was used. First, a detailed review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for anorexia nervosa published between 1980 and 2011 was conducted; second, clinical practice guidelines were consulted and reviewed; third, information about RCTs currently underway was sourced. This approach facilitated a comprehensive overview, which addressed the extant evidence base, recent advances in evidence and improvements in treatment, and future directions. Results The evidence base for the treatment of anorexia nervosa is advancing, albeit unevenly. Evidence points to the benefit of family-based treatment for youth. For adults no specific approach has shown superiority and, presently, a combination of renourishment and psychotherapy such as specialist supportive clinical management, cognitive behavioral therapy, or interpersonal psychotherapy is recommended. RCTs have neither sufficiently addressed the more complex treatment approaches seen in routine practice settings, such as multidisciplinary treatment or level of care, nor specifically investigated treatment in ethnically diverse populations. Methodological challenges that hinder progress in controlled research for anorexia nervosa are explained. Conclusions The review highlights evidence-based and promising treatment modalities for anorexia nervosa and presents a triangulated analysis including controlled research, practice guidelines, and emerging treatments to inform and support clinical decision making. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Klemme I.,University of Jyväskylä | Firman R.C.,University of Western Australia
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2013

Sperm competition imposes strong selection on males to gain fertilizations and maximize paternity. Males have been shown to adapt to sperm competition by modifying their behaviour and/or reproductive physiology. We investigated the fitness effects of male responses to sperm competition in house mice, Mus domesticus. Males that had been evolving with (polygamy) and without (monogamy) sperm competition for 18 generations were subject to different frequencies of social encounters with conspecific males to generate a sperm competition 'risk' treatment and a 'no risk' treatment. After manipulation of their social environment for 15-22. days, males were forced to compete for fertilizations against a male with the same selection history that experienced no manipulation. We genotyped embryos at 16. days gestation to quantify paternity success, and thus the competitive ability, of the experimental males. While there was no treatment effect on mating behaviour and paternity success, males from polygamous lines had significantly increased mating duration and paternity success when positioned in the disfavoured role of the second male to mate. Thus, males that had evolved with sperm competition showed greater mating effort and fitness compared to males that had evolved without sperm competition. Whether this is due to a genetic divergence between the lines or a differential capacity of males with different selection histories to respond plastically to current levels of sperm competition remains to be tested. © 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.


Lopresti A.L.,Murdoch University | Hood S.D.,University of Western Australia | Drummond P.D.,Murdoch University
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric and has attracted increasing attention for the treatment of a range of conditions. Research into its potential as a treatment for depression is still in its infancy, although several potential antidepressant mechanisms of action have been identified. Research completed to date on the multiple effects of curcumin is reviewed in this paper, with a specific emphasis on the biological systems that are compromised in depression. The antidepressant effects of curcumin in animal models of depression are summarised, and its influence on neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine is detailed. The effects of curcumin in moderating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal disturbances, lowering inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, neuroprogression and intestinal hyperpermeability, all of which are compromised in major depressive disorder, are also summarised. With increasing interest in natural treatments for depression, and efforts to enhance current treatment outcomes, curcumin is presented as a promising novel, adjunctive or stand-alone natural antidepressant. © The Author(s) 2012.


Merrey D.J.,905 Fearrington Post | Cook S.,University of Western Australia
Water Alternatives | Year: 2012

Problems occur when institutional arrangements for collective management of food and water systems fail to meet demands. Many of the problems characterising river basins and other collectively managed water resource systems can be ascribed largely to the failure of institutions to enable problems beyond the individual to be managed collectively. The nature of these demands, and the institutional responses to them, vary widely and are not amenable to simple definitions and prescriptions. We begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to analysing institutions and organisations, focused largely, but not exclusively, on river basins. We observe that attempts to reduce the institutional landscape of river basins to over-simplistic formulas introduces more problems than solutions, because the reality is that institutions evolve through complex creative processes that adopt and adapt diverse ingredients - rather like making a stew. Despite such intricacies, institutions are clearly non-random, so we continue a search for a means of describing them. We adopt the concept of bricolage, as proposed by Cleaver and others, and use it to show the value of promoting and facilitating an organic creative approach to building and strengthening river basin and other water management institutions.


Sim A.Y.,University of Western Australia | Wallman K.E.,University of Western Australia | Fairchild T.J.,Murdoch University | Guelfi K.J.,University of Western Australia
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective:To examine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on energy intake, perceptions of appetite and appetite-related hormones in sedentary, overweight men.Design:Seventeen overweight men (body mass index: 27.7±1.6 kg m -2; body mass: 89.8±10.1 kg; body fat: 30.0±4.3%; VO 2peak: 39.2±4.8 ml kg -1 min -1) completed four 30-min experimental conditions using a randomised counterbalanced design. CON: resting control, MC: continuous moderate-intensity exercise (60% VO 2peak), HI: high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 60 s at 100% VO 2peak and 240 s at 50% VO 2peak), VHI: very-high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 15 s at 170% VO 2peak and 60 s at 32% VO 2peak). Participants consumed a standard caloric meal following exercise/CON and an ad-libitum meal 70 min later. Capillary blood was sampled and perceived appetite assessed at regular time intervals throughout the session. Free-living energy intake and physical activity levels for the experimental day and the day after were also assessed.Results:Ad-libitum energy intake was lower after HI and VHI compared with CON (P=0.038 and P=0.004, respectively), and VHI was also lower than MC (P=0.028). Free-living energy intake in the subsequent 38 h remained less after VHI compared with CON and MC (P≤0.050). These observations were associated with lower active ghrelin (P≤0.050), higher blood lactate (P≤0.014) and higher blood glucose (P≤0.020) after VHI compared with all other trials. Despite higher heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during HI and VHI compared with MC (P≤0.004), ratings of physical activity enjoyment were similar between all the exercise trials (P=0.593). No differences were found in perceived appetite between trials.Conclusions:High-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses subsequent ad-libitum energy intake in overweight inactive men. This format of exercise was found to be well tolerated in an overweight population. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Gorczyk W.,University of Western Australia | Vogt K.,ETH Zurich
Gondwana Research | Year: 2015

Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation as well as metamorphism and melting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that suture zones, or mobile belts, presumably representing fossil subduction zones, or other types of pre-deformation which occur far from present plate boundaries, play a key role in intra-continental deformation. In such zones, the crust is strongly sheared and the mantle lithosphere is metasomatized. Reworking of such settings reveals a surprisingly large range of instabilities that develop in compressed lithosphere with lateral heterogeneities inherited from previous deformational processes. Structural complexity arises, which is sensitive to lithospheric age and tectonic setting. This complexity influences localization of deformation, topographic evolution, melt generation, and melt generation, ascent and emplacement. In this paper, using fully coupled petrological-thermomechanical modeling, various tectonic responses are correlated with magmatic events in intra-continental settings and are compared to observed intra-cratonic orogenies and magmatic events. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Huston M.A.,Texas State University | Huston M.A.,University of Western Australia
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2012

Climate and soils are widely recognized as major drivers of virtually all properties of ecosystems and communities. However, despite major advances in the understanding of soil formation and ecosystem dynamics, the effects of climate on soil properties are not widely appreciated. Understanding the effects of water availability on the rates of chemical and biological processes that affect soil formation can help clarify the global patterns of soil fertility, which affect agricultural and forest productivity, as well as biodiversity. Empirical tests of Albrecht's conceptual model of soil development and degradation using global climate and soil data sets and soil chronosequences confirm that soil total exchangeable bases (TEB), phosphorus, nitrogen, and other components of soil fertility, along with plant productivity generally decline on older soils and under wetter conditions as precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration. The basic pattern of soil fertility in relation to water availability is a unimodal curve, with a maximum near or below a water balance of zero (annual precipitation minus annual potential evapotranspiration). Analysis of global data by subregions reveals significant differences between temperate and tropical soil fertility distributions, as well as significant differences between continents. The low levels of soil nutrients (e.g., TEB, P, N) and plant productivity found on ancient soils or highly weathered soils in regions with high precipitation suggest that the positive effects of low productivity on plant diversity that have been observed at local and regional scales may also occur at the global scale. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For all the fact-checking and objective reporting produced by major media outlets, voters in the U.S. nonetheless rely heavily on their pre-existing views when deciding if politicians' statements are true or not, according to a new study co-authored by MIT scholars. The study, conducted during the U.S. presidential primaries for the 2016 election, uses a series of statements by President Donald J. Trump -- then one of many candidates in the Republican field -- to see how partisanship and prior beliefs interact with evaluations of objective fact. The researchers looked at both true and false statements Trump made, and surveyed voters from both parties about their responses. They found that the source of the claim was significant for members of both parties. For instance, when Trump falsely suggested vaccines cause autism, a claim rejected by scientists, Republicans were more likely to believe the claim when it was attributed to Trump than they were when the claim was presented without attribution. On the other hand, when Trump correctly stated the financial cost of the Iraq War, Democrats were less likely to believe his claim than they were when the same claim was presented in unattributed form. "It wasn't just the case that misinformation attributed to Trump was less likely to be rejected by Republicans," says Adam Berinsky, a professor of political science at MIT and a co-author of the new paper. "The things Trump said that were true, if attributed to Trump, [made] Democrats less likely to believe [them]. ... Trump really does polarize people's views of reality." Overall, self-identified Republicans who were surveyed gave Trump's false statements a collective "belief score" of about six, on a scale of 0-10, when those statements were attributed to him. Without attribution, the belief score fell to about 4.5 out of 10. Self-identified Democrats, on the other hand, gave Trump's true statements a belief score of about seven out of 10 when those statements were unattributed. When the statements were attributed to Trump, the aggregate belief score fell to about six out of 10. The paper, "Processing Political Information," is being published today in the journal Royal Society Open Science. The co-authors are Swire, Berinsky, Stephan Lewandowsky of the University of Western Australia and the University of Bristol, and Ullrich K.H. Ecker of the University of Western Australia. In conducting the study, the researchers surveyed 1,776 U.S. citizens during the fall of 2015, presenting them with four true statements from Trump as well as four false ones. After correcting the false statements, the scholars also asked the survey's respondents if they were less likely to support Trump as a result -- but found the candidate's factual issues were largely irrelevant to the respondents' voting choices. "It just doesn't have an effect on support for him," Berinsky says. "It's not that saying things that are incorrect is garnering support for him, but it's not costing him support either." The latest study is one in a series of papers Berinsky has published on political rumors, facticity, and partisan beliefs. His previous work has shown that, for instance, corrections of political rumors tend to be ineffective unless made by people within the same political party as the intended audience. That is, rumors about Democrats that are popular among Republican voters are most effectively shot down by other Republicans, and vice versa. In a related sense, Berinsky thinks, solutions to matters of truth and falsehood in the current -- and highly polarized -- political moment may need to have a similar partisan structure, due to the blizzard of claims and counterclaims about truth, falsehoods, "fake news," and more. "In a partisan time, the solution to misinformation has to be partisan, because there just aren't authorities that will be recognized by both sides of the aisle," he says. "This is a tough nut to crack, this question of misinformation and how to correct it," he adds. "Anybody who tells you there's an easy solution, like, 'three easy things you can do to correct misinformation,' don't listen to them. If it were that easy, it would be solved by now." ARCHIVE: 3 Questions: Adam Berinsky on the unpredictable 2012 GOP campaign http://news.


News Article | December 2, 2015
Site: phys.org

University of Western Australia (UWA) and CSIRO scientists will use remote sensing technology to map frosted crop areas to assist farmers make business decisions after a frost event using affordable, on-farm technology. The project will use a wide range of electromagnetic wavelengths, including visible, near infrared and thermal reflections or emissions, to determine the best method for rapidly identifying frost damaged plants. UWA agronomist Ken Flower, together with Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing experts Bryan Boruff and Nick Callow, are part of the four-year project which will include Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones; and thermal, hyper, and multi spectral cameras to detect frost-damaged plants. The project will not only consider the best wavelengths and camera options to assess damage after a frost event, but also the best times to capture the damage and the best platforms to deploy the cameras. Frost damage will change the light signature of a plant compared with a non-frosted plant because of the change in the physiology, Dr Flower says. "Farmers generally know which paddocks are frost prone, but we also want to know which specific areas within a paddock have been frost damaged to allow rapid business decisions to be made," he says. "In just one paddock, the temperature can be extremely variable, as a result of the different soils, open zones, high stubble, sloped areas, and other factors." The project will measure temperature variations vertically and horizontally in the crop canopy using a disturbed temperature sensing system (DTS). The DTS uses optic fibre cable that can run for many kilometres and be configured to give an accurate distribution of the temperature between the ground canopy and across the paddock. "We can then measure the variations in canopy temperature, crop damage and reflected wavelengths and correlate that to the final yield," he says. The project is funded by the Grains Research and Development Corporation through the National Frost Initiative, and will link with the Department of Agriculture and Food WA's frost trials in the Wheatbelt where scientists are considering varietal responses to frost.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scampering across the baking red Australian sand in search of an ant dinner, thorny devils look almost invincible in their coat of spikey armour; but their choice of diet may make survival more challenging in the harsh environment. Philipp Comanns from RWTH Aachen University, Germany, explains that the lizards' mouths are so well adapted to consuming ants that they are unable to lick water to drink. However, the resourceful animals have a remarkable alternative strategy to overcome the drinking problem: they have effectively turned the entire surface of their skin into a drinking straw. Comanns describes how the reptile's skin is covered with microscopic channels that take up water by capillary action. The lizards then suck the water through the channels into their mouths: 'It is very cool seeing these lizards standing in a puddle and finally start to move their mouths as they drink', he says. However, it wasn't clear how thorny devils and other so-called 'rain harvesters' access water in one of the most arid environments in the world. They rarely encounter puddles and the dew that falls at sunrise only dampens the ground. Fascinated by the lizard's ability to extract water from the most parched locations, Comanns arranged to visit Philip Withers - who originally discovered the skin phenomenon - at the University of Western Australia, to find out more about how the mysterious creatures extract water from their desiccated surroundings. Together they discovered that the reptiles can drink by taking up water from damp sand and they publish their discovery in Journal of Experimental Biology at http://jeb. . Working with six thorny devils that had been caught in the bush by Graham Thompson, Comanns recalls that the animals were content to have their feet immersed in a puddle of room temperature water for an hour. Some even began opening and closing their mouths to drink within 10 s of being dipped into the water. Having weighed the lizards before they began drinking, an hour later (when they had drunk their fill and their skins were fully charged) and then an hour after that (when the skins had dried and any additional mass accounted for the water consumed), Comanns discovered that the 40 g reptiles opened and closed their mouths almost 2500 times during an hour-long drinking session and downed as much as 1.28 g of water (3.3% of body weight) in 0.7 μl sips. Meanwhile, the channels on the surface of the skin could hold an additional 1.32 g of water. But Comanns was still none the wiser about which water sources that the animals depend on. Were they extracting water from damp sand, or could they gather enough dew on their chilly bodies from air warming in the early morning to slake their thirst? After allowing the lizards to stand in the damp sand and measuring how much water wicked up into the skin, Comanns found that even the wettest sand (22% water content) only saturated 59% of the capillaries and although Comanns assumes that this could be sufficient to satisfy the lizards, he never saw them drink. However, the animals like to cover their backs in damp sand and he suspects that this may allow them to extract more water. Also, when he cooled the lizards to 22°C and placed them in a warm humid room, the condensation that formed on the lizards' bodies was only sufficient to wet the surface of the skin and not enough to charge the water capillaries. So, thorny devils can extract significant quantities of water from soggy sand but not enough from dew at sunrise and Comanns suggests that the lizards and other animals that resort to capillary action to get water shots should be rechristened moisture harvesters, 'Because it is not always about rain', he says. IF REPORTING THIS STORY, PLEASE MENTION JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AS THE SOURCE AND, IF REPORTING ONLINE, PLEASE CARRY A LINK TO: http://jeb. REFERENCE: Comanns, P., Withers, P. C., Esser, F. J. and Baumgartner, W. (2016). Cutaneous water collection by a moisture-harvesting lizard, the thorny devil (Moloch horridus). J. Exp. Biol. 219, 3473-3479. This article is posted on this site to give advance access to other authorised media who may wish to report on this story. Full attribution is required, and if reporting online a link to jeb.biologists.com is also required. The story posted here is COPYRIGHTED. Therefore advance permission is required before any and every reproduction of each article in full. PLEASE CONTACT permissions@biologists.com


News Article | December 16, 2015
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

Mariners have long spoken of 'walls of water' appearing from nowhere in the open seas. But oceanographers have generally disregarded such stories and suggested that rogue waves — enormous surface waves that have attained a near-mythical status over the centuries — build up gradually and have relatively narrow crests. New research from the University of Oxford in collaboration with the University of Western Australia, however, shows that the anecdotal evidence may not be so far from the truth. Rather than coming at the end of a series of increasingly large waves, rogue (or freak) waves emerge suddenly, being preceded by much smaller waves. The mathematical modeling also demonstrates that the crests of these rogue waves are longer than the smaller waves that surround them. The research is published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Professor Thomas Adcock, of Oxford's Department of Engineering Science, explained: “The waves we're dealing with here occur in deep water in the open ocean — very different from the waves you'll see if you go to the beach, which is what most people are familiar with. “In deep water, where waves are much less regular, you expect a larger wave from time to time. Our paper shows that, in contrast to what was previously thought, if you're the observer on a ship, rather than seeing a gradual build-up of waves, the rogue wave will come seemingly out of nowhere. “This happens because large waves tend to move to the front of the wave group.” The research made use of mathematical modeling based on non-linear physics. The investigators used hundreds of simulations of random waves to analyze the differences between linear and non-linear wave dynamics. Professor Adcock said: “These findings fit the anecdotal evidence you hear from mariners. They often describe ‘walls of water’ coming at them in the open ocean that are impossible to steer around — an observation supported by our modeling, which shows that rogue waves tend to have a much broader crest than traditionally predicted by linear theory. “All of this means that, in a very rough storm, you can't simply assume you'll get a warning before a freak wave hits. Seafarers need to be aware that a large wave may appear out of nowhere.” The paper 'Non-linear dynamics of wave-groups in random seas: Unexpected walls of water in the open ocean' is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.


News Article | November 6, 2015
Site: phys.org

Their high-pitched vocal call heralded their movement. Nowadays the size of the flocks has decreased, the black cloud has got smaller, the collective cockatoo call is not as loud. Perth Zoo treats more than 200 injured black cockatoos a year and the numbers are increasing annually. They are brought to the zoo suffering injuries from vehicle strike or after being illegally shot, or the effects of disease or malnutrition. The zoo treats the birds, often involving complicated surgery to fix fractures and then works with rehabilitation centres specialising in the care of black cockatoos to release as many birds back to the wild as possible. But rehabilitating injured birds can be a long intensive process, usually taking months if not years to get the birds back to the required full health and strength to survive in the wild. But do they survive? Is the intensive work worth the effort? Can the birds reintegrate back into wild life? In order to unravel this mystery and discover more about the highly mobile species, scientists soared to new heights, attaching satellite transmitters to endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos before their release to the wild. The research project which was led by then PhD student, Christine Groom, was a collaborative project between Perth Zoo, the University of Western Australia and the Department of Parks and Wildlife WA. The study involved using light-weight ARGOS satellite transmitters attached to the cockatoos two central tail feathers enabling the researchers to monitor the bird's movements. "By following flocks as they left or returned to their night roost, it enabled us to show that the rescued birds behaved in a similar manner to wild birds," Dr Groom says. "It was exciting to see that they flew, roosted, socialised and foraged with wild birds. "Importantly, we saw that the birds are also able to behaviourally adapt to new environments, so it opens up the possibility of being able to release rehabilitated birds into areas where we know wild populations are struggling and could benefit from extra flock mates or new partners." The study also provided invaluable information into the travel capabilities of the species. "One bird flew 224km from its release site in less than two months, although the majority stayed within the greater Perth region," Dr Groom says. "But the birds were not just travelling aimlessly. They made distinct changes in their flight paths responding to seasonal changes in food availability and coinciding with migration towards breeding grounds outside the metropolitan area—they certainly had an idea of where they were going. "The research has unlocked some of the secrets of this highly mobile species and it's hoped will help us develop better strategies to protect them in the future." Carnaby's Cockatoo is endemic to south-west WA, with its range extending from the Murchison River to Esperance, and inland to Coorow, Kellerberrin and Lake Cronin. They are listed as endangered due to habitat destruction, loss of nesting hollows, scarce native food sources and many are also struck by cars or illegally shot. For more information about Perth Zoo's involvement in cockatoo rehabilitation visit their conservation medicine page.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

A new paper shows that the ancient ancestors of termites found in northern Australia crossed vast distances over oceans, and then followed an evolutionary path similar to humans, migrating from tree-tops to the ground. Mounds sometimes reaching as high as eight metres and housing millions of individual insects are seen in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and far north Queensland, built by cathedral termites. Relative to the animals’ 3mm height and the average human height the termite mounds are the equivalent to four of the world’s tallest structure, the Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai, stacked on top of each other. Little was known about the termites’ origins until this research, said Associate Professor Nathan Lo, the co-lead author of the paper from the University of Sydney. DNA sequencing showed that today’s cathedral termites descend from the first “nasute termites” to arrive in Australia up to 20m years ago from Asia or South America. “It’s a strange result but we’re very confident about it,” said Lo. “The closest relatives of these mound-building termites in Australia are actually tree-nesting termites that live in Asia and South America.” He believed that termites arrived in Australia after crossing long distances of ocean on plant matter following tsunamis or large storm events. The researchers found this colonisation had happened three times in the past 20m years. These first settlers also lived in trees in coastal areas but over time began to build mounds on the ground and feed on litter and grass as they adapted to the arid conditions of northern Australia. Lo said the termites’ relocation was driven by change in climate and environment after Australia shifted from a forest-covered continent 20m years ago to a much drier landscape. As the forests succumbed to Australia’s dry conditions about seven to 10m years ago, the tree-dwelling termites sought more moisture in the earth, he said. “That’s why they started to build mounds.” Humans would later follow a similar evolutionary path, said Lo, with our ancestors living in trees as recently as the last 4m years. “These amazing mounds we see in the north of Australia, we didn’t know if they were 100m years old, 50m years old. Now we know it’s more likely that within the last 10m years that they’ve popped up. “They weren’t here when Australia separated from Gondwana some 100m years ago – they evolved here relatively recently due to ancient climate change.” The study, published on Wednesday in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters, was led by the University of Sydney in collaboration with Purdue University in the United States, the CSIRO National Research Collections Australia, the University of Western Australia and the University of New South Wales.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

They build among the tallest non-human structures (proportionately speaking) in the world and now it's been discovered the termites that live in Australia's remote Top End originated from overseas - rafting vast distances and migrating from tree-tops to the ground, as humans later did. Referred to as "cathedral" termites, the Nasutitermes triodiae build huge mounds up to eight metres high in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Queensland - representing some of the tallest non-human animal structures in the world. DNA sequencing found the forebearers, called nasute termites, colonised Australia three times in the past 20 million years or so and evolved from wood to grass-feeding as they adapted to significant environmental changes, including increasingly arid conditions and the conversion of woodlands to grassland habitats in subtropical savannahs and central Australia. Now a prominent feature of the arid landscape "Down Under", the mounds house millions of termites; this study is the first comprehensive investigation of the evolution of the nesting and feeding of the extended family of termites, through the Australian refugee descendants. The findings of the international research are published today in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters. Co-lead author of the paper from the University of Sydney, Associate Professor Nathan Lo, said although much was known about the functions of termite mounds - which include protection from predators - little had been known about their evolutionary origins. "We found that the ancestors of Australia's fortress-building termites were coastal tree-dwellers, which arrived in Australia by rafting long distances over the oceans from either Asia or South America," Associate Professor Lo said. "Once in Australia, they continued to build their nests in trees, but later descended and began building mounds on the ground instead, paralleling the evolution of the other great architects of the world - human beings, whose ancestors lived in the tree tops some millions of years ago." Associate Professor Lo, from the University of Sydney's School of Life and Environmental Sciences, said the mounds are an engineering feat when considered in comparison to the tallest structure on Earth - Dubai's skyscraper the Burj Khalifas. "Given that a worker termite stands about 3mm in height, these mounds are in human terms the equivalent of four Burj Khalifas stacked on top of each other," he said. The paper, "Parallel evolution of mound-building and grass-feeding in Australian nasute termites," said ancestral wood feeders would likely have lost the ability to feed on wood as they transitioned to feeding on litter and grass. "This group is one of the most ecologically successful groups of termites in Australia," the paper reads. "We have shown that its capacity to disperse over oceans - and to repeatedly evolve the ability to build mounds and feed on novel substrates in the face of significant environmental change - appears to have been important in promoting this success." The research was led by the University of Sydney in collaboration with Purdue University in the United States, the CSIRO National Research Collections Australia, the University of Western Australia and the University of New South Wales.


News Article | December 2, 2015
Site: news.yahoo.com

Wheel structures in the Azraq Oasis in Jordan, as seen in this Google Earth image. More Thousands of stone structures that form geometric patterns in the Middle East are coming into clearer view, with archaeologists finding two wheel-shaped patterns date back some 8,500 years. That makes these "wheels" older than the famous geoglyphs in Peru called Nazca Lines. And some of these giant designs located in Jordan's Azraq Oasis seem to have an astronomical significance, built to align with the sunrise on the winter solstice. Those are just some of the findings of new research on these Middle East lines, which were first encountered by pilots during World War I. RAF Flight Lt. Percy Maitland published an account of them in 1927 in the journal Antiquity, reporting that the Bedouin called the structures "works of the old men," a name still sometimes used by modern-day researchers.  [See Photos of the 'Nazca Lines' in the Middle East] The "works of the old men" include wheels, which often have spokes radiating out from the center, kites (stone structures used for funnelling and killing animals), pendants (lines of stone cairns) and meandering walls, which are mysterious structures that meander across the landscape for up to several hundred feet. The works "demonstrate specific geometric patterns and extend from a few tens of meters up to several kilometers, evoking parallels to the well-known system of geometric lines of Nazca, Peru," wrote an archaeological team in a paper published recently in the Journal of Archaeological Science. (Peru's Nazca Lines date to between 200 B.C. and A.D. 500.) They "occur throughout the entire Arabia region, from Syria across Jordan and Saudi Arabia to Yemen," wrote the researchers. "The most startling thing about the 'Works' is that they are difficult to identify from the ground. This stands in contrast to their apparent visibility from the air." New research on the Middle East lines was published recently in the Journal of Archaeological Science and the journal Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy.  Live Science also got an advance copy of an article set to be published in the journal Antiquity. Tests indicate that some of the wheels date back around 8,500 years, a prehistoric time when the climate was wetter in parts of the Middle East. Using a technique called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), archaeologists dated two wheels at Wadi Wisad, in the Black Desert of Jordan. One wheel dated back 8,500 years, while the other wheel had a mix of dates that suggest it was built about 8,500 years and was remodeled or repaired around 5,500 years ago. [See Aerial Photos of the Giant Wheels] At the time these wheels were built, the climate in the Black Desert was more hospitable, and Wadi Wisad was inhabited. "Charcoal from deciduous oak and tamarisk [a shrub] were recovered from two hearths in one building dated to ca. 6,500 B.C.," wrote researchers in a forthcoming issue of Antiquity. Spatial analysis of the wheels showed that one cluster of wheels, located in the Azraq Oasis, has spokes with a southeast-northwest orientation that may align with sunrise during the winter solstice. "The majority of the spokes of the wheels in that cluster are oriented for some reason to stretch in a SE-NW direction," researchers wrote in the Journal of Archaeological Science. This points to "where the sun rises during the winter solstice." Whether this alignment was intentional is unknown, researchers wrote in the journal article. "As for the rest of the wheels, they do not seem to contain any archaeoastronomical information." What were they used for? The two dated wheels "are simple in form and not very rigidly made, according to geometric standards," said Gary Rollefson, a professor at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington. "They contrast sharply with some other wheels that appear to have been set out with almost as much attention to detail as the Nazca Lines." It's possible that different wheels may have served different uses, Rollefson said. In the case of the two dated wheels, "the presence of cairns suggests some association with burials, since that is often the way of treating people once they died." Rollefson is careful to point out that "there are other wheels where cairns are entirely lacking, pointing to a different possible use." Rollefson is co-director of the Eastern Badia Archaeological Project. His team is hoping to excavate a few of the cairns, which are located within the wheels, in the next few years. Why people in prehistoric times would build wheel-shaped structures that can't be seen well from the ground remains a mystery. No balloon or glider technologies existed at that time. Additionally, researchers say that climbing to a higher elevation to view them was probably not possible, at least not in most cases. [In Photos: Google Earth Reveals Sprawling Geoglyphs in Kazakhstan] Though the wheels are often difficult to make out on the ground, they are not invisible. "Granted, one can't see the finished product standing at ground level, but one can still determine a general geometric configuration," Rollefson told Live Science. He said that to create the more precisely designed wheels, people might have used a long rope and stake. Wheels located in Saudi Arabia and Yemen look different than those found farther north, a team with the Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East (APAAME) has found. They've been investigating wheels, and other "works of the old men," by using free satellite imagery that is available through Google Earth and Bing. They are also using historical aerial images taken of Saudi Arabia and Yemen during the 20th century. The circles tend to be small and have only one or two bars instead of spokes, said David Kennedy, of the University of Western Australia, who co-directs the project.  Some of the "wheels" are actually shaped like squares, rectangles or triangles, he said. One type of wheel structure actually looks like a bull's-eye, according to an image of the structure that Kennedy sent to Live Science. Three triangles point toward the bull's-eye wheel, and there are small piles of stones that lead from the three triangles to the wheel. Kennedy calls it "a central bull's-eye tomb with, in this case, three triangles each with at least a part of a connecting line of stone heaps running to the center." At present, the archaeologists are not able to conduct fieldwork or aerial imaging (using planes or helicopters) in Saudi Arabia or Yemen. Another form of "works of the old men," which Kennedy and his team have found in Saudi Arabia, is of structures that he calls "gates." So far, 332 gates have been found in Saudi Arabia (none are known to exist farther north). The gates "consist of two short thick walls or heaps of stones, between which one or more connecting walls stretch," wrote researchers in an article published recently in the journal Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. The researchers note that, "from above, these features resemble an old-fashioned barred gate laid flat." The longest gate is over 500 meters (1,640 feet), but most are much smaller. Scientists don't know how far back the gates date, nor their purpose. "I coined the term 'gate' for no better reason than that I needed a convenient label to describe them and they reminded me of the sort of field gates I saw all around in my rural childhood in Scotland," said Kennedy. The researchers found that gates tend not to be located near kites (which were used for hunting). Indeed, some of the gates were built in places, such as barren volcanic slopes, which were unlikely to support large animal herds. Archaeologists found "five [gates] on the outer slopes of the bowl of one of the volcanoes [called Jabal al-Abyad]" in Saudi Arabia, they wrote in the Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy journal article. Kennedy said that his team is finishing up its research on the gates and will be publishing another journal article in the future describing the team's findings in greater detail.  Copyright 2015 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


Hunt D.M.,University of Western Australia | Peichl L.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Visual Neuroscience | Year: 2014

S cones expressing the short wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) class of visual pigment generally form only a minority type of cone photoreceptor within the vertebrate duplex retina. Hence, their primary role is in color vision, not in high acuity vision. In mammals, S cones may be present as a constant fraction of the cones across the retina, may be restricted to certain regions of the retina or may form a gradient across the retina, and in some species, there is coexpression of SWS1 and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class of pigment in many cones. During retinal development, SWS1 opsin expression generally precedes that of LWS opsin, and evidence from genetic studies indicates that the S cone pathway may be the default pathway for cone development. With the notable exception of the cartilaginous fishes, where S cones appear to be absent, they are present in representative species from all other vertebrate classes. S cone loss is not, however, uncommon; they are absent from most aquatic mammals and from some but not all nocturnal terrestrial species. The peak spectral sensitivity of S cones depends on the spectral characteristics of the pigment present. Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum (>380 nm) on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution. In all cases, the shift was generated by just one or a few replacements in tuning-relevant residues. Only in the avian lineage has tuning moved in the opposite direction, with the reinvention of UV-sensitive pigments. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Jones R.A.C.,University of Western Australia | Jones R.A.C.,Bentley Delivery Center
Virus Research | Year: 2014

This review focuses on new or improved technologies currently being applied, or likely to be applied in the future, to worldwide research on plant virus epidemiology. Recent technological advances and innovations provide many opportunities to improve understanding of the way diverse types of plant virus epidemics develop and how to manage them. The review starts at the macro level by considering how recent innovations in remote sensing and precision agriculture can provide valuable information about (i) virus epidemics occurring at continental, regional or district scales (via satellites) and within individual crops (mostly via lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles), and (ii) exactly where to target control measures. It then considers recent improvements in information systems and innovations in modelling that improve (i) understanding of virus epidemics and ability to predict them, and (ii) delivery to end-users of critical advice on control measures, such as Internet-based Decision Support Systems. The review goes on to discuss how advances in analysis of spatiotemporal virus spread patterns within crops can help to enhance understanding of how virus epidemics develop and validate potentially useful virus control measures. At the micro level, the review then considers the many insights that advances in molecular epidemiology can provide about genetic variation within plant virus populations involved in epidemics, and how this variation drives what occurs at the macro level. Next, it describes how recent innovations in virus detection technologies are providing many opportunities to collect and analyse new types, and ever increasing amounts, of data about virus epidemics, and the genetic variability of the virus populations involved. Finally, the implications for plant virus epidemiology of technologies likely to be important in the future are considered. To address looming world food insecurity and threats to plant biodiversity resulting from climate change and rapid population growth, it is important that new and improved technologies that help understand and control epidemics of damaging plant viruses are adopted as smoothly and speedily as possible. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Oddy W.H.,University of Western Australia | Rosales F.,Mead Johnson Nutritionals and Company
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2010

Cytokines in milk like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) have been shown to induce oral tolerance in experimental animal studies. However, human studies are less consistent with these findings. The primary objective of this review was to conduct a systematic review of published studies on the association between TGF-β identified in human milk and immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood. Human prospective clinical studies were identified through MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and Scopus. Selection criteria included: well described populations of mothers and infants, time of milk sampling, immunological outcome measures and analytical methods of TGF-β determination. We considered a wide range of immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood, such as wheeze, atopy, eczema and the immunoglobulin switch. Twelve human studies were included in the review and 67% showed a positive association with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 demonstrating protection against allergy-related outcomes in infancy and early childhood. High variability in concentrations of TGF-β was noted between and within studies, some of it explained by maternal history of atopy or by consumption of probiotics. Human milk TGF-β appears to be essential in developing and maintaining appropriate immune responses in infants and may provide protection against adverse immunological outcomes, corroborating findings from experimental animal studies. Further large clinical studies in diverse human populations are indicated to confirm these results. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Flower T.P.,University of Cape Town | Flower T.P.,University of Cambridge | Gribble M.,University of Cambridge | Ridley A.R.,University of Cape Town | Ridley A.R.,University of Western Australia
Science | Year: 2014

Deception is common in nature, but victims of deception discriminate against and ultimately ignore deceptive signals when they are produced too frequently. Flexible variation of signals could allow evasion of such constraints. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) use false alarm calls to scare other species away from food that they then steal. We show that drongos mimic the alarms of targeted species. Further, target species reduce their response to false alarm calls when they are repeated. However, the fear response is maintained when the call is varied. Drongos exploit this propensity by changing their alarm-call type when making repeated theft attempts on a particular species. Our results show that drongos can evade the frequency-dependent constraints that typically limit deception payoffs through flexible variation of their alarm calls.


Ristic B.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Vo B.-N.,University of Western Australia
Automatica | Year: 2010

The problem addressed in this paper is information theoretic sensor control for recursive Bayesian multi-object state-space estimation using random finite sets. The proposed algorithm is formulated in the framework of partially observed Markov decision processes where the reward function associated with different sensor actions is computed via the Rnyi or alpha divergence between the multi-object prior and the multi-object posterior densities. The proposed algorithm in implemented via the sequential Monte Carlo method. The paper then presents a case study where the problem is to localise an unknown number of sources using a controllable moving sensor which provides range-only detections. Four sensor control reward functions are compared in the study and the proposed scheme is found to perform the best. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


White D.J.,University of Western Australia | Dingle H.R.C.,Arup
Geotechnique | Year: 2011

The large-amplitude lateral soil resistance between an on-bottom pipeline and the seabed is an important design parameter in assessing pipeline behaviour during lateral thermal buckling or under the impact of a submarine slide. This paper describes a series of centrifuge model tests that shed light on the underlying behaviour during large-amplitude lateral pipe movement. It is shown that at large displacements the lateral response is governed predominantly by the passive resistance of the growing berm of soil ahead of the pipe. Using a new analysis of this growing soil berm, based on conservation of volume, the 'local' embedment of the pipe relative to the top of the idealised soil berm is defined. In this way, the normalised lateral pipe-soil resistance, H/suD, from tests encompassing a range of pipe weights and initial embedments follows a single trend line. This idealisation of the response is more consistent than the usual terminology of a pipe-soil friction factor.


Pellicano E.,University of London | Pellicano E.,University of Western Australia
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2013

Autism is well known for the way it affects how a person interacts and communicates with others. But autism can affect behavior in other important and debilitating ways, such as in an intense desire for sameness and in sensory systems that work too well or not well enough. Researchers have largely overlooked the latter "sensory symptoms," but their prominence in forthcoming diagnostic criteria calls for systematic investigation. In this article, I review existing theoretical accounts of autism and provide an overview of a new theoretical account that proposes using Bayesian methods to identify the nature of the (altered) computations involved in autistic sensation and perception. Specifically, the account suggests that sensory symptoms may be due to fewer prior constraints or attenuated "priors." The possibility that autistic people perceive the world as it really is rather than as imbued by prior experiences may explain the range and idiosyncrasy of their sensory sensitivities and their difficulties dealing with new experiences. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development.


Umberger B.R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Rubenson J.,University of Western Australia
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2011

Recent estimates of muscle energy consumption during locomotion, based on computational models and muscle blood flow measurements, demonstrate complex patterns of energy use across the gait cycle, which are further complicated when task demands change. A deeper understanding of muscle energetics in locomotion will benefit from efforts to more tightly integrate muscle-specific approaches with organismal measurements. © 2011 The Amercian College of Sports Medicine.


Braun T.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Challis J.R.,University of Western Australia | Challis J.R.,University of Toronto | Challis J.R.,Simon Fraser University | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine Reviews | Year: 2013

An adverse early-life environment is associated with long-term disease consequences. Adversity early in life is hypothesized to elicit developmental adaptations that serve to improve fetal and postnatal survival and prepare the organism for a particular range of postnatal environments. These processes, although adaptive in their nature, may later prove to be maladaptive or disadvantageous if the prenatal and postnatal environments are widely discrepant. The exposure of the fetus to elevated levels of either endogenous or synthetic glucocorticoids is one model of early-life adversity that contributes substantially to the propensity of developing disease. Moreover, early-life glucocorticoid exposure has direct clinical relevance because synthetic glucocorticoids are routinely used in the management of women at risk of early preterm birth. In this regard, reports of adverse events in human newborns have raised concerns about the safety of glucocorticoid treatment; synthetic glucocorticoids have detrimental effects on fetal growth and development, childhood cognition, and long-term behavioral outcomes. Experimental evidence supports a link between prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and alterations in fetal development and changes in placental function, and many of these alterations appear to be permanent. Because the placenta is the conduit between the maternal and fetal environments, it is likely that placental function plays a key role in mediating effects of fetal glucocorticoid exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis development and long-term disease risk. Here we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the intrauterine glucocorticoid environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal development, metabolism, cardiovascular function, and reproduction. © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Wen L.,University of Western Australia | Chen Y.,California Institute of Technology
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We report for the first time general geometrical expressions for the angular resolution of an arbitrary network of interferometric gravitational-wave (GW) detectors when the arrival time of a GW is unknown. We show explicitly elements that decide the angular resolution of a GW detector network. In particular, we show the dependence of the angular resolution on areas formed by projections of pairs of detectors and how they are weighted by sensitivities of individual detectors. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the current GW detector network. We confirm that the angular resolution is poor along the plane formed by current LIGO-Virgo detectors. A factor of a few to more than ten fold improvement of the angular resolution can be achieved if the proposed new GW detectors LCGT or AIGO are added to the network. We also discuss the implications of our results for the design of a GW detector network, optimal localization methods for a given network, and electromagnetic follow-up observations. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Pellicano E.,University of London | Pellicano E.,University of Western Australia
Autism Research | Year: 2013

This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. Autism Res 2013, 6: 258-267. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Patent
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and University of Western Australia | Date: 2015-03-24

Oligonucleotides capable of binding to and modulating the splicing of the pre-mRNA of the CFTR gene, compositions including the oligonucleotides, kits including the compositions, and uses thereof. Compositions of oligonucleotides useful in methods for suppressing exon 10 skipping optionally in combination with additional CFTR therapeutics.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-2-01 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2008

The strategic objective of the project is to improve food crop production in the Mediterranean region, influenced by multiple abiotic stresses. These stresses are becoming even more pronounced under changing climate, predicted to result in drier conditions, increasing temperatures, and greater variability, causing desertification. The project will work mainly in farmers communities to improve farming systems, by strengthening a diversified crop rotation and using marginal-quality water for supplemental irrigation, aiming at: Introduce and test new climate-proof crops and cultivars with improved stress tolerance, selecting promising varieties of cereals, grain legumes and new crops. Climate-proof traits will be identified for breeding programmes using advanced physiological and biochemical screening tools. Supplemental irrigation will be performed as deficit irrigation by different sources of water. Investigate the sustainable field applicability of the farming systems, such as environmental effects related to irrigation water quality assessed by monitoring groundwater and soil quality. Financial implications for the farmer and economic costs and benefits in the food sector will be analysed. Develop a research synthesis in dialogue with food sector, based on experimental results and advanced simulation modelling to improve farming systems management, utilizing dynamic tools that ease adaptation to the effects of a variable and changing climate. The approach is participatory, involving the farmers community and the market and political level. The expected outcome is improved productivity and sustainable use of agricultural lands by developing a more diverse farming system, supporting economic development in non-European Mediterranean countries while ensuring mutual interest and benefit with the EU. It will accelerate adoption of improved agricultural practices and technologies to meet future constraints imposed by climate changes.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

Are we closing in on life’s cradle? What is claimed to be the oldest evidence of life on Earth yet found backs the idea that the first microbes originated around hydrothermal vents on the seafloor – but the work is already proving controversial. Explaining the origin of life is one of the biggest unclaimed prizes in biology, and one that many scientists – including Nobel prizewinners – are chasing. The only thing we know for certain is that life must have popped into existence sometime between Earth’s formation 4.5 billion years ago and the appearance of the first undisputed fossils, about 3.4 billion years ago. Most origin-of-life researchers base their theories on biochemical principles. But to seek direct evidence of life’s emergence, they must visit some of Earth’s last remaining wildernesses, including parts of Greenland, northern Canada and Antarctica. By chance these are the only places where Earth’s oldest rocks – and potentially fossils – can still be found. Matthew Dodd at University College London and his colleagues have just finished analysing rocks collected from a region called the Nuvvuagittuq belt, in northern Quebec, Canada. The rocks here, on the coast of Hudson Bay, are at least 3.75 billion years old, and some geologists argue they are about 4.29 billion years old, which would mean they are just slightly younger than the planet itself. Like all such ancient rocks, they have been heavily altered. At some point they spent time deep inside Earth, where temperatures above 500°C and extreme pressures baked and deformed them. But geologists can still read clues that they formed at the bottom of Earth’s very early oceans. Significantly, they seem to preserve evidence of ancient deep-sea hydrothermal vents – just the sort of environment that many see as the most likely birthplace for life. Dodd and his colleagues believe they have now found evidence of early life, in iron-rich rocks originally formed around relatively cool vents (less than 160°C). These rocks contain microscopic tubes and filaments made of iron oxide. Very similar structures, the researchers say, are formed by bacteria that live in mat-like colonies around modern deep-sea hydrothermal vents. What’s more, the material close to the filaments includes carbon with an isotopic balance characteristic of biological processes, says Dodd. Some of that carbon is inside crystals of phosphorus-rich minerals, which also hints at early biology. “Phosphorus is essential for all life on Earth,” says Dodd. “As organisms die and decay it is released and it can then be incorporated into minerals.” Taken together, the evidence points to one inescapable conclusion, he says: the very early Earth was home to microbes similar to those found around today’s low-temperature hydrothermal vents. If confirmed, the conclusion would be significant for several reasons. It would potentially push the record of life back to 4.29 billion years ago, suggesting our planet was inhabited astonishingly early. Little more than a decade ago, the consensus was that Earth was still a molten mass so early in its history. More than that, it would show that life got going around deep-sea vents where organisms have to derive their energy from geothermal processes, since there is little or no sunlight. This would help bring the geological evidence in line with findings from genetic and biochemical studies hinting that life emerged in deep hydrothermal areas – and not in shallow, sun-drenched environments where most early fossils have been found. “The strongest [fossil] evidence for early life currently comes from shallow water deposits such as beach sands,” says David Wacey at the University of Western Australia in Perth. “This study once again gets us thinking about a potential hydrothermal cradle of life.” Wacey thinks Dodd and his colleagues’ evidence of ancient life is reasonably solid. “The individual lines of chemical evidence are not particularly strong, but put these together with the evidence from the filaments and one comes up with a pretty convincing biological scenario,” he says. David Emerson at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in East Boothbay, Maine, is more cautious. Emerson has spent many years investigating the biology of modern microbial mats. “You do get unique structures in these mat communities that are very easily identifiable as biological,” he says. “The problem is that when you go back in time it becomes harder and harder to interpret the evidence.” Others are unconvinced by the new work. “I am frankly dubious,” says Frances Westall at the Centre for Molecular Biophysics in Orléans, France. “All kinds of reactions take place at [high] pressures and temperatures.” The filaments might simply be a curious by-product of those reactions and have nothing to do with biological activity, she says. Martin Van Kranendonk at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, who co-authored a 2016 study on possible early life in 3.7-billion-year-old rocks from Greenland, is another firm sceptic. He says it “beggars belief” that fragile, microscopic structures could survive in rocks that have been subjected to high temperatures and pressures deep underground. Westall draws a comparison with a mid-1990s claim by NASA scientists of possible signs of life in a 4-billion-year-old Martian meteorite. Again the evidence was in the form of interesting microstructures plus isotopic signatures consistent with biological activity. The findings were controversial from the start, and most scientists ultimately rejected them. The claims by Dodd’s team cannot be summarily dismissed on first impressions, though. Wacey says many researchers will want to scrutinise the evidence in great detail before making up their minds. “It may be many years before a consensus is reached,” he says. When dealing with “fossils” that may be 4.29 billion years old, it makes little sense to rush things.


This is a computer graphic of an RNA molecule. Credit: Richard Feldmann/Wikipedia While it was once believed that genes regulated biological functions almost exclusively by being transcribed to coding RNAs that were then translated into proteins, it is now known that the picture is much more complex. In fact, studies examining the association between genes and diseases have shown that most disease variants are found outside of protein-coding genes. The RIKEN-led FANTOM consortium pioneered the discovery of non-coding RNAs over a decade ago, revealing the complexity of the transcriptional landscape in mammalian genomes for the first time. The FANTOM consortium continues to be on the leading edge of studies into the origins and functions of non-coding RNAs. In their latest work, published in Nature, the team has generated a comprehensive atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with substantially improved gene models, allowing them to better assess the diversity and functionality of these RNAs. Most attempts today to draw maps of RNA transcription rely on sequencing technologies that do not always accurately identify the beginnings, or 5' ends, of the RNA transcripts. To overcome this limitation, the team used a technology known as Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE), which was developed at RIKEN, to build an atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5' ends, precisely pinpointing where in the genome their transcription is initiated The atlas, which contains 27,919 long non-coding RNAs, summarizes for the first time their expression patterns across the major human cell types and tissues. By intersecting this atlas with genomic and genetic data, their results suggest that 19,175 of these RNAs may be functional, hinting that there could be as many—or even more—functional non-coding RNAs than the approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome. "There is strong debate in the scientific community on whether the thousands of long non-coding RNAs generated from our genomes are functional or simply byproducts of a noisy transcriptional machinery." says Professor Alistair Forrest of the Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research at the University of Western Australia and Senior Visiting Scientist at the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (CLST), one of the corresponding authors of the paper, "By integrating the improved gene models with data from gene expression, evolutionary conservation and genetic studies, we find compelling evidence that the majority of these long non-coding RNAs appear to be functional, and for nearly 2,000 of them we reveal their potential involvement in diseases and other genetic traits." "Intriguingly," says Chung-Chau Hon of CLST, first author on the paper, "the majority of long non-coding RNAs appear to be generated from enhancer elements. It deepens our understanding towards the largely heterogeneous origins of long non-coding RNAs." According to Piero Carninci of CLST, "The improved gene models and the broad functional hints of human long non-coding RNAs derived from this atlas could serve as a Rosetta Stone for us to experimentally investigate their functional relevance as part of our ongoing work for the upcoming edition of the FANTOM consortium. We anticipate that these results could further push the boundary of our understanding of the functions of the non-coding portion of our genome.". The resources of the long non-coding RNA atlas are available at fantom.gsc.riken.jp/cat . More information: Chung-Chau Hon et al, An atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5′ ends, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature21374


While it was once believed that genes regulated biological functions almost exclusively by being transcribed to coding RNAs that were then translated into proteins, it is now known that the picture is much more complex. In fact, studies examining the association between genes and diseases have shown that most disease variants are found outside of protein-coding genes. The RIKEN-led FANTOM consortium pioneered the discovery of non-coding RNAs over a decade ago, revealing the complexity of the transcriptional landscape in mammalian genomes for the first time. The FANTOM consortium continues to be on the leading edge of studies into the origins and functions of non-coding RNAs. In their latest work, published in Nature, the team has generated a comprehensive atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with substantially improved gene models, allowing them to better assess the diversity and functionality of these RNAs. Most attempts today to draw maps of RNA transcription rely on sequencing technologies that do not always accurately identify the beginnings, or 5' ends, of the RNA transcripts. To overcome this limitation, the team used a technology known as Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE), which was developed at RIKEN, to build an atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5' ends, precisely pinpointing where in the genome their transcription is initiated The atlas, which contains 27,919 long non-coding RNAs, summarizes for the first time their expression patterns across the major human cell types and tissues. By intersecting this atlas with genomic and genetic data, their results suggest that 19,175 of these RNAs may be functional, hinting that there could be as many--or even more--functional non-coding RNAs than the approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome. "There is strong debate in the scientific community on whether the thousands of long non-coding RNAs generated from our genomes are functional or simply byproducts of a noisy transcriptional machinery." says Professor Alistair Forrest of the Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research at the University of Western Australia and Senior Visiting Scientist at the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (CLST), one of the corresponding authors of the paper, "By integrating the improved gene models with data from gene expression, evolutionary conservation and genetic studies, we find compelling evidence that the majority of these long non-coding RNAs appear to be functional, and for nearly 2,000 of them we reveal their potential involvement in diseases and other genetic traits." "Intriguingly," says Chung-Chau Hon of CLST, first author on the paper, "the majority of long non-coding RNAs appear to be generated from enhancer elements. It deepens our understanding towards the largely heterogeneous origins of long non-coding RNAs." According to Piero Carninci of CLST, "The improved gene models and the broad functional hints of human long non-coding RNAs derived from this atlas could serve as a Rosetta Stone for us to experimentally investigate their functional relevance as part of our ongoing work for the upcoming edition of the FANTOM consortium. We anticipate that these results could further push the boundary of our understanding of the functions of the non-coding portion of our genome.". The resources of the long non-coding RNA atlas are available at http://fantom. .


Miller K.,University of Western Australia | Lu J.,University of Iowa
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents main theses of two keynote lectures delivered at Euromech Colloquium "Advanced experimental approaches and inverse problems in tissue biomechanics" held in Saint Etienne in June 2012. We are witnessing an advent of patient-specific biomechanics that will bring in the future personalized treatments to sufferers all over the world. It is the current task of biomechanists to devise methods for clinically-relevant patient-specific modeling. One of the obstacles standing before the biomechanics community is the difficulty in obtaining patient-specific properties of tissues to be used in biomechanical models. We postulate that focusing on reformulating computational mechanics problems in such a way that the results are weakly sensitive to the variation in mechanical properties of simulated continua is more likely to bear fruit in near future. We consider two types of problems: (i) displacement-zero traction problems whose solutions in displacements are weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of the considered continuum; and (ii) problems that are approximately statically determinate and therefore their solutions in stresses are also weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of constituents. We demonstrate that the kinematically loaded biomechanical models of the first type are applicable in the field of image-guided surgery where the current, intraoperative configuration of a soft organ is of critical importance. We show that sac-like membranes, which are prototypes of many thin-walled biological organs, are approximately statically determinate and therefore useful solutions for wall stress can be obtained without the knowledge of the wall's properties. We demonstrate the clinical applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods using examples from modeling neurosurgery and intracranial aneurysms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia | Chavan S.,Center for Outcome and Resource Evaluation | Pilcher D.,Alfred Hospital
Chest | Year: 2011

Background: VTE is a preventable cause of death within hospitals. This study aimed to assess the association between omission of early thromboprophylaxis for > 24 h after ICU admission and mortality in critically ill patients. Methods: This study involved 175,665 critically ill adult patients admitted to 134 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand between 2006 and 2010. Results: The crude ICU and hospital mortality in patients who did not receive thromboprophylaxis within 24 h of ICU admission was higher than those who were treated with early thromboprophylaxis (7.6% vs 6.3%, P =.001; 11.2% vs 10.6%, P =.003, respectively), despite the former patients being associated with a slightly lower acuity of illness (mean APACHE [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation] III model predicted mortality, 13% vs 14%; P =.001). The association between omission of early thromboprophylaxis and hospital mortality remained significant after adjusting for other covariates (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.30; P =.001), particularly for patients with multiple trauma, sepsis, cardiac arrest, and preexisting metastatic cancer. The estimated attributable mortality effect of omitting early thromboprophylaxis for patients with multiple trauma, sepsis, cardiac arrest, and preexisting metastatic cancer was 3.9% (95% CI, 2.2-5.6), 8.0% (95% CI, 5.6-10.4), 15.4% (95% CI, 11.1-19.8), and 9.4% (95% CI, 6.4-12.4), respectively. Conclusions: Omission of thromboprophylaxis within the first 24 h of ICU admission without obvious reasons was associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill adult patients. © 2011 American College of Chest Physicians.


Arendts G.,University of Western Australia | Howard K.,University of New South Wales
Age and Ageing | Year: 2010

Background: Emergency care for older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACF) is a complex area of health policy. The epidemiology of patient transfer between RACF and hospital emergency departments (ED), clinical outcomes and costs associated with transfer and efficacy of programs aiming to reduce transfer are not well known. Design: systematic review based on a comprehensive literature search in three electronic databases and published article reference lists. Results: the incidence of transfer from RACF to ED is >30 transfers/100 RACF beds/year in most studies. The casemix from RACF is varied and reflects that of the broad elderly population, with some risk difference. At least 40% of transfers are not admitted to hospital. There is insufficient data to fully address our other questions; however, hospitalisations from RACF can be reduced through advanced care planning, use of management guidelines for acute illnesses and improved primary care. Conclusions: residents of RACF have a high annual risk of transfer to ED. The clinical benefit and cost effectiveness of ED care, and alternate programs to reduce ED transfer, cannot be confidently compared from published work. Further research is required to accurately describe these and to determine their comparative worth. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.


Badcock J.C.,University of Western Australia | Badcock J.C.,Clinical Research Center | Hugdahl K.,University of Bergen
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behavior and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic] box, by studying symptoms, behaviors or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning-namely cognitive [inhibitory] control-and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC "units of analysis," which span the range from observable behavior to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favors separate developmental trajectories for clinical and non-clinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioral problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.


Goswami A.,University College London | Milne N.,University of Western Australia | Wroe S.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Carnivory has evolved independently several times in eutherian (including placental) and metatherian (including marsupial) mammals. We used geometric morphometrics to assess convergences associated with the evolution of carnivory across a broad suite of mammals, including the eutherian clades Carnivora and Creodonta and the metatherian clades Thylacoleonidae, Dasyuromorphia, Didelphidae and Borhyaenoidea. We further quantified cranial disparity across eutherians and metatherians to test the hypothesis that the marsupial mode of reproduction has constrained their morphological evolution. This study, to our knowledge the first to extensively sample pre-Pleistocene taxa, analysed 30 three-dimensional landmarks, focused mainly on the facial region, which were digitized on 130 specimens, including 36 fossil taxa. Data were analysed with principal components (PC) analysis, and three measures of disparity were compared between eutherians and metatherians. PC1 showed a shift from short to long faces and seemed to represent diet and ecology. PC2 was dominated by the unique features of sabre-toothed forms: dramatic expansion of the maxilla at the expense of the frontal bones. PC3, in combination with PC1, distinguished metatherians and eutherians. Metatherians, despite common comparisons with felids, were more similar to caniforms, which was unexpected for taxa such as the sabre-toothed marsupial Thylacosmilus. Contrary to previous studies, metatherian carnivores consistently exhibited disparity which exceeded that of the much more speciose eutherian carnivore radiations, refuting the hypothesis that developmental constraints have limited the morphological evolution of the marsupial cranium. © 2010 The Royal Society.


Leach M.J.,University of South Australia | Page A.T.,University of Western Australia
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2015

Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that can profoundly impact a person's health and wellbeing. Herbal medicine represents one of the most frequently used complementary and alternative treatments of insomnia. However, the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of this disorder is currently uncertain. In order to ascertain the evidence base for herbal medicine for insomnia, we systematically searched seventeen electronic databases and the reference lists of included studies for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Fourteen RCTs, involving a total of 1602 participants with insomnia, met the inclusion criteria. Four distinct orally administered herbal monopreparations were identified (i.e., valerian, chamomile, kava and wuling). There was no statistically significant difference between any herbal medicine and placebo, or any herbal medicine and active control, for any of the thirteen measures of clinical efficacy. As for safety, a similar or smaller number of adverse events per person were reported with kava, chamomile and wuling when compared with placebo. By contrast, a greater number of events per person were reported with valerian. While there is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicine for insomnia, there is a clear need for further research in this area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Boudville N.,University of Western Australia | Garg A.X.,University of Western Ontario
Kidney International | Year: 2014

The paper by Mjøen et al. raises important concerns about the long-term consequences of living donation, including a long-term increased risk of end-stage renal disease after an individual undergoes donor nephrectomy. These potential risks need to be communicated to future living kidney donors and should be an impetus for ongoing investigation. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.gizmag.com

Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs are one of the most well-known studies in scientific history, and now research from the University of Western Australia (UWA) has shown that plants can learn similar associations. Putting seedings into the bottom of a Y-shaped maze, the scientists conditioned the plants to associate light with the wind from a fan, and found that the majority of the plants learned to use the fan to predict where light would next appear. In the early 20th century, Ivan Pavlov was studying the role of saliva in digestion in dogs, when he began to notice that the animals would salivate at the sight of the handler who usually fed them, regardless of whether they'd brought food or not. Those observations led to the famous experiments where Pavlov would ring a bell immediately before presenting the dogs with food. After repeating these actions a few times, the dogs learned to associate the bell with food, and would soon salivate at the sound alone, whether food came or not. Along with leaving a mark on pop culture as deep as that of Shrodinger's cat, Pavlov's findings on classical conditioning have since formed the basis of ongoing behavioral studies in animals and humans. But now, the UWA study has shown, for the first time, that plants may be able to be trained in the same way, and in some cases the learned behavior can actually trump the organism's innate phototropism – the tendency to grow towards light. In the study, garden pea seedlings were planted in the bottom of a Y-shaped maze, and for the first five to eight days, all plants grew in a cycle of eight hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. Then, they were divided into two groups, with the plants in one group exposed to a light and a fan on the same side of the Y, while the fan and the light appeared at opposite sides for the other group. During the three-day training period, the fan would blow for one hour before the light was switched on, then both the fan and the light ran together for 30 minutes before the fan was switched off and the light continued for another 30 minutes on its own. In both cases, the stimuli were swapped around to different arms of the Y-shape, to prevent the plants growing towards a constant source of light. Then, to test if the plants had learned to associate the fan with the light, they were divided again into a test group and a control group. The control received no stimulation, while the test group was exposed to the fan alone for three 90-minute sessions a day, with the fan always in the same place. When inspected, the researchers found that every seedling in the control group had grown towards the arm of the Y where the light had last been detected – a result of basic phototropism. But in the test group, the majority of the plants had used the fan to predict where the light would come from: 62 percent of those that had been conditioned to associate the fan with the light had grown in the direction of the fan, while 69 percent of those that had learned that light was always in the opposite direction to the fan, had grown into the other arm. "Because our findings are unexpected, we anticipate that this study will stir a lively and exciting debate on the origin and properties of memory, learning and ultimately intelligent behavior in biological systems," says Professor Monica Gagliano, lead author of the study. "By challenging the way we currently view the agency of plants and their behaviours, which have enabled them to flourish, the research opens up new and bigger ecological questions of how modifications to our environment will shape future plant communities."


News Article | September 19, 2016
Site: www.treehugger.com

Researchers at the University of Western Australia's ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology have come up with a way to make the inner workings of a plant an interactive experience. Karina Price and colleagues created a new virtual reality app called Virtual Plant Cell that can be used with a smartphone and virtual reality headgear like Google Cardboard to explore the microscopic world of a plant cell. In the app, users can move around the cell like on one of Ms. Frizzle's field trips, visiting chloroplast, mitochondria and watching DNA swirl in the nucleus. If navigating through a plant cell starts to get boring, there are also challenges to complete to help the cell survive like collecting salt and shooting it out of the cell to keep the plant alive in salty conditions. Another challenge is to locate the genes within the plant's DNA that will allow it to survive in different adverse conditions like drought, flood, too much sunlight and infection. The goal of the app is to provide an immersive educational experience for school kids to learn about plant biology. The ARC Centre has already developed other successful interactive exhibits for visiting students, but the VR app can easily be used in classrooms around Australia, no field trip required. “This is a great way to help kids and the community understand how plants create and use energy, in order to improve agriculture and ultimately increase food production for the future,” Price said. UWA debuted the app during Australia's National Science Week with kids getting a chance to try it out at different science festivals. The next step is secure funding to get the virtual reality app into schools next year.


News Article | March 3, 2017
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Tiny, iron-rich fossils exhumed from the depths of an ancient ocean could reveal the cradle of life. These micrometer-scale structures are probably remnants of microorganisms that once lived amidst ancient hydrothermal vents, researchers suggest March 1 in Nature. “In a nutshell, what we’ve found are the oldest microfossils on Earth,” says study coauthor Matthew Dodd, a biogeochemist at University College London. The rocks that hold the fossils came from Quebec and date to somewhere between 4.28 billion and 3.77 billion years old — when Earth was still a baby. The next oldest microfossils reported are just under 3.5 billion years old, though their validity has been debated (SN: 2/8/14, p. 16). If Dodd’s structures truly are remnants of microbes, “it’s fantastic. I love it,” says astrobiologist Martin Van Kranendonk of the University of New South Wales in Sydney. But he’s not convinced. In fact, he says, “there’s just not definitive proof that any of the textures or the minerals or features they have is unique of life.” Claims of early life are frequently fraught with controversy. For one, says Dodd, “these are big claims — these are our origins.” And scientists studying early life typically don’t have a lot to work with. It’s not like they’re looking at dinosaur bones. In billions-of-years-old microbes, obvious cellular bits and other familiar flags of life have often been stripped away. And in Earth’s oldest rocks, extreme heat and pressure can cook and squash any remnants of life beyond recognition. So researchers rely on chemical tests and analyses of rock patterns and textures — which are sometimes microscopic — to amass different lines evidence. Last year, Van Kranendonk and colleagues reported evidence of ancient microbial structures in 3.7-billion-year-old rocks from Greenland (SN: 10/1/16, p. 7). Though those structures, called stromatolites, may be similar in age to Dodd’s microfossils, they came from an entirely different environment: shallow marine waters, perhaps touched by sunlight. Microbes thriving in two different environments so early in Earth’s history would mean that life arose and diversified quickly, Dodd says. “Life didn’t really struggle to get a foothold.” His team looked at jasper rocks believed to be the leftovers of matter once belched out of hydrothermal vents, and then rained down on the seafloor. The researchers spotted narrow tubes and filaments of the iron-rich mineral hematite that resemble those made by bacteria today, Dodd says. Specks of iron clung to the sticky surface of the ancient microbes, forming a kind of armored coat that preserved the organisms’ shapes, he says. Dodd’s team also uncovered other hints, including a carbon signature of life and minerals such as apatite linked to biological activity. Taken together, the hints add up to life, he says. “There’s no other mechanism that can explain all of these observations.” Biology is indeed one possible explanation, says astrobiologist Abigail Allwood of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “But the evidence could equally be interpreted as non-biological.” Each line of evidence, she points out, reflects processes that could have actually occurred at different times, layering potential clues in a way that looks biological, but really isn’t. “You can’t just wave your arms and say this all happened together,” she says. Paleobiologist David Wacey of the University of Western Australia in Crawley agrees that “the individual lines of chemical evidence are not particularly strong.” But combined with the microstructures, he says, the authors come up with a “pretty convincing biological scenario.” Wacey expects the Quebec rocks to now be scrutinized in great detail. “There will, no doubt, be arguments,” he says. But the study may revitalize the case for hydrothermal vents as a potential birthplace for life.


Techera E.J.,University of Western Australia | Klein N.,Macquarie University
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

Marine-based tourism offers opportunities for economic, educational and environmental benefits but is not without risks to people, animals and the environment. If the benefits of this sector are to be harnessed it will require an increasing focus upon law and policy governing the industry. This is particularly the case for shark eco-tourism, which can be an important conservation tool for these species. Australia has a longstanding history of tourism involving whale sharks and great white sharks and an examination of Australian law and policy in shark eco-tourism provides a powerful case study. This article identifies lessons that may be learnt from Australian shark eco-tourism as a first step towards identification of best practice legal strategies that both support the industry and ensure environmental integrity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Laliberte E.,University of Western Australia | Zemimik G.,University of Western Australia | Turner B.L.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Science | Year: 2014

The mechanisms that shape plant diversity along resource gradients remain unresolved because competing theories have been evaluated in isolation. By testing multiple theories simultaneously across a >2-million-year dune chronosequence in an Australian biodiversity hotspot, we show that variation in plant diversity is not explained by local resource heterogeneity, resource partitioning, nutrient stoichiometry, or soil fertility along this strong resource gradient. Rather, our results suggest that diversity is determined by environmental filtering from the regional flora, driven by soil acidification during long-term pedogenesis. This finding challenges the prevailing view that resource competition controls local plant diversity along resource gradients, and instead reflects processes shaping species pools over evolutionary time scales. © 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.


D'Alessandro S.,Macquarie University | Pecotich A.,University of Western Australia
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

The findings of an experimental study exploring the taste testing of wine with varying degrees of expertise and in the presence of variations in quality, brand and country of origin (COO) cues are reported. Novices experienced difficulty in evaluating quality and even when detecting quality differences were unable to assign an intelligent meaning to these differences. Experts did use physical quality and price evaluations, but in a more analytical manner with country of origin and brand information being used consistently with actual quality differences. Novices were found to use brand name in a limited fashion and relied mainly on COO information. The results demonstrated the importance of the extrinsic cues for both novices and experts. Surprisingly, there was no clear evidence of domestic preference. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Driver S.P.,University of St. Andrews | Robotham A.S.G.,University of Western Australia
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We determine an expression for the cosmic variance of any 'normal' galaxy survey based on examination of M* ± 1 mag galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) data cube. We find that cosmic variance will depend on a number of factors principally: total survey volume, survey aspect ratio and whether the area surveyed is contiguous or comprising independent sightlines. As a rule of thumb cosmic variance falls below 10 per cent once a volume of 10 7 h -3 0.7 Mpc 3 is surveyed for a single contiguous region with a 1:1 aspect ratio. Cosmic variance will be lower for higher aspect ratios and/or non-contiguous surveys. Extrapolating outside our test region we infer that cosmic variance in the entire SDSS DR7 main survey region is ~7 per cent to z < 0.1. The equation obtained from the SDSS DR7 region can be generalized to estimate the cosmic variance for any density measurement determined from normal galaxies (e.g. luminosity densities, stellar mass densities and cosmic star formation rates) within the volume range 10 3-10 7 h -3 0.7 Mpc 3. We apply our equation to show that two sightlines are required to ensure that cosmic variance is <10 per cent in any ASKAP galaxy survey (divided into Δz ~ 0.1 intervals, i.e. ~1Gyr intervals for z < 0.5). Likewise 10 MeerKAT sightlines will be required to meet the same conditions. GAMA, VVDS and zCOSMOS all suffer less than 10 per cent cosmic variance (~3-8 per cent) in Δz intervals of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5, respectively. Finally we show that cosmic variance is potentially at the 50-70 per cent level, or greater, in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field depending on assumptions as to the evolution of clustering. 100 or 10 independent sightlines will be required to reduce cosmic variance to a manageable level (<10 per cent) for HST ACS or HST WFC3 surveys, respectively (in Δz ~ 1 intervals). Cosmic variance is therefore a significant factor in the z > 6 HST studies currently underway. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation. © 2010 RAS.


Cawood P.A.,University of St. Andrews | Cawood P.A.,University of Western Australia | Hawkesworth C.J.,University of St. Andrews | Dhuime B.,University of St. Andrews | Dhuime B.,University of Bristol
Geology | Year: 2012

Detrital zircon spectra reflect the tectonic setting of the basin in which they are deposited. Convergent plate margins are characterized by a large proportion of zircon ages close to the depositional age of the sediment, whereas sediments in collisional, extensional and intracratonic settings contain greater proportions with older ages that reflect the history of the underlying basement. These differences can be resolved by plotting the distribution of the difference between the measured crystallization ages (CA) of individual zircon grains present in the sediment and the depositional age (DA) of the sediment. Application of this approach to successions where the original nature of the basin and/or the link to source are no longer preserved constrains the tectonic setting in which the sediment was deposited. © 2012 Geological Society of America.


Pivonka P.,University of Western Australia | Komarova S.V.,McGill University
Bone | Year: 2010

Although conceptual and experimental models are historically well incorporated in bone biology studies, mathematical modeling has been much less-frequently utilized. This review aims to introduce mathematical modeling to readers who are not familiar with the concept underlying this methodology, to outline how mathematical models can help to improve current understanding of bone biology and to discuss examples where mathematical modeling was used to provide new insights into important questions of bone biology. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Chowalloor P.V.,Royal Perth Hospital | Chowalloor P.V.,University of Western Australia | Keen H.I.,Royal Perth Hospital | Keen H.I.,University of Western Australia
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The literature reveals that management of this condition is often suboptimal. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasound (US), may assist in the diagnosis and management of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (AH). To undertake a systematic review evaluating US as an outcome tool in gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, articles published in Medline and PubMed (1975-February 2012) were identified. Data was extracted and categorised into four different groups namely tophi, articular cartilage, soft tissue pathologies and bony changes, with a focus on validity, responsiveness, reproducibility and feasibility. Lesions reported in the literature include tophi, cartilage abnormalities, soft tissue lesions and erosions. US is able to detect tophi, using MRI as the gold standard, and is sensitive to change. The double contour sign seen overlying cartilage is specific to gout and sensitive to change. Synovial pathology is identified in gout, with some reporting intrasynovial hyperechogeneicity is suggestive of gout. US was less sensitive than MRI to cortical erosions in gout, but better than conventional radiography. Interobserver reliability when assessed ranged from fair to substantial agreement for soft tissue changes and was very good for assessing tophi, double contour and erosions. US is a promising tool which could be used in the diagnosis and management of gout. More studies are needed to assess responsiveness, reliability and feasibility.


Yaw L.K.,Royal Perth Hospital | Robinson J.O.,Royal Perth Hospital | Robinson J.O.,Curtin University Australia | Ho K.M.,Royal Perth Hospital | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Findings from previous studies have suggested that outcomes after meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia are worse than after meticillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. We assessed whether patients who had MRSA bacteraemia had a higher risk of death and recurrent infections than those who had MSSA bacteraemia. Methods: For this observational cohort study, we assessed data from the microbiology laboratory database at the Royal Perth Hospital (WA, Australia). Data were for all patients who had an episode of MRSA bacteraemia between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 2007, and, by use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence, a randomly selected subgroup of patients who had an episode of MSSA bacteraemia (patients with one or more set of blood cultures positive for S aureus). The primary outcomes were survival time and subsequent infection-related hospital readmissions, analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for important prognostic factors. Findings: Of the 583 patients who had an episode of MRSA or MSSA bacteraemia, we used data for the 582 who had complete data linkage: 185 patients who had MRSA bacteraemia and 397 patients who had MSSA bacteraemia. The crude survival time of patients after MRSA bacteraemia was shorter than it was for patients with MSSA bacteraemia (14 months [IQR 1-86] vs 54 months [3-105]; hazard ratio 1·46, 95% CI 1·18-1·79; p=0·01). The adverse association between MRSA and all-cause mortality (0·98, 0·77-1·30; p=0·87) or infection-related mortality (1·22, 0·89-1·69; p=0·22) were not statistically significant after adjustment for important prognostic factors including age, comorbidities, severity of acute illness, metastatic infections, and long-term care facility resident status. After adjustment for these confounding factors, we saw no difference in infection-related hospital readmissions between patients who had MRSA bacteraemia and those who had MSSA bacteraemia (odds ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·59-1·53; p=0·83). Interpretation: Long-term outcomes after MRSA bacteraemia were worse than those after MSSA bacteraemia through its confounding associations with other prognostic factors. Our findings might have implications for management strategies to control MRSA colonisation. Funding: The Medical Research Foundation of Royal Perth Hospital. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


McEvoy P.M.,Center for Clinical Interventions | McEvoy P.M.,University of Western Australia | Mahoney A.E.J.,Clinical Research for Anxiety and Depression
Journal of Anxiety Disorders | Year: 2011

Evidence is accumulating that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may be a transdiagnostic maintaining factor across the anxiety disorders and depression. However, psychometric studies of the most commonly used measure of IU have typically used undergraduate students, and the factor structure has been highly inconsistent. Previous studies have also tended to focus on one diagnostic subgroup or related symptom, thereby limiting transdiagnostic comparisons. The first aim of this study was to test the latent structure of a commonly used measure of IU in a treatment-seeking sample with anxiety and depression (n= 463). The second aim was to examine psychometric properties of the best fitting solution, including internal reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the goodness of fit of five models previously found with undergraduate and community samples. A two-factor solution, comprising of prospective anxiety and inhibitory anxiety, was the best fitting model. The total scale and subscales demonstrated excellent internal reliability. Convergent validity was demonstrated by the scales correlating with symptoms associated with five anxiety disorders and depression, as well as neuroticism, distress and disability. IU explained unique variance in all symptom measures, even after controlling for neuroticism and other symptom measures. Evidence of discriminant validity was also found for each IU subscale. Findings support reliability and validity of the two-factor solution, and are consistent with IU being a transdiagnostic maintaining factor. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ho K.M.,Royal Perth Hospital | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia | Tan J.A.,Royal Perth Hospital